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  • 1.
    Ahokas, E K
    et al.
    Unit of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä.
    Kyrolainen, H
    Unit of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä.
    Mero, AA
    Unit of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä.
    Walker, S
    Unit of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä.
    Hanstock, Helen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ihalainen, Johanna K.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Unit of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä.
    Minimal effect of water immersion on markers of inflammation and muscle damage after intensive exercise2019In: Proc Physiol Soc 44, 2019, article id C43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water immersion methods, such as cold water immersion and contrast water therapy are popular recovery interventions after athletic training and competition. Nevertheless, post-exercise cold water immersion may actually inhibit hypertrophic signalling pathways and muscle adaptation to training (1). It is has been commonly assumed that the mechanism of impaired training adaptation is mediated by blunted inflammatory responses to muscle-damaging exercise, although this assumption has been questioned by recent data (2). A weakness of previous studies is omission of active recovery in water immersion interventions, which would arguably be utilised in addition to water immersion by athletic populations. The aim of this study was to compare the influence of three water immersion methods, performed after active recovery, on inflammatory responses to muscle-damaging exercise. Nine male participants (age 20-35 y) performed an intensive exercise protocol, consisting of maximal jumps and sprinting, on four occasions. After each trial, participants completed one of four recovery protocols in a randomised, crossover design (ACT, active recovery only, 10 min cycling; heart rate 120-140 b/min; CWI, active recovery followed by 10 min cold water immersion, 10°C; TWI, active recovery followed by 10 min temperate water immersion, 24°C and CWT, active recovery followed by contrast water therapy, 10 min alternating 10°C and 38°C in 1 min cycles). The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and approved by the local ethical review board. Venous blood samples were collected pre-exercise and 5 min, 60 min, 24 h, 48 h and 96 h post-exercise, then analysed for myocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and creatine kinase (CK) using ELISA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) using a chemiluminescence assay. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare biomarker concentrations between groups over time. There were no differences in biomarker concentrations during exercise and recovery between groups across the six time points, however main effects of time were present for all three markers (MCP-1: F(2.32, 18.56) = 23.1, p < 0.0001; CK: F(2.059, 16.47) = 8.74, p = 0.002; hs-CRP: F(1.07, 8.57 = 13.8, p = 0.005). Tukey’s post-hoc analysis of simple time effects revealed increases in MCP-1 at post-5 min versus pre in all groups except CWT. In TWI and CWI, MCP-1 was still elevated above pre at 60 min post-exercise. hs-CRP peaked at 24 h post-exercise in all groups. CK was elevated at post-60 versus pre in all groups and at post-24 except in CWT. Our findings suggest that use of cold or thermoneutral water immersion in combination with active recovery may slightly prolong the immediate post-exercise elevation in MCP-1 but have minimal overall effect on markers of inflammation and muscle damage.

  • 2.
    Ahokas, Essi K.
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Ihalainen, Johanna K.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Kyröläinen, Heikki
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Mero, Antti A.
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Effects of Water Immersion Methods on Postexercise Recovery of Physical and Mental Performance2019In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 1488-1495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 3 water immersion interventions performed after active recovery compared with active recovery only on physical and mental performance measures and physiological responses. The subjects were physically active men (age 20-35 years, mean ± SD 26 ± 3.7 years). All subjects performed a short-term exercise protocol, including maximal jumps and sprinting. Four different recovery methods (10 minutes) were used in random order: cold water immersion (CWI, 10° C), thermoneutral water immersion (TWI, 24° C), and contrast water therapy (CWT, alternately 10° C and 38° C). All these methods were performed after an active recovery (10-minute bicycle ergometer; heart rate [HR] 120-140 b·min, 60-73% from age-calculated maximum HR), and the fourth method was active recovery (ACT) only. Within 96 hours after exercise bouts, recovery was assessed through a 30-m maximal sprint test, maximal countermovement jump (CMJ), self-perceived muscle soreness and relaxation questionnaires, and blood lactate, creatine kinase, testosterone, cortisol, and catecholamine levels. The self-perceived feeling of relaxation after 60-minute recovery was better (p < 0.05) after CWI and CWT than ACT and TWI. Statistically significant differences were not observed between the recovery methods in any other marker. In the 30-m sprint test, however, slower running time was found in ACT (p < 0.001) and CWT (p = 0.005), and reduced CMJ results (p < 0.05) were found in ACT when the results were compared with baseline values. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that CWI and CWT improve the acute feeling of relaxation that can play a positive role in athletes' performance and well-being.

