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  • 1.
    Cassirame, Johan
    et al.
    Univ Franche Comte, EA 4660, Culture Sport Hlth Soc, Exercise,Performance,Hlth,Innovat Platform, F-25030 Besancon, France..
    Tordi, Nicolas
    Univ Franche Comte, EA Fonct & Dysfunct Epitheliales 4267, Exercise, Performance,Hlth,Innovat Platform, F-25030 Besancon, France.;Univ Hosp Besancon, Clin Invest Ctr Technol Innovat, INSERM CIT808, Besancon, France..
    Fabre, Nicolas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Duc, Sebastien
    Univ Perpignan, Dept STAPS Font Romeu, Lab Sport Sante & Altitude, Font Romeu, France..
    Durand, Fabienne
    Univ Perpignan, Dept STAPS Font Romeu, Lab Sport Sante & Altitude, Font Romeu, France..
    Mourot, Laurent
    Univ Franche Comte, EA 4660, Culture Sport Hlth Soc, Exercise,Performance,Hlth,Innovat Platform, F-25030 Besancon, France.;Univ Hosp Besancon, Clin Invest Ctr Technol Innovat, INSERM CIT808, Besancon, France..
    Heart rate variability to assess ventilatory threshold in ski-mountaineering2015In: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 615-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity to predict the heart rate (HR) and speed at the first (VT1) and second (VT2) ventilatory thresholds was evaluated during an incremental ski-mountaineering test using heart rate variability (HRV). Nine skiers performed a field test to exhaustion on an alpine skiing track. VT1 and VT2 were individually determined by visual analysis from gas exchanges (VT1V and VT2V) and time-varying spectral HRV analysis (VT1fH, VT2fH and VT2H). VT1 could not be determined with the HRV methods used. On the contrary, the VT2 was determined in all skiers. No significant difference between HR and speed at VT2H and VT2V was observed (174.3 +/- 5.6 vs. 174.3 +/- 5.3 bpm, and 6.3 +/- 0.9 and 6.3 +/- 0.9 km h(-1), respectively). Strong correlations were obtained for HR (r = 0.91) and speed (r = 0.92) at VT2H and VT2V with small limits of agreement (+/- 3.6 bpm for HR). Our results indicated that HRV enables determination of HR and speed at VT2 during a specific ski-mountaineering incremental test. These findings provide practical applications for skiers in order to evaluate and control specific training loads, at least when referring to VT2.

  • 2.
    Fabré, Nicolas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Mourot, L
    Exercise Performance Health Innovation Platform, Clinical Investigation Center, Franche-Comté University, Besançon, France.
    Zerbini, L
    Research Center for Mountain, Sport, and Health, Rovereto, Italy.
    Pellegrini, B
    Research Center for Mountain, Sport, and Health, Rovereto, Italy.
    Bortolan, L
    Research Center for Mountain, Sport, and Health, Rovereto, Italy.
    Schena, F
    Research Center for Mountain, Sport, and Health, Rovereto, Italy.
    A novel approach for lactate threshold assessment based on rating of perceived exertion2013In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, ISSN ISSN 1555-0265, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 263-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tested the hypothesis that the DMAX (for maximal distance) method could be applied to ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), to propose a novel method for individual detection of the lactate threshold (LT) using RPE alone during an incremental test to exhaustion. Twenty-one participants performed an incremental test on a cycle ergometer. At the end of each stage, lactate concentration was measured and the participants estimated RPE using the Borg CR100 scale. The intensity corresponding to the fixed lactate values of 2 or 4 mmol • L-1 (2mM and 4mM), the ventilatory threshold (VT), the respiratory-compensation point (RCP), and the instant of equality of pulmonary gas exchange (RER=1.00) were determined. Lactate (DMAX La) and RPE (DMAX RPE) thresholds were determined using the DMAX method. Oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate, and power output measured at DMAX RPE and at D MAX La were not statistically different. Bland-Altman plots showed small bias and good agreements when DMAX RPE was compared with the DMAX La and RER=1.00 methods (bias = -0.05% and -2% of VO2max, respectively). Conversely, VO2 from the D MAX RPE method was lower than VO2 at 4 mM and at RCP and was higher than VO2 at 2 mM and at VT. VO2 at D MAX RPE was strongly correlated with VO2 at D MAX La (r = .97), at RER=1.00 (r = .97), at 2 mM (r = .85), at 4 mM (r = .93), at VT (r = .95), and at RCP (r = .95). The combination of the DMAX method with the RPE responses permitted precise and individualized estimates of LT using the DMAX method.

