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  • 1.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energy performance of residential buildings design2016In: Society’s steering systems: a Friend book to Inga Carlman / [ed] E. Grönlund & A. Longueville, Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2016, p. 179-186Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the history of civilization, humans have built shelters to practice their social activities, while having protection against weather, wild animals, and other human beings. Over the course of time, vernacular dwellings have evolved to respond to climate challenges, available materials and cultural expectations in a given location. Such buildings include, e.g. the adobe house, the Inuit igloos in Greenland, and the open courtyard building design.Since the start of the postmodern architecture, in the middle of the 20th century, new technologies, new materials, and changes in societal structures have changed the way buildings have been designed and constructed. Modern lifestyle become more dependent on energy. For example Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems (HVAC) in buildings became widely used to improve indoor comfort. After the oil-supply crises in the middle of the 1970s, the connection between building design and the environment changed from just providing sufficient thermal comfort to promoting energy efficiency due to the awareness of the fact that natural resources are limited. That was the start of the sustainable architecture movement. It was during this time building regulations in many countries started to include aspects of energy efficiency. This chapter will discuss two aspects of building design and their effect on the overall energy efficiency of the building: the interior building design and the exterior building design.

  • 2.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energy performance of residential buildings: projecting, monitoring and evaluating2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy security and climate change mitigation have been discussed in Sweden since the oil crisis in the 1970s. Sweden has since then increased its share of renewable energy resources to reach the highest level among the EU member states, but is still among the countries with the highest primary energy use per capita. Not least because of that, increasing energy efficiency is important and it is part of the Swedish long term environmental objectives. Large potential for improving energy efficiency can be found in the building sector, mainly in the existing building stock but also in new constructions.

    Buildings hold high costs for construction, service and maintenance. Still, their energy efficiency and thermal performance are rarely validated after construction or renovation. As energy efficiency become an important aspects in building design there is a need for accurate tools for assessing the energy performance both before and after building construction. In this thesis criteria for energy efficiency in new residential buildings are studied. Several building design aspects are discussed with regards to final energy efficiency, energy supply-demand interactions and social aspects. The results of this thesis are based on energy modelling, energy measurements and one questionnaire survey. Several existing residential buildings were used as case studies.

    The results show that pre-occupancy calculations of specific final energy demand in residential buildings is too rough an indicator to explicitly steer towards lower final energy use in the building sector. Even post occupancy monitoring of specific final energy demand does not always provide a representative image of the energy efficiency of buildings and may result with large variation among buildings with similar thermal efficiency. A post occupancy method of assessing thermal efficiency of building fabrics using thermography is presented. The thermal efficiency of buildings can be increased by design with low shape factor. The shape factor was found to have a significant effect on the final energy demand of buildings and on the use of primary energy. In Nordic climates, atria in multi-storey apartment buildings is a design that have a potential to increase both energy efficiency (by lower shape factor) and enhance social interactions among the occupants.

  • 3.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå university.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Heated atrium in multi-story buildings: A design for better energy efficiency and social interactions2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shape factor of a building expresses the ratio between the building’s thermal envelope area and its volume, or alternatively to its useful floor area. Buildings with lower shape factors will have lower heat losses through the thermal envelope and lower specific final energy demand. The shape factor of building could be reduced by a compact building shape design, and by increasing the volume of the building. However, the requirement for indoor natural light put a limit on the size of the building and therefore may limit the value of the shape factor. One possible solution to address this aspect is designing building with a heated atrium.An atrium is a large enclosed space within a building, and may have a glazed roof. In a multi-story apartment building an atrium has the potential to increase the social interaction between the residents and, with the right design, at the same time reduce the heating demand of the building due to lower building shape factor. However, the use of atrium in residential buildings in Nordic countries has not yet gained popularity.In this paper the impact of the heated atrium building with cylindrical shape design on the specific final energy is investigated by comparing such building design to conventional design buildings with similar floor area. The Nydalahuset project, in city Umeå in the north of Sweden, which is a multi-story residential building with a heated atrium, is used as a case study to investigate the affect of the atrium on the social interaction among the building occupants.The results show that heated atrium building with cylindrical shape design is a better energy efficient design than the conventional buildings. Such buildings in cold climate could help to reduce the heat losses through the thermal envelope and facilitate to achieve the passive house criteria. Moreover, the Nydalahuset project suggests that the atrium design could improve the social interaction of occupants in residential buildings.