  • 3.
    Amugongo, Jael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Assessing parental perceptions to a school-based intervention study on dengue and chikungunya in Kwale County, South Coast Kenya: A qualitative study2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 4.
    Andersen-Hollekim, Tone E.
    et al.
    More & Romsdal Hosp Trust, Alesund, Norway; Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Trondheim, Norway.
    Kvangarsnes, Marit
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Alesund, Norway; More & Romsdal Hosp Trust, Alesund, Norway.
    Landstad, Bodil J.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Nord Trondelag Hosp Trust, Levanger Hosp, Levanger, Norway.
    Talseth-Palmer, Bente A.
    More & Romsdal Hosp Trust, Alesund, Norway; Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Trondheim, Norway; Univ Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia; Hunter Med Res Inst, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.
    Hole, Torstein
    More & Romsdal Hosp Trust, Alesund, Norway; Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Trondheim, Norway.
    Patient participation in the clinical pathway: Nurses' perceptions of adults' involvement in haemodialysis2019In: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 574-582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To develop knowledge of nurses' perceptions of participation for patients treated with haemodialysis and their next of kin.

    Design: A qualitative study with a hermeneutic approach.

    Methods: The data were collected in 2015 through focus groups with 13 nurses in Central Norway.

    Results: The nurses reported that patient participation ranging from non-involvement to shared decision-making was related to whether dialysis was initiated as acute or scheduled. The restrictions required in chronic haemodialysis limited participation. The next of kin were not involved. The nurses highlighted interventions on both the individual and system levels to strengthen participation.

    Conclusion: Dialysis units should develop strategies for participation related to individual needs and design treatment in cooperation with patients and their families, ensuring involvement early in the clinical pathway. Further research is needed on issues related to next of kin, including their desired level of involvement.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Govus, Andrew
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Shannon, Oliver Michael
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    McGawley, Kerry
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sex differences in performance and pacing strategies during sprint skiing2019In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare performance and pacing strategies between elite male and female cross-country skiers during a sprint competition on snow using the skating technique.

    Methods: Twenty male and 14 female skiers completed an individual time-trial prolog (TT) and three head-to-head races (quarter, semi, and final) on the same 1,572-m course, which was divided into flat, uphill and downhill sections. Section-specific speeds, choice of sub-technique (i.e., gear), cycle characteristics, heart rate and post-race blood lactate concentration were monitored. Power output was estimated for the different sections during the TT, while metabolic demand was estimated for two uphill camera sections and the final 50-m flat camera section.

    Results: Average speed during the four races was ∼12.5% faster for males than females (P < 0.001), while speeds on the flat, uphill and downhill sections were ∼11, 18, and 9% faster for the males than females (all P< 0.001 for terrain, sex, and interaction). Differences in uphill TT speed between the sexes were associated with different sub-technique preferences, with males using a higher gear more frequently than females (P < 0.05). The estimated metabolic demand relative to maximal oxygen uptake (V&#x2D9;" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V˙V˙O2max) was similar for both sexes during the two uphill camera sections (∼129% of V&#x2D9;" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V˙V˙O2max) and for the final 50-m flat section (∼153% of V&#x2D9;" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V˙V˙O2max). Relative power output during the TT was 18% higher for males compared to females (P < 0.001) and was highly variable along the course for both sexes (coefficient of variation [CV] between sections 4–9 was 53%), while the same variation in heart rate was low (CV was ∼3%). The head-to-head races were ∼2.4% faster than the TT for both sexes and most race winners (61%) were positioned first already after 30 m of the race. No sex differences were observed during any of the races for heart rate or blood lactate concentration.

    Conclusion: The average sex difference in sprint skiing performance was ∼12.5%, with varying differences for terrain-specific speeds. Moreover, females skied relatively slower uphill (at a lower gear) and thereby elicited more variation in their speed profiles compared to the males.

