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  • 1. Andre, M
    et al.
    Odenholt, I
    Schwan, Åke
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Upper respiratory tract infections in general practice:: Diagnosis, antibiotic prescribing, duration of symptoms and use of diagnostic tests.2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, Vol. 34, no 12, p. 880-886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A diagnosis/antibiotic prescribing study was performed in 5 counties in Sweden for 1 week in November 2000. As part of this study, the characteristics and clinical management of patients with upper respiratory tract infections (n = 2899) in primary care were analyzed. Almost half of the patients were aged < 15 y and one-fifth of the patients consulted out of hours. Of all patients seeking primary care for upper respiratory tract infections, 56.0% were prescribed an antibiotic. Almost all patients who were given the diagnoses streptococcal tonsillitis, acute otitis media or acute sinusitis were prescribed antibiotics, compared to 10% of patients with common cold or acute pharyngitis. The most frequently prescribed antibiotic was penicillin V (79.2%) and this was even more pronounced out of hours, when the diagnoses otitis media and streptococcal tonsillitis were more frequently used. In patients with common cold and acute pharyngitis, the percentage who received antibiotics increased with increasing length of symptoms and increasing CRP levels. In patients with acute pharyngitis or streptococcal tonsillitis, antibiotics were prescribed less frequently provided streptococcal tests were performed. The management of patients with upper respiratory tract infections in general practice seems to be in good agreement with current Swedish guidelines. However, the study indicates some areas for improvement. The diagnosis of acute sinusitis seems to have been overestimated and used only to justify antibiotic treatment.

  • 2. Andre, Malin
    et al.
    Molstad, Sigvard
    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia
    Odenholt, Inga
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Management of urinary tract infections in primary care:: a repeated 1-week diagnosis-prescribing study in five counties in Sweden in 2000 and 2002.2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 134-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A diagnosis-antibiotic prescribing study was performed in 5 counties in Sweden during 1 week in November in the y 2000 and 2002, respectively. As part of the study, the characteristics and clinical management of patients who received diagnoses of urinary tract infections (UTIs) (n = 1564) in primary care, were analysed. 85% of the visits were by women, and 74% of all consultations were diagnosed as lower UTIs. One or more diagnostic tests were performed in 98% of the women with suspected lower or recurrent UTIs and 95% were prescribed an antibiotic. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics for lower UTIs were trimethoprim followed by pivmecillinam and a quinolone. The study indicated a change in antibiotic prescribing with improved adherence to the national recommendations. There was an increase of prescribed nitrofurantoin and a decrease of prescribed quinolones to women with lower UTIs between the studied y. Furthermore, 3-d treatment with trimethoprim increased although the prescribed duration was mostly 7 d. In contrast to the guidelines, few urine cultures were performed. The study highlights the necessity of updating the guidelines for the management of lower UTIs in general practice.

  • 3. André, Malin
    et al.
    Eriksson, Margareta
    Möstad, Sigvard
    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia
    Jacobsson, Anders
    Odenholt, Inga
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Runehagen, Arne
    Schwan, Åke
    The management of infections in children in general practice in Sweden.: a repeated 1-week diagnosis-prescribing study in 5 counties in 2000 and 2002.2005In: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0022-1899, Vol. 37, no 11-12, p. 863-869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A diagnosis-prescribing study was performed in 5 Swedish counties during 1 week in November in 2000 and repeated in 2002. The aim of the present study was to analyse data for children 0-15y of age who consulted a general practitioner with symptoms of an infection. During the 2 weeks studied, 4049 children were consulted. Respiratory tract infections (RTI) were the predominant diagnoses, above all among the youngest children, while the proportion of urinary tract infections and skin infections increased with increasing age. Between the y 2000 and 2002, the proportion of children allocated the diagnosis streptococcal tonsillitis and pneumonia decreased (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively) while the proportion of common cold increased (p<0.001). Antibiotic prescribing decreased from 55% to 48% (p<0.001) for respiratory infections between the years studied. The only significant changes in type of antibiotics prescribed were the increase of isoxazolylpenicillins (p<0.001) used for skin infection and the decrease of macrolides (p=0.001). A diagnostic test was used in more than half of the consultations. Of children allocated a RTI diagnosis, 36% were prescribed antibiotics when a C-reactive protein test was performed compared to 58% in those not tested. Further studies are needed in general practice to determine the optimal use of near-patient tests in children with RTI.

