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  • 1.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Jonsson, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Drag Area, Frontal Area and Drag Coefficient in Cross-Country Skiing Techniques2018In: Proceedings, Volume 2, ISEA 2018 / [ed] Hugo Espinosa, David Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd, David Thiel, MDPI, 2018, Vol. 2, article id 313Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the air drag, frontal area and coefficient of drag of cross-country skiing classical and free style techniques. One highly skilled cross-country skier performed skiing-like classical and free style techniques on a force plate in a wind tunnel. The skier was also photographed from the front in order to analyze the projected frontal area, which was determined from digital images using Matlab. From the results of the air drag and the frontal area measurements, the drag coefficient was also calculated. The results can be used by researchers to calculate the theoretical effect of air drag on cross-country skiing performance.

  • 2.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Tuplin, Simon
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Render, Peter
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Design and development of a climatic wind tunnel for physiological sports experimentation2019In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1754-3371, Vol. 233, no 1, p. 86-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to develop a wind tunnel that enables the study of human performance during various types ofsports and physical activities by examining the influence of aerodynamic drag, precipitation, frictional forces and gravitationalforces on uphill and downhill travel on a moving substrate. An overall design for a wind tunnel and working section containinga large treadmill was drafted, followed by computational fluid dynamics simulations of flow conditions to assess thedesign’s feasibility and select from different geometries prior to its construction. The flow conditions in the completed windtunnel were validated using different flows, speeds and treadmill inclinations. Pilot experiments were carried out using across-country skier to investigate the effect of aerodynamic drag on oxygen uptake during double poling and the maximalachieved speed when rolling on a declined treadmill. The purpose was to validate the usefulness of the tunnel. The resultsshowed that flow conditions are acceptable for experiments even in worst-case scenarios with maximal inclined and declinedtreadmill. Results also showed that aerodynamic drag has a significant impact on the skier’s energy expenditure.

  • 3. Hemp, John
    et al.
    Sanderson, M. L.
    Koptioug, Andrei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Liang, B.
    Sweetland, D. J.
    Al Rabeh, L. H.
    Problems in the Theory and Design of Electromagnetic Flowmeters for Dielectric Fluids: Part 1: Experimental Assessment of Static Charge Noise Levels and Signal-to-Noise Ratio2002In: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 143-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on experimental measurements of electrode signal noise spectra in an electromagnetic flowmeter designed for

    flow measurement of the dielectric liquid BP180. The design of the flowmeter tube and the detection electronics is described.

    Dependence of the noise spectra on flow rate, electrode dimensions and particle content of the liquid is reported. Implications for

    flowmeter tube design and for the choice of frequency of operation to achieve reasonable signal-to-noise ratios are explained.

  • 4.
    Petrone, Nicola
    et al.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Giacomin, Marco
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Koptioug, Andrei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Racing Wheels’ Effect on Drag/Side Forces Acting on a Cyclist at Sportstech-Miun Wind Tunnel2018In: Proceedings, Volume 2, ISEA 2018 / [ed] Dr Hugo Espinosa, David R. Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd, Professor David Thiel, 2018, Vol. 2, p. 210-, article id 6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: the wind tunnel at the SportsTech Research Centre at Mid Sweden University (MIUN, Östersund) was opened in 2015 for sports technology research. It is dedicated primarily to analysis of equipment performance and garment development and especially suitable for roller skiing, running and cycling. The aim of this work was to develop a full-scale study to investigate the aerodynamic behaviour of a cyclist facing front and cross wind at different yaw angles (from 0° to 30°) and speeds. To reach this goal, a rotating structure supported by a force platform was constructed. It includes a set of rollers on which fully unrestrained cycling is possible. The method was applied to the comparison of three wheelsets (differing in material, height and shape of the rim, number and shape of spokes) in terms of drag and side aerodynamic forces during a cyclist’s ride at 30 km/h, while keeping all the other factors constant. Resulting curves allowed estimating differences of 4% and 9% when applied to a recent time trial competition.

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