  • 6.
    Atterhagen, Hanna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ehrenholm Pettersson, Linnéa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Helhetsperspektiv i naturbaserade rehabiliteringsinsatser: En kvalitativ studie av arbetslivsinriktad rehabilitering för stressrelaterad psykisk ohälsa2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7.
    Backman Lönn, Beatrice
    et al.
    Region Västernorrland, Sundsvall Hospital, Sundsvall.
    Olofsson, Niclas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Jong, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Translation and validation of the Clinical Trial Nursing Questionnaire in Swedish: A first step to clarify the clinical research nurse role in Sweden2019In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 28, no 13-14, p. 2696-2705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and objectives: To translate the Clinical Trial Nursing Questionnaire (CTNQ) into Swedish and test it for face and content validity as well as internal consistency and reproducibility using test–retest procedures. Introduction/Background: In many countries, as in Sweden, a registered nurse can be involved in research by becoming a clinical research nurse. The clinical research nurse plays a pivotal role in clinical studies as a part of the research team. Scales have been developed and used with the objective to clarify the role of clinical research nurses: one of them is the CTNQ. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional design with a test–retest procedure was applied to validate the translated questionnaire. By using a snowball sampling method, relevant participants were identified and 49 registered nurses working in the field of research as clinical research nurses answered the questionnaire on two occasions. An expert panel of three clinical research nurses evaluated the questionnaire for face and content validity. The STROBE checklist for observational research has been followed for presenting the research (see File S1). Results: Face and content validity was agreed upon in the expert panel group. Tests for internal consistency of the CTNQ was calculated and showed a high Cronbach's alpha for both the frequency and importance subscales. The test–retest correlation analysis (reproducibility) also revealed a high correlation coefficient for both subscales. Conclusion: The CTNQ-SWE is a valid and robust instrument in a Swedish version. The instrument can be of importance in assessing the role of clinical research nurses in Sweden in future studies. Relevance to clinical practice: Use of the CTNQ-SWE in future research can be of value for clarification and professional development of the clinical research nurse role in Sweden. The further use of the CTNQ in Sweden can be of value in understanding the process where licensed nurses make a transition into becoming a clinical research nurse, and to identify needs for customised education.

  • 8.
    Berglund, Marcus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tidpunkten på dagen och metabolisk fastas inverkan på fysisk prestation2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9.
    Bergström, Max
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lifelong participation in sport: - What can we learn from Orienteering?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10.
    Bilberg, Katarina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Mindfulness som hälsofrämjande intervention: En kvalitativ studie som belyser implementering av Mindfulness i arbetslivet.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Björklund, Glenn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Danvind, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Sundström, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    The effect of speed and gradient on running economy and oxygen uptake during downhill running2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Downhill running poses challenges were the gradient is of importance for energy cost and oxygen uptake. While demonstrated that downhill running at a slight gradient is most efficient, the energy cost increases with a steeper gradient (1). However, the additional effect of running speed has not been studied for downhill running. Therefore, the aim of the study was to analyse the combined effect of gradient and speed in downhill running on oxygen cost and running economy. METHODS:Runners (n=6) were recruited for the study and performed 1) VO2max and running economy (J·kg-1·m-1) tests and 2) an experimental running protocol at two speeds,12 km·h-1 and 80% of the speed at VO2max (V80) and three gradients (0, -5° and -10°). V80 was higher than 12 km·h-1 for all participants. All testing was performed on a large treadmill 3x5 m (Rodby, Sweden) that were controlled for speed and gradient. The experimental protocol was performed continuously with 5 min at each workload in a randomized order, 30 min in total. VO2 was measured throughout the experimental protocol using a mixing chamber (Moxus Metabolic Cart, USA). RESULTS:VO2 expressed as ml·kg-1·min-1 increased because of speed (F1,5=27.8, p=0.003) and decreased with gradient (F1,5=87.6, p<0.001). Between -5° and -10°, VO2 decreased less during V80 compared to 12 km·h-1 shown by an interaction (F2,10=7.9, p=0.009). However, speed did not influence running economy (F1,5=0.9, p=0.38) while gradient increased running economy (F1,5=90.1, p<0.001). A non-significant interaction effect suggests a shift in running economy between -5° and -10° depending on speed (F2,10=3.5, p=0.07). The running economy at V80 was higher compared to 12 km·h-1 at -5° but reversed at -10°. While a relation between running economy at V80 -10°, V80 -5° and 12 km·h-1 -10° (rs>0.88, p<0.019) was found, no relations between running economy on level terrain and steep downhill running (-10°) were recognised. CONCLUSION:While we found no effect on running economy from speed alone, we did see a shift in the running economy for different speeds at an increased downhill gradient. This indicates that a high speed (V80) is more efficient at moderate downhill gradients, while a lower speed (12 km·h-1) is more efficient in steeper downhill gradients. While previous research demonstrate that gradient is of great influence to running economy, the findings of this study suggest that speed also affects the running economy in downhill running.