  • 4. André, Malin
    et al.
    Schwan, Åke
    Odenholt, Inga
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The use of CRP tests in patients with respiratory tract infections in primary care in Sweden care can be questioned.2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 192-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A diagnosis-antibiotic prescribing study was performed in 5 counties in Sweden during 1 week in November in 2000 and 2002 respectively. As a part of the study, the use and results of C-reactive protein (CRP) tests in relation to duration of symptoms and antibiotic prescribing in 6778 patients assigned a diagnosis of respiratory tract infections were analysed. In almost half (42%) of the patients, a CRP test was performed. The majority of CRP tests (69%) were performed in patients assigned diagnosis upper respiratory tract infection, where the test is not recommended. Overall, there was a minor decrease in antibiotic prescribing when CRP was used (41%), in comparison to 44% of the patients where no CRP was performed (p < 0.01). Patients assigned diagnoses implying a bacterial aetiology were prescribed antibiotics irrespective of result of CRP or length of symptoms before consultation. For patients assigned viral diagnoses, antibiotic prescribing increased with increasing duration of symptoms and increasing value of CRP. The use of CRP decreased antibiotic prescribing in patients assigned to viral diagnoses and with longstanding symptoms (p < 0.001). However, 59% of the patients assigned viral diagnoses with CRP > or = 25 received antibiotics, which seems to indicate a misinterpretation of CRP and a non-optimal use of antibiotics.

  • 5. Anonym (I.Ax.),
    Två fall av letala neonatala GBS-infektioner [Two cases of lethal neonatal GBS infections].2003Other (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Acute otitis media in children: to treat or not to treat?2000In: Paediatric pulmonology and allergology, ISSN 1392-5261, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 1022-1032Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Every day millions of children world-wide take antibiotics against acute otitis media despite the fact that this treatment has not been shown to benefit the otherwise healthy, average AOM patient. Treatment differs greatly between similar, developed countries. These differences do not seem to be based on rational causes but on differences in mentality and culture. An adoptions of Dutch guidelines for AOM in the USA should result in 400.000 fewer US children on antibiotics during one average day! The incidence of severe complications (mastoiditis, meningitis) must be carefully monitored but there is no evidence that these complications are more common in the Netherlands than in the USA. The number of patients who die due to bacteria made antibiotic-resistant by overuse of antibiotics when treating AOM in children is unknown, but is most probably significant (this is never included in "good versus harm" calculations). We know little about what treatment is best for children suffering from AOM in poor countries, but it is probably wise to be more aggressive there and to adapt a freer usage of antibiotics than is advisable in rich countries.

  • 7.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Advances in airway infections. 1. Pneumonia in children: systematic review. 2. Acute otitis media in children: systematic review.2004Other (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Peer reviewed. Also published in Hungarian (translated by Tamas Nyeste) and Swedish (translated by I. Axelsson).

