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  • 1.
    Hague, Enamul
    et al.
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh .
    Islam, Nahidul
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh .
    Rahman, Hafizur
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh .
    Uddin Mohamad, Akim
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh .
    Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of the Crude Extracts and Isolated Compounds of Xylocarpus mollucensis2008In: Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 109-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fractionated crude extracts and three isolated pure compounds XM-1, XM-2 and XM-3 from stem bark of Xylocarpus mollucensis were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities and cytotoxicity against brine shrimp nauplii. Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and methanol (MeOH) extracts and the compounds isolated from EtOAc fractions were studied for their antimicrobial activities. Cytotoxic activities were conducted only with EtOAc extract and its selected fractions. The EtOAc extract showed promising antimicrobial activities against all the gram positive and gram negative bacteria whereas petroleum ether extract showed moderate activities and the MeOH extract did not show any antimicrobial activities. The isolated pure compounds XM-1, XM-2 and XM-3, whose structures were not elucidated, exhibited activities against most of the bacterial strains. The cytotoxicity towards brine shrimp nauplii of the crude EtOAC extract and its selected fractions were studied. The LC50 values of the EtoAc extract was 12.6 µg/ml and for the fractions 2, 5, 8 and 13 were 17.78, 13.34, 14.13 and 15.85 µg/ml, respectively.

  • 2.
    Haque, Enamul
    et al.
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Uddin Shekhar, Hussain
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Uddin Mohamad, Akim
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, Hafizur
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Islam, Mydul
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Sabir
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Triterpenoids from the Stem Bark of Avicennia officinalis2006In: Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 5, no 1-2, p. 53-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The triterpinoids, betulinic acid, lupeol and betulinaldehyde, were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Avicennia officinalis (Avicenniaceae) by a combination of column and preparative thin- layer chromatography over silica gel. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, 1 H NMR, 13 CNMR and EIMS). This is the first report of a systematic phytochemical investigation and the presence of these triterpoids from this plant.

  • 3.
    Moulton, Vincent
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Gardner, P. P.
    Pointon, R. F.
    Creamer, L. K.
    Jameson, G. B.
    Penny, David
    RNA folding argues against a hot-start origin of life2000In: Journal of Molecular Evolution, ISSN 0022-2844, E-ISSN 1432-1432, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 416-421Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Opinion is strongly divided on whether life arose on earth under hot or cold conditions, the hot-start and cold-start Scenarios, respectively. The origin of life close to deep thermal vents appears as the majority opinion among biologists, but there is considerable biochemical evidence that high temperatures are incompatible with an RNA world. To be functional, RNA has to fold into a three-dimensional structure. We report both theoretical and experimental results on RNA folding and show that las expected) hot conditions strongly reduce RNA folding. The theoretical results come from energy-minimization calculations of the average extent of folding of RNA, mainly from 0-90 degreesC, for both random sequences and tRNA sequences. The experimental results are from circular-dichroism measurements of tRNA over a similar range of temperatures. The quantitative agreement between calculations and experiment is remarkable, even to the shape of the curves indicating the cooperative nature of RNA folding and unfolding. These results provide additional evidence for a lower temperature stage being necessary in the origin of life.

  • 4.
    van Hees, P A W
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Vinogradoff, S I
    Edwards, A C
    Godbold, D L
    Jones, D L
    Low molecular weight organic acid adsorption in forest soils: effects on soil solution concentrations and biodegradation rates2003In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 1015-1026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low molecular weight (LMW) organic acids are believed to play a key role in many rhizosphere and pedogenic processes; However, their efficiency is likely to depend on their susceptibility to sorption and biodegradation. The sorption characteristics of three organic acids (citrate, oxalate and acetate) and phosphate were examined over the concentration range 0-1000 muM in three coniferous forest soil profiles. Sorption to the soil's solid phase could be adequately described by the Langmuir equation with sorption capacity following the horizon series: B > C > E > O. The strength of anion sorption followed the series: phosphate > oxalate : citrate > acetate. Calculations indicated that between 50 and 95% (0 and E horizons) and > 93% (13 horizons) of these LMW organic acids entering the soil will become sorbed to the solid phase. The amount of organic acids predicted to be present on the solid phase at typical soil solution concentrations ranged from < 1 to 1100 nmol g(-1) yielding adsorbed-to-solution ratios (adsorption coefficients) of between < 0.1 and 3100. In the case of citrate, sorption to the solid phase significantly reduced its biodegradation potential by 35-99% depending upon the degree and type of sorption surface. The findings of this work are discussed in the context of the quantitative effects of adsorption on organic acids, their ecological functions and role in soil forming processes.

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