  • 12.
    Björklund, Glenn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. The Swedish Sports Confederation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Swarén, Mikael
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Born, Dennis-Peter
    Swiss Federal Institute of Sport, Magglingen, Switzerland.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
    Biomechanical Adaptations and Performance Indicators in Short Trail Running2019In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aims were to measure anthropometric and oxygen uptake (V&#x2D9;" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; font-size: 20px; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; color: rgb(62, 61, 64); font-family: Georgia, "Times New Roman", Times, serif; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V˙V˙O2) variables in the laboratory, to measure kinetic and stride characteristics during a trail running time trial, and then analyse the data for correlations with trail running performance. Runners (13 men, 4 women: mean age: 29 ± 5 years; stature: 179.5 ± 0.8 cm; body mass: 69.1 ± 7.4 kg) performed laboratory tests to determine V&#x2D9;" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; font-size: 20px; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; color: rgb(62, 61, 64); font-family: Georgia, "Times New Roman", Times, serif; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V˙V˙O2 max, running economy (RE), and anthropometric characteristics. On a separate day they performed an outdoor trail running time trial (two 3.5 km laps, total climb: 486 m) while we collected kinetic and time data. Comparing lap 2 with lap 1 (19:40 ± 1:57 min vs. 21:08 ± 2:09 min, P < 0.001), runners lost most time on the uphill sections and least on technical downhills (-2.5 ± 9.1 s). Inter-individual performance varied most for the downhills (CV > 25%) and least on flat terrain (CV < 10%). Overall stride cycle and ground contact time (GCT) were shorter in downhill than uphill sections (0.64 ± 0.03 vs. 0.84 ± 0.09 s; 0.26 ± 0.03 vs. 0.46 ± 0.90 s, both P < 0.001). Force impulse was greatest on uphill (248 ± 46 vs. 175 ± 24 Ns, P < 0.001) and related to GCT (r = 0.904, P< 0.001). Peak force was greater during downhill than during uphill running (1106 ± 135 vs. 959 ± 104 N, P< 0.01). Performance was related to absolute and relative V&#x2D9;" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; font-size: 20px; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; color: rgb(62, 61, 64); font-family: Georgia, "Times New Roman", Times, serif; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V˙V˙O2 max (P < 0.01), vertical uphill treadmill speed (P < 0.001) and fat percent (P < 0.01). Running uphill involved the greatest impulse per step due to longer GCT while downhill running generated the highest peak forces. V&#x2D9;" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; font-size: 20px; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; color: rgb(62, 61, 64); font-family: Georgia, "Times New Roman", Times, serif; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V˙V˙O2 max, vertical running speed and fat percent are important predictors for trail running performance. Performance between runners varied the most on downhills throughout the course, while pacing resembled a reversed J pattern. Future studies should focus on longer competition distances to verify these findings and with application of measures of 3D kinematics.

  • 13.
    Borén, Fanny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    En frisk arbetsplats: En kvalitativ studie om medarbetares uppfattningar av friskfaktorer på sin arbetsplats2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 14.
    Botshinda, Nathalie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Nykvist, Annica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kan känsla av sammanhang förklara skillnaden i sjukfrånvaron mellan två arbetsgrupper: En studie om korttidsfrånvaro2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 15.
    Burman, Daniel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Jonasson, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kan arbetstidsförkortning öka möjligheten till återhämtning?: En studie om socialsekreterares arbete- och livsbalans2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Buys, Nicholas J.
    et al.
    Griffith University, Australia.
    John, Selander
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sun, Jing
    Griffith University, Australia.
    Employee experience of workplace supervisor contact and support during long-term sickness absence2019In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 808-814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Workplace support is an important factor in promoting successful return to work. The purpose of this article is to examine relationships between supervisor contact, perceived workplace support and demographic variables among employees on long-term sickness absence.

    Materials and method: Data were collected from 204 public employees at a municipality in Sweden who had been on long term sickness absence (60 days or more) using a 23 question survey instrument that collected information on demographic variables, supervisor contact and perceived workplace support.

    Results: Most injured employees (97%) reported having contact with their supervisors during their sickness absence, with a majority (56%) reporting high levels of support, including early (58.6%) and multiple (70.7%) contacts. Most were pleased with amount of contact (68.9%) and the majority had discussed workplace accommodations (68.1%). Employees who self-initiated contact, felt the amount of contact was appropriate, had a personal meeting with their supervisors and discussed workplace adjustments reported experiencing higher levels of support from supervisors.