  • 4.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Svensson, Michelle
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Adaption of the passive house concept in northern Sweden: a case study of performance2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the performance of a case study of low energy house built in Östersund (lat.63°N), Sweden. The building is a semi detached house for two families, with each apartment having afloor space of 160 m2 divided on two floors. The building was constructed during 2010 according tothe Swedish passive house principles with design that meet the requirements for Swedish passivehouses as defined by the Forum for energy efficiency buildings (FEBY) and the Swedish center forzero energy houses (SCNH). The house is connected to the district heating network, which is the mainheat source for domestic water heating, floor heating in the bathroom and water based pre‐heatercoil in the ventilation system. Additionally, a wood stove is installed in the living room for thermalcomfort and convenience of the residents. The two identical residential units in the building wereinhabited in the end of 2010 by families with different characteristics; a family with two youngchildren in one unit and a middle aged couple in the other.A one year energy measurement campaign started in May 2012 for both of the residential units. Themeasurements started after a period of adjustments of the building energy system and include spaceand domestic water heating (separate measurements), household electricity, the amount of fuelwood used in the stove, and indoor thermal conditions. The results show that it is possible to buildpassive houses in the Northern regions of Sweden. The specific final energy demand of the casestudy was 23% lower than the Swedish FEBY‐requirements. Differences were found between themonitored and calculated specific final energy demand. These differences depend to a large extanton the occupants’ behavior and household characteristics. The final energy demand for heating anddomestic water heating found to vary significantly between the two households.

  • 5.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Emergidiagram kopplade till de svenska miljömålen2017Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Emergipublikationer med anknytning till Sverige2017Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Jarl, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    BREEAM-SE: Är den bidragande till ett ökat ekonomiskt fastighetsvärde?2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental certification system BREEAM-SE has been studied and the parts that create an economical increase in value seen from the property owner’s perspective, has been located in the environmental certification system. The study was done by qualitative interviews so the interviewed people were able to explicate their answers about why or why not they thought that the indicators created a value. A complete grade has been compiled regard to the economical increase in value according to BREEAM-SE. The study only considered the economical increase in value regarded to the property owner and delimitated studies for other job types. An immerse to the indicators that creates an economical increase in value has been restricted due to time which led to that partly the indicator energy, wasn’t fully optimized regarding the objective point that need to be reached for the greatest economical increase of value. Those parts in this environmental certification system that creates the greatest economical increase in value are decreasing energy consumption, localization of the building and choice of material. These indicators decreased the management- and maintenance cost the most for the property owner and therefor it increases the marginal profit for the property owner. The buildings comfort contributes to the tenants will to pay a higher rent, the lowered production cost contributes to a lower investment cost and the critical break-even point is, in theory, reached faster by the property owner. Even the environmental certification contributes to an economical increase in value, partly because the tenant request higher environmental standards and they almost demands some kind of an environmental certification, and partly because the environmental certification system ‘’forces’’ the planning group to handle certain questions in an early stage of the process which otherwise might have been left for a later occasion. This leads to that the cost of changes in the project can be avoided and becomes lower in an early stage of the project, then it would be if the changes were met later in the process. The grade that was reached regarding to an optimized economical BREEAM-SE evaluation was VERY GOOD because the obtained BREEAM-points was 59,55 %, and all of the minimum criteria’s were executed.

  • 8.
    Krusing, Cecilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Miljöbyggnad nivå Silver: Fallstudie brf Stenhuggaren2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades environment and sustainability have gained greater

    importance for construction and real estate. A number of environmental

    certifications have emerged. Green Building according to Sweden Green

    Building Council (SGBC), is a swedish system to certify buildings in

    energy, indoor environment and building materials.

    A certified building according to Green Building can obtain grade Gold,

    Silver or Bronze.

    A case study has been made on Stenhuggaren, a housing project with 47

    condominiums, where the developer has the ambition to certify the

    building for grade Silver, in order to reach the companys overall climate

    targets.

    The case study consists of literature studies, interviews with

    participating consultants in the housing project.

    The author has studied the consultants results from project planning

    and examined what the contractor will do in practical implementation

    of construction to ensure that estimated goals will be reached.

    The Manual 2.1 (edition 120101) Evaluation criterias for new buildings,

    according to SGBC, has been part of data in this report.

