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  • 1.
    Allison, Robert S.
    et al.
    York University, Centre for Vision Research, Toronto, Canada.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. RISE AB (Acreo).
    Chandler, Damon M.
    Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan.
    Colett, Hannah R.
    Intel Corp., Santa Clara, California, United States.
    Corriveau, Philip J.
    Intel Corp., Santa Clara, California, United States.
    Daly, Scott
    Dolby Laboratories Inc., Sunnyvale, California, United States.
    Goel, James
    Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., Display Video Processing Group, Markham, Canada.
    Long, Juliana Y.
    Intel Corp., Santa Clara, California, United States.
    Wilcox, Laurie M.
    York University, Centre for Vision Research, Toronto, Canada.
    Yaacob, Yusizwan M.
    Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan.
    Yang, Shun-nan
    Pacific University, Forest Grove, Oregon, United States.
    Zhang, Yi
    Xi’an Jiaotong University, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi’an, China.
    Perspectives on the definition of visually lossless quality for mobile and large format displays2018In: Journal of Electronic Imaging (JEI), ISSN 1017-9909, E-ISSN 1560-229X, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1-23, article id 053035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in imaging and display engineering have given rise to new and improved image and videoapplications that aim to maximize visual quality under given resource constraints (e.g., power, bandwidth).Because the human visual system is an imperfect sensor, the images/videos can be represented in a mathematicallylossy fashion but with enough fidelity that the losses are visually imperceptible—commonly termed“visually lossless.” Although a great deal of research has focused on gaining a better understanding ofthe limits of human vision when viewing natural images/video, a universally or even largely accepted definitionof visually lossless remains elusive. Differences in testing methodologies, research objectives, and targetapplications have led to multiple ad-hoc definitions that are often difficult to compare to or otherwise employ inother settings. We present a compendium of technical experiments relating to both vision science and visualquality testing that together explore the research and business perspectives of visually lossless image quality,as well as review recent scientific advances. Together, the studies presented in this paper suggest that a singledefinition of visually lossless quality might not be appropriate; rather, a better goal would be to establish varyinglevels of visually lossless quality that can be quantified in terms of the testing paradigm.

  • 2.
    Arndt, Sebastian
    et al.
    Technische Universitat Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Acreo Swedish ICT.
    Cheng, Eva
    Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), Melbourne, Australia.
    Engelke, Ulrich
    Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Hobart, Australia.
    Möller, Sebastian
    Technische Universitat Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Antons, Jan-Niklas
    Technische Universitat Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Review on using physiology in quality of experience2016In: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging 2016, HVEI 2016, The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2016, p. 197-205Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the area of Quality of Experience (QoE), one challenge is to design test methodologies in order to evaluate the perceived quality of multimedia content delivered through technical sys-tems. Traditionally, this evaluation is done using subjective opinion tests. However, sometimes it is difficult for observers to communicate the experienced quality through the given scale. Fur-thermore. those tests do not give insights into how the user is reacting on an internal physiological level. To overcome these issues, one approach is to use physiological measures, in order to derive a direct non-verbal response of the recipient. In this paper, we review studies that have been performed in the domain of QoE using physiological measures and we look into current activities in standardization bodies. We present challenges this research faces. and give an overview on what researchers should be aware of when they want to start working in this research area.

  • 3.
    Bergquist, Johanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Tinnitus och ljudöverkänslighet2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tinnitus och ljudöverkänslighet är två vanliga hörselproblem. Men vad är det som ligger bakom problemen? Vad finns det för hjälp till någon som är drabbad? Jag ville lära mig mer om detta ämne dels för att jag lider av både tinnitus och ljudöverkänslighet själv sen flera år tillbaka men också för att jag är lärare. Jag kan visa och berätta för mina elever på kulturskolan vad som händer om man inte använder öronproppar när man repar. Jag ville också få fram hjälp och tips till de som lider av dessa problem. Därför skickade jag ut en enkät för att få reda på olika personers tips. Men jag fick tyvärr inget svar.. Då provade jag en självhjälpsbok och ett tips som jag tyckte var extra bra står med under resultatdelen. Jag är nöjd med mitt resultat trots att det blev väldigt annorlunda emot vad jag tänkt mig.

