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  • 1.
    Chudinova, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Surmeneva, Maria
    Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Koptyug, Andrey
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Skoglund, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Sharanova, A
    Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Loza, K
    University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany.
    Epple, M
    University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany.
    Surmenev, Roman
    Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Hydroxyapatite coating and silver nanoparticles assemblies on additively manufactured Ti6Al4V scaffolds2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Cronskär, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Production of Customized Hip Stem Prostheses: a Comparison Between Machining and Additive Manufacturing2013In: Rapid prototyping journal, ISSN 1355-2546, E-ISSN 1758-7670, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 365-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study the use of the additive manufacturing (AM) method, electron beam melting (EBM), for manufacturing of customized hip stems. The aim is to investigate EBM's feasibility and commercial potential in comparison with conventional machining, and to map out advantages and drawbacks of using EBM in this application. One part of the study concerns the influence on the fatigue properties of the material, when using the raw surface directly from the EBM machine, in parts of the implant.Design/methodology/approach - The research is based on a case study of manufacturing a batch of seven individually adapted hip stems. The stems were manufactured both with conventional machining and with EBM technology and the methods were compared according to the costs of materials, time for file preparation and manufacturing. In order to enhance bone ingrowths in the medial part of the stem, the raw surface from EBM manufacturing is used in that area and initial fatigue studies were performed, to get indications on how this surface influences the fatigue properties.Findings - The cost reduction due to using EBM in this study was 35 per cent. Fatigue tests comparing milled test bars with raw surfaced bars indicate a reduction of the fatigue limit by using the coarse surface.Originality/value - The paper presents a detailed comparison of EBM and conventional machining, not seen in earlier research. The fatigue tests of raw EBM-surfaces are interesting since the raw surface has shown to enhance bone ingrowths and therefore is suitable to use in some medical applications.

  • 3.
    Ek, Rebecca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Hong, Jaan
    Uppsala University, Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Dejanovic, Slavko
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Blood coagulation on electron beam melted implant surfaces, implications for bone growth2011In: Proccedings of EBS 2011, Dublin, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION

    Implants for arthroplasty, plates and screws for orthopedics, maxillofacial and dentistry are more frequently being customised. Ti and CoCr alloys are common materials for bone implants. Surface roughness, porosity and choice of material may have an impact on the bone ingrowth. EBM (Electron Beam Melting) is a 3D-printing technique melting metallic powder layer by layer according to the corresponding CAD (Computer Aided Design) model of implants1.With EBM technology customised implants can be manufactured with a lower cost compared to conventional technologies2. Implants for bone replacement made from CT images with EBM technology will fit accurate and lead to simpler and better planed surgeries also3. The EBM technique, as such, is always resulting with rough surface on the implants (typically 20-45µm). That roughness can be controlled, in some extent, by changing the process parameters. Some authors claim that roughened surfaces are promoting bone ingrowth4.

    This work was aiming on the question: are EBM made surfaces good for bone ingrowth and is it possible to change the bone ingrowth by varying the machine settings? In order to answer this question a number of coin like specimens of CoCr were manufactured with the different surface roughness. The blood chamber model has shown how the first steps of bone healing were proceeding on specimen surfaces, indicating how the coagulation and complement systems can behave in vivo5.

     

    EXPERIMENTAL METHODS

    The manufacture of the test specimens was carried out with Arcam A2 EBM® equipment.  Process parameters were changed in the software EBM controle6 and three groups of eight specimens with different parameter setting were made. The specimens were then tested with whole blood from two individuals in a modified version of the blood chamber model named above7. Surface roughness was characterised with a stylus profiler Dektak® 6M.

     

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    Table 1 percents Ra (average roughness) and plt (platelets) activated for each group.

     

                                             Table 1

    group         Ra mean      std                    plt mean   std

    1              35.0µm        3.24µm           92.9%       5.25%

    2              28.5µm        2.14µm           85.3%       7.61%

    3              28.2µm        1.75µm           84.4%       10.3%

     

    The results indicate that rougher surfaces are more thrombogenic which could imply that they are more suitable for bone ingrowth then smooth surfaces. Increase of total surface area (due to larger roughness) might be a reason for the improved trombogenic response.

     

     

    Figure 1 shows how many platelets were stuck on the specimen surfaces. Horizontal lines represent mean values and standard deviation.