    One of the conclusions that’s emerged from working with this report is

    that work by the contractor dont have the important significance for

    environmental classification, which the author assumed initially. The

    main work lies in thorough project planning.

    Developing environmental and sustainability work in project planning

    can create an opportunity for more buildings to be environmentally

    certified. In a longer perspective this provides an opportunity and

    possibility to obtain qualitative and sustainable buildings.

  • 9.
    Laestander, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    An economic sustainability comparison between the natural building technique; cob and the conventional technique; concrete for residential buildings in Matagalpa, Nicaragua2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cob can serve as an alternative building material to concrete in Nicaragua. Cob is an unbaked earth-based building technique with low global warming potential that suits the humid climate in Nicaragua. It can be constructed by hand by inexperienced people using materials such as; clay, straw, sand and water. The cob technique is relatively little studied and the exact cost of cob is unclear. The purpose of this thesis was thus to provide new information that will help assessing the economic sustainability and the environmental impact of the natural building technique cob in comparison to the conventional technique concrete. The thesis was carried out by a case study of two houses in Matagalpa, Nicaragua.

    The results are showing that the cob technique has cheap materials that support the Nicaraguan economy of Nicaragua but takes a lot of labour force and time in comparison to concrete. The cob technique also allows the builder to make the house personal adapted, with furniture and details, fitted to the owners need. The cob has also a great potential of a long lifespan with low needs of maintenance in comparison with concrete. Concrete also has a higher local environmental impact, more CO2-emissions and higher external costs. The conclusion is thus that cob is a more sustainable technique for building residential houses in Matagalpa. 

  • 10.
    Lind, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Hållbarhetsanalys av två nya byggnader i Bollnäs: Ett rådgivande underlag för kommande bostadsprojekt2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work is being conducted in order to verify through analysis in sustainability of two newly constructed apartment houses and pose the question whether it’s possible to create a questionnaire for future projects.

    Within ecological sustainability the embodied carbon dioxide in the frame material and carbon dioxide equivalent in the use phase due to energy consumption is studied. The study of social sustainability is made with a recent survey where residents of the houses gives their views on the houses. In economic sustainability a general calculation of life cycle cost (LCC) is used.

    The study shows that the building materials play a role in how much embodied carbon dioxide is part of the house frame, with the recommendation to analyze future projects with the intent to decrease greenhouse gas emissions. In the use phase it is recommended to look into the possibility of supplementing the heating of water by solar energy. The study shows that surveys are great tools for the study of social sustainability with the recommendation to conduct follow-ups with the opportunity for residents to explain which are good and not as good with the new buildings. Financial section shows that LCC calculations to some extent affect the economic view of the houses, but the theory also says that a LCC calculation has limitations.

    The study concludes with a questionnaire to help encourage all parties involved in future projects to think in terms of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, reducing energy consumption and increasing well-being of the residents.

  • 11.
    Maria, Byström
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Materialval ur hälso- och miljösynpunkt.: En ekonomisk jämförelse vid val av byggmaterial med Bedömning A i SundaHus.2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    There might be substances that can be harmful to the environment and unhealthy to humans in different materials that are used in constructions. They might be in concrete, floorings, insulation, glue, plastics, paint and lacquers. Swedish chemicals agency has a PRIO- guide where phase-out substances, substances that has such severe properties that they should not be used and priority risk-reduction substances, substances that should be given special attention is stored. These types of substances are selected in SundaHus database where the materials get assessed depending on contents and properties and presented with the letters A-D. Region Jämtland Härjedalen wants to use less of these substances in their buildings. Through a case study the materials at the reconstruction Zefyren has been checked and if they have been given fewer grades than A in SundaHus database alternatives have been brought forward. This rapport has been looking at the financial difference when using the present materials and the alternatives. The result is that it will be 80 779 kr more expensive to change to the alternatives. The result also shows that a reduction of phase-out- and priority risk-reduction substances in the finished product is 21 percent. The conclusion is that it can be worth changing the materials to alternatives that have better grade in SundaHus even though the cost is higher.

    SundaHus database is a tool that today is used by eight county councils and a study has been made if it could be suitable for Region Jämtland Härjedalen. Those who have answered are all pleased with SundaHus and think it is worth the cost. The recommendation is that Region Jämtland Härjedalen should use SundaHus at future projects. 

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