  • 4.
    Billberg, Theresia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Vad händer med Ljuddesign?2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Om ljuddesign för scenkonsten skall fortsätta utvecklas och de ljuddesigners som verkar i Sverige ska få samma legitima status som resterande yrkesepitet i branschen, bör vi lyfta frågan: Vad är ljuddesign och varför är den viktig? Denna studie har för avsikt att belysa det värde som ljuddesign inbringar inom scenkonsten. Denna rapport behandlar Examensarbetet: Vad händer med ljuddesign? En empirisk studie i hur ljuddesign kan användas som ett bra verktyg för att förstärka och fördjupa en skådespelares gestaltningsprocess. Studien innefattar även skapandet av sex ljudande verk som varit utgångspunkt för studien och jag har med dessa sökt svar på hur de påverkat skådespelare och en provpubliks tolkning och känslomässiga reaktioner vid uppförandet av en och samma text. Kan ljudet ändra textens innebörd? Resultatet av studien visar hur ljudet förstärker inlevelsen hos både skådespelare och publik, samt hur vi med hjälp av ljuddesign kan styra mening och innehåll i en text. Slutsatsen efter denna studie är att ljuddesign kan ändra hur vi tolkar en text och att det väcker engagemang och nyfikenhet. Ljudet är ett direkt medium som har stor del i hur upplevelsen av ett uppförande på scenen uppfattas och tolkas.

  • 5.
    Bosse, Sebastian
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications – Heinrich Hertz Institute, Berlin, Germany.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. Research Intstitutes of Sweden AB.
    Arndt, Sebastian
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Martini, Maria G.
    Kingston University, London, UK.
    Ramzan, Naeem
    University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, UK.
    Engelke, Ulrich
    CSIRO Data61, Kensington, Australia.
    A common framework for the evaluation of psychophysiological visual quality assessment2019In: Quality and User Experience, ISSN 2366-0139, E-ISSN 2366-0147, Vol. 4, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of perceived quality based on psychophysiological methods recently gained attraction as it potentially overcomes certain flaws of psychophysical approaches. Although studies report promising results, it is not possible to arrive at decisive and comparable conclusions that recommend the use of one or another method for a specific application or research question. The video quality expert group started a project on psychophysiological quality assessment to study these novel approaches and to develop a test plan that enables more systematic research. This test plan comprises of a specifically designed set of quality annotated video sequences, suggestions for psychophysiological methods to be studied in quality assessment, and recommendations for the documentation and publications of test results. The test plan is presented in this article.

  • 6.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    RISE AB Acreo.
    Barkowsky, Marcus
    Deggendorf Institute of Technology (DIT), University of Applied Sciences, Deggendorf.
    Statistical quality of experience analysis: on planning the sample size and statistical significance testing2018In: Journal of Electronic Imaging (JEI), ISSN 1017-9909, E-ISSN 1560-229X, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 053013-1-053013-11, article id 053013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how an experimenter can balance errors in subjective video quality tests betweenthe statistical power of finding an effect if it is there and not claiming that an effect is there if the effect is not there,i.e., balancing Type I and Type II errors. The risk of committing Type I errors increases with the number ofcomparisons that are performed in statistical tests. We will show that when controlling for this and at thesame time keeping the power of the experiment at a reasonably high level, it is unlikely that the number oftest subjects that are normally used and recommended by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU),i.e., 15 is sufficient but the number used by the Video Quality Experts Group (VQEG), i.e., 24 is more likelyto be sufficient. Examples will also be given for the influence of Type I error on the statistical significance ofcomparing objective metrics by correlation. We also present a comparison between parametric and nonparametricstatistics. The comparison targets the question whether we would reach different conclusions on the statisticaldifference between the video quality ratings of different video clips in a subjective test, based on thecomparison between the student T-test and the Mann–Whitney U-test. We found that there was hardly a differencewhen few comparisons are compensated for, i.e., then almost the same conclusions are reached. Whenthe number of comparisons is increased, then larger and larger differences between the two methods arerevealed. In these cases, the parametric T-test gives clearly more significant cases, than the nonparametrictest, which makes it more important to investigate whether the assumptions are met for performing a certaintest.