  • 8.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Antibiotika ökar risken för hemolytiskt uremiskt syndrom: Escherichia coli O157:H72000In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 97, no 25, p. 3060-3060Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 9.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Lunds universitet.
    Biology of corneal and skeletal proteoglycans1978In: Biochimie des tissus conjonctifs normaux et pathologiques : Biochemistry of normal and pathological connective tissues / 6th Colloquium of the Federation of European connective tissue clubs, Faculté de médecine, Université Paris Val-de Marne Créteil 28-30 août 1978; publ. sous la direction de A.-M. Robert et L. Robert, 1978, , p. 385Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Lunds universitet.
    Characterization of proteins and other macromolecules by agarose gel chromatography1978In: Journal of Chromatography, ISSN 0021-9673, Vol. 152, no 1, p. 21-32Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Clinical evidence, Cochrane och PubMed (Compendium, 18 pp.).2001Other (Other scientific)
  • 12.
    axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Cochrane-översikt om att förebygga navelinfektioner: Antiseptisk lösning är onödig i i-länder men livräddande i u-länder; evidensbaserad medicin2002In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 99, no 14, p. 1563-1566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One million newborn infants die every year by bacterial infections, which often have entered the body via the umbilicus. A Cochrane systematic review on "Topical umbilical cord care at birth" by J Zupan and P Garner is reviewed. Zupan and Garner conclude that simply to keep the umbilical cord dry and clean is sufficient for healthy, term neonates in rich countries; disinfectants do not offer any advantage. However, cleaning the umbilical cord with disinfectants may reduce the risk of serious bacterial infections in babies in poor countries or in neonatal wards. Observational studies in poor countries indicate that the life of numerous infants can be saved if pregnant women are vaccinated against tetanus and disinfectants are substituted for harmful cord care traditions. This Cochrane review is credible, but it should be updated and considered tentative since no data on sepsis are included. The search strategy should be better described and observational studies (case control and cohort studies) from poor countries should be included since there are no randomized control trials from these countries.

  • 13.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Evidence-based Child Health: 1. Evidence-Based Medicine: what it is, and what it isn't. 2. Evidence-Based Child Health: what it is, and why it should be used. 3. A brief history of EBM. 2004Other (Other scientific)
  • 14.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Evidence-based child health and epidemiology: glossary. (Peer-reviewed. Also Hungarian version, translated by T Nyeste, and Swedish version, translated by I. Axelsson: Ordlista för evidensbaserad barnmedicin och epidemiologi.)2004Other (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    About 170 entries

  • 15.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Internationell utblick [International review]2004In: Läkare mot kärnvapen, ISSN 1400-2256, no 96, p. 20-21Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 16.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Järntillskott till barn medför inte fler infektioner2003In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 99, no 11, p. 926-926Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 17.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kan antibiotika öka risken för HUS?: Motstridiga svar i metaanalys2002In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, no 44, p. 4383-4383Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 18.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Lunds universitet.
    Keratan sulfate proteoglycans.1977Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary of PhD thesis in biochemistry (physiological chemistry). (The 6 papers were cited 628 times 1974-2004.)

  • 19.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kliniska tecken på appendicitis acuta: CRP eller LPK förhöjt hos alla vuxna och hos de flesta barn2001In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 98, no 36, p. 3808-3808Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 20.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Krupp (pseudokrupp, falsk krupp) [Clinical practice guidelines for croup; peer-reviewed]. 2001Other (Other scientific)
    Abstract [sv]

    b) Printed book: p. 23-26 i Axelsson I et al., Lungsjukdomar - Öppen vård.

  • 21.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Medicina basada en la evidencia en la práctica: tratar o no tratar la otitis media? [Evidence-based medicine in practice: to treat or not to treat otitis media?]1999In: Pediatría Atención Primaria, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 629-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Axelsson I. ; also published electronically: http:// ).

  • 22.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Navelvård [topical umbilical cord care].2002Other (Other scientific)
  • 23.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Paediatric cases 20042004Other (Other scientific)
  • 24.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Paediatric news 20042004Other (Other scientific)
  • 25.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Pneumoni hos barn. [Clinical practice guidelines for pneumonia in children.] a) Electronic version:www.internetmedicin.se, Göteborg 2003; latest update 2004.2003Other (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    b) Printed book: p. 40-46 i Axelsson I et al., Lungsjukdomar - Öppen vård. Göteborg: Internetmedicin.se, 2004.

  • 26.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    RS-virusinfektioner hos barn2001Other (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    a) Electronic version: www.internetmedicin.se, Göteborg 2001; latest update in November 2004. b) Printed book: p. 31-35 i Axelsson I et al., Lungsjukdomar - Öppen vård. Internetmedicin.se, 2004.

  • 27.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sju utvecklingsstörda syskon: Om nyttan med PKU-provet2005In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 102, no 20, p. 1560-1560Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 28.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Skärpning, JK!2003In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 100, no 32-33, p. 2534-2534Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    [Letter about the Thalidomide disaster].

  • 29.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sluta ge steroider till nyfödda, underburna barn2001In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 98, no 40, p. 4355-4355Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 30.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tidig hemgång från BB: Ingen nackdel, ingen fördel2003In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 100, no 13, p. 1127-1127Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 31.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tonsillit (faryngo-tonsillit) hos barn [pharyngotonsillitis in children].2002Other (Other scientific)
  • 32.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vaccinationer, barn2004Other (Other scientific)
  • 33.
    Axelsson, Inge
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Bjelle, Anders
    Proteoglycan structure of bovine articular cartilage: variation with age and in osteoarthrosis1979In: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 217-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteoglycan subunits (PGS) were isolated from bovine articular cartilage of calves and from cows, 18 months and 8 years old respectively. From the latter cartilage of osteoarthrotic and of non-osteoarthrotic sites was taken. PGS were characterized by gel-chromatography on Sepharose 2B columns and subjected to digestion with chondroitinase ABC and with papain. The isolated keratan sulphate-protein cores obtained from chondroitinase digestion were characterized on Sepharose 4B and the chondroitin sulphate chains on Sephadex G-200 gels. A larger molecular size of PGS was found in calf cartilage than in the other samples. This was attributed to the larger molecular size of chondroitin, whereas no change was observed in the keratan sulphate-protein cores. No change was observed in molecular size of PGS, isolated chondroitin sulphates or keratan sulphate-protein cores in osteoarthrosis in compariith non-osteoarthrotic cartilage from the same joint or from younger adult animals.

  • 34.
    Axelsson, Inge
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Heinegard, D
    Characterization of keratan sulphate proteoglycans from bovine corneal stroma1978In: Biochemical Journal, ISSN 0264-6021, Vol. 169, no 3, p. 517-530Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Axelsson, Inge
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Heinegård, D.
    Characterization of chondroitin sulfate-rich proteoglycans from bovine corneal stroma.1980In: Experimental Eye Research, ISSN 0014-4835, Vol. 31, p. 57-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Axelsson, Inge
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Högberg, Cecilia
    Kjellberg, Mattias
    (Pseudo)krupp, luftanfuktning och steroidval2001In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 98, no 12, p. 1432-1432Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Axelsson, Inge
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Rosen, I A
    Impetigo2003Other (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical practice guidelines for impetigo

  • 38. Dahl, IMS
    et al.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Lunds universitet.
    The inhibition by retinoic acid of the biosynthesis of proteoglycans in corneal cell cultures1980In: Experimental Eye Research, ISSN 0014-4835, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 443-450Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39. Eriksson, BKG
    et al.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Rydström, H
    Jörbäck, H
    Grupp A streptokocker (GAS) [group A streptococci]2004In: INFPREG (databas), , p. -Other (Other scientific)
  • 40. Flinck, A
    et al.
    Paludan, A
    Matsson, L
    Holm, AK
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Oral findings in a group of newborn Swedish children.1994In: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, ISSN 0960-7439, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 67-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oral examinations were performed of 1021 newborn Swedish children, of whom 101 were re-examined after 2-3 or 4-5 months. The most common findings, registered in 74.9% of the children, were of oral mucosal cysts situated either palatally or on the alveolar ridges. The majority of the palatal cysts disappeared shortly after birth, and some alveolar cysts appeared after birth. Ankyloglossia was found in 2.5% of the children, and Fordyce spots in 1.0%. No natal teeth were found. The upper labial frenum was attached to the crest of the alveolar ridge in 76.7% of the children, palatally in 16.7% and buccally in 6.7%. The relationship of the alveolar ridges was recorded: the anterior segment of the mandibular ridge was distal to the maxillary in 99% of cases, and, posteriorly, the mandibular ridges were lingual to the maxillary in 97.6%. An open bite was found in 39.8% of the children.

