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  • 1.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Jensen, Kurt
    Syddansk Universitet, Odense, Danmark.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Stockholm.
    Breathing resistance in automated metabolic systems is high in comparison with the Douglas Bag method and previous recommendations2018In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1754-3371, Vol. 232, no 2, p. 122-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the resistance (RES) to breathing in metabolic systems used for the distribution and measurement of pulmonary gas exchange. A mechanical lung simulator was used to standardize selected air flow rates ( , L/s). The delta pressure (∆p, Pa) between ambient air and the air inside the equipment was measured in the breathing valve’s mouthpiece adapter for four metabolic systems and four types of breathing valves. RES for the inspiratory and expiratory sides was calculated as RES = ∆p / , Pa/L/s. The results for RES showed significant (p < 0.05) between-group variance among the tested metabolic systems, as well as the breathing valves and between most of the completed . The lowest RES among the metabolic systems was found for a Douglas Bag system, with approximately half of the RES compared to the automated metabolic systems. The automated systems were found to have higher RES already at low  in comparison to previous recommendations. For the hardware components, the highest RES was found for the breathing valves while the lowest RES was found for the hoses. Conclusion: The results showed that RES in metabolic systems can be minimized through conscious choices of system design and hardware components. 

  • 2.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Skoglund, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Viktorsson, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    A Portable Douglas Bag System2015In: Congress Proceedings: ICSNS 2015 / [ed] Hakkarainen Anni, Lindinger Stefan, Linnamo Vesa, 2015, p. 59-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bujtar, Peter
    et al.
    Southern General Hospital, Glasgow.
    Simonovics, Janos
    Southern General Hospital, Glasgow.
    Koptyug, Andrey
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    George, Sandor
    Southern General Hospital, Glasgow.
    Varadi, Karoly
    Southern General Hospital, Glasgow.
    Emerging manufacturing bioengineering technologies 2: Scaffold designing experiment using titanium scaffolds2014In: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, ISSN 0266-4356, E-ISSN 1532-1940, Vol. 52, no 8, p. e60-e61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Substantial volume defects of the head and neck oftenrequire customized solutions to improve quality of life likefree flap transfers.Titanium and its alloys are versatile materialsproviding the feature of osteointegration. The conditionswhich facilitate the deposition of lamellar bone are underextensive research. Our project aimed to determine whethertitanium can function as a scaffold - unlike simple plates - toenhance bone regeneration for load bearing structures. Thereaction of stem cells to scaffolds with varying stiffness willbe presented.Additive manufacturing were used to produce a variety ofscaffolds to optimize titanium structures. Electric beam melting(EBM) manufacturing allowed us to optimize the elasticmodulus (Young) of the titanium to match with cadaveric 

    bone from a previous project. Multidirectional mechanicaltests were performed on the various designs of titanium cellstructures (n=80). The predictability and quality of manufacturingwas assessed statistically and also with scanningelectron microscope (SEM).The results demonstrated structures matching the mechanicalproperties of bone and even anisotropy as our resultssuggest 3GPa elasticity. This allows the possibility to buildregenerating bone with predictable properties. In addition,predictable patterning - unlike etching and sandblasting - ofmicroscopic (nano) features found to be significant and nonhomogenous simple repetitive patterns provide better cellularresponse.The benefit that tissue engineering techniques offer isdecreased morbidity, relative independence from donor site,with a highly specific and customized shape. Titanium basedreconstruction constructs seems to offer an alternative futurefor bony reconstruction.