  • 7.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    RISE Research Institute of Sweden AB.
    Dima, Elijs
    Andersson, Mattias
    Sjöström, Mårten
    quresh, tahir
    HIAB.
    Johanson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB.
    Quality of Experience of hand controller latency in a Virtual Reality simulator2019In: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging 2019 / [ed] Damon Chandler, Mark McCourt and Jeffrey Mulligan, 2019, Springfield, VA, United States, 2019, article id 3068450Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate a VR simulator of a forestry crane used for loading logs onto a truck, mainly looking at Quality of Experience (QoE) aspects that may be relevant for task completion, but also whether there are any discomfort related symptoms experienced during task execution. A QoE test has been designed to capture both the general subjective experience of using the simulator and to study task performance. Moreover, a specific focus has been to study the effects of latency on the subjective experience, with regards to delays in the crane control interface. A formal subjective study has been performed where we have added controlled delays to the hand controller (joystick) signals. The added delays ranged from 0 ms to 800 ms. We found no significant effects of delays on the task performance on any scales up to 200 ms. A significant negative effect was found for 800 ms added delay. The Symptoms reported in the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was significantly higher for all the symptom groups, but a majority of the participants reported only slight symptoms. Two out of thirty test persons stopped the test before finishing due to their symptoms.

  • 8.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Sedano, Iñigo
    Tecnalia Research & Innovation, Bilbao, Spain.
    Wang, Kun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Barkowsky, Markus
    IRCCyN, Nantes; France.
    Kihl, Maria
    Lund University.
    Andrén, Börje
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Le Callet, Patrick
    IRCCyN, Nantes; France.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Aurelius, Andreas
    Acreo AB, Kista, Sweden.
    2D no-reference video quality model development and 3D video transmission quality2012In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Video Processing and Quality Metrics for Consumer Electronics VPQM-2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation will target two different topics in video quality assessment. First, we discuss 2D no-reference video quality model development. Further, we discuss how to find suitable quality for 3D video transmission. No-reference metrics are the only practical option for monitoring of 2D video quality in live networks. In order to decrease the development time, it might be possible to use full-reference metrics for this purpose. In this work, we have evaluated six full-reference objective metrics in three different databases. We show statistically that VQM performs the best. Further, we use these results to develop a lightweight no-reference model. We have also investigated users' experience of stereoscopic 3D video quality by performing the rating of two subjective assessment datasets, targeting in one dataset efficient transmission in the transmission error free case and error concealment in the other. Among other results, it was shown that, based on the same level of quality of experience, spatial down-sampling may lead to better bitrate efficiency while temporal down-sampling will be worse. When network impairments occur, traditional error 2D concealment methods need to be reinvestigated as they were outperformed switching to 2D presentation.

  • 9.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Wang, Kun
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Tavakoli, Samira
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Andrén, Börje
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Symptoms analysis of 3D TV viewing based on Simulator Sickness Questionnaires2017In: Quality and User Experience, ISSN 2366-0147, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stereoscopic 3D TV viewing puts different visual demands on the viewer compared to 2D TV viewing. Previous research has reported on viewers' fatigue and discomfort and other negative effects. This study is to investigate further how severe and what symptoms may arise from somewhat longish 3D TV viewing.

    The MPEG 3DV project is working on the next-generation video encoding standard and in this process, MPEG issued a call for proposal of encoding algorithms. To evaluate these algorithms a large scale subjective test was performed involving Laboratories all over the world[1, 2]. For the participating Labs, it was optional to administer a slightly modified Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) before and after the test. One of the SSQ data sets described in this article is coming from this study. The SSQ data from the MPEG test is the largest data set in this study and also contains the longest viewing times. Along with the SSQ data from the MPEG test, we have also collected questionnaire data in three other 3D TV studies. We did two on the same 3D TV (passive film pattern retarder) as in the MPEG test, and one was using a projector system. As comparison SSQ data from a 2D video quality experiment is also presented. 

    This investigation shows a statistically significant increase in symptoms after viewing 3D TV primarily related to the visual or Oculomotor system. Surprisingly, 3D video viewing using projectors did not show this effect.

  • 10.
    Dima, Elijs
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Division ICT - Acreo.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Edlund, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Johanson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB.
    Qureshi, Tahir
    HIAB AB.
    View Position Impact on QoE in an Immersive Telepresence System for Remote Operation2019In: 2019 Eleventh International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX), IEEE, 2019, p. 1-3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate how different viewing positions affect a user's Quality of Experience (QoE) and performance in an immersive telepresence system. A QoE experiment has been conducted with 27 participants to assess the general subjective experience and the performance of remotely operating a toy excavator. Two view positions have been tested, an overhead and a ground-level view, respectively, which encourage reliance on stereoscopic depth cues to different extents for accurate operation. Results demonstrate a significant difference between ground and overhead views: the ground view increased the perceived difficulty of the task, whereas the overhead view increased the perceived accomplishment as well as the objective performance of the task. The perceived helpfulness of the overhead view was also significant according to the participants.

