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  • 1.
    Archer, T.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, K
    School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Physical exercise ameliorates deficits induced by traumatic brain injury2012In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 125, no 5, p. 293-302Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extent and depth of traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major determining factor together with the type of structural insult and its location, whether mild, moderate or severe, as well as the distribution and magnitude of inflammation and loss of cerebrovascular integrity, and the eventual efficacy of intervention. The influence of exercise intervention in TBI is multiple, ranging from anti-apoptotic effects to the augmentation of neuroplasticity. Physical exercise diminishes cerebral inflammation by elevating factors and agents involved in immunomodulatory function, and buttresses glial cell, cerebrovascular, and blood-brain barrier intactness. It provides unique non-pharmacologic intervention that incorporate different physical activity regimes, whether dynamic or static, endurance or resistance. Physical training regimes ought necessarily to be adapted to the specific demands of diagnosis, type and degree of injury and prognosis for individuals who have suffered TBI. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  • 2.
    Hedlund, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå Univ, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindstrom, Britta
    Umeå Univ, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sojka, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lundstrom, Ronnie
    Umeå Univ, Umeå, Sweden.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå Univ, Umeå, Sweden.
    Is better preservation of eccentric strength after stroke due to altered prefrontal function?2016In: Neurocase, ISSN 1355-4794, E-ISSN 1465-3656, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 229-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) is part of a network that exerts inhibitory control over the motor cortex (MC). Recently, we demonstrated that VLPFC was more activated during imagined maximum eccentric than during imagined concentric contractions in healthy participants. This was accompanied with lower activation levels within motor regions during imagined eccentric contractions. The aim was to test a novel hypothesis of an involvement of VLPFC in contraction mode-specific modulation of force. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine differences in VLPFC and motor regions during the concentric and the eccentric phases of imagined maximum contractions in a selected sample of subjects with stroke (n=4). The subjects were included as they exhibited disturbed modulation of force. The previously demonstrated pattern within VLPFC was evident only on the contralesional hemisphere. On the ipsilesional hemisphere, the recruitment in VLPFC was similar for both modes of contractions. The findings support a hypothesis of the involvement of VLPFC in contraction mode-specific modulation of maximum force production. A disturbance of this system might underlie the lack of contraction mode-specific modulation commonly found among stroke subjects, often expressed as an increased ratio between eccentric and concentric strength.

  • 3.
    Henriksson, Anders E.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Sundsvall Cty Hosp, Dept Lab Med, SE-85186 Sundsvall, Sweden.
    S100B and the influence of seasonal variation2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686, Vol. 76, no 4, p. 338-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background A blood test for S100B can be used to rule out intracranial complications after minor head injury and thereby reduce the need for computed tomography (CT) examinations. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical importance of a possible influence of seasonal variation on S100B. Methods The individual seasonal variation of S100B in 69 healthy volunteers living at latitudes with extremely variable seasonal exposure to sunlight was investigated. Results The mean serum concentration of S100B was 13% higher in August than in February, but however, not statistically significant (p = 0.068). A good agreement between summer and winter S100B values was confirmed by Bland-Altman analysis and a significant correlation (r = 0.317, p = 0.008) was shown between summer and winter S100B values. Conclusion This study did not show any clinical importance of seasonal variation of S100B that may influence the decision of CT scanning patients with head injuries.

  • 4.
    Jonsdottir, I. H.
    et al.
    Institute of Stress Medicine, Carl Skottsbergs gatan 22B, SE-413 19 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nordlund, A.
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Ellbin, S.
    Institute of Stress Medicine, Carl Skottsbergs gatan 22B, SE-413 19 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ljung, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Glise, K.
    Institute of Stress Medicine, Carl Skottsbergs gatan 22B, SE-413 19 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Währborg, P.
    Area of Work Science, Business Economics, and Environmental Psychology, Department of Landscape Planning, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Wallin, A.
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Cognitive impairment in patients with stress-related exhaustion2013In: Stress, ISSN 1025-3890, E-ISSN 1607-8888, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 181-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients who seek medical care for stress-related mental health problems frequently report cognitive impairments as the most pronounced symptom. The purpose of the present study was to compare cognitive function in patients with stress-related exhaustion with that in healthy controls, using a comprehensive battery of cognitive tests. We also explored whether neuropsychological findings were related to severity of illness measured using the Shirom-Melamed burnout questionnaire and hospital anxiety and depression scale. Thirty-three patients (15 males) and 37 healthy controls (11 males), mean age 46 years [standard deviation (SD) 3.9] and 47 years (SD 4.3), respectively, were included in the final analysis. Five cognitive domains were assessed: (1) speed, attention and working memory, (2) learning and episodic memory, (3) executive functions, (4) visuospatial functions and (5) language. The most pronounced difference between patients and controls was seen on executive function, when tested with a multidimensional test, including aspects of speed, control and working memory. The patients also performed poorer on Digit span, measuring attention span and working memory as well as on learning and episodic memory, when measured as delayed recall and the difference between immediate and delayed recall. Delayed recall was the only test that was significantly related to severity of burnout symptoms among the patients. This could reflect poor cognitive sustainability in the patients with the highest burnout scores, as this particular test was the last one performed during the test session. This study clearly shows that cognitive impairment should be considered when evaluating and treating patients who seek medical care for stress-related exhaustion. 