  • 4.
    Chudinova, Ekaterina
    et al.
    Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Surmeneva, Maria
    Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Koptyug, Andrey
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Skoglund, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Sharanova, A
    Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Loza, K
    University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany.
    Epple, M
    University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany.
    Surmenev, Roman
    Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Hydroxyapatite coating and silver nanoparticles assemblies on additively manufactured Ti6Al4V scaffolds2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Cronskär, Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Strength analysis of clavicle fracture fixation devices and fixation techniques using finite element analysis with musculoskeletal force input2015In: Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, ISSN 0140-0118, E-ISSN 1741-0444, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 759-769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the cases, when clavicle fractures are treated with a fixation plate,opinions are divided about the best position of the plate, type of plateand type of screw units. Results from biomechanical studies of claviclefixation devices are contradictory, probably partly because ofsimplified and varying load cases used in different studies. The anatomyof the shoulder region is complex, which makes it difficult andexpensive to perform realistic experimental tests; hence, reliablesimulation is an important complement to experimental tests. In thisstudy, a method for finite element simulations of stresses in theclavicle plate and bone is used, in which muscle and ligament force dataare imported from a multibody musculoskeletal model. The stressdistribution in two different commercial plates, superior and anteriorplating position and fixation including using a lag screw in thefracture gap or not, was compared. Looking at the clavicle fixation froma mechanical point of view, the results indicate that it is a majorbenefit to use a lag screw to fixate the fracture. The anterior platingposition resulted in lower stresses in the plate, and the anatomicallyshaped plate is more stress resistant and stable than a regularreconstruction plate.

  • 6.
    Cronskär, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Production of Customized Hip Stem Prostheses: a Comparison Between Machining and Additive Manufacturing2013In: Rapid prototyping journal, ISSN 1355-2546, E-ISSN 1758-7670, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 365-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study the use of the additive manufacturing (AM) method, electron beam melting (EBM), for manufacturing of customized hip stems. The aim is to investigate EBM's feasibility and commercial potential in comparison with conventional machining, and to map out advantages and drawbacks of using EBM in this application. One part of the study concerns the influence on the fatigue properties of the material, when using the raw surface directly from the EBM machine, in parts of the implant.Design/methodology/approach - The research is based on a case study of manufacturing a batch of seven individually adapted hip stems. The stems were manufactured both with conventional machining and with EBM technology and the methods were compared according to the costs of materials, time for file preparation and manufacturing. In order to enhance bone ingrowths in the medial part of the stem, the raw surface from EBM manufacturing is used in that area and initial fatigue studies were performed, to get indications on how this surface influences the fatigue properties.Findings - The cost reduction due to using EBM in this study was 35 per cent. Fatigue tests comparing milled test bars with raw surfaced bars indicate a reduction of the fatigue limit by using the coarse surface.Originality/value - The paper presents a detailed comparison of EBM and conventional machining, not seen in earlier research. The fatigue tests of raw EBM-surfaces are interesting since the raw surface has shown to enhance bone ingrowths and therefore is suitable to use in some medical applications.

  • 7.
    Cronskär, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Nilsson, K-G
    Samuelsson, B
    Patient-specific bone plates for clavicle fractures: Design, manufacturing and strength analysisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Ek, Rebecca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Hong, Jaan
    Uppsala University, Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Dejanovic, Slavko
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Blood coagulation on electron beam melted implant surfaces, implications for bone growth2011In: Proccedings of EBS 2011, Dublin, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION

    Implants for arthroplasty, plates and screws for orthopedics, maxillofacial and dentistry are more frequently being customised. Ti and CoCr alloys are common materials for bone implants. Surface roughness, porosity and choice of material may have an impact on the bone ingrowth. EBM (Electron Beam Melting) is a 3D-printing technique melting metallic powder layer by layer according to the corresponding CAD (Computer Aided Design) model of implants1.With EBM technology customised implants can be manufactured with a lower cost compared to conventional technologies2. Implants for bone replacement made from CT images with EBM technology will fit accurate and lead to simpler and better planed surgeries also3. The EBM technique, as such, is always resulting with rough surface on the implants (typically 20-45µm). That roughness can be controlled, in some extent, by changing the process parameters. Some authors claim that roughened surfaces are promoting bone ingrowth4.

    This work was aiming on the question: are EBM made surfaces good for bone ingrowth and is it possible to change the bone ingrowth by varying the machine settings? In order to answer this question a number of coin like specimens of CoCr were manufactured with the different surface roughness. The blood chamber model has shown how the first steps of bone healing were proceeding on specimen surfaces, indicating how the coagulation and complement systems can behave in vivo5.

     

    EXPERIMENTAL METHODS

    The manufacture of the test specimens was carried out with Arcam A2 EBM® equipment.  Process parameters were changed in the software EBM controle6 and three groups of eight specimens with different parameter setting were made. The specimens were then tested with whole blood from two individuals in a modified version of the blood chamber model named above7. Surface roughness was characterised with a stylus profiler Dektak® 6M.