  • 11.
    Dima, Elijs
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Modeling Depth Uncertainty of Desynchronized Multi-Camera Systems2017In: 2017 International Conference on 3D Immersion (IC3D), IEEE, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurately recording motion from multiple perspectives is relevant for recording and processing immersive multi-media and virtual reality content. However, synchronization errors between multiple cameras limit the precision of scene depth reconstruction and rendering. In order to quantify this limit, a relation between camera de-synchronization, camera parameters, and scene element motion has to be identified. In this paper, a parametric ray model describing depth uncertainty is derived and adapted for the pinhole camera model. A two-camera scenario is simulated to investigate the model behavior and how camera synchronization delay, scene element speed, and camera positions affect the system's depth uncertainty. Results reveal a linear relation between synchronization error, element speed, and depth uncertainty. View convergence is shown to affect mean depth uncertainty up to a factor of 10. Results also show that depth uncertainty must be assessed on the full set of camera rays instead of a central subset.

  • 12.
    Hallberg, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Digital reproduktion av analogt inspelad låt: Går det att höra vilken låt som gjort på vilket sätt?2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats undersöks hur väl man med en enkel hemmastudio och dagens tekniskt välutvecklade digitala plugins kan återskapa soundet från en påkostad analog produktion. En nyinspelning, med den analoga versionen som referens, görs i en hemmastudio. Vilka likheter och skillnader kan lyssnaren identifiera och vilken låt är gjord på vilket sätt?

    En testgrupp bestående av 15 personer i varierad ålder, kön och musikalisk identitet fick lyssna på båda versionerna varpå de sedan dokumenterade sina intryck i en enkät. Det visade sig att de allra flesta kunde peka ut vilken produktion som gjorts på vilket sätt med motivationen att den analoga kändes bättre mixad och balanserad. Arbete visar att projektet i slutändan blev för stort för att ge några klara svar. Resultatet visar att jag personligen, med den kunskap jag besitter och inom den tidsram som tagits fram, inte fullt ut kan återskapa soundet. Dock insinuerar jag ändå att det kan vara möjligt. En annan låt, en annan producent och/eller längre tid på återskapandet är några exempel på faktorer som kanske skulle ledat till annat utfall. En mer specifik frågeställning med färre möjligheter till felsteg skulle med stor sannolikhet också förenklat arbetsprocessen och slutresultatet.

  • 13.
    Khalil, Shaya
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Den kreativa processen: Hur den fungerar när man arbetar utan ramar och regler2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien beskriver en autoetnografisk fältstudie av en

    musikproducent i syfte att analysera och ta reda på hur den

    kreativa processen fungerar i arbetet av att framställa ett

    musikaliskt verk utan förutbestämda ramar och regler för

    verket.

    Studieobjektet och forskaren i den här studien är därför

    samma person och studien bygger på insamlad skriftlig och

    auditiv dokumentation samt tidigare forskning och studier

    som gjorts i ämnet.

    Syftet med studien var att belysa den kreativa processen i sin

    helhet och ta reda på hur den fungerar och resultatet kan

    delas in ett vetenskapligt perspektiv och ett konstnärligt

    perspektiv där det vetenskapliga resultatet är att belysa och

    lyfta fram den kreativa processens funktion i relation till

    tillvägagångssättet i ett musikproduktionsarbete och det

    konstnärliga resultatet är i form av en musikproduktion.

    Studien diskuterar hur arbetet med dubbla roller kan påverka

    resultatet samt den känslomässiga aspekten i att forska på sitt

    egna arbete när det arbetet innebär en känslomässig koppling

    som konstnären känner för sitt verk. På grund av ett

    grundligt genomförande av studien är resultatet tydligt och

    studien kan användas som utgångspunkt i framtida liknande

    studier.

  • 14.
    Kronander, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bortom melodi och harmoni: det beväpnande ljudet: Om ljud som vapen och sonisk krigsföring2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete undersöker hur soniska vågor kan användas som vapen. Särskild vikt läggs vid att

    förstå hur ljudet avtäcktes från att vara en osynlig och hämningslös energi till att bli en fysiskt

    producerande våldsam kraft under den megafoniska eran och efter. Uppsatsen argumenterar för

    att soniska vapen måste föregås av avancerad teknologisk utveckling samt ett intresse för att föra

    ett annat typ av krig, utan dödsfall och skjutvapen. Flera exempel ges som visar att ljudvapen

    också ofta används för att kontrollera en population. Sonisk krigsföring fastställs till att innefatta

    användandet av psykologisk, våldsam och fysisk akustisk kraft för att alternera eller påverka

    psykiska och fysiska aspekter hos en population, kropp eller folkmassa.