  • 5.
    Leal, Alberto
    et al.
    ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa; CIS-IUL, Portugal .
    Lopes, Ricardo
    ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa; CIS-IUL, Portugal .
    Arriaga, Patricia
    ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa; CIS-IUL, Portugal .
    Esteves, Francisco
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology. CIS-IUL, Portugal .
    The brain mapping of emotion in human faces: Clinical aplication in epilepsy2014In: IEEE MeMeA 2014 - IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications, Proceedings, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 46-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The ability to process multiple domains of the human face it is a well-developed capability in humans, contributing significantly to social interaction. The extraction of emotional content out of facial features is one such domain, which involves well-known brain structures, whose detailed contribution is nevertheless poorly characterized. Objectives: Our emphasis is on detection and functional characterization of the brain areas involved in emotional processing of faces, with particular focus on the contribution of frontal lobes to processing of basic facial emotion expressions, such as fear and happiness. Methods: Participants were ten healthy volunteers and five patients with occipital lobe epilepsies. Mapping neurovascular (BOLD) responses to fear, happy and neutral facial expressions were obtained through functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Results: The results from the group of volunteers were used as a base for the construction of a quantitative database that included the following brain structures: fusiform gyrus, insula, amygdala, cingulate gyrus, and frontal-orbital cortex. The maximum Z-score obtained from each ROI as responses to the contrast fear-neutral faces produced higher statistically significant activations in the areas selected. Responses in clinical patients revealed focal impairments only in right hemisphere epilepsies, consistent with a hemispheric asymmetry for emotional processing. Conclusions: The frequent association of some brain structures involved in facial emotion processing in epilepsy suggests that the proposed mapping protocol can be clinically useful to gain deeper insights into the anatomical-functional correlations of this disease.

  • 6.
    Olsson, C-J
    et al.
    Centre for Population Studies, Ageing and Living Conditions, Umeå University, S-901 87 Umeå, Sweden.
    Hedlund, M.
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sojka, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lundström, R.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindström, B.
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Increased prefrontal activity and reduced motor cortex activity during imagined eccentric compared to concentric muscle actions2012In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, no SEP, p. Art. no. 255-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine differences in recruited brain regions during the concentric and the eccentric phase of an imagined maximum resistance training task of the elbow flexors in healthy young subjects. The results showed that during the eccentric phase, pre-frontal cortex (BA44) bilaterally was recruited when contrasted to the concentric phase. During the concentric phase, however, the motor and pre-motor cortex (BA 4/6) was recruited when contrasted to the eccentric phase. Interestingly, the brain activity of this region was reduced, when compared to the mean activity of the session, during the eccentric phase. Thus, the neural mechanisms governing imagined concentric and eccentric contractions appear to differ. We propose that the recruitment of the pre-frontal cortex is due to an increased demand of regulating force during the eccentric phase. Moreover, it is possible that the inability to fully activate a muscle during eccentric contractions may partly be explained by a reduction of activity in the motor and pre-motor cortex.

  • 7.
    Styrke, Johan
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci, Div Surg, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden.
    Sojka, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Bjornstig, Ulf
    Umea Univ, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci, Div Surg, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden.
    Bylund, Per-Olof
    Umea Univ Hosp, Emergency & Disaster Med Ctr, S-90185 Umea, Sweden.
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    Umea Univ, Dept Community Med & Rehabil, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden.
    SEX DIFFERENCES IN SYMPTOMS, DISABILITY AND LIFE SATISFACTION THREE YEARS AFTER MILD TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY: A POPULATION-BASED COHORT STUDY2013In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 749-757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate sex differences in symptoms, structure of symptoms, disability and life satisfaction 3 years after mild traumatic brain injury. Secondary aims were to find risk factors for adverse outcome. Design: Population-based cohort study. Patients: The cohort comprised 137,000 inhabitants at risk in a defined population served by a single hospital in northern Sweden. Patients attending the emergency department following a mild traumatic brain injury in 2001 were included. Methods: Of 214 patients aged 18-64 years, 163 answered a questionnaire on symptoms, disability, and life-satisfaction 3 years post-injury. The instruments were analysed with descriptive statistics. A principal component analysis of the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire was conducted. Risk factors were identified using logistic regression. Results: Post-concussion syndrome was found in 50% of the women and 30% of the men. Disability was found in 52% of the women and 37% of the men, and 57% of the women and 56% of the men were satisfied with their lives. For both genders, high frequency of symptoms was a risk factor for disability and low life satisfaction. Back pain was a risk factor for disability. Living alone was a risk factor for low levels of life satisfaction. The principal component analysis revealed differences between the sexes. Conclusion: There are sex differences in outcome 3 years after mild traumatic brain injury. Women and men should be analysed separately.

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