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  • 1.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Törnblom, Johan
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Andersson, K
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Axelsson, Robert
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Landskapsansats för bevarande av skoglig biologisk mångfald: en uppföljning av 1997 års regionala bristanalys, och om behovet av samverkan mellan aktörer2010Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Gunnar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Törnblom, Johan
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Hur mycket är nog för att bevara arterna?2010In: Fakta Skog, ISSN 1400-7789, no 12, p. 1-4Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Hypothesizing the Shifting Mosaic of Attitudes through time: A Dynamic Framework for Sustainable Tourism Development on a ‘Mediterranean Isle’2008In: Tourism , Recreation and Sustainability: Linking Culture and the Environment, Wallingford, Ox. UK: CABI Publishing, 2008, 2, p. 50-75Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this chapter is twofold. It briefly reminds the reader of the major obstacles to implementing sustainable solutions in touristic environments. A principal impediment is that sustainability is a term fraught with ‘imprecision’ (Wall, 1997, p.33), since it holds varying meanings for different stakeholders (see also McCool and Stankey, 1999; Sauter and Leisen, 1999; Kousis, 2001). While researchers are well aware of this obstacle, the majority of existing studies examine these differences in attitudes from a cross-sectional standpoint. That is, investigations of the differing attitudes of players involved directly or indirectly in tourism’s development (e.g., developers, local government bureaucrats and politicians, national policy makers, tour operators, environmental protection groups, and local residents) tend to focus on a particular place at a single point in time. Johnson and Snepenger (2006) argue the reason for this fixation on cross-sectional studies is predictable since “it is pragmatically easier to acquire information at one point in time” but also because most researchers are under pressure to turn out publications within a short timeframe and do not have the luxury to commit themselves to lengthy studies (222).

    Unfortunately, however, the prevalence of such research inhibits our ability to understand the manner in which attitudes towards tourism of each set of stakeholders in a single locality are likely to change over time. In other words, while one group of players may be extremely accepting towards tourism compared to another at an early stage of the sector’s development, the respective perceptions of these two groups based on their experiences will most likely shift through time. In some cases perhaps the varying perceptions will become increasingly convergent, while in others differences in opinion may be enhanced. Given that it is crucial in any destination to include as many stakeholders as possible in the plan-making process to generate effective policy, it is apparent that adopting a longitudinal approach, examining changes over time would prove helpful for prescribing a general agenda for sustainable tourism development.

    Thus, the chapter reiterates the need for a conceptual framework that recognizes the effect that spatial/geographic and temporal/historic contingencies may have in influencing the attitudes of various stakeholders towards sustainability. A primary aim is to demonstrate the value of adopting a longitudinal model such as Butler’s (1980) widely used tourist-area life cycle to investigate the perspectives of different actors towards balanced-oriented growth at each stage of destination’s development.  In order to illustrate the use of such a conceptual framework for examining the shifting perceptions of stakeholders over time, the chapter draws on the experiences of island destinations in the Mediterranean.

  • 4.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The creation of leisure utopias: A new era in city building2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Kulachenko, Artem
    et al.
    KCL Science and Consulting.
    Lindström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Uesaka, Tetsu
    FPInnovations.
    Strength of wet fiber networks-Strength scaling2009In: Papermaking Research Symposium 2009, Kuopio: University of Kuopio , 2009, p. 35-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Lindström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Kulachenko, Artem
    KCL Science and Consulting.
    Uesaka, Tetsu
    FPInnovations.
    New insights in paper forming from particle-level process simulations2009In: Papermaking Research Symposium 2009, Kuopio, Finland: University of Kuopio , 2009, p. 38-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By virtue of the recent developments in simulation techniques for fibre suspensions flows, it is now possible to directly simulate forming of the paper sheet at a particle level under realistic flow conditions. This opens up a window of opportunity to better understand the microscale development of the paper structure, and to attribute particular features of the structure to different drainage elements.The simulations are based on a particle-level fibre suspension model, in which fibres are represented by chains of cylindrical fibre segments. The fibre model includes curled shapes and the torsion and bending of the fibres. It also captures the two-way interactions between the fibres and the fluid phase. The fluid motion is integrated from the Navier--Stokes equations.To illustrate the usage of the simulation tool, a sample parametric study of the effects of different fibre furnishes on the paper structure and wet strength is presented. Such an investigation could almost as easily have been performed with experiments. Simulations, however, have some advantages: First, the cost is almost nothing as compared to pilot trials. Secondly, the parameters of the simulations can be controlled one at a time, whereas in pilot trials, changing one process parameter will affect the others. Thirdly, every detail of the evolving paper structure is accessible at every instant in the simulations. That is, the forming process needs no longer be considered a "black box". Simulations also have some drawbacks. For instance, it is not possible to include the smallest particles, due to their vast number, while maintaining sufficiently large flow geometry. Therefore, simulations must target paper grades of low fines contents.In this communication, the pros and cons of particle-level simulations are discussed, and put into the context of previous forming and dewatering models in the literature. The development of the paper microstructure predicted in the simulations shows that thickening is the dominant forming mechanism, while filtration only occurs in the most dilute end of the typical range of consistencies used in the industry. This predicted behaviour is compared with the conventional view of dewatering, which holds filtration as the dominant forming mechanism.