  • 15.
    Muddala, Suryanarayana Murthy
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Depth-Based Inpainting For Disocclusion Filling2014In: 3DTV-Conference, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. Art. no. 6874752-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depth-based inpainting methods can solve disocclusion problems occurring in depth-image-based rendering. However, inpainting in this context suffers from artifacts along foreground objects due to foreground pixels in the patch matching. In this paper, we address the disocclusion problem by a refined depth-based inpainting method. The novelty is in classifying the foreground and background by using available local depth information. Thereby, the foreground information is excluded from both the source region and the target patch. In the proposed inpainting method, the local depth constraints imply inpainting only the background data and preserving the foreground object boundaries. The results from the proposed method are compared with those from the state-of-the art inpainting methods. The experimental results demonstrate improved objective quality and a better visual quality along the object boundaries.

  • 16.
    Namedanian, Mahziar
    et al.
    Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden .
    Gustafsson Coppel, Ludovic
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Neuman, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Gooran, Sasan
    Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden .
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kolseth, Petter
    Nsieme Consulting, Sweden .
    Koh, Wei
    Analysis of Optical and Physical Dot Gain by Microscale Image Histogram and Modulation Transfer Functions2013In: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, ISSN 1062-3701, E-ISSN 1943-3522, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 020504-1-020504-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The color of a print is affected by ink spreading and lateral light scattering in the substrate, making printed dots appear larger. Characterization of physical and optical dot gain is crucial for the graphic arts and paper industries. We propose a novel approach to separate physical from optical dot gain by use of a high-resolution camera. This approach is based on the histogram of microscale images captured by the camera. Having determined the actual physical dot shape, we estimate the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the paper substrate. The proposed method is validated by comparing the estimated MTF of 11 offset printed coated papers to the MTF obtained from the unprinted papers using measured and Monte Carlo simulated edge responses.

  • 17.
    Nilsson, Kasper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Trumprojektet: Att skapa ett eget trumset2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Går det att skapa ett akustiskt trumsätt med hjälp av enbart skar du hittar i ditt hem? Detta visade sig vara en mycket komplex uppgift där jag försökte skapa en hihat, virvel och en bastrumma genom att hitta, spela in och mixa trumliknande ljud hemma. Dessa ljud kombinerade jag sedan till ett trumkomp som jag använde som bas för ett kort enklare musikstycke jag improviserade. Jag spelade även in ett riktigt trumset för att kunna jämföra dem. Musikstycket visade jag sedan upp för ett antal lyssnare som sedan skulle gissa vilket som var vilket och varför det drog den slutsatsen. Det visade sig att majoriteten av mina testlyssnare kunde ganska enkelt höra skillnaden mellan trummorna även fast alla förstod vad jag försökte skapa med mitt hemmagjorda trumsound. Det som avgjorde det tydligast var enligt mina lyssnare var att de riktiga trummorna hördes tydlig att jag slog med trumpinnar och att anslaget var riktigt. Min slutsats är att du inte kan skapa ett helt trovärdigt trumset med hemmaprylar, men du kan komma en lång bit på vägen dit.

  • 18.
    Nilsson, Samuel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Att skriva och producera en lovsång2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad är en lovsång, hur låter det och vad kännetecknar soundet för en lovsång idag? Är det en egen genre som har egna kännetecken idag? Målet med detta projekt har varit att ta reda på och få en förståelse för hur en lovsång är skriven och producerad och utifrån de kunskaper och insikter jag fått under projektet skriva och producera en egen lovsång för att praktisera resultatet.

  • 19.
    Olsson, Carl
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Att arbeta med ”Synchronization management”2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay revolves around Synchronization management & Synchronization licensing, or in short sync. The development of sync as a career choice and profession has been fast and is still ongoing. It is not until later years that sync has become a proper profession, whereas before it was just part of a publisher or sales person’s regular work.

    In short, sync deals with the commercial use of copyright protected music. A synchronization manager negotiates fees and licensing agreements while handling the dialogue between commercial businesses, publishers and in some cases song writers. Once a deal has been made a Synchronization license is granted by the owner of the copyrighted music, allowing the licensee (the person wanting to use the material) to use the music according to the agreement. A Synchronization license is most commonly used when a company wants to use music in either commercial, television or any kind of visual media.