    Conclusions: Employees on long-term sickness absence appreciate contact from their supervisors and this is associated with perceived workplace support. However, the amount and employee experience of this contact is important. It needs to be perceived by employees as supportive, which includes a focus on strategies (e.g., work adjustment) to facilitate a return to work. Supervisor training is required in this area to support the return to work process.

    • Implications for Rehabilitation
    • Contact and support from workplace supervisors is important to workers on long-term sickness absence.

    • Employees appreciate frequent contact from supervisors during long-terms sickness absence.

    • Employees appreciate a personal meeting with supervisors and the opportunity to discuss issues related to return to work such as work adjustment.

    • Employers should provide training to supervisors on how to communicate and assist employees on long-term sickness absence.

  • 17.
    Bårdsgjerde, Elise Kvalsund
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Ålesund, Norway.
    Kvangarsnes, Marit
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Ålesund, Norway; Møre og Romsdal Hospital Trust, Ålesund, Norway.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Levanger Hospital, Nord-Trøndelag Hospital Trust, Levanger, Norway.
    Nylenna, Magne
    Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Hole, Torstein
    Møre og Romsdal Hospital Trust, Ålesund, Norway; Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Patients' narratives of their patient participation in the myocardial infarction pathway2019In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 75, no 5, p. 1063-1073Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To explore how patients in areas without local percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) facilities experience patient participation in different phases of the myocardial infarction pathway. Background: Acute treatment of myocardial infarction often involves PCI. In Norway, this treatment is centralized at certain hospitals; thus, patients often require long-distance transportation and experience frequent hospital transfers. Short hospital stays, transfers between hospitals and the patient's emotional state pose challenges to promoting patient participation. Design: A qualitative design with a narrative approach. Methods: Participants were recruited through purposive sampling. Eight men and two women were interviewed in 2016. Findings: Four themes related to the patients' experiences at the beginning, middle and end of the pathway were identified: (a) Lack of verbal communication in the acute phase; (b) trust in healthcare professionals and treatment; (c) lack of participation and coordination at discharge; and (d) shared decision-making in rehabilitation. The findings showed how the patients moved from a low level of patient participation in the acute phase to a high level of patient participation in the rehabilitation phase. Conclusion: This is the first study to explore patient participation in different phases of the myocardial infarction pathway. We argue that individual plans for information and patient participation are important to improve patient involvement in an earlier stage of the pathway. Further research from a healthcare professional perspective can be valuable to understand this topic. Impact: This study gives new insight that can be valuable for healthcare professionals in implementing patient participation throughout the pathway. 

  • 18.
    Böhlin, Johanna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lauritsen, Martina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Konflikter och konflikthantering: Upplevelser och erfarenheter ur ett medarbetarperspektiv inom hemtjänsten2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 19.
    Carr, Amelia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia.
    McGawley, Kerry
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Govus, Andrew
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Shannon, Oliver M.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Mattsson, Stig
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Melin, Anna K.
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nutritional Intake in Elite Cross-Country Skiers During Two Days of Training and Competition2019In: International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, ISSN 1526-484X, E-ISSN 1543-2742, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 273-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the energy, macronutrient and fluid intakes, as well as hydration status (urine specific gravity; USG), in elite cross-country skiers during a typical day of training (day one) and a sprint skiing competition the following day (day two). Thirty-one (18 male and 13 female) national team skiers recorded their food and fluid intakes and USG was measured on days one and two. In addition, the females completed the Low Energy Availability in Females-Questionnaire (LEAF-Q) to assess their risk of long-term energy deficiency. Energy intake for males was 65+/-9 kcal/kg on day one versus 58+/-9 kcal/kg on day two (P=0.002), and for females was 57+/-10 on day one versus 55+/-5 kcal/kg on day two (P=0.445). Carbohydrate intake recommendations of 10-12 g/kg/day were not met by 89% of males and 92% of females. All males and females had a protein intake above the recommended 1.2-2.0 g/kg on both days, and a post-exercise protein intake above the recommended 0.3 g/kg. Of the females, 31% were classified as being at risk of long-term energy deficiency. In the morning of day one, 50% of males and 46% of females were dehydrated; on day two this was the case for 56% of males and 38% of females. In conclusion, these data suggest that elite cross-country skiers ingested more protein and less carbohydrate than recommended, and one third of the females were considered at risk for long-term energy deficiency. Furthermore, many of the athletes were dehydrated prior to training and competition.