     

  • 7.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    et al.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Bergh, Johan
    Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Hofer, Peter
    GEO Partner AG.
    Lundström, Anders
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Nordin, Annika
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences .
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering. Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sathre, Roger
    Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    Taverna, Ruedi
    GEO Partner AG.
    Werner, Frank
    Werner Environment & Development.
    Potential Roles of Swedish Forestry in the Context of Climate Change Mitigation2014In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 557-578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, where forests cover more than 60% of the land area, silviculture and the use of forest products by industry and society play crucial roles in the national carbon balance. A scientific challenge is to understand how different forest management and wood use strategies can best contribute to climate change mitigation benefits. This study uses a set of models to analyze the effects of different forest management and wood use strategies in Sweden on carbon dioxide emissions and removals through 2105. If the present Swedish forest use strategy is continued, the long-term climate change mitigation benefit will correspond to more than 60 million tons of avoided or reduced emissions of carbon dioxide annually, compared to a scenario with similar consumption patterns in society but where non-renewable products are used instead of forest-based products. On average about 470 kg of carbon dioxide emissions are avoided for each cubic meter of biomass harvested, after accounting for carbon stock changes, substitution effects and all emissions related to forest management and industrial processes. Due to Sweden’s large export share of forest-based products, the climate change mitigation effect of Swedish forestry is larger abroad than within the country. The study also shows that silvicultural methods to increase forest biomass production can further reduce net carbon dioxide emissions by an additional 40 million tons of per year. Forestry’s contribution to climate change mitigation could be significantly increased if management of the boreal forest were oriented towards increased biomass production and if more wood were used to substitute fossil fuels and energy-intensive materials.

  • 8.
    Norström, Sara H
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Vestin, Jenny LK
    Swedish geotechnical institute.
    Bylund, Dan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Lundström, Ulla S
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Influences of dissolved organic carbon on stream water chemistry in two forested catchments in central Sweden2010In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 101, no 1-3, p. 229-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stream water chemistry in two headwater streams draining two small, adjacent catchments in Bispgården, central Sweden was studied during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons. The two catchments closely resemble each other in regard to size, shape and drainage density, with the major difference found in the area of wetland lining the streambeds. The emphasis of the study was to investigate the stream water chemistry of these closely resembling catchments, regarding the quality and quantity of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and its influence on the concentrations of di- and trivalent cations. The streams showed significant differences in the content and size distribution of DOC and in the distribution of cations between the different size fractions. For both streams the high flow events induced by precipitation influenced the chemistry of the streams through increase of organic matter and its associated cations. Fanbergsbäcken, with relatively low pH and high DOC concentration, had a greater amount of high molecular mass (HMM) DOC to which approximately 75% of Al and Fe and about 50% of Ca and Mg were associated. Gråbergsbäcken, with a higher pH and lower DOC level, had approximately 65% of Al, 40% of Fe and 30% of Ca and Mg associated to its HMM DOC fraction. Sixteen different low molecular mass organic acids were found in the stream water, of which oxalic and lactic acid were present in the highest concentrations.