    To get a better understand of Synchronization management a series of interviews were conducted to get three different perspectives. The first interview helped establish what a synchronization manager actually does, and was held with a person who works with the profession in question. To better grasp the song writing point of view when it comes to sync an interview with a person who was writing for sync briefs was conducted. Lastly, a publisher was interviewed to help understand synchronization licensing from a publishing point of view.

    The result generated by the interviews in combination with already written articles about Synchronization management helped get a better understanding of the profession and how different individuals are using it in their daily life in music. The main question of this essay was to establish if sync is a reliable source of income for “up-and-coming” song writers and music producers.

  • 20.
    Olsson, Roger
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Adhikarla, Vamsi Kiran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Sebastian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Converting conventional stereo pairs to multi-view sequences using morphing2012In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2012, p. Art. no. 828828-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autostereoscopic multi view displays require multiple views of a scene to provide motion parallax. When an observer changes viewing angle different stereoscopic pairs are perceived. This allows new perspectives of the scene to be seen giving a more realistic 3D experience. However, capturing arbitrary number of views is at best cumbersome, and in some occasions impossible. Conventional stereo video (CSV) operates on two video signals captured using two cameras at two different perspectives. Generation and transmission of two views is more feasible than that of multiple views. It would be more efficient if multiple views required by an autostereoscopic display can be synthesized from these sparse set of views. This paper addresses the conversion of stereoscopic video to multiview video using the video effect morphing. Different morphing algorithms are implemented and evaluated. Contrary to traditional conversion methods, these algorithms disregard the physical depth explicitly and instead generate intermediate views using sparse sets of correspondence features and image morphing. A novel morphing algorithm is also presented that uses scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) and segmentation to construct robust correspondences features and qualitative intermediate views. All algorithms are evaluated on a subjective and objective basis and the comparison results are presented.

  • 21.
    Pettersson, Olof
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Ljuddesignens påverkan på spelarupplevelse: En utforskande analys av ljuddesigners arbetsmetoder och den resulterande ljudbildens effekter på spelupplevelse2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study was to research the connection between the methods, goals and thought processes of a sound designer throughout the production of a game and how the soundscape of the final product was received by the public as well as games journalists. A survey with questions about the sound of select games was sent out and received over a hundred answers and reviews of the same games was collected and assessed to get a picture of what the public thought about theses game’s sound. Only one of the seven sound designers that was approached responded and agreed to an interview.

    The information gathered in that interview indicated that the publics opinion of the soundscape of a game is in part determined by the clarity of the goal for the soundscape before production began. The study indicates that if a sound designer has a firm idea of how the world that is being sonically portrayed is supposed to sound then that reflects well in the judgment of journalists and the opinion of the audience. Even so, more studies of the same sort are required to solidify this result and to rule out alternative methods of explanation.

  • 22.
    Rahaman, G M Atiqur
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Norberg, Ole
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    The effect of media interactions in predicting spectral reflectance by color prediction models2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Sandberg, Sebastian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Musikens inverkan på lyssnaren.: En litteraturstudie kompletterad med en implementering av strukturerad lyssnande.2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Ohälsa har de senaste åren ökat bland befolkningen nationellt. Det finns ett större

    behov för alternativa behandlingar för att kunna ge lindring. En av dessa alternativa metoder är

    implementering av musik. Det talas om ’’musikmedicin’’ - ett sätt att främja, förstärka och berika

    patienters status.

    Bakgrund: Det finns omfattande studier om musikens påverkan på människan. Studier på

    fysiologisk och psykologisk respons vid musiklyssnande har fått ett större intresse de senaste tjugo

    åren. Tidigare så har musikerns roll varit frikopplad från studierna då dessa mestadels

    implementerat inspelade medier.

    Syfte: Att identifiera hur musiken påverkar lyssnaren.

    Metod: Litteratursökning har innefattat litteratur på ämnet musik och hälsa, avhandlingar på nätet

    och även strömmande videos. En enkätmetod med implementerande lyssningsmoment har

    upprättats med en testgrupp. Testgruppen bestod av nio deltagare, 5 kvinnor och fyra män, som fått

    lyssna på ett eget utvalt verk 2 gånger om dagen i 3 veckors tid.