     

    CONCLUSION

    The surface properties of EBM produced implants are affected by the made parameters. The results in Figure 1 corresponds well with previous results that rougher surfaces promotes bone ingrowth4. The increased thrombogenicity and platelet binding with rougher surfaces indicates that EBM made surfaces can affect the final bone response and will possibly suit as implant material.

     

    REFERENCES

    1. Raennar, L.E., et al., Efficientcooling with tool inserts manufactured by electronbeam melting. Rapid Prototyping Journal. 13:128-35, 2007

    2. Cronskaer, M. Applications of Electron Beam Melting to Titanium Hip Stem Implants

    3. Mazzoli, A., et al., Direct fabrication through electron beam melting technology of custom cranial implants designed in a PHANToM-based haptic environment. Materials and Design. 30:318-3192, 2009

    4. Frosch, K.H., et al., Metallic Biomaterials in Skeletal Rapair. Eur J Trauma. 32:149-59, 2006

    5. Thor A., et al.. The role of whole blood in thrombin generation in contact with various titanium surfaces. Biomaterials. 28:966-97, 2007

    6. Arcam AB (www.arcam.com)

    7. Hong, J., et al., A new in vitro model to study interaction between whole blood and biomaterials. Studies of platelet and coagulation activation acid the effect of aspirin. Biomaterials. 20:603-611, 1999

  • 4.
    Persson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Helgason, Benedikt
    Institute for Biomechanics, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet.
    Ferguson, Stephen J.
    Institute for Biomechanics, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Persson, Cecilia
    Uppsala universitet.
    Stiffness and strength of cranioplastic implant systems in comparison to cranial bone2018In: Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, ISSN 1010-5182, E-ISSN 1878-4119, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 418-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate skull replacement options after decompressive craniectomy by systematically investigating which combination of geometrical properties and material selection would result in a mechanical response comparable in stiffness to that of native skull bone and a strength as high or higher than the same.

    Materials and methods: The study was conducted using a Finite Element Model of the top part of a human skull. Native skull bone, autografts and commercial implants made of PEEK, solid titanium, two titanium meshes and a titanium-ceramic composite were modeled under a set load to evaluate deformation and maximum stress.

    Results: The computational result showed a large variation of the strength and effective stiffness of the autografts and implants. The stiffness of native bone varied by a factor of 20 and the strength by a factor of eight. The implants span the entire span of the native skull, both in stiffness and strength.

    Conclusion: All the investigated implant materials had a potential for having the same effective stiffness as the native skull bone. All the materials also had the potential to be as strong as the native bone. To match inherent properties, the best choice of material and thickness is thus patient specific, depending on the quality of the patient’s native bone.

  • 5.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Hamberg, Åke
    Östersund hospital.
    Design and manufacture of a titanium tibial reinforcement cage using electron beam melting2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Skoglund, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Prosthetic socket in Titanium: An outer shell prosthetic socket for a lower-leg amputee manufactured in Ti6Al4V by Electron Beam Melting2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The common manufacturing process of prosthetic sockets is usually a time- and labor consuming activity. This project’s purpose was to look for alternative manufacturing methods that could speed up the process and enhance the experience for the patient for example make some personal design or make the socket lighter. The main goal was to investigate which properties could be achieved by applying Electron Beam Melting as an alternative manufacturing process for prosthetic sockets by applying an earlier developed methodology. An investigation of earlier scientific works with the keywords (additive manufacturing, free form fabrication, orthopedic, prosthetic sockets and rapid manufacturing) was done as well as gathering knowledge how to operate and handle the machines necessary to carry out the project. An updated version of the methodology was developed where the design was verified using finite element analysis. With the updated version the methodology contained nine steps, which in short was as follows. First apprehend an inner socket from an orthopedic clinic with a pattern drawn up on it, the pattern is then transferred to a computer environment and manipulated to the desired shape and thickness. A compressive strength test, both virtual and experimental, was designed by a modified version of the ISO-10328 standard and the virtual design was verified before the socket was manufactured in the Electron Beam Melting machine. The manufactured socket was tested in the experimental set-up to verify the virtual one. The result was a personal designed socket of Ti6Al4V including the male pyramid for connection and a suspension system, which consisted of an inner socket and a one-way valve. It was concluded that Electron Beam Melting could be used as an alternative manufacturing process of prosthetic sockets.