  • 9.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Carbon Balance Implications Of Forest Biomass Production Potential2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forests in boreal and temperate forest-ecosystems have an important function since they sequester atmospheric carbon by uptake of carbon-dioxide in photosynthesis, and transfer and store carbon in the forest ecosystem. Forest material can be used for bio-fuel purposes and substitute fossil fuels, and supply wood products, which can replace carbon- and energy-intensive materials. Therefore it is vital to consider the role of forests regarding today´s aim to mitigate climate change. This thesis assess (i) how climate change affects future forest carbon balance, (ii) the importance of different strategies for forest management systems, and biomass production for the carbon balance, (iii) how the use of forest production affect the total carbon balance in a lifecycle perspective, and (iv) how the Swedish carbon balance is affected from the standpoint of both the actual use of forest raw material within Sweden and what Swedish forestry exports. The analysis was made mainly in a long-term perspective (60-300 year) to illustrate the importance of temporal and also the spatial perspective, as the analysis includes stand level, landscape level, and national level. In this thesis, forestry was considered a system. All activities, from forest regeneration to end use of forest products, were entities of this system. In the evaluation, made from a systems perspective, we used life-cycle analysis to estimate carbon stock in different system flows. Different forest management systems and forest production were integrated in the analyses. Different forest management scenarios were designed for the Swedish forest management in combination with the effect of future climate change; (i) intensive forest practice aiming at increased growth, (ii) increased forest set-aside areas, changes in forest management systems for biomass production, and (iii) how the use of forest production affect the total carbon balance (construction material, bioenergy and other domestic use). The results showed that future climate changes and intensive forest management with increased production could increase the biomass production and the potential use of forest raw material. This has a positive effect on carbon storage for the forest carbon stock, litter production and carbon storage in the ground etc. and help mitigating carbon-dioxide. Increased forest set-aside areas can increase the short-term carbon stock in forest ecosystems, but will reduce the total long-term carbon balance. The net carbon balance for clear-cut forestry did not differ significantly from continuous-cover forestry, but was rather a question of level of growth. Most important, in the long term, was according to our analysis, how forest raw material is used. Present Swedish forestry and use of forest raw material, both within Sweden and abroad, reduce carbon-dioxide emissions and mitigate climate change. The positive effect for the total carbon balance and climate benefit take place mostly abroad, due to the Swedish high level of export of wood products and the higher substitution effects achieved outside Swedish borders. One strategy is to increase production, harvest and change the use of Swedish forest raw material to replace more carbon intensive material, which can contribute to significant emission reduction. Carbon-dioxide mitigation, as a result of present Swedish forestry, was shown to be almost of the same level as the total yearly emission of greenhouse gases. The total carbon benefit would increase if the biomass production and felling increased and if Swedish wood products replaced carbon intensive materials.This thesis shows also that, by changing forest management, increase the growth and the use of forest raw material and export of forest material we can contribute to even larger climate benefits. In a long-term perspective, the substitution effects and replacement of carbon- and energy-intensive materials are of greater significance than carbon storage effects in forests. A more production oriented forestry needs to make balances and increase the prerequisite for biological diversity, improve recreation possibilities, and protect sensitive land areas and watersheds.Climate benefits, from Swedish forestry, are highly dependent on policy decision-making and how that can steer the direction for the Swedish forestry.

