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  • 1. Asthana, Arvind
    et al.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Big efficiency in small scale2001Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energy performance of residential buildings design2016In: Society’s steering systems: a Friend book to Inga Carlman / [ed] E. Grönlund & A. Longueville, Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2016, p. 179-186Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the history of civilization, humans have built shelters to practice their social activities, while having protection against weather, wild animals, and other human beings. Over the course of time, vernacular dwellings have evolved to respond to climate challenges, available materials and cultural expectations in a given location. Such buildings include, e.g. the adobe house, the Inuit igloos in Greenland, and the open courtyard building design.Since the start of the postmodern architecture, in the middle of the 20th century, new technologies, new materials, and changes in societal structures have changed the way buildings have been designed and constructed. Modern lifestyle become more dependent on energy. For example Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems (HVAC) in buildings became widely used to improve indoor comfort. After the oil-supply crises in the middle of the 1970s, the connection between building design and the environment changed from just providing sufficient thermal comfort to promoting energy efficiency due to the awareness of the fact that natural resources are limited. That was the start of the sustainable architecture movement. It was during this time building regulations in many countries started to include aspects of energy efficiency. This chapter will discuss two aspects of building design and their effect on the overall energy efficiency of the building: the interior building design and the exterior building design.

  • 3.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energy performance of residential buildings: projecting, monitoring and evaluating2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy security and climate change mitigation have been discussed in Sweden since the oil crisis in the 1970s. Sweden has since then increased its share of renewable energy resources to reach the highest level among the EU member states, but is still among the countries with the highest primary energy use per capita. Not least because of that, increasing energy efficiency is important and it is part of the Swedish long term environmental objectives. Large potential for improving energy efficiency can be found in the building sector, mainly in the existing building stock but also in new constructions.

    Buildings hold high costs for construction, service and maintenance. Still, their energy efficiency and thermal performance are rarely validated after construction or renovation. As energy efficiency become an important aspects in building design there is a need for accurate tools for assessing the energy performance both before and after building construction. In this thesis criteria for energy efficiency in new residential buildings are studied. Several building design aspects are discussed with regards to final energy efficiency, energy supply-demand interactions and social aspects. The results of this thesis are based on energy modelling, energy measurements and one questionnaire survey. Several existing residential buildings were used as case studies.

    The results show that pre-occupancy calculations of specific final energy demand in residential buildings is too rough an indicator to explicitly steer towards lower final energy use in the building sector. Even post occupancy monitoring of specific final energy demand does not always provide a representative image of the energy efficiency of buildings and may result with large variation among buildings with similar thermal efficiency. A post occupancy method of assessing thermal efficiency of building fabrics using thermography is presented. The thermal efficiency of buildings can be increased by design with low shape factor. The shape factor was found to have a significant effect on the final energy demand of buildings and on the use of primary energy. In Nordic climates, atria in multi-storey apartment buildings is a design that have a potential to increase both energy efficiency (by lower shape factor) and enhance social interactions among the occupants.

  • 4.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Systems effecting systems when managing energy resources2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing natural resources to minimize impacts driving global change requires system understanding. The ecological systems are affected by different human interventions e.g. through the use of natural resources and generation of emissions. The ‘ecological footprint’ of a provided service can differ significantly according to both the choice of technology as well as the interactions of a specific technology option within the overall technical systems. Such interactions within the technical system may have significant impact on the modeling results regarding ecological consequences for a specific technical option. These interactions are important to understand for good decision support and policy making in the context of global change. This will be illustrated by the case of using air-to-air heat pumps for space heating in Sweden.

    In recent years, air-to-air heat pumps have been the most sold technology for space heating in residential buildings in Sweden. Newly produced air-to-air heat pumps can provide heat energy from outdoor air at temperature as low as -20°C. A drawback of air-to-air heat pumps is their reduction in efficiency as the outdoor air become colder. In this study, the use of air-to air heat pumps is compared with other commercial technologies integrated in the Swedish and European energy system.

    Results show that although air-to-air heat pumps are presently very cost effective for the end user and give relatively low final energy demand for space heating by comparison to other commercial technologies, seen integrated in the Swedish and European energy system, air-to-air heat pump are inferior regarding the use of resources and securing peak load power demand. Thus, by modeling the performance of air-to-air heat pumps first by including only its interaction with the building and than by  including its interaction with the larger energy system suggest that there is presently a micro economic driver for the local investor pointing in the opposite direction regarding management of natural energy resources compared to what would be desirable in the context of global change.

  • 5.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Joelsson, Anna
    SWECO, Vastra Norrlandsgatan 10 B, Umea, SE 901 03, Sweden.
    Air source heat pumps and their role in the Swedish energy system2012In: Support your future today; Turning environmental problems into business opportunities / [ed] Leo Baas, Olof Hjelm, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Newly produced air source heat pumps can provide heat energy from outdoor air at temperature as low as -20°C. As a result they could be utilized during most days of the year even in the cold Nordic climates. The drawback of air source heat pumps is the reduction in efficiency as the outdoor air become colder, resulting in lower heat supply in times when it is most needed. Despite its inverse relationship between efficiency and outdoor temperature, air source heat pumps were installed in 57000 detached houses in Sweden during 2010 alone, which is 3% of the total detached houses stock. That makes air source heat pumps the most sold heating technology for detached houses in Sweden during 2010, 1.6 times more than the number of installations of ground source heat pump and 3 times more than the number of connections of detached houses to district heating during the same year. Similar trends can be found in other Nordic countries.This study compares the use of an air source heat pump with other existing commercial technologies in detached houses and analyzes the impacts on primary energy use, on final energy use, on electricity production and on costs benefits for house owners. It was found that converting existing electric heated Swedish detaches houses to district heating with biomass based CHP or bed-rock heat pump could reduce the use of resources, which could benefit Sweden as a society. Converting electric heated Swedish detaches houses to district heating or pellets stove could reduce power demand and level out the power demand load curve. That would benefit utilities of power supply as it could secure power supply. However cost effectiveness in one of most important drivers for house owners of detached houses to choose energy efficiency measures. For that reason house owners may most likely benefit by the installation of air-source heat pumps.

  • 6.
    Ekener, Elisabet
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan.
    Hansson, Julia
    IVL Svenska miljöinstitutet.
    Larsson, Aron
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Peck, Philip
    Lunds universitet.
    Developing Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment methodology by applying values-based sustainability weighting - Tested on biomass based and fossil transportation fuels2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 181, p. 337-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production and use of transportation fuels can lead to sustainability impacts. Assessing them simultaneously in a holistic way is a challenge. This paper examines methodology for assessing the sustainability performance of products in a more integrated way, including a broad range of social impacts. Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) methodology is applied for this assessment. LSCA often constitutes of the integration of results from social LCA (S-LCA), environmental life cycle assessment (E-LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). In this study, an S-LCA from an earlier project is extended with a positive social aspect, as well as refined and detailed. E-LCA and LCC results are built from LCA database and literature. Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methodology is applied to integrate the results from the three different assessments into an LCSA. The weighting of key sustainability dimensions in the MCDA is performed in different ways, where the sustainability dimensions are prioritized differently priority based on the assumed values of different stakeholder profiles (Egalitarian, Hierarchist, and Individualist). The developed methodology is tested on selected biomass based and fossil transportation fuels - ethanol produced from Brazilian sugarcane and US corn/maize, and petrol produced from Russian and Nigerian crude oils, where it delineates differences in sustainability performance between products assessed. The outcome in terms of relative ranking of the transportation fuel chains based on sustainability performance differs when applying different decision-maker profiles. This result highlights and supports views that there is no one single answer regarding which of the alternatives that is most sustainable. Rather, it depends strongly upon the worldview and values held by the decision maker. A key conclusion is that sustainability assessments should pay more attention to potential differences in underlying values held by key stakeholders in relevant societal contexts. The LCSA methodology still faces challenges regarding results integration but MCDA in combination with stakeholder profiles appears to be a useful approach to build on further.

  • 7.
    Fröling, Morgan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Kuul, Ivi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Berg, Claes-Göran
    Jämtkraft AB.
    Pre Study of CCS for a Bio Fueled CHP Plant2014In: Proceedings from the 14th International Symposium on District Heating and CoolingSeptember, 6-10, 2014, Stockholm, SWEDEN / [ed] Anna Land, 2014, p. 511-514Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental performance of a potential carbon capture and storage (CCS) installation at the bio fueled combined heat and power (CHP) plant in Lugnvik, Östersund was studied with screening life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. CCS has lately been discussed for plants using bio fuels since it is one of few possibilities to actively decrease the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The most common process for carbon capture, absorption in MEA, was assumed. Transportation of the captured carbon dioxide to Norway for injection in natural gas fields was the considered storage option.The impacts from transportation of the captured carbon dioxide indicate that alternatives should be investigated, e.g. possibilities for local storage or other types of utilization of the captured carbon. The comparatively high energy use for the MEA capturing process indicates that CCS for bio fueled plants must be carefully considered. Alternative technologies for carbon capture should be further investigated - e.g. if biological methods might give better performance over chemical absorption – as should the consequences of alternative handling of the captured carbon dioxide.

  • 8.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Emergipublikationer med anknytning till Sverige 1994-20172018Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Skytt, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energy, Emergy and the City2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In his book “Environment, Power, and Society” (1971) H.T. Odum introduced a picture of the energy metabolism of a city based on Wolman's paper from 1965 (Sci. Am., 213: 179-190). With the development of the emergy concept--a branch of energy systems accounting--several authors have contributed to develop a quantitative view of HT Odum’s picture, which from many aspect are diverging from the traditional energy accounting picture. In this paper the emergy view of the city is reviewed. The research on emergy and cities had its focus in United States during the period 1975-1995 with investigations of cities like Miami, Jacksonville, San Francisco and Chicago. The main research during 1995-2010 took place almost only in Taipei. From approximately 2006 up today the main research takes place in Chinese cities; Macao, Beijing and 30 other Chinese cities have been investigated the last 6 years. Newer investigations have also been done on Rome (Italy) and Montreal (Canada). The main interest in the research up to 2007/2008 was on the spatial aspect of the city. After that new focuses have emerged, with sustainability as a main question.

  • 10.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    System analysis of and stakeholders’ perceptions on end-use energy efficiency measures for existing Swedish multi-family buildings2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Organizational perspectives on adoption of energy efficiency measures in Swedish multi-storey apartment buildings2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Diddi, Saurabh
    Partial Risk Guarantee Fund for ESCO Business – An innovative support system for energy efficiency business2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Simon, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Assessment of Embodied Energy and Carbon Emissions of the Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon from a Life Cycle Perspective2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the pursuit of low-carbon, renewable energy sources one option with great potential in the UK is tidal energy. Specifically the proposed construction of the Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon (SBTL) in South Wales has become one such discussed option. With a potential net annual output of 400 GWh and a 120-year lifetime the scheme represents a long-term and large-scale electricity production option. An assessment of carbon emissions and embodied energy (EE) of the lagoon’s life cycle was carried out. Total lifetime carbon emissions for the SBTL are in the region of 470,000 tCO2e and EE was found to be around 7,800 TJ. The assessment shows that the SBTL has significantly lower emissions per year than the existing National Grid mix and with emissions of around 0.01 kgCO2e/KWh is significantly lower than the UK emissions target of 0.07 kgCO2e/KWh. Energy payback of the SBTL was found to be in the region of 5.5 years. The use of dredged ballast infill sourced from within the area of the lagoon plays an important role in keeping emissions and energy use low; and is a key consideration when planning future tidal lagoon structures.

  • 14. Ürge-Vorsatz, Diana
    et al.
    Köppel, Sonja
    Liang, Chunyu
    Kiss, Benigna
    Nair, Gireesh
    Celikyilmaz, Gamze
    An assessment of energy service companies (ESCOs) worldwide2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report discuss the concept of Energy Service Companies (ESCO), barriers and enabling factors of such companies. The report also provide the country report of ESCOs in six countries. 

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