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  • 1. Bishop, David
    et al.
    Edge, Johann
    McGawley, Kerry
    Physiological responses during a 9 h sheep shearing world record attempt: A case study2005In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 8, no Supplement, p. 59-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Elwér, S.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Harryson, L.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bolin, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Hammarström, A.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Patterns of Gender Equality at Workplaces and Psychological Distress2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 1, p. Art. no. e53246-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health outcomes for women and men. © 2013 Elwér et al.

  • 3.
    Fisher, Tatjana A.
    et al.
    Tyumen Research Centre, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tyumen, Russia.
    Petrov, Sergey A.
    Tyumen Research Centre, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tyumen, Russia.
    Koptyug, Andrey
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Sukhovey, Yurij G.
    Institute of Immunology, Tyumen, Russia.
    Dotsenko, Evgenij L.
    Tyumen State University, Tyumen, Russia.
    A way to health through psycho-immunological wellbeing: Example of Indigenous People of Russian North2016In: Proc. IIId Intl Conference "Psychological Health of the Person: Life Resource and Life Potential", 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research was carried out into the changes within psychic and immune domains ofthe Russian Nenets people migrating from the traditional northern habitat (tundra) to urbanenvironment. It is noted that in the process of significantly changing lifestyle supposedlysingle ethnic group can be clearly sub-divided according to the differences in adaptationdynamics. This division reflects sociological differences and is connected to the psychoimmunologicalaspects. Thus, with the adaptation of forest Nenets to the new conditions ofexistence (from the tundra to the urban centers), we found a division of a whole ethnic groupinto two groups according to a social attribute, which is fixed at the psychophysiologicallevel. First, psychic and immune domains are not only sharing a number of commonfeatures but also can have deep evolutionary connections and can be governed by similarlaws. Second, the psyche and the immune system show the most important functions andproperties that ensure an effective existence, generalizing the values of adaptation, protectionand vitality into a single structure. Such a concept is closed to “wholeness” and “integrity” showing that the distribution of vital forces or body resources can adjust the condition orcope with the pre-illness or even disease.

  • 4.
    Fransson, E.I.
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, S
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Heikkilä, K
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Alfredsson, L
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bacquer, D
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Batty, G
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Bonenfant, S
    Versailles-Saint Quentin University, Versailles, France.
    Casini, A
    School of Public Health, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
    Clays, E
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Goldberg, M
    Versailles-Saint Quentin University, Versailles, France.
    Kittel, F
    School of Public Health, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
    Koskenvuo, M
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Leineweber, C
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Magnusson Hanson, L
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordin, M
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Singh-Manoux, A
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Suominen, S
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Vahtera, J
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Westerholm, P
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku, Finland.
    Westerlund, H
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Zins, M
    Versailles-Saint Quentin University, Versailles, France.
    Theorell, T
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kivimäki, M
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Comparison of alternative versions of the job demand-control scales in 17 European cohort studies: The IPD-Work consortium2012In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, no 1, p. Art. no. 62-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Job strain (i.e., high job demands combined with low job control) is a frequently used indicator of harmful work stress, but studies have often used partial versions of the complete multi-item job demands and control scales. Understanding whether the different instruments assess the same underlying concepts has crucial implications for the interpretation of findings across studies, harmonisation of multi-cohort data for pooled analyses, and design of future studies. As part of the ’IPD-Work’ (Individual-participant-data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium, we compared different versions of the demands and control scales available in 17 European cohort studies. Methods. Six of the 17 studies had information on the complete scales and 11 on partial scales. Here, we analyse individual level data from 70 751 participants of the studies which had complete scales (5 demand items, 6 job control items). Results. We found high Pearson correlation coefficients between complete scales of job demands and control relative to scales with at least three items (r > 0.90) and for partial scales with two items only (r = 0.76-0.88). In comparison with scores from the complete scales, the agreement between job strain definitions was very good when only one item was missing in either the demands or the control scale (kappa > 0.80); good for job strain assessed with three demand items and all six control items (kappa > 0.68) and moderate to good when items were missing from both scales (kappa = 0.54-0.76). The sensitivity was > 0.80 when only one item was missing from either scale, decreasing when several items were missing in one or both job strain subscales. Conclusions. Partial job demand and job control scales with at least half of the items of the complete scales, and job strain indices based on one complete and one partial scale, seemed to assess the same underlying concepts as the complete survey instruments. 