  • 10.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Forest biomass production potential and its implications for carbon balance2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An integrated methodological approach is used to analyse the forest biomass production potential in the Middle Norrland region of Sweden, and its use to reduce carbon emissions. Forest biomass production, forest management, biomass harvest, and forest product use are analyzed in a system perspective considering the entire resource flow chains. The system-wide carbon flows as well as avoided carbon emissions are quantified for the activities of forest biomass production, harvest, use and substitution of non-biomass materials and fossil fuels. Five different forest management scenarios and two biomass use alternatives are developed and used in the analysis. The analysis is divided into four main parts. In the first part, plant biomass production is estimated using principles of plant-physiological processes and soil-water dynamics. Biomass production is compared under different forest management scenarios, some of which include the expected effects of climate change based on IPCC B2 scenario. In the second part, forest harvest potentials are estimated based on plant biomass production data and Swedish national forest inventory data for different forest management alternatives. In the third part, soil carbon stock changes are estimated for different litter input levels from standing biomass and forest residues left in the forest during the harvest operations. The fourth and final part is the estimation of carbon emissions reduction due to the substitution of fossil fuels and carbon-intensive materials by the use of forest biomass. Forest operational activities such as regeneration, pre-commercial thinning, commercial thinning, fertilisation, and harvesting are included in the analysis. The total carbon balance is calculated by summing up the carbon stock changes in the standing biomass, carbon stock changes in the forest soil, forest product carbon stock changes, and the substitution effects. Fossil carbon emissions from forest operational activities are calculated and deducted to calculate the net total carbon balance.The results show that the climate change effect most likely will increase forest biomass production over the next 100 years compared to a situation with unchanged climate. As an effect of increased biomass production, there is a possibility to increase the harvest of usable biomass. The annual forest biomass production and harvest can be further increased by the application of more intensive forestry practices compared to practices currently in use. Deciduous trees are likely to increase their biomass production because of climate change effects whereas spruce biomass is likely to increase because of implementation of intensive forestry practices.IIIntensive forestry practices such as application of pre-commercial thinning, balanced fertilisation, and introduction of fast growing species to replace slow growing pine stands can increase the standing biomass carbon stock. Soil carbon stock increase is higher when only stem-wood biomass is used, compared to whole-tree biomass use. The increase of carbon stocks in wood products depends largely on the magnitude of harvest and the use of the harvested biomass. The biomass substitution benefits are the largest contributor to the total carbon balance, particularly for the intensive forest management scenario when whole-tree biomass is used and substitutes coal fuel and non-wood construction materials. The results show that the climate change effect could provide up to 104 Tg carbon emissions reduction, and intensive forestry practices may further provide up to 132 Tg carbon emissions reduction during the next 100 years in the area studied.This study shows that production forestry can be managed to balance biomass growth and harvest in the long run, so that the forest will maintain its capacity to increase standing biomass carbon and provide continuous harvests. Increasing standing biomass in Swedish managed forest may not be the most effective strategy to mitigate climate change. Storing wood products in building materials delays the carbon emissions into the atmosphere, and the wood material in the buildings can be used as biofuel at the end of a building life-cycle to substitute fossil fuels.These findings show that the forest biomass production potential in the studied area increases with climate change and with the application of intensive forestry practices. Intensive forestry practice has the potential for continuous increased biomass production which, if used to substitute fossil fuels and materials, could contribute significantly to net carbon emissions reductions and help mitigate climate change.

  • 11.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Johan, Bergh
    SLU.
    Nordin, A.
    Fahlvik, N.
    Lundmark, Thomas
    SLU.
    Carbon balance comparison of continuous-cover and clear-cut forestry in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Bergh, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Lundström, Anders
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hyvönen, Riitta
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Potential effects of intensive forestry on biomass production and total carbon balance in north-central Sweden2012In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 106-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We quantify the potential effects of intensive forest management activities on forest production in north-central Sweden over the next 100 years, and calculate the potential climate change mitigation feedback effect due to the resulting increased carbon stock and increased use of forest products. We analyze and compare four different forest management scenarios (Reference, Environment, Production, and Maximum), all of which include the expected effects of climate change based on SRES B2 scenario. Forest management practices are intensified in Production scenario, and further intensified in Maximum scenario. Four different models, BIOMASS, HUGIN, Q-model, and Substitution model, were used to quantify net primary production, forest production and harvest potential, soil carbon, and biomass substitution of fossil fuels and non-wood materials, respectively. After integrating the models, our results show that intensive forestry may increase forest production by up to 26% and annual harvest by up to 19%, compared to the Reference scenario. The greatest single effect on the carbon balance is from using increased biomass production to substitute for fossil fuels and energy intensive materials. Carbon stocks in living tree biomass, forest soil and wood products also increase. In total, a net carbon emission reduction of up to 132 Tg (for Maximum scenario) is possible during the next 100 years due to intensive forest management in two Swedish counties, Jämtland and Västernorrland. 

