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  • 1.
    Duncan, S.
    et al.
    John Innes Centre, Norwich, United Kingdom .
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Questa, J.
    John Innes Centre, Norwich, United Kingdom .
    Irwin, J.
    John Innes Centre, Norwich, United Kingdom .
    Grant, A.
    Department of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom .
    Dean, C.
    John Innes Centre, Norwich, United Kingdom .
    Seasonal shift in timing of vernalization as an adaptation to extreme winter2015In: eLIFE, ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 4, no JULYArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The requirement for vernalization, a need for prolonged cold to trigger flowering, aligns reproductive development with favorable spring conditions. In Arabidopsis thaliana vernalization depends on the cold-induced epigenetic silencing of the floral repressor locus FLC. Extensive natural variation in vernalization response is associated with A. thaliana accessions collected from different geographical regions. Here, we analyse natural variation for vernalization temperature requirement in accessions, including those from the northern limit of the A. thaliana range. Vernalization required temperatures above 0°C and was still relatively effective at 14°C in all the accessions. The different accessions had characteristic vernalization temperature profiles. One Northern Swedish accession showed maximum vernalization at 8°C, both at the level of flowering time and FLC chromatin silencing. Historical temperature records predicted all accessions would vernalize in autumn in N. Sweden, a prediction we validated in field transplantation experiments. The vernalization response of the different accessions was monitored over three intervals in the field and found to match that when the average field temperature was given as a constant condition. The vernalization temperature range of 0–14°C meant all accessions fully vernalized before snowfall in N. Sweden. These findings have important implications for understanding the molecular basis of adaptation and for predicting the consequences of climate change on flowering time.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Ljusk Ola
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, SLU.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Hänninen, Riitta
    Finnish Forest Res Inst, Vantaa 01301, Finland .
    Kallio, Maarit
    Finnish Forest Res Inst, Vantaa 01301, Finland .
    Lyhykäinen, Henna
    Finnish Forest Res Inst, Vantaa 01301, Finland .
    Pingoud, Kim
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Pohjola, Johanna
    Finnish Forest Res Inst, Vantaa 01301, Finland .
    Sathre, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Solberg, Birger
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Ecol & Nat Resource Management, N-1432 As, Norway .
    Svanaes, Jarle
    Norsk Treteknisk Inst, N-0314 Oslo, Norway .
    Valsta, Lauri
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Forest Sci, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Climate change mitigation through increased wood use in the European construction sector - towards an integrated modelling framework2012In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 131, no 1, p. 131-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using wood as a building material affects the carbon balance through several mechanisms. This paper describes a modelling approach that integrates a wood product substitution model, a global partial equilibrium model, a regional forest model and a stand-level model. Three different scenarios were compared with a business-as-usual scenario over a 23-year period (2008-2030). Two scenarios assumed an additional one million apartment flats per year will be built of wood instead of non-wood materials by 2030. These scenarios had little effect on markets and forest management and reduced annual carbon emissions by 0.2-0.5% of the total 1990 European GHG emissions. However, the scenarios are associated with high specific CO2 emission reductions per unit of wood used. The third scenario, an extreme assumption that all European countries will consume 1-m3 sawn wood per capita by 2030, had large effects on carbon emission, volumes and trade flows. The price changes of this scenario, however, also affected forest management in ways that greatly deviated from the partial equilibrium model projections. Our results suggest that increased wood construction will have a minor impact on forest management and forest carbon stocks. To analyse larger perturbations on the demand side, a market equilibrium model seems crucial. However, for that analytical system to work properly, the market and forest regional models must be better synchronized than here, in particular regarding assumptions on timber supply behaviour. Also, bioenergy as a commodity in market and forest models needs to be considered to study new market developments; those modules are currently missing

  • 3.
    Sathre, Roger
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, 35195, Sweden.
    Time-dependent radiative forcing effects of forest fertilization and biomass substitution2012In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 109, no 1-3, p. 203-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we analyse the radiative forcing implications of forest fertilization and biomass substitution, with explicit consideration of the temporal patterns of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to and removals from the atmosphere (net emissions). We model and compare the production and use of biomass from a hectare of fertilized and non-fertilized forest land in northern Sweden. We calculate the annual net emissions of CO 2, N 2O and CH 4 for each system, over a 225-year period with 1-year time steps. We calculate the annual atmospheric concentration decay of each of these emissions, and calculate the resulting annual changes in instantaneous and cumulative radiative forcing. We find that forest fertilization can significantly increase biomass production, which increases the potential for material and energy substitution. The average carbon stock in tree biomass, forest soils and wood products all increase when fertilization is used. The additional GHG emissions due to fertilizer production and application are small compared to increases in substitution benefits and carbon stock. The radiative forcing of the 2 stands is identical for the first 15 years, followed by 2 years during which the fertilized stand produces slightly more radiative forcing. After year 18 the instantaneous and cumulative radiative forcing are consistently lower for the fertilized forest system. Both stands result in long-term negative radiative forcing, or cooling of the earth system. By the end of the 225-year simulation period, the cumulative radiative forcing reduction of the fertilized stand is over twice that of the non-fertilized stand. This suggests that forest fertilization and biomass substitution are effective options for climate change mitigation, as climate change is a long term issue. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  • 4.
    Waller, Judith
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Andersson, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Wallin, Marcus
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sahlée, Erik
    Uppsala universitet.
    Measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes over an oligotrophic Boreal river in northern Scandinavia2018In: Book of abstracts : Linnaeus ECO-TECH '18: 11th  International conference on establishment of cooperation between companies and institutions in the Nordic countries, the Baltic Sea region and the world / [ed] Yahya Jani, Jelena Lundström, Viveka Svensson, William Hogland, Kalmar: Linnaeus University , 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), as one of the major anthropogenic greenhouse gases, is widely acknowledged to contribute to global warming and climate change. Historically, the major focus on the role of the aquatic environment in the carbon cycle has been on the atmosphere-ocean exchange. More recent findings suggest the importance of freshwater (lakes, rivers and streams) as a source for atmospheric CO2. The freshwater contribution is, however, poorly understood, mainly due to a paucity of data, especially from running waters.

    To address this issue, eddy covariance (EC) measurements in a large boreal river in Northern Sweden (Indalsälven), are being made as part of a two-year long continual study of the carbon dioxide emissions between the air and water. This is one of the first known studies of its kind where EC measurements are conducted in a river setting. Continual data acquisition began in April 2018, monitoring a variety of general meteorological parameters, turbulent emissions of carbon dioxide, latent, and sensible heat, together with water-side measurements of CO2. The aim of the study is to investigate the temporal control on river carbon dioxide emissions covering timescales from hours to seasons.

    This paper describes the ongoing work, and reports on the present status of the project. The primary focus lies on data that indicates a dependence of carbon dioxide flux on wind-speed. Wind speed demonstrates a positive correlation with the measured emissions, with the highest emissions measured corresponding to the directions where the upwind distance to land was greatest, indicating that the wind-generated turbulence has a strong influence on the carbon dioxide emissions over a boreal river.

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