  • 20.
    Costa, Diogo
    et al.
    University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Hatzidimitriadou, Eleni
    Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent, UK.
    Ioannidi-Kapolo, Elli
    National School of Public Health Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Lindert, Jutta
    Protestant University of Applied Sciences Ludwigsburg, Ludwigsburg, Germany; University of Applied Sciences Emden, Emden, Germany; WRSC, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, USA.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Toth, Olga
    Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.
    Barros, Henrique
    University of Porto and University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal.
    The impact of intimate partner violence on forgone healthcare: a population-based, multicentre European study2019In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 359-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    To examine the relationship between forgone healthcare and involvement in intimate partner violence (IPV) as victims, perpetrators or both.

    METHODS:

    This cross-sectional multicentre study assessed community non-institutionalized residents (n = 3496, aged 18-64) randomly selected from six European cities: Athens, Budapest, London, Östersund, Porto, Stuttgart. A common questionnaire was used, including self-reports of IPV and forgone healthcare ('Have you been in need of a certain care service in the past year, but did not seek any help?'). Odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed fitting logistic regression models adjusted for city, chronic disease, self-assessed health status and financial strain.

    RESULTS:

    Participants experiencing past year IPV (vs. no violence) reported more often to forgone healthcare (n = 3279, 18.6% vs. 15.3%, P = 0.016). IPV experienced as both a victim and perpetrator was associated with forgone healthcare (adjusted OR, 95%CI: 1.32, 1.02-1.70).

    CONCLUSION:

    IPV was associated with forgone healthcare, particularly for those experiencing violence as both victims and perpetrators. Results suggest that preventing IPV among adults may improve timely healthcare uptake.

  • 21.
    Dahlqvist, Heléne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Umeå universitet.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Poly-victimization of Bullying, Sexual Harassment and Violence in Youth - A Latent Class Analysis2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Violence in a broad sense among youth is common and there is some evidence that there are groups of youth who are victims of more than one form of violence. More knowledge is needed in terms of patterning of subgroups of poly-victimization. The aim was to explore if there are distinct subgroups of youth with particular patterns of violence victimization.

    Method: Survey data from a Swedish sample (n = 1,569) of 14-16-year-olds were used (females 48.4%). Measures were physical violence, threat of physical violence, bullying, sexual harassment, and cyber bullying and harassment in the past six months as well as lifetime physical violence. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to identify subgroups of youth with particular violence victimization patterns. Model fit assessment was based on model parsimony, theoretical justification and fit indices criteria (the Akaike information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion).

    Result: A three-latent-class model was selected: 1. Poly-victims with high probabilities of being victimized by a multitude of different types of violence (girls 47.6%). 2. Overall low probabilities of violence victimization (girls 47.5%). 3. High probabilities of victimization of sexual harassment off- and online as well as bullying online (girls 65.6%).

    Discussion: Three distinct subgroups of violence victimization in youth was evident in the data. There was a greater representation of girls in the purely sexualized violence sub-group. Further research and preventive programs should acknowledge that young people who are victims of one type of violence are likely also to be victims of other types of violence.

  • 22.
    Danielsson, Theodor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Fysiologiska skillnader under submaximal intensitet före och efter en supramaximal ansträngning vid rullskidåkning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 23.
    Dias, Nicole Geovana
    et al.
    EpiUnit, Instituto de Saúde Pública da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; Departamento de Saúde Coletiva da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
    Costa, Diogo
    EpiUnit, Instituto de Saúde Pública da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. EpiUnit, Instituto de Saúde Pública da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Hatzidimitriadou, Eleni
    Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences, Kingston University and St George’s, University of London, London, UK.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    Department of Sociology, National School of Public Health Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Lindert, Jutta
    University of Applied Sciences Emden, Emden, Germany Women’s Studies Research Center, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, USA.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Toth, Olga
    Institute of Sociology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.
    Barros, Henrique
    EpiUnit, Instituto de Saúde Pública da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal Departamento de Ciências da Saúde Pública e Forenses e Educação Médica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Fraga, Silvia
    EpiUnit, Instituto de Saúde Pública da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Social support and the intimate partner violence victimization among adults from six European countries2019In: Family Practice, ISSN 0263-2136, E-ISSN 1460-2229, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 117-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Social support may buffer the negative effects of violence on physical and mental health. Family medicine providers play an essential role in identifying the available social support and intervening in intimate partner violence (IPV).