  • 5.
    Heikkila, Katriina
    et al.
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bonenfant, Sebastien
    Ctr Res Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Inserm U1018, Villejuif, France.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Dept Occupat Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Burr, Hermann
    Ctr Maritime Hlth & Safety, Esbjerg, Denmark.
    Clays, Els
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Casini, Annalisa
    Univ Libre Brussels, Sch Publ Hlth, Brussels, Belgium.
    Dragano, Nico
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Essen, Germany.
    Erbel, Raimund
    Univ Duisburg Essen, West German Heart Ctr Essen, Dept Cardiol, Essen, Germany.
    Geuskens, Goedele A.
    TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Ctr Res Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Inserm U1018, Villejuif, France.
    Hooftman, Wendela E.
    TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Houtman, Irene L.
    TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Joensuu, Matti
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Joeckel, Karl-Heinz
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Essen, Germany.
    Kittel, France
    Univ Libre Brussels, Sch Publ Hlth, Brussels, Belgium.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Koskinen, Aki
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kouvonen, Anne
    Wroclaw Fac, Warsaw Sch Social Sci & Humanities, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Essen, Germany.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marmot, Michael G.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med Occupat & Environm Med, Umea, Sweden.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Turku, Finland.
    Salo, Paula
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Turku, Finland.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Steptoe, Andrew
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Univ Dusseldorf, Dept Med Sociol, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany.
    Suominen, Sakari
    Univ Turku, Dept Publ Hlth, Turku, Finland.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Turku, Finland.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vaananen, Ari
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Westerholm, Peter
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zins, Marie
    Ctr Res Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Inserm U1018, Villejuif, France.
    Theorell, Tores
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hamer, Mark
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Ctr Res Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Inserm U1018, Villejuif, France.
    Batty, G. David
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Kivimaki, Mika
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Job Strain and Alcohol Intake: A Collaborative Meta-Analysis of Individual-Participant Data from 140 000 Men and Women2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 7, p. Art. no. e40101-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job strain) and alcohol intake. Methodology and Principal Findings: We analysed cross-sectional data from 12 European studies (n = 142 140) and longitudinal data from four studies (n = 48 646). Job strain and alcohol intake were self-reported. Job strain was analysed as a binary variable (strain vs. no strain). Alcohol intake was harmonised into the following categories: none, moderate (women: 1-14, men: 1-21 drinks/week), intermediate (women: 15-20, men: 22-27 drinks/week) and heavy (women: > 20, men: > 27 drinks/week). Cross-sectional associations were modelled using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Longitudinal associations were examined using mixed effects logistic and modified Poisson regression. Compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and (random effects odds ratio (OR): 1.10, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.14) and heavy drinkers (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.26) had higher odds of job strain. Intermediate drinkers, on the other hand, had lower odds of job strain (OR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99). We found no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and alcohol intake. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that compared to moderate drinkers, non-drinkers and heavy drinkers are more likely and intermediate drinkers less likely to report work-related stress.

  • 6.
    Kivimäki, M.
    et al.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
    Nyberg, S. T.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Batty, G. D.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
    Fransson, E. I.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Heikkilä, K.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Alfredsson, L.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjorner, J. B.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Borritz, M.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Burr, H.
    Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), Berlin, Germany.
    Casini, A.
    School of Public Health, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
    Clays, E.
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    De Bacquer, D.
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Dragano, N.
    Department of Medical Sociology, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Ferrie, J. E.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
    Geuskens, G. A.
    TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Goldberg, M.
    Versailles-Saint Quentin University, Versailles, France.
    Hamer, M.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
    Hooftman, W. E.
    TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Houtman, I. L.
    TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Joensuu, M.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Jokela, M.
    Institute of Behavioral Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kittel, F.
    School of Public Health, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Koskenvuo, M.
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Koskinen, A.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kouvonen, A.
    School of Sociology, Social Policy and Social Work, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Kumari, M.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
    Madsen, I. E. H.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Marmot, M. G.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
    Nielsen, M. L.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nordin, M.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Oksanen, T.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku, Finland.
    Pentti, J.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku, Finland.
    Rugulies, R.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Salo, P.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku, Finland.
    Siegrist, J.
    Department of Medical Sociology, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Singh-Manoux, A.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
    Suominen, S. B.
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Väänänen, A.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vahtera, J.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
    Virtanen, M.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Westerholm, P. J. M.
    Institute of Behavioral Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Westerlund, H.
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zins, M.
    Versailles-Saint Quentin University, Versailles, France.
    Steptoe, A.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
    Theorell, T.
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Job strain as a risk factor for coronary heart disease: A collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data2012In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 380, no 9852, p. 1491-1497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Published work assessing psychosocial stress (job strain) as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is inconsistent and subject to publication bias and reverse causation bias. We analysed the relation between job strain and coronary heart disease with a meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies. Methods We used individual records from 13 European cohort studies (1985-2006) of men and women without coronary heart disease who were employed at time of baseline assessment. We measured job strain with questions from validated job-content and demand-control questionnaires. We extracted data in two stages such that acquisition and harmonisation of job strain measure and covariables occurred before linkage to records for coronary heart disease. We defined incident coronary heart disease as the first non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary death. Findings 30 214 (15%) of 197 473 participants reported job strain. In 1•49 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 7•5 years [SD 1•7]), we recorded 2358 events of incident coronary heart disease. After adjustment for sex and age, the hazard ratio for job strain versus no job strain was 1•23 (95% CI 1•10-1•37). This effect estimate was higher in published (1•43, 1•15-1•77) than unpublished (1•16, 1•02-1•32) studies. Hazard ratios were likewise raised in analyses addressing reverse causality by exclusion of events of coronary heart disease that occurred in the first 3 years (1•31, 1•15-1•48) and 5 years (1•30, 1•13-1•50) of follow-up. We noted an association between job strain and coronary heart disease for sex, age groups, socioeconomic strata, and region, and after adjustments for socioeconomic status, and lifestyle and conventional risk factors. The population attributable risk for job strain was 3•4%. Interpretation Our findings suggest that prevention of workplace stress might decrease disease incidence; however, this strategy would have a much smaller effect than would tackling of standard risk factors, such as smoking. Funding Finnish Work Environment Fund, the Academy of Finland, the Swedish Research Council for Working Life and Social Research, the German Social Accident Insurance, the Danish National Research Centre for the Working Environment, the BUPA Foundation, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment, the Medical Research Council, the Wellcome Trust, and the US National Institutes of Health.