     

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

    Table 1 percents Ra (average roughness) and plt (platelets) activated for each group.

     

                                             Table 1

    group         Ra mean      std                    plt mean   std

    1              35.0µm        3.24µm           92.9%       5.25%

    2              28.5µm        2.14µm           85.3%       7.61%

    3              28.2µm        1.75µm           84.4%       10.3%

     

    The results indicate that rougher surfaces are more thrombogenic which could imply that they are more suitable for bone ingrowth then smooth surfaces. Increase of total surface area (due to larger roughness) might be a reason for the improved trombogenic response.

     

     

    Figure 1 shows how many platelets were stuck on the specimen surfaces. Horizontal lines represent mean values and standard deviation.

     

    CONCLUSION

    The surface properties of EBM produced implants are affected by the made parameters. The results in Figure 1 corresponds well with previous results that rougher surfaces promotes bone ingrowth4. The increased thrombogenicity and platelet binding with rougher surfaces indicates that EBM made surfaces can affect the final bone response and will possibly suit as implant material.

     

    REFERENCES

    1. Raennar, L.E., et al., Efficientcooling with tool inserts manufactured by electronbeam melting. Rapid Prototyping Journal. 13:128-35, 2007

    2. Cronskaer, M. Applications of Electron Beam Melting to Titanium Hip Stem Implants

    3. Mazzoli, A., et al., Direct fabrication through electron beam melting technology of custom cranial implants designed in a PHANToM-based haptic environment. Materials and Design. 30:318-3192, 2009

    4. Frosch, K.H., et al., Metallic Biomaterials in Skeletal Rapair. Eur J Trauma. 32:149-59, 2006

    5. Thor A., et al.. The role of whole blood in thrombin generation in contact with various titanium surfaces. Biomaterials. 28:966-97, 2007

    6. Arcam AB (www.arcam.com)

    7. Hong, J., et al., A new in vitro model to study interaction between whole blood and biomaterials. Studies of platelet and coagulation activation acid the effect of aspirin. Biomaterials. 20:603-611, 1999

  • 9.
    Hammarling, Krister
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hilborn, J.
    Uppsala University, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Blood pH optrode based on evanescent waves and refractive index change2014In: Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE, 2014, p. Art. no. 89381F-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensing pH in blood with an silica multimode optical fiber. This sensor is based on evanescent wave absorption and measures the change of the refractive index and absorption in a cladding made of a biocompatible Polymer. In contrast to many existing fiber optical sensors which are based upon different dyes or florescent material to sense the pH, here presents a solution where a part of the cladding is replaced with a Poly (β-amino ester) made of 1.4-Butanediol diacrylate, Piperazine, and Trimethylolpropane Triacrylate. Piperazine has the feature of changing its volume by swelling or shrinking in response to the pH level. This paper utilizes this dimension effect and measure the refractive index and the absorption of the cladding in respect to different pH-levels. The alteration of refractive index also causes a change in the absorption and therefore the output power changes as a function of the pH level. The sensor is sensitive to pH in a wide spectral range and light absorbency can be observed for wavelengths ranging from UV to far IR. © 2014 SPIE.

  • 10.
    Persson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Helgason, Benedikt
    Institute for Biomechanics, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet.
    Ferguson, Stephen J.
    Institute for Biomechanics, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Persson, Cecilia
    Uppsala universitet.
    Stiffness and strength of cranioplastic implant systems in comparison to cranial bone2018In: Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, ISSN 1010-5182, E-ISSN 1878-4119, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 418-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate skull replacement options after decompressive craniectomy by systematically investigating which combination of geometrical properties and material selection would result in a mechanical response comparable in stiffness to that of native skull bone and a strength as high or higher than the same.

    Materials and methods: The study was conducted using a Finite Element Model of the top part of a human skull. Native skull bone, autografts and commercial implants made of PEEK, solid titanium, two titanium meshes and a titanium-ceramic composite were modeled under a set load to evaluate deformation and maximum stress.

    Results: The computational result showed a large variation of the strength and effective stiffness of the autografts and implants. The stiffness of native bone varied by a factor of 20 and the strength by a factor of eight. The implants span the entire span of the native skull, both in stiffness and strength.