  • 3.
    Fabré, Nicolas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Mourot, Laurent
    Univ Franche Comte, Culture Sport Hlth Soc, Res Unit EA4660, F-25030 Besancon, France.
    Zoppirolli, Chiara
    Univ Verona, Dept Neurol Neuropsychol Morphol & Movement Sci, Ctr Res Mt Sport & Hlth, CeRiSM, Rovereto, Italy.
    Andersson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Willis, Sarah J.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Alterations in aerobic energy expenditure and neuromuscular function during a simulated cross-country skiathlon with the skating technique2015In: Human Movement Science, ISSN 0167-9457, E-ISSN 1872-7646, Vol. 40, p. 326-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we tested the hypothesis that aerobic energy expenditure (AEE) is higher during a simulated 6-km (2 loops of 3-km each) "skiathlon" than during skating only on a treadmill and attempted to link any such increase to biomechanical and neuromuscular responses. Six elite male cross-country skiers performed two pretesting time-trials (TT) to determine their best performances and to choose an appropriate submaximal speed for collection of physiological, biomechanical and neuromuscular data during two experimental sessions ((exp)). Each skier used, in randomized order, either the classical (CL) or skating technique (SK) for the first 3-km loop, followed by transition to the skating technique for the second 3-km loop. Respiratory parameters were recorded continuously. The EMG activity of the triceps brachii (TBr and vastus lateralis (VLa) muscles during isometric contractions performed when the skiers were stationary (i.e., just before the first loop, during the transition, and after the second loop); their corresponding activity during dynamic contractions; and pole and plantar forces during the second loop were recorded. During the second 3-km of the 'IT, skating speed was significantly higher for the SK-SK than CL-SK. During this second loop, AEE was also higher (+1.5%) for CL-SKexp than SK-SKexp, in association with higher VLa EMG activity during both isometric and dynamic contractions, despite no differences in plantar or pole forces, poling times or cycle rates. Although the underlying mechanism remains unclear, during a skiathlon, the transition between the sections of classical skiing and skating alters skating performance (i.e., skiing speed), AEE and neuromuscular function. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Lussiana, T.
    et al.
    Research Unit EA4660, Culture Sport Health Society and Exercise Performance Health Innovation Platform, Franche-Comté University, Besançon, France .
    Fabre, Nicolas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hébert-Losier, Kim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Mourot, L.
    Research Unit EA4660, Culture Sport Health Society and Exercise Performance Health Innovation Platform, Franche-Comté University, Besançon, France .
    Effect of slope and footwear on running economy and kinematics2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 23, no 4, p. e246-e253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lower energy cost of running (Cr) has been reported when wearing minimal (MS) vs traditional shoes (TS) on level terrain, but the effect of slope on this difference is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare Cr, physiological, and kinematic variables from running in MS and TS on different slope conditions. Fourteen men (23.4 +/- 4.4 years; 177.5 +/- 5.2cm; 69.5 +/- 5.3kg) ran 14 5-min trials in a randomized sequence at 10km/h on a treadmill. Subjects ran once wearing MS and once wearing TS on seven slopes, from -8% to +8%. We found that Cr increased with slope gradient (P<0.01) and was on average 1.3% lower in MS than TS (P<0.01). However, slope did not influence the Cr difference between MS and TS. In MS, contact times were lower (P<0.01), flight times (P=0.01) and step frequencies (P=0.02) were greater at most slope gradients, and plantar-foot angles - and often ankle plantar-flexion (P=0.01) - were greater (P<0.01). The 1.3% difference between footwear identified here most likely stemmed from the difference in shoe mass considering that the Cr difference was independent of slope gradient and that the between-footwear kinematic alterations with slope provided limited explanations.