  • 13.
    Poudel, Bishnu Chandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden .
    Bergh, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Lundström, Anders
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hyvönen, Riitta
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Effects of climate change on biomass production and substitution in north-central Sweden2011In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, no 10, p. 4340-4355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we estimate the effects of climate change on forest production in north-central Sweden, as well as the potential climate changemitigation feedback effects of the resulting increased carbon stock and forest product use. Our results show that an average regional temperature rise of 4 °C over the next 100 years may increase annual forest production by 33% and potential annual harvest by 32%, compared to a reference case without climate change. This increased biomass production, if used to substitute fossil fuels and energy-intensive materials, can result in a significant net carbon emission reduction. We find that carbon stock in forest biomass, forest soils, and wood products also increase, but this effect is less significant than biomass substitution. A total net reduction in carbon emissions of up to 104 Tg of carbon can occur over 100 years, depending on harvest level and reference fossil fuel. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 14.
    Rauchfuss, J
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Ziegler, S
    Department of Geography Northern Michigan University, Marquette, MI 49855, USA.
    Reconstructing canopy-disturbance history and recruitment patterns to inform management decisions at the lost 40 in the Chippewa national forest, northern Minnesota2011In: Geographical Bulletin - Gamma Theta Upsilon, ISSN 0731-3292, Vol. 52, p. 3-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Old-growth eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) and red pine (Pinus resinosa) dominate the forest canopy but not the understory of the Lost 40 Scientific and Natural Area in northern Minnesota. Our objectives were to (1) analyze stand structure and species composition, (2) examine the tree-ring record to determine the frequency and magnitude of canopy disturbances, (3) characterize recruitment patterns to provide information for a science-based management plan, and (4) compare the canopy-disturbance history of the Lost 40 to the average decadal rate of disturbance in similar forests. Average canopy disturbance from 1880-1999 was 2.6-8.2 percent per decade for three 0.1-ha plots. The average disturbance rate of 5.9 percent is similar to decadal rates in other temperate forests of the northeastern United States. Managing the Lost 40 to regenerate pine would require intense effort because the species composition, age structure, disturbance regime, high stand density, possibility of disease, and potential future climate do not promote natural recruitment of pines in this setting. © 2011 by Gamma Theta Upsilon.

  • 15.
    Samuelsson, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Det agrara Sverige [DVD-Elektronisk resurs]1999Other (Other academic)
  • 16. Samuelsson, Göran
    I godsets skugga?: Frälsebonden på Ängsö : familj och arbete 1700-18802004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    At the beginning of the 18th century, around 95 percent of Sweden’s working population were engaged in some form of agricultural activity. They were mainly peasants who were administratively divided into three separate categories, skatte, krono and frälse farmers. The categories also reflected the form of taxation to which the land they tilled was subject. Land (type) was defined according to its tax rating, and the farmer who tilled the land was named according to its category.

     

    This dissertation deals with the problem concerning whether these differences in the tax coding of land, and thereby its general status, affected the everyday conditions of individual peasants. Was family life affected? Is it possible to identify differences in peasant’s interests and efforts to increase and improve the land they cultivated? Could a farmer’s relationship to his land influence his possibilities to generate wealth? This study is focussed on the customary tenants (frälsebönder - landbor), whose everyday conditions will be examined in detail and, in selected parts, be compared with those of the free tenants (skattebönder).

     

    The results of the study show that the frälse farmers in Ängsö parish lived in large households. Almost all farm households in Ängsö have, during their lifetime formed part of an extended family. An analysis of the size of households in Ängsö gave a figure, which is considerably higher than figures that have been shown previously for other areas in eastern Sweden. The extended family was the rule rather than the exception in Ängsö during the entire period covered by this study. The frälse farmers in Ängsö had also larger households than skatte farmers in the parish of Tortuna.

     

    It is obvious that the inhabitants of Ängsö implemented family planning. The interval between births indicates that there was conscious family planning in order to limit the number of births and determine the interval between them. The people of Ängsö tended during the entire research period to age and die close to their family.

     

    The results also demonstrate that living conditions must have changed over the years, and not for the better. Rural women in Ängsö appear to have lived a better life during the 18th century despite giving birth to considerably more children. Their life expectancy decreased during the 19th century by approximately 4.5 years.

     

    The study shows that fertility all the time was higher in the skatte parish Tortuna compared to the frälse parish Ängsö. There is a structural difference between skatte and frälse farmers concerning fertility levels. In this respect Ängsö and Tortuna parishes (skatte) in eastern Sweden differ from the district in western Sweden where frälse farmers were the most fertile group. The difference between Ängsö and Tortuna became increasingly evident after 1760 and culminated during the years 1790-1820.

     

    My findings indicate that frälse as well as skatte farmers were largely engaged in land clearing. The farmers themselves were initiating and responsible for practically all land clearance. Frälse farmers and crofters seem to have been as active in clearing land as skatte farmers with freehold rights.

     

    The frälse farmer, who also often took over his ancestors’ farm, did not pay a large sum of money when he took over. The reason was of course that he did not own the property. This is, presumably, the main reason why the value of the frälse farmer’s personal estate often was higher than the skatte farmers at all periods except for the last one.