    Conclusion: All the investigated implant materials had a potential for having the same effective stiffness as the native skull bone. All the materials also had the potential to be as strong as the native bone. To match inherent properties, the best choice of material and thickness is thus patient specific, depending on the quality of the patient’s native bone.

  • 11.
    Petrone, Nicola
    et al.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Carraro, Giovanni
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Dal Castello, Stefano
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Broggio, Luca
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Koptioug, Andrei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    A Novel Instrumented Human Head Surrogate For The Impact Evaluation Of Helmets2018In: Proceedings, Volume 2, ISEA 2018 / [ed] Dr Hugo Espinosa, David R. Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd, Professor David Thiel, 2018, Vol. 2, p. 269-, article id 6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel Human Head Surrogate was obtained from available MRI scans of a 50th percentile male human head. Addictive manufacturing was used to produce the skull, the brain and the skin. All original MRI geometries were partially smoothed and adjusted to provide the best biofidelity compatible with printing and molding technology. The skull was 3D-printed in ABS and ten pressure sensors were placed into it. The brain surrogate was cast from silicon rubber in the 3d-printed plastic molds. Nine tri-axial accelerometers (placed at the tops of the lobes, at the sides of the lobes, in the cerebellum and in the center of mass) and a three-axis gyroscope (at the center of mass) were inserted into the silicon brain during casting. The cranium, after assembly with brain, was filled with silicon oil mimicking the cerebral fluid. Silicon rubber was cast in additional 3d-printed molds to form the skin surrounding the cranium. The skull base was adapted to be compatible with the Hybrid-III neck and allow the exit of brain sensors cabling. Preliminary experiments were carried out proving the functionality of the surrogate. Results showed how multiple accelerometers and pressure sensors allowed a better comprehension of the head complex motion during impacts.

  • 12.
    Reza, Salim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Wong, Winnie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thungstörm, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thim, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Smart dosimetry by pattern recognition using a single photon counting detector system in time over threshold mode2012In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 7, no 1, p. Art. no. C01027-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The function of a dosimeter is to determine the absorbed dose of radiation, for those cases in which, generally, the particular type of radiation is already known. Lately, a number of applications have emerged in which all kinds of radiation are absorbed and are sorted by pattern recognition, such as the Medipix2 application in [1]. This form of smart dosimetry enables measurements where not only the total dosage is measured, but also the contributions of different types of radiation impacting upon the detector surface. Furthermore, the use of a photon counting system, where the energy deposition can be measured in each individual pixel, ensures measurements with a high degree of accuracy in relation to the pattern recognition. In this article a Timepix [2] detector system has been used in the creation of a smart dosimeter for Alpha, Beta and Gamma radiation. When a radioactive particle hits the detector surface it generates charge clusters and those impacting upon the detector surface are read out and image processing algorithms are then used to classify each charge cluster. The individual clusters are calculated and as a result, the dosage for each type of radiation is given. In some cases, several particles can impact in roughly the same place, forming overlapping clusters. In order to handle this problem, a cluster separation method has been added to the pattern recognition algorithm. When the clusters have been separated, they are classified by shape and sorted into the correct type of radiation. The algorithms and methods used in this dosimeter have been developed so as to be simple and computationally effective, in order to enable implementation on a portable device. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA.

  • 13.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Hamberg, Åke
    Östersund hospital.
    Design and manufacture of a titanium tibial reinforcement cage using electron beam melting2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Skoglund, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Prosthetic socket in Titanium: An outer shell prosthetic socket for a lower-leg amputee manufactured in Ti6Al4V by Electron Beam Melting2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The common manufacturing process of prosthetic sockets is usually a time- and labor consuming activity. This project’s purpose was to look for alternative manufacturing methods that could speed up the process and enhance the experience for the patient for example make some personal design or make the socket lighter. The main goal was to investigate which properties could be achieved by applying Electron Beam Melting as an alternative manufacturing process for prosthetic sockets by applying an earlier developed methodology. An investigation of earlier scientific works with the keywords (additive manufacturing, free form fabrication, orthopedic, prosthetic sockets and rapid manufacturing) was done as well as gathering knowledge how to operate and handle the machines necessary to carry out the project. An updated version of the methodology was developed where the design was verified using finite element analysis. With the updated version the methodology contained nine steps, which in short was as follows. First apprehend an inner socket from an orthopedic clinic with a pattern drawn up on it, the pattern is then transferred to a computer environment and manipulated to the desired shape and thickness. A compressive strength test, both virtual and experimental, was designed by a modified version of the ISO-10328 standard and the virtual design was verified before the socket was manufactured in the Electron Beam Melting machine. The manufactured socket was tested in the experimental set-up to verify the virtual one. The result was a personal designed socket of Ti6Al4V including the male pyramid for connection and a suspension system, which consisted of an inner socket and a one-way valve. It was concluded that Electron Beam Melting could be used as an alternative manufacturing process of prosthetic sockets.