  • 5.
    Mourot, L.
    et al.
    Clinical Investigation Centre in Technologic Innovation, INSERM CIT808, University Hospital of Besançon, France .
    Fabre, Nicolas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Willis, Sarah J.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hébert-Losier, Kim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Swedish Olymp Comm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Impact of the initial classic section during a simulated cross-country skiing skiathlon on the cardiopulmonary responses during the subsequent period of skate skiing2014In: Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 1715-5320, Vol. 39, no 8, p. 911-919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess potential changes in the performance and cardiorespiratory responses of elite cross-country skiers following transition from the classic (CL) to the skating (SK) technique during a simulated skiathlon. Eight elite male skiers performed two 6 km (2 × 3 km) roller-skiing time trials on a treadmill at racing speed: one starting with the classic and switching to the skating technique (CL1-SK2) and another employing the skating technique throughout (SK1-SK2), with continuous monitoring of gas exchanges, heart rates, and kinematics (video). The overall performance times in the CL1-SK2 (21:12 ± 1:24) and SK1-SK2 (20:48 ± 2:00) trials were similar, and during the second section of each performance times and overall cardiopulmonary responses were also comparable. However, in comparison with SK1-SK2, the CL1-SK2 trial involved significantly higher increases in minute ventilation (VE, 89.8 ± 26.8 vs. 106.8 ± 17.6 L·min-1) and oxygen uptake (VO2; 3.1 ± 0.8 vs 3.5 ±0.5 L·min-1) 2 min after the transition as well as longer time constants for VE, VO2, and heart rate during the first 3 min after the transition. This higher cardiopulmonary exertion was associated with ~3% faster cycle rates. In conclusion, overall performance during the 2 time trials did not differ. The similar performance times during the second sections were achieved with comparable mean cardiopulmonary responses. However, the observation that during the initial 3-min post-transition following classic skiing cardiopulmonary responses and cycle rates were slightly higher supports the conclusion that an initial section of classic skiing exerts an impact on performance during a subsequent section of skate skiing.

  • 6.
    Mourot, Laurent
    et al.
    EA4660 and Exercise Performance, Health, Innovation Platform, University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France.
    Fabre, Nicolas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Willis, Sarah
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Buchheit, Martin
    Dept of Sport Science, Myorobie Association, Montvalezan, France .
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Cross-Country Skiing and Postexercise Heart-Rate Recovery2015In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 11-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Postexercise heart-rate (HR) recovery (HRR) indices have been associated with running and cycling endurance-exercise performance. The current study was designed (1) to test whether such a relationship also exists in the case of cross-country skiing (XCS) and (2) to determine whether the magnitude of any such relationship is related to the intensity of exercise before obtaining HRR indices. Ten elite male cross-country skiers (mean +/- SD; 28.2 +/- 5.4 y, 181 +/- 8 cm, 77.9 +/- 9.4 kg, 69.5 +/- 4.3 mL.min(-1) . kg(-1) maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max]) performed 2 sessions of roller-skiing on a treadmill: a 2 x 3-km time trial and the same 6-km at an imposed submaximal speed followed by a final 800-m time trial. VO2 and HR were monitored continuously, while HRR and blood lactate (BLa) were assessed during 2 min immediately after each 6-km and the 800-m time trial. The 6-km time-trial time was largely negatively correlated with VO2max and BLa. On the contrary, there was no clear correlation between the 800-m time-trial time and VO2, HR, or BLa. In addition, in no case was any clear correlation between any of the HRR indices and performance time or VO2max observed. These findings confirm that XCS performance is largely correlated with VO2max and the ability to tolerate high levels of BLa; however, postexercise HRR showed no clear association with performance. The homogeneity of the group of athletes involved and the contribution of the arms and upper body to the exercise preceding determination of HRR may explain this absence of a relationship.

  • 7.
    Mourot, Laurent
    et al.
    Univ Franche Comte, F-25030 Besancon, France.
    Fabre, Nicolas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Savoldelli, Aldo
    Univ Verona, Ctr Res Mt Sport & Hlth, Rovereto, Italy.
    Schena, Federico
    Univ Verona, Ctr Res Mt Sport & Hlth, Rovereto, Italy.
    Second Ventilatory Threshold From Heart-Rate Variability: Valid When the Upper Body Is Involved?2014In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 695-701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine the most accurate method based on spectral analysis of heart-rate variability (SA-HRV) during an incremental and continuous maximal test involving the upper body, the authors tested 4 different methods to obtain the heart rate (HR) at the second ventilatory threshold (VT2). Sixteen ski mountaineers (mean +/- SD; age 25 +/- 3 y, height 177 +/- 8 cm, mass 69 +/- 10 kg) performed a roller-ski test on a treadmill. Respiratory variables and HR were continuously recorded, and the 4 SA-HRV methods were compared with the gas-exchange method through Bland and Altman analyses. The best method was the one based on a time-varying spectral analysis with high frequency ranging from 0.15 Hz to a cutoff point relative to the individual's respiratory sinus arrhythmia. The HR values were significantly correlated (r(2) = .903), with a mean HR difference with the respiratory method of 0.1 +/- 3.0 beats/min and low limits of agreements (around -6 /+ 6 beats/min). The 3 other methods led to larger errors and lower agreements (up to 5 beats/min and around -23/+ 20 beats/min). It is possible to accurately determine VT2 with an HR monitor during an incremental test involving the upper body if the appropriate HRV method is used.

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