    Objective

    This study aimed at assessing the association between social support and the IPV victimization among adults from six European countries.

    Methods

    This is a cross-sectional multi-centre study that included individuals from Athens (Greece), Budapest (Hungary), London (UK), Östersund (Sweden), Porto (Portugal) and Stuttgart (Germany). Data collection was carried out between September 2010 and May 2011. The sample consisted of 3496 adults aged 18–64 years randomly selected from the general population in each city. The revised Conflict Tactics Scales was used to assess IPV victimization. Social support was assessed with the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support.

    Results

    Participants reporting physical assault victimization experienced lower social support (mean ± SD) than their counterparts, 66.1 ± 13.96 versus 71.7 ± 12.90, P< 0.001, for women; and 67.1 ± 13.69 versus 69.5 ± 13.52, P = 0.002 for men. Similar results were found regarding sexual coercion victimization, 69.1 ± 14.03 versus 71.3 ± 12.97, P = 0.005 for women and 68.0 ± 13.29 versus 69.3 ± 13.62, P= 0.021 for men. This study revealed lower levels of social support among participants reporting lifetime and past year victimization, independent of demographic, social and health-related factors.

    Conclusion

    Results showed a statistically significant association between low social support and IPV victimization. Although the specific mechanisms linking social support with experiences of violence need further investigation, it seems that both informal and formal networks may be associated with lower levels of abusive situations.

  • 24.
    Dzhilkibaeva, Natalya
    et al.
    Analytical Department, Sport Training Center of the Russian National Teams, Moscow, Russia.
    Ahrens, Matthias
    National Training Centre, Biathlon Canada, Canmore, AB, Canada.
    Laaksonen, Marko
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Can performance in biathlon world cup be predicted by performance analysis of biathlon IBU cup?2019In: International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, ISSN 1474-8185, E-ISSN 1474-8185, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 856-865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biathlon performance consists of skiing speed, shooting accuracy (ShAcc) and shooting time (ShT). For coaches, the evaluation of the performance level of biathletes to select biathletes to particular competitions is crucial. The present study aimed to compare two different approaches to analyse biathletes’ skiing performance (relative skiing speed, SS%, and skiing time coefficient, STC), and to analyse the relationship between different parameters of performance between two competition levels (World Cup, WC and IBU Cup, IC). The data from four competitive seasons were analysed including 166 male and 184 female biathletes. The correlation between SS% in IC and WC was similar for both sexes (males r = .81; females r = .78) compared to correlation between STC in IC and WC (males r = .80; females r = .75) (p < .001), whereas the mean absolute percentage error was higher for STC (1.2% and 1.8% vs. 18% and 22%). SS%, ShAcc and ShT in IC explained 54% and 45% (p < .001) of the entire WC rank for males and females, respectively. Thus, SS% is recommended to be used for evaluation of biathletes’ skiing performance. To predict the performance in WC from results in IC should be used with caution.

  • 25.
    Ehrs, Susanne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Fohlin, Daniela
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Onboarding: En kvantitativ studie om nyanställda socialsekreterares upplevelser av sin arbetsintroduktion2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 26.
    Ekström, Annika
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Kalmar/Växjö.
    Hafsteinsson Östenberg, Anna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö.
    Björklund, Glenn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Linnéuniversitetet, Kalmar/Växjö.
    The effects of introducing Tabata interval training and stability exercises to school children as a school-based intervention program2019In: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, ISSN 0334-0139, E-ISSN 2191-0278, Vol. 31, no 4, article id 20170043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Physical activities during leisure time as well as school hours have changed over the past few years, with adolescents being less physically active and adopting a sedentary lifestyle.

    Objective

    The overall objective of this mixed-methods study was to evaluate the feasibility of introducing a 4-min Tabata interval training into a lower secondary school context. A further aim was to evaluate the possible effects on: coordination, balance, and strength.

    Methods

    The study was conducted as an intervention study with a mixed-method approach. Forty-three children, aged 7–9 years, participated in the intervention group. Additionally, 13 children were recruited as a control group. The intervention itself was delivered by the teachers and was performed for 4-min every day in a classroom setting. All participants performed physical tests before and after the intervention period to evaluate the Tabata training. After the completion of the 6-week Tabata interval training, the four teachers were interviewed.

