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  • 1.
    Andersson, Sebastian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Varmformade eller kallformade konstruktionsrör ur ett lönsamhetsperspektiv: Undersökning av ekonomisk differens i valet mellan VKR och KKR2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, hot formed rectangular hollow sections (HFRHS) can be 15-23 % more expensive than cold formed rectangular hollow sections (CFRHS) of the same section size. Although the price on CFRHS is lower, estimations reveals that   - from the total use of HFRHS and CFRHS in Swedish steel buildings - CFRHS is only utilized by less than 5 % compared to 95 % HFRHS. This study began by examining the differences between these two types of steel. The price difference between the two processed metal types was then calculated when both of them were subjected to a centric compressive force under the same conditions. The purpose was to compare prices and find out which one is the most economically feasible, offering a more profitable choice between HFRHS or CFRHS.

    The design buckling resistance of all the section sizes in Tibnor kon­­struktions­tabeller was calculated for every possible combination out of ten different lengths between 1 m and 10 m, ten different loadings between 100 kN and 1000 kN and two different support conditions being pinned at both ends and fixed at both ends. The sections sizes of CFRHS and HFRHS that withstood the loading and held the lowest prices were compared by calculating the price difference as per­centage increment or decrement between the two types of hollow sections.

    In 80 % of the cases, when pinned at both ends, CFRHS showed to be the most economically feasible alternative. When fixed at both ends the same number was 86 %. The average price difference was 10-11 %, showing an absolute deviation of approximately 8‑12 %.

    These findings conclude that using only CFRHS can result in savings of 10‑11 % from reduced costs of steel, compared to only using HFRHS. From the observed variation of the price differences another conclusion is drawn that there aren’t any tendencies showing HFRHS or CFRHS to be more economically feasible than the other in a specific interval of length or loading.

    The recommendation is to optimize and use the type of steel that is the most economically feasible under the current circumstances. If an optimization isn’t possible then the recommendation is to use CFRHS.

  • 2.
    Axelsson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    BIM: Förvaltning, inventering och användningsområden2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Building Information Modeling, BIM is a complex idea which has varying meaning depending on where in the building process it is used. There is no simple definition of how the working with BIM is applied and consists of many areas of activity.  

     

    This report is based upon the study of available literature and interview questions, which both have set the ground for the result and conclusions presented. These have aimed to investigate how digital information processing can be applied in the facility management for a building and furthermore, how inventory of an already built building can be improved by today’s technology.  By studying what´s already have been written on the subject and contacting people who works in the building consulting business or building facility management, a combination of available techniques is presented. The bottom-line is that BIM (Building Information Modeling) is a modern working method which can be used by all disciplines for applying information to a project, and which also can be used progressively into production, facility management, rebuilding and renovation, and finally deconstruction.

     

    Inventorying of an old building which lacks data can be recreated by the use of laser scanner technique and gives a reliable collection of data, which afterwards is processed in a CAD program. Studies have been made in order to find a way for localizing inbuilt material without making any permanent damage to the building construction.

     

  • 3.
    Bodin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energisparande åtgärder för en villa från 1960-talet2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to increase knowledge about reducing heating costs for an existing house from the 1960s. It also aims to highlight some possible measures that reduce energy use and to examine whether these measures are economically justified. To answer the research questions have literary studies conducted and information about the house were taken from drawings and technical specifications. Different types of calculations have been performed to calculate the building's energy needs. Measures that are calculated is reduction of indoor temperatures, switch to new windows and doors and isolation on the attic. By lowering the temperature in the house from 20°C to 19°C gives an annual saving of 5,3 %, which corresponds to SEK 1072. Switch windows is a major investment and it is not profitable to switch windows if need not exist. The most viable option for the house is to switch to 3-glass windows with U-value 1,1 and doors with U-value 1,0 that contribute to a savings of the annual cost of heating with SEK 4390. The repayment period is 34 years. The most cost-effective measure is to add isolation in the attic floor. Additional isolation with 25 cm creates a saving in heating costs by SEK 1254 per year and a repayment period of 12 and a half years. Implementing energy efficiency measures often involves an investment cost. However, it is not always the investment costs in energy efficiency measures that will be in focus, but the future savings of energy.