  • 7. Skoglund, Per
    et al.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    A survey on implementation of additive manufacturing to the manufacturing process of orthopedic and orthotic appliances2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Surmeneva, Maria
    et al.
    Tomsk Polytechnic University, Institute of Physics and Technologies, Lenina ave., 30, Tomsk, Russian Federation .
    Chudinova, Ekaterina
    Tomsk Polytechnic University, Institute of Physics and Technologies, Lenina ave., 30, Tomsk, Russian Federation .
    Syrtanov, M
    Tomsk Polytechnic University, Institute of Physics and Technologies, Lenina ave., 30, Tomsk, Russian Federation .
    Koptyug, Andrey
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Surmenev, Roman
    Tomsk Polytechnic University, Institute of Physics and Technologies, Lenina ave., 30, Tomsk, Russian Federation .
    Investigation of the HA film deposited on the porous Ti6Al4V alloy prepared via additive manufacturing2015In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, IOP, 2015, Vol. 98, p. Art. no. 012025-, article id 012025Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is focused on the use of radio frequency magnetron sputtering to modify the surface of porous Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated via additive manufacturing technology. The hydroxyapatite (HA) coated porous Ti6Al4V alloy was studied in respect with its chemical and phase composition, surface morphology, water contact angle and hysteresis, and surface free energy. Thin nanocrystalline HA film was deposited while its structure with diamond-shaped cells remained unchanged. Hysteresis and water contact angle measurements revealed an effect of the deposited HA films, namely an increased water contact angle and contact angle hysteresis. The increase of the contact angle of the coating-substrate system compared to the uncoated substrate was attributed to the multiscale structure of the resulted surfaces.

  • 9.
    Vladescu, Alina
    et al.
    National Institute for Optoelectronics, Romania; National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 43, Tomsk, Russian Federation.
    Vranceanu, Diana
    University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania.
    Kulesza, Slawek
    Warmia and Mazury University in Olsztyn, Poland.
    Ivanov, Alexey
    Scientific Research Institute of Traumatology, Orthopedics and Neurosurgery, Russia.
    Bramowicz, Mirosław
    Warmia and Mazury University in Olsztyn, Poland.
    Fedonnikov, Alexander
    Scientific Research Institute of Traumatology, Orthopedics and Neurosurgery, Russia.
    Braic, Mariana
    National Institute for Optoelectronics, Romania.
    Norkin, Igor
    Scientific Research Institute of Traumatology, Orthopedics and Neurosurgery, Russia.
    Koptioug, Andrei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Kurtukova, Maria O.
    Saratov State Medical University, Russia.
    Dinu, Mihaela
    National Institute for Optoelectronics, Romania.
    Pana, Iulian
    National Institute for Optoelectronics, Romania.
    Surmeneva, Maria
    Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Surmenev, Roman A.
    Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Cotrut, Cosmin M.
    University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania; Natl Res Tomsk Polytech Univ, Tomsk, Russia.
    Influence of the electrolyte’s pH on the properties of electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite coating on additively manufactured Ti64 alloy2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 16819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Properties of the hydroxyapatite obtained by electrochemical assisted deposition (ED) are dependenton several factors including deposition temperature, electrolyte pH and concentrations, appliedpotential. All of these factors directly influence the morphology, stoichiometry, crystallinity,electrochemical behaviour, and particularly the coating thickness. Coating structure together withsurface micro- and nano-scale topography significantly influence early stages of the implant biointegration.The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of pH modification on the morphology,corrosion behaviour and in vitro bioactivity and in vivo biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite preparedby ED on the additively manufactured Ti64 samples. The coatings prepared in the electrolytes withpH = 6 have predominantly needle like morphology with the dimensions in the nanometric scale(~30 nm). Samples coated at pH = 6 demonstrated higher protection efficiency against the corrosiveattack as compared to the ones coated at pH = 5 (~93% against 89%). The in vitro bioactivity resultsindicated that both coatings have a greater capacity of biomineralization, compared to the uncoatedTi64. Somehow, the coating deposited at pH = 6 exhibited good corrosion behaviour and highbiomineralization ability. In vivo subcutaneous implantation of the coated samples into the white rats for up to 21 days with following histological studies showed no serious inflammatory process.

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