    Results

    The push-ups (p = 0.004), kneeling push-ups (p = 0.03), and standing long jump (p = 0.01) improved in the intervention group after 6 weeks. No differences were observed between the genders. The teachers experienced that it worked well to integrate the Tabata interval training in the classroom setting.

    Conclusion

    After 6 weeks, a school-based Tabata intervention program improved physical performance. The teachers saw no obstacles in including the Tabata intervention program in a classroom setting and pointed out several positive aspects such as an increased energy level and development in the children’s movement patterns.

  • 27.
    El Boudoufti Stigebrand, Oscar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Skillnaden på Vo2 mellan cykling och löpning på samma angivna hjärtfrekvens2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28.
    Eriksson, Jennie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Henriksson, Julia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vad motiverar anställda till ett hälsofrämjande arbetsliv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 29.
    Eriksson, Katherine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hälsocoachers erfarenheter och upplevelser av tillämpbara metoder för bestående livsstilsförändringar: En intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 30.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. University of Gävle.
    Di Rosa, Mirko
    National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, IRCCS INRCA, Ancona, Italy.
    Barros, Henrique
    EPIUnit, Instituto de Saúde Pública da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Torres-Gonzalez, Francisco
    University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania; University of Griffith, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Lindert, Jutta
    University of Emden, Emden, Germany; Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, United States of America.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, IRCCS INRCA, Ancona, Italy.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, IRCCS INRCA, Ancona, Italy.
    Lifetime abuse and somatic symtoms among older women and men in Europe2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 8, article id e0220741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Research suggests that survivors of interpersonal violence have an increasing experience of bodily symptoms. This study aims to scrutinise the association between lifetime abuse and somatic symptoms among older women and men, considering demographics/socio-economic, social support and health variables.

    Methods

    A sample of 4,467 community-dwelling persons aged 60–84 years (57.3% women) living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, Sweden) was recruited for this cross-sectional study. Lifetime abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injury) was assessed on the basis of the UK study of elder abuse and the Conflict Tactics Scale-2, while somatic symptoms were assessed by the Giessen Complaint List short version.

    Results

    Women reported somatic symptoms more frequently than men. Multiple regression analyses revealed that lifetime exposure to psychological abuse was associated with higher levels of somatic symptoms among both women and men, while experiencing lifetime sexual abuse was associated with somatic symptoms only among older women, after adjusting for other demographic and socio-economic variables. Country of residence, older age, and low socio-economic status were other independent factors contributing to a higher level of somatic symptoms.

    Conclusions

    The positive association between the experience of abuse during lifetime and the reporting of higher levels of somatic symptoms, in particular among older women, seems to suggest that such complaints in later life might also be related to the experience of mistreatment and not only to ageing and related diseases. Violence prevention throughout lifetime could help to prevent somatic symptoms in later life.

  • 31.
    Fernández, Fran de Asís
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Rodríguez-Zamora, Lara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Örebro University, Örebro.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hook Breathing Facilitates SaO2 Recovery After Deep Dives in Freedivers With Slow Recovery2019In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, p. 1-8, article id 1076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate recovery from hypoxia, many freedivers use a breathing method called “hook breathing” (HB) after diving, involving an interrupted exhale to build up intrapulmonary pressure. Some divers experience a delay in recovery of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) after diving, interpreted as symptoms of mild pulmonary edema, and facilitated recovery may be especially important in this group to avoid hypoxic “blackout.” We examined the influence of HB on recovery of SaO2 in freedivers with slow recovery (SR) and fast recovery (FR) of SaO2 after deep “free immersion” (FIM) apnea dives to 30 m depth. Twenty-two male freedivers, with a mean (SD) personal best in the discipline FIM of 57(26) m, performed two 30 m deep dives, one followed by HB and one using normal breathing (NB) during recovery, at different days and weighted order. SaO2 and heart rate (HR) were measured via pulse oximetry during recovery. The SR group (n = 5) had a faster SaO2 recovery using HB, while the FR group (n = 17) showed no difference between breathing techniques. At 105 s, the SR group reached a mean (SD) SaO2 of 95(5)% using HB, while using NB, their SaO2 was 87(5)% (p < 0.05), and 105–120 s after surfacing SaO2 was higher with HB (p < 0.05). In SR subjects, the average time needed to reach 95% SaO2 with HB was 60 s, