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  • 1.
    Hanstock, Helen
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales.
    Edwards, Jason
    Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales.
    Walsh, Neil
    Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales.
    Tear Lactoferrin and Lysozyme as Clinically Relevant Biomarkers of Mucosal Immune Competence2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 1178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tears have attracted interest as a minimally-invasive biological fluid from which to assess biomarkers. Lactoferrin (Lf) and lysozyme (Lys) are abundant in the tear fluid and have antimicrobial properties. Since the eye is a portal for infection transmission, assessment of immune status at the ocular surface may be clinically relevant. Therefore, the aim of this series of studies was to investigate the tear fluid antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) Lf and Lys as biomarkers of mucosal immune status. To be considered biomarkers of interest, we would expect tear AMPs to respond to stressors known to perturb immunity but be robust to confounding variables, and to be lower in participants with heightened risk or incidence of illness. We investigated the relationship between tear AMPs and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI; study 1) as well as the response of tear AMPs to prolonged treadmill exercise (study 2) and dehydration (study 3). Study 1 was a prospective cohort study conducted during the common cold season whereas studies 2 and 3 used repeated-measures crossover designs. In study 1, tear Lys concentration (C) as well as tear AMP secretion rates (SRs) were lower in individuals who reported pathogen-confirmed URTI (n = 9) throughout the observation period than in healthy, pathogen-free controls (n = 17; Lys-C, P = 0.002, d = 0.85; Lys-SR, P < 0.001, d = 1.00; Lf-SR, P = 0.018, d = 0.66). Tear AMP secretion rates were also lower in contact lens wearers. In study 2, tear AMP SRs were 42–49% lower at 30 min−1 h post-exercise vs. pre-exercise (P < 0.001, d = 0.80–0.93). Finally, in study 3, tear AMPs were not influenced by dehydration, although tear AMP concentrations (but not secretion rates) displayed diurnal variation. We conclude that Lf and Lys have potential as biomarkers of mucosal immune competence; in particular, whether these markers are lower in infection-prone individuals warrants further investigation.

  • 2. Sukhovey, Yury
    et al.
    Koptyug, Andrey
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Petrov, Sergey A.
    The Tyumen Centre of Sciences, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences.
    Dotsenko, E. L
    The Tyumen State University, Department of General and Social Psychology.
    Fisher, Tatyana A.
    5The Tyumen Centre of Sciences, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences.
    Psycho-immune Partnership in the Dynamic Responses of Living Systems2014In: International Journal of Life Science and Medical Research, ISSN 2226-4566, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 57-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Present paper outlines certain possibilities for a new approach to the generalized modeling of the dynamics of living organism reaction to the changes in its environment. It is shown that there exists common functional “alignment” of the immune and psychic responses in the living organism reaction to the changes in the environment. This is manifested in the experimentally recorded matching of the response scenarios and activities in the immune and psychic domains. Thus, one may conclude that there exist two functionally matched systems (psychic and immune) tracking the external influences and responding to them. On the other hand it is feasible that one is actually dealing with a complex inseparable psycho-immune system and experimentally monitors different aspects of its activity describing these from two different points of view. Given analysis of available experimental data seems to support both of the above alternatives without giving undoubted preferences to any of them. However treating the situation form the formal logic point of view certain preferences can be given to the concept of an inseparable psycho-immune system modeled in two different ways. This approach can also resolve certain collisions happening with the attempts to describe direct interrelations between psychic and immune domains, and can lead the way to higher-level functionality models of the dynamic responses of the living organisms.

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