    Resultat: Musik fungerar som ett medie som kan påverka kroppen och sinnet i ett hälsofrämjande

    syfte. Resultat talar för att musiklyssnande kan främja individens hälsa genom fysiologiska

    reaktioner, som exempelvis dopaminfrisättning. Det faktorer som spelar in för att få önskvärda

    resultat är bland andra musiksmak, social - och kulturell koppling och emotionell koppling till

    musiken. Det finns mallar som går att förhålla sig till för att förstå sambandet mellan musik, hälsa

    och individen för implementering. Resultaten från enkätmetoden talar för att majoriteten av

    deltagarna har upplevt förbättrade resultat med sänkta stressnivåer än innan utfört moment.

    Diskussion: Diskussionen jämför resultatet i enkätstudien med tidigare försök från litteraturstudien.

    Metodens för och nackdelar diskuteras. Musikerns och kompositörens roll i ämnet diskuteras och

    framställs med alternativa positioner för framtida bruk. Detta för att skapa förståelse hos musikern/

    kompositören mot resultaten i denna studie och även. Metoddiskussionen fördjupar sig i för och

    nackdelar med studiens metoder.

  • 24.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Dalin, Rolf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A digital 3D signage system and its effect on customer behavior2011In: The International Conference on 3D Imaging (IC3D), IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, article id 6584378Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of digital signs simplifies distribution. Importantly, it draws more attention than static signs. A way to increase attention is to add an experienced depth. The paper discusses possible alternatives for extending an existing digital signage system to display stereoscopic 3D contents, comparing a decentralized distribution solution and a centralized solution. A functional prototype system was implemented. A new 3D player was developed to render views from different formats. The implemented system was used to study customer behavior when exposed to digital stereoscopic 3D signage in a direct sales situation. The proportion of sales of selected products related to the total number of sold products varied approximately equally before and during tests. An interview study suggests that the sign did not interact with customer decisions: customers were lost at different stages in this series of steps, among others the sign placement.

  • 25.
    Söderlund, Johannes
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Musikreception: Tillkommen informations påverkan på upplevelsen2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet i denna undersökning var att upptäcka och mäta om information kring okänd musik och artist kan ge upphov till en förändring i upplevelse av musiken. 21 deltagare fick vid ett lyssningstillfälle höra en låt med starka musikaliska influenser från mitten av 1900-talet. Dessa fick via en enkät besvara frågor kring dem själva samt hur de upplevde musiken. Efter de besvarat alla frågorna presenterades låten och artisten som är betydligt yngre än vad den musikaliska stilen antyder. Artisten född 1989 och musiken släppt 2015. Med denna nyvunna kunskap fick de lyssna på låten en gång till. De gavs även möjlighet att ändra sina svar angående upplevelsen av musiken. De visade sig att efter den andra lyssningen valde hälften av deltagarna att ändra sitt svar på en eller flera frågor. Den vanligaste förändringen gjordes i hur stort intresset att höra mer av musiken och artisten var. Och bland de som ändrade sitt svar gjordes den genomsnittligt största förändringen i hur väl deltagaren relaterade till låten. Detta kommer visa sig stå i relation till dels förförståelse, dels egna intressen och preferenser.

  • 26.
    Søgaard, Jacob
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Tavakolf, Samira
    Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Garcia, Narciso
    Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Subjective analysis and objective characterization of adaptive bitrate videos2016In: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging 2016, HVEI 2016, The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2016, p. 55-63Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) technology allows video service providers to improve the network utilization and thereby increasing the end-users' Quality of Experience (QoE). This has made HAS a widely used approach for audiovisual delivery There are several previous studies aiming to identify the factors influencing on subjective QoE of adaptation events. However, adapting the video quality typically lasts m a time scale much longer than what current standardized subjective testing methods are designed for. thus making the full matrix design of the experiment on an event level hard to achieve. In this study, we investigated the overall subjective QoE of 6 minutes long video sequences containing different sequential adaptation events. This was compared to a dataset from our previous work performed to evaluate the individual adaptation events. We could then derive a relationship between the overall mean opinion score (MOS) and the MOS from shorter sequences. The aforementioned empirical dataset has proven to be very challenging in terms of video quality assessment test design, thus deriving a conclusive outcome about the influence of different parameters have been difficult. The second contribution of this study is considering how objective characterizations of adapted videos can improve the understanding of the subjective ratings.