  • 15. Skoglund, Per
    et al.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    A survey on implementation of additive manufacturing to the manufacturing process of orthopedic and orthotic appliances2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Surmeneva, Maria
    et al.
    Tomsk Polytechnic University, Institute of Physics and Technologies, Lenina ave., 30, Tomsk, Russian Federation .
    Chudinova, Ekaterina
    Tomsk Polytechnic University, Institute of Physics and Technologies, Lenina ave., 30, Tomsk, Russian Federation .
    Syrtanov, M
    Tomsk Polytechnic University, Institute of Physics and Technologies, Lenina ave., 30, Tomsk, Russian Federation .
    Koptyug, Andrey
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Surmenev, Roman
    Tomsk Polytechnic University, Institute of Physics and Technologies, Lenina ave., 30, Tomsk, Russian Federation .
    Investigation of the HA film deposited on the porous Ti6Al4V alloy prepared via additive manufacturing2015In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, IOP, 2015, Vol. 98, p. Art. no. 012025-, article id 012025Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is focused on the use of radio frequency magnetron sputtering to modify the surface of porous Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated via additive manufacturing technology. The hydroxyapatite (HA) coated porous Ti6Al4V alloy was studied in respect with its chemical and phase composition, surface morphology, water contact angle and hysteresis, and surface free energy. Thin nanocrystalline HA film was deposited while its structure with diamond-shaped cells remained unchanged. Hysteresis and water contact angle measurements revealed an effect of the deposited HA films, namely an increased water contact angle and contact angle hysteresis. The increase of the contact angle of the coating-substrate system compared to the uncoated substrate was attributed to the multiscale structure of the resulted surfaces.

  • 17.
    Thor, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala.
    Palmquist, Anders
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg; BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Ctr Biomat & Cell Ther, Gothenburg.
    Hirsch, Jan-Michael
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Derand, Per
    SUS, Univ Lund Hosp, Lund.
    Omar, Omar
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg; BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Ctr Biomat & Cell Ther, Gothenburg.
    Clinical, Morphological, and Molecular Evaluations of Bone Regeneration With an Additive Manufactured Osteosynthesis Plate2016In: The Journal of craniofacial surgery (Print), ISSN 1049-2275, E-ISSN 1536-3732, Vol. 27, no 7, p. 1899-1904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is limited information on the biological status of bone regenerated with microvascular fibula flap combined with biomaterials. This paper describes the clinical, histological, ultrastructural, and molecular picture of bone regenerated with patient-customized plate, used for mandibular reconstruction in combination with microvascular osteomyocutaneous fibula flap. The plate was virtually planned and additively manufactured using electron beam melting. This plate was retrieved from the patient after 33 months. Microcomputed tomography, backscattered-scanning electron microscopy, histology, and quantitative-polymerase chain reaction were employed to evaluate the regenerated bone and the flap bone associated with the retrieved plate. At retrieval, the posterior two-thirds of the plate were in close adaptation with the underlying flap, whereas soft tissue was observed between the native mandible and the anterior one-third. The histological and structural analyses showed new bone regeneration, ingrowth, and osseointegration of the posterior two-thirds. The histological observations were supported by the gene expression analysis showing higher expression of bone formation and remodeling genes under the posterior two-thirds compared with the anterior one-third of the plate. The observation of osteocytes in the flap indicated its viability. The present data endorse the suitability of the customized, additively manufactured plate for the vascularized fibula mandibular reconstruction. Furthermore, the combination of the analytical techniques provides possibilities to deduce the structural and molecular characteristics of bone regenerated using this procedure.