  • 41.
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Experiences of compulsory treatment of addictions - ethics, objectives, treatment content and outcomes.2001In: WHO/Euro & Council of Europé, 2001Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42. Heinegård, D
    et al.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Lunds universitet.
    Distribution of keratan sulfate in cartilage proteoglycans1977In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, Vol. 252, no 6, p. 1971-1979Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43. Heinegård, D
    et al.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Inerot, S
    Skeletal keratan sulfate peptides from different tissues: Characterization and alkaline degradation.1979In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, ISSN 0006-3002, Vol. 581, no 1, p. 122-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Keratan sulfate-rich peptides were isolated after digestion of proteoglycans from bovine nasal cartilage and bovine nucleus pulposus with chondroitinase ABC, trypsin and chymotrypsin. The keratan sulfate enriched peptides from nucleus pulposus were larger than those from nasal cartilage. Keratan sulfate chains were isolated after treatment of the keratan sulfate-rich peptides under alkaline, reductive conditions. Proteoglycans from nucleus pulposus contain longer keratan sulfate chains, as is shown primarily by gel chromatography of the keratan sulfate-rich peptides and the keratan sulfate chains, but also from end-group analyses of the keratan sulfate chains.

  • 44.
    Landstad, Bodil J
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    At work in spite of pain: Prevention and rehabilitation in two predominantly female workplaces, their effects and further development of analysis methods.2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract

    Thesis

  • 45. Smedsaas-Löfvenberg, A
    et al.
    Nilsson, K
    Moa, G
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Nebulization of drugs in a nasal CPAP system.1999In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 89-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46. Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Olsson, Eva
    Mölstad, Sigvard
    André, Malin
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Erikssojn, Margareta
    Hoffman, Mikael
    Odenholt, Inga
    Runehagen, Arne
    Schwan, Åke
    Wahlström, Rolf
    Antibiotic prescribing in outpatients: a 1-week diagnosis & prescribing study in 5 counties in Sweden2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 442-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A diagnosis-antibiotic prescribing study initiated by the Swedish Strategic Programme for the Rational Use of Antimicrobial Agents and Surveillance of Resistance was performed in 5 counties in Sweden (total 1,290,000 inhabitants) during 1 week in November 2000. The aims of the study were to analyse diagnoses and antibiotics prescribed for outpatients and to appraise the feasibility of the data collection method. Physicians in primary care and departments of ENT, paediatrics and infectious diseases completed a questionnaire for each patient with an infectious disease complaint, including information about age, sex, diagnosis, diagnostic methods used and treatment. When an antibiotic was prescribed, the type and duration of treatment were noted. A total of 7,071 forms were returned, of which 7,029 included information on diagnosis; infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract and the skin or soft tissues were responsible for 70%, 14% and 10% of the visits, respectively. Antibiotics were prescribed in 59% of all cases and phenoxymethylpenicillin was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic. Of the forms returned, 94% emanated from primary care centres. In conclusion, this study provides information on the treatment pattern associated with various diagnoses and the pattern of use of various antibiotics. Such a study is relatively simple to perform and entails only a small extra workload for the participants.

  • 47.
    Svedlund, Marianne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Acute myocardial infarction in middle-aged women: narrations from the patients and their partners during rehabilitation2000In: Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, ISSN 0964-3397, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 256-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the meaning of lived experiences after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and being a partner to an afflicted woman, as it is narrated during rehabilitation. Nine women and their partners narrated their experiences three and twelve months after AMI. The interview texts were transcribed and then interpreted, using a phenomenological-hermeneutic method inspired by the philosophy of Ricoeur. The result showed that their experiences of the illness contained two themes: 'rehabilitation needed' and 'loss of freedom' which contains eight sub-themes; 'adapting to it', 'struggling against it', 'living as normally as possible', 'having insight into how it can be', 'feeling guilty and ashamed about being weak', 'withholding feelings', 'feeling useless', and 'feeling fatigued and losing strength'. After further interpretation, the themes gave a deeper meaning of living with AMI and how it affects women and their partners. The women conceded that they felt distressed and vulnerable but struggled against the fear the illness means. The partner's role appears to be one of trying to adapt to the women's experiences of the illness. That the women withheld their feelings and did not talk about them indicates a lack of communication between the couples. As coronary care nurses often come very close both to the afflicted persons and the relatives they fill an important function in each patient's recovery. The nurses could help and prepare the patients and their relatives to understand better such feelings and reactions as could appear after discharge from hospital.

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