  • 27.
    Tavakoli, Samira
    et al.
    Universidad Politécnicade Madrid, Spain.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Gutiérrez, Jesús
    Universidad Politécnicade Madrid, Spain.
    Quality of Experience of adaptive video streaming: Investigation in service parameters and subjective quality assessment methodology2015In: Signal processing. Image communication, ISSN 0923-5965, E-ISSN 1879-2677, Vol. 39, p. 432-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The usage of HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) has become widely spread in multimedia services. Because it allows the service providers to improve the network resource utilization and user's Quality of Experience (QoE). Using this technology, the video playback interruption is reduced since the network and server status in addition to capability of user device, all are taken into account by HAS client to adapt the quality to the current condition. Adaptation can be done using different strategies. In order to provide optimal QoE, the perceptual impact of adaptation strategies from point of view of the user should be studied. However, the time-varying video quality due to the adaptation which usually takes place in a long interval introduces a new type of impairment making the subjective evaluation of adaptive streaming system challenging. The contribution of this paper is two-fold: first, it investigates the testing methodology to evaluate HAS QoE by comparing the subjective experimental outcomes obtained from ACR standardized method and a semi-continuous method developed to evaluate the long sequences. In addition, influence of using audiovisual stimuli to evaluate the video-related impairment is inquired. Second, impact of some of the adaptation technical factors including the quality switching amplitude and chunk size in combination with high range of commercial content type is investigated. The results of this study provide a good insight toward achieving appropriate testing method to evaluate HAS QoE, in addition to designing switching strategies with optimal visual quality.

  • 28.
    Wang, Kun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Dept. of NetLab: Visual Media Quality, Swedish ICT-Acreo AB, Sweden .
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. Dept. of NetLab: Visual Media Quality, Swedish ICT-Acreo AB, Sweden .
    Barkowsky, M.
    Dept. of Image and Video Communication, IRCCyN, University of Nantes, France .
    Urvoy, M.
    Dept. of Image and Video Communication, IRCCyN, University of Nantes, France .
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Le Callet, P.
    Dept. of Image and Video Communication, IRCCyN, University of Nantes, France .
    Tourancheau, Sylvain
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Andren, B.
    Dept. of NetLab: Visual Media Quality, Swedish ICT-Acreo AB, Sweden .
    Stereoscopic 3D video coding quality evaluation with 2D objective metrics2013In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2013, p. Art. no. 86481L-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 3D video quality is of highest importance for the adoption of a new technology from a user's point of view. In this paper we evaluated the impact of coding artefacts on stereoscopic 3D video quality by making use of several existing full reference 2D objective metrics. We analyzed the performance of objective metrics by comparing to the results of subjective experiment. The results show that pixel based Visual Information Fidelity metrics fits subjective data the best. The 2D stereoscopic video quality seems to have dominant impact on the coding artefacts impaired stereoscopic videos.

  • 29.
    zhang, zhennan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Camera Node for Conical Volumetric Surveillance2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Generally  cameras  are  used  for  area  based  surveillance,  but  with  advancement  in  technology, cameras  can  be  employed  for wide  area  space  surveillance  (volumetric space surveillance). The volumetric systems require a number of cameras in order to cover a large area. Single panoramic cameras  do  not  provide  required  functionality  for  wide  area  space  surveillance  and Pan-Tile-Zoom (PTZ) cameras do not either cover wide areas.   To  meet  this challenge,  we  propose  a  cost  effective smart volumetric  surveillance system  which utilizes smaller number of cameras in order to provide a coverage of 360 degree. A test case used for this system includes detection of birds in the wind farms. The proposed approach provides a solution  for recording/preventing collision  of  birds  with  wind turbine. To  realize  the  system, a model is developed with two camera nodes. This model provides a 360 degree conical volumetric space coverage. The  system is  utilizing  a  servo  motor  with  capability  of  changing  speed  and arduino  embedded  platform for  controlling  different  functionality. After  triggering  the  camera nodes from arduino, software perform the image analysis.  This  cost  effective  and  wide  area  surveillance  system  consumes at  least half lower  power as compared  to traditional  linear  systems with  eight  cameras. It  is  worth  noting  that  the system provides  conical  shaped  area coverage  of  200  square  meters  with  height ranging  from approximately 40 to 100 meters. The system would capture images in raw format in local storage and  the test  results  show  that  saving  images  with  PNG  format  requires a small  memory  size  as compared  to BMP  and TIFF.    Experiment  results  indicate  that  surveillance  system  can  be effectively employed for detecting birds in opening places.

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