  • 18.
    Tourancheau, Sylvain
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Persson, Anders
    Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ericson, Thomas
    Setred AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rudling, Johan
    Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Norén, Bengt
    Dept. of Radiology, Linköping University Hospital, Sweden.
    Subjective evaluation of user experience in interactive 3D-visualization in a medical context2012In: Proceedings of the SPIE, vol 8318: Conference on Image Perception, Observer Performance, and Technology Assessment, San Diego, CA, USA, 4 - 9 February 2012, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2012, p. Art. no. 831814-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New display technologies enable the usage of 3D-visualization in a medical context. Even though user performance seems to be enhanced with respect to 2D thanks to the addition of recreated depth cues, human factors, and more particularly visual comfort and visual fatigue can still be a bridle to the widespread use of these systems. This study aimed at evaluating and comparing two different 3D visualization systems (a market stereoscopic display, and a state-of-the-art multi-view display) in terms of quality of experience (QoE), in the context of interactive medical visualization. An adapted methodology was designed in order to subjectively evaluate the experience of users. 14 medical doctors and 15 medical students took part in the experiment. After solving different tasks using the 3D reconstruction of a phantom object, they were asked to judge their quality of the experience, according to specific features. They were also asked to give their opinion about the influence of 3D-systems on their work conditions. Results suggest that medical doctors are opened to 3D-visualization techniques and are confident concerning their beneficial influence on their work. However, visual comfort and visual fatigue are still an issue of 3D-displays. Results obtained with the multi-view display suggest that the use of continuous horizontal parallax might be the future response to these current limitations.

  • 19.
    Vladescu, Alina
    et al.
    National Institute for Optoelectronics, Romania; National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 43, Tomsk, Russian Federation.
    Vranceanu, Diana
    University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania.
    Kulesza, Slawek
    Warmia and Mazury University in Olsztyn, Poland.
    Ivanov, Alexey
    Scientific Research Institute of Traumatology, Orthopedics and Neurosurgery, Russia.
    Bramowicz, Mirosław
    Warmia and Mazury University in Olsztyn, Poland.
    Fedonnikov, Alexander
    Scientific Research Institute of Traumatology, Orthopedics and Neurosurgery, Russia.
    Braic, Mariana
    National Institute for Optoelectronics, Romania.
    Norkin, Igor
    Scientific Research Institute of Traumatology, Orthopedics and Neurosurgery, Russia.
    Koptioug, Andrei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Kurtukova, Maria O.
    Saratov State Medical University, Russia.
    Dinu, Mihaela
    National Institute for Optoelectronics, Romania.
    Pana, Iulian
    National Institute for Optoelectronics, Romania.
    Surmeneva, Maria
    Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Surmenev, Roman A.
    Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Cotrut, Cosmin M.
    University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania; Natl Res Tomsk Polytech Univ, Tomsk, Russia.
    Influence of the electrolyte’s pH on the properties of electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite coating on additively manufactured Ti64 alloy2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 16819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Properties of the hydroxyapatite obtained by electrochemical assisted deposition (ED) are dependenton several factors including deposition temperature, electrolyte pH and concentrations, appliedpotential. All of these factors directly influence the morphology, stoichiometry, crystallinity,electrochemical behaviour, and particularly the coating thickness. Coating structure together withsurface micro- and nano-scale topography significantly influence early stages of the implant biointegration.The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of pH modification on the morphology,corrosion behaviour and in vitro bioactivity and in vivo biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite preparedby ED on the additively manufactured Ti64 samples. The coatings prepared in the electrolytes withpH = 6 have predominantly needle like morphology with the dimensions in the nanometric scale(~30 nm). Samples coated at pH = 6 demonstrated higher protection efficiency against the corrosiveattack as compared to the ones coated at pH = 5 (~93% against 89%). The in vitro bioactivity resultsindicated that both coatings have a greater capacity of biomineralization, compared to the uncoatedTi64. Somehow, the coating deposited at pH = 6 exhibited good corrosion behaviour and highbiomineralization ability. In vivo subcutaneous implantation of the coated samples into the white rats for up to 21 days with following histological studies showed no serious inflammatory process.

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