  • 4.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Diagnosis of buildings' thermal performance - a quantitative method using thermography under non-steady state heat flow2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 83, p. 320-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes a quantitative method using thermography to measure the thermal performance of complete building envelope elements that are subjected to non-steady state heat flow. The method presumes that thermal properties of external walls, like conductivity, could still be obtained by a linear regression over values of independent measurements. And therefore could be used during fluctuating indoor and outdoor thermal conditions. The method is divided into two parts. First, the convection heat transfer coefficient is measured by heat flux meters (HFM) and thermography. And then, the overall heat transfer coefficient of a complete building element is measured by thermography to include all non-uniformities.

    In this study the thermal performance of a 140 mm thick laminated timber wall was measured. The wall was subjected to the outdoor weather conditions in Östersund, Sweden during January and February. The measurement values were found to have a large disparity as expected due to the rapid change in weather conditions. But still a linear regression with low confidence interval was obtained. The thermography results from a small uniform wall segment were validated with HFM measurements and 4% difference was found, which suggest that the two methods could be equally effective. Yet, thermography has the advantage of measuring surface temperature over large area of building element. The overall heat transfer coefficient of a large wall area was found to be 11% higher in comparison to the HFM measurements. This indicates that thermography could provide a more representative result as it captures areas of imperfections, point and linear thermal bridges.

  • 5.
    Eriksson Nygren, Karl
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energianvändande i bostadshus: En studie i byggnaders energibalans2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 6.
    Lindström, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    LIS - Landsbygdsutveckling i strandnära läge.: Utfallet i Norrlands kommuner.2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    In Sweden there is a general area for shore protection for all shores, irrespective of

    the size of water. The general area of protection reaches 100 meters from the

    shoreline, in both ways, but can be extended by the county administration board to

    300 meters. The main purpose with this is to protect wildlife as well as the

    environment and also to ensure access for the public.

    In 2009 there was a change in the shore protection legislation. The new law now

    makes it possible for the counties to establish areas for rural development close to

    the shoreline (LIS). Those areas, which are designated by the county, must be

    adopted in, or supplemented as an addition to the comprehensive plan. Apart from

    the grounds specified in the environmental code to concede exemption from or the

    revoke the shore protection, the LIS-areas can be considered to contribute to the

    development of the countryside. Within these areas, the county administration

    board is able to grant exemptions.

    The aim of this thesis is to illustrate how far the counties in northern Sweden have

    reached in their planning for and their implementation of, their LIS-areas, almost

    five years after the new legislation about shore protection was passed. Furthermore,

    what they think about the new legislation and how it works, if they have had any

    problems in their work with choosing special LIS-areas and also to find out what

    their main purpose for the LIS-areas was. I’ve chosen the provinces of Norrbotten,

    Västerbotten, Jämtland, Västernorrland and Gävleborg.

    To achieve the aim of the thesis I conducted a case study. The case study consisted

    of a survey which was sent out to all the 54 counties in these provinces. 47 of the

    counties answered the case study an only one of them didn’t have any plans for

    establish LIS-areas. The rest of them were in different stages of establishing, from

    notice stage to already established LIS-areas. Many of the counties stated that the

    legislation or the guidance about establishing LIS-areas was unclear. They also

    stated that the requirements concerning location could be difficult to determine.

    The number of requests outside LIS-areas are double compared to the requests

    within the LIS-areas. Considering that the counties in northern Sweden maintain a

    relatively low rate of habitation and possess a vast shore which is undeveloped, an

    extended differentiation of the shore protection in these areas should be

    implemented in the legislation in order to further stimulate rural development and

    growth.

  • 7.
    Nordin, Lina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Norman, Frida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Processorientering: En undersökning av samarbetet mellan process- och resursägare2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011 SDC, the forestry IT-company started the process of transition from a functional organization to a process organization. This has resulted in changes in the leadership, with a former department head being replaced by a process owner and a resource owner. The aim of this survey was to identify a proposal for improvements in relation to the cooperation between the process owner and the resource owner at the company SDC. The survey was conducted using a qualitative approach. This approach has been chosen as the goal to understanding the informants' experiences around the cooperation between the process owner and the resource owner as close to reality as was possible. The investigation consists of literature studies to create a theoretical back-ground. The interviews were held to create an image in relation to how cooperation between process owners and resource owners are working today, how this cooperation works in other process oriented organizations and to create an additional theoretical point of view. An inquiry has been conducted into all employees affected by the organizational change in order to clarify their views on the changed leadership. The results have demonstrated the ability to improve the description roles for both the process owner and the resource owner, the communication between them and the common priorities. The results have also shown the importance of time being made available to work on these issues. In order to improve the cooperation between the process owner and the resource owner and to create greater transparency in the organization, SDC should review the above suggestions.

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