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  • 1.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Minimizing CO2 emission by following ZEB strategies2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractBuildings play an important role in formulating sustainable development, which can help todecrease environmental impacts, such as energy resource depletion, environmental deteriorationand climate change due to the use of fossil base fuels. The zero energy/emission concept isgaining interest as a renewable energy resource. These types of buildings consist of two designstrategies: minimizing the total energy demand (heat demand in cold climate) through energyefficientmeasures)EEM (and adapting renewable energy resources and technologies (RET) toreduce environmental impacts. This thesis tries to determine the potential of single-family housesin reducing total energy consumption and CO2 emission by converting them to zeroenergy/emission buildings in Sweden. To fulfill the goal of this thesis, six different single-familyhouses were selected randomly from the last six decades. Improving the buildings‟ conditionsand reducing the energy demand through EEM and RET can have several side effects on thebuildings‟ thermal indoor climate and air quality.The results of this thesis show the undeniable potential of the residential sector, practically oldbuildings, in reducing energy consumption and CO2 emission. The results of the energycalculations show that in the average case, it is possible to reduce the CO2 emissions to 440.5kg/year in a single-family house by converting the house to a zero energy building (ZEB). Since2000, by using more electrical equipment and devices and leaving them in standby mode, energyconsumption has increased, which directly connects to peoples‟ living habits. Further researchmay be required for climate change, life-cycle cost and environmental impacts and social policy.

  • 2.
    Kajsa, Ignberg
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Struvit i Skövde biogasanläggning: En studie av struvitpåväxt i rör och alternativa lösningar för att minska problemet och dess uppkomst2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal with the study has been to find methods for cleaning and prevention of struvite at Skövde biogasanläggning (biogas plant). This to increase the efficiency and resource optimize the biogas plant and in that way get closer to a sustainable development of the society. Struvite (magnesiumammoniumphosphate hexahydrate) is a white, harsh mineral that commonly occurs in pipes, heat exchangers, pumps, and centrifuges at wastewater plants and after digestion processes at biogas plants. Struvite precipitates as a result of pH, temperatures, concentrations and supersaturation. Pipe material can also contribute. The study has been conducted through study visits and analyses of digestate and struvite at Skövde biogasanläggning to find the amount of struvite that can precipitate and where at the plant this happens. A simple benchmarking has been conducted, which shows that struvite precipitation at biogas plants mainly occurs in heat exchangers and that the fouling is temperature dependent. Materials and chemicals have been studied to find methods for cleaning and prevention of struvite. The study has shown that struvite mainly occurs in the heat exchanger and in pipe bends at the biogas plant and that it is dependent of the pH, supersaturation, temperature and high concentrations of phosphorous, magnesium and ammonium. A theory has been made from the study that the mineral first appears in the chamber between the digesters and heat storage tank. The study further shows that the most effective methods to clean fouling of struvite is to by hand chip the mineral alternatively replace the pipes. To prevent fouling of pipes a combination of methods is recommended, which minimizes the energy usage at the plant and prevent stops in the biogas production. Chemicals should be used if crystallization is to be completely stopped. The chemicals should be added in the above- mentioned chamber. Also planned maintenance should be conducted to minimize fouling. The pipes that are to be replaced should be replaced with pipes made of plastic materials. By doing this the resource efficiency increases and unnecessary environmental impact of the plant is avoided. The study has only included a rough cost analysis. To further support the above- mentioned methods a deeper economic analysis is recommended, which should include a study of chemical dosage and inspection sites for planned maintenance. 

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