     

    This thesis show, without any doubt, that the large group of Swedish farmers, which were called frälse farmers, did not manage their farms less well than the skatte farmers. Up to the time of their exit from Swedish agrarian history the frälse farmers were just as interested in efficiently managing and improving their farms and in creating growth and wealth as their skatte farmer colleagues were.

     

  • 17.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, 35195, Sweden.
    Time-dependent radiative forcing effects of forest fertilization and biomass substitution2012In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 109, no 1-3, p. 203-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we analyse the radiative forcing implications of forest fertilization and biomass substitution, with explicit consideration of the temporal patterns of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to and removals from the atmosphere (net emissions). We model and compare the production and use of biomass from a hectare of fertilized and non-fertilized forest land in northern Sweden. We calculate the annual net emissions of CO 2, N 2O and CH 4 for each system, over a 225-year period with 1-year time steps. We calculate the annual atmospheric concentration decay of each of these emissions, and calculate the resulting annual changes in instantaneous and cumulative radiative forcing. We find that forest fertilization can significantly increase biomass production, which increases the potential for material and energy substitution. The average carbon stock in tree biomass, forest soils and wood products all increase when fertilization is used. The additional GHG emissions due to fertilizer production and application are small compared to increases in substitution benefits and carbon stock. The radiative forcing of the 2 stands is identical for the first 15 years, followed by 2 years during which the fertilized stand produces slightly more radiative forcing. After year 18 the instantaneous and cumulative radiative forcing are consistently lower for the fertilized forest system. Both stands result in long-term negative radiative forcing, or cooling of the earth system. By the end of the 225-year simulation period, the cumulative radiative forcing reduction of the fertilized stand is over twice that of the non-fertilized stand. This suggests that forest fertilization and biomass substitution are effective options for climate change mitigation, as climate change is a long term issue. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  • 18.
    Schiebe, Christian
    et al.
    SLU.
    Blaženec, M.
    Jakuš, R.
    Unelius, C. R.
    Schlyter, F.
    Semiochemical diversity diverts bark beetle attacks from Norway spruce edges2011In: Journal of applied entomology, ISSN 0931-2048, E-ISSN 1439-0418, Vol. 135, no 10, p. 726-737Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Schiebe, Christian
    et al.
    SLU.
    Hammerbacher, A.
    Birgersson, G.
    Witzell, J.
    Brodelius, P. E.
    Gershenzon, J.
    Hansson, B. S.
    Krokene, P.
    Schlyter, F.
    Inducibility of chemical defenses in Norway spruce bark is correlated with unsuccessful mass attacks by the spruce bark beetle2012In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 170, no 1, p. 183-198Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20. Unelius, C. R.
    et al.
    Schiebe, Christian
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Bohman, B.
    Andersson, M. N.
    Schlyter, F.
    Non-host volatile blend optimization for forest protection against the european spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Xiong, Shaojun
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Landscape Ecol Grp, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, SE-90187 Umea.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, Mats E
    Umea Univ, Landscape Ecol Grp, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, SE-90187 Umea.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umea Univ, Landscape Ecol Grp, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, SE-90187 Umea.
    Responses of riparian plants to accumulation of silt and plant litter: the importance of plant traits2001In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 12, p. 481-490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 2-yr field experiment was used to determine the response of riparian plants to accumulation of litter or silt in a river flood-plain meadow in northern Sweden. Such disturbances occur regularly in free-flowing rivers but are likely to change as a result of global changes in land use or climate. We anticipated that plants with different traits would differ in their response to litter and silt accumulation. We quantified plant response as relative change in above-ground biomass, and regressed it on either litter mass or silt depth, and on plant traits such as lateral spread, plant height, relative growth rate, seed mass and seed persistence in soil. The relative changes in riparian plant biomass following litter or silt accumulation were negatively related to litter mass and silt depth, and positively related to most examined plant traits Such as seed mass. seed persistence and lateral spread. The vegetation recovery in the second season was largely determined by plant traits; litter or silt accumulation had no significant effect. Litter accumulation selected for large-seeded species, but silt accumulation selected for species with strong ability of lateral spread. Seed persistence was a useful variable in predicting species recovery from both litter and silt accumulation. Plant height was negatively related to plant recovery, but relative growth rate was not significantly related to relative change in plant biomass after silt or litter accumulation. Our results imply that plant traits are important variables to consider for predicting the responses of riparian vegetation to deposition of organic and inorganic matter.

1 - 21 of 21
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