  • 7.
    Sjodin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Univ Gavle, Fac Bldg Energy & Environm Engn, Lab Environm Psychol, SE-80176 Gavle, Sweden .
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Univ Gavle, Fac Bldg Energy & Environm Engn, Lab Environm Psychol, SE-80176 Gavle, Sweden .
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstrom, Ulf
    Univ Gavle, Fac Bldg Energy & Environm Engn, Lab Environm Psychol, SE-80176 Gavle, Sweden .
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Univ Gavle, Fac Bldg Energy & Environm Engn, Lab Environm Psychol, SE-80176 Gavle, Sweden .
    Noise and stress effects on preschool personnel2012In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, no 59, p. 166-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to analyze the presence of stress-related health problems among preschool employees and the way in which these reactions are related to noise and other work parameters. The investigation included 101 employees at 17 preschools in Umea County, located in northern Sweden. Individual noise recordings and recordings in dining rooms and play halls were made at two departments from each preschool. The adverse effects on the employees were analyzed by use of different validated questionnaires and by saliva cortisol samples. Stress and energy output were pronounced among the employees, and about 30 of the staff experienced strong burnout syndromes. Mental recovery after work was low, indicated by remaining high levels of stress after work. The burnout symptoms were associated with reduced sleep quality and morning sleepiness. Cortisol levels supported the conclusion about pronounced daily stress levels of the preschool employees.

  • 8.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Univ Gavle, Ctr Built Environm, S-80176 Gavle, Sweden.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Center for Built Environment, University of Gävle, 80176 Gävle, Sweden .
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landström, Ulf
    Univ Gavle, Ctr Built Environm, S-80176 Gavle, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Univ Gavle, Ctr Built Environm, S-80176 Gavle, Sweden.
    Measures against preschool noise and its adverse effects on the personnel: an intervention study2014In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 95-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to analyze the exposure effects of different types of noise measures carried out at preschools. The project was carried out as an intervention study. The investigation included 89 employees at 17 preschools in the northern part of Sweden. Individual noise recordings and recordings in dining rooms and play halls were made at two departments in each preschool. The adverse effects on the employees were analyzed with validated questionnaires and saliva cortisol samples. Evaluations were made before and 1 year after the first measurement. Between the two measurements, measures were taken to improve the sound environments at the preschools. The effects of the measures varied a lot, with respect to both the sound environments and health. Regarding acoustical measures, significant changes were seen for some of the variables analyzed. For most of the tested effects, the changes, however, were very small and non-significant. The effects of organizational measures on the objective and subjective noise values were in overall less pronounced. Acoustical measures improved the subjectively rated sound environment more than organizational measures. This may be due to the high work effort needed to implement organizational measures. Even though the sound level was not lower, the personnel experienced improvements of the sound environment.

  • 9.
    Warne, Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sun, snow, skiing, work and a lot of party – HR leaders and seasonal workers’ views on alcohol and alcohol prevention at a ski resort in Northern Sweden.2016In: Inkluderande och hållbart arbetsliv: Book of abstracts – FALF 2016, Östersund: Mittuniversitetet , 2016, p. 13-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Winter tourism hires thousands of young seasonal workers every year. Work, but mostly skiing and party attracts them to stay at the ski resort for four or five months.  Previous research shows that seasonal employment is associated with hazardous drinking and risk taking behaviors. Seasonal workers’ health and healthy working environment are important issues for the tourism sector. Between 2014 and 2016 the project “Safe in Åre – employer against drugs” is running with the purpose to reduce alcohol and drugs among seasonal employees.  

    A qualitative method was used to understand critical factors for alcohol prevention among seasonal workers. Twelve HR managers in tourism companies were interviewed about alcohol prevention and the role of alcohol in seasonal workers’ daily lives. The interviews were analyzed with content analysis together with one open ended questions about seasonal workers view of the companies’ alcohol- and drug prevention. The question was answered by 611 of 1313 employees.  

    The results shows that HR managers view on alcohol prevention was two-edged. They contribute to the preservation of existing alcohol norm but have policies to control soberness at work. Emerging themes were: Retention of existing alcohol norms and Alcohol-controlled working environment. But it was also a tendency of a preventive approach among some HR managers. 

    The results are in progress but the preliminary conclusion is that the double message from the manager to the seasonal workers with restrictions and control of alcohol use at work but invitations to drink in the evening is problematic and contribute to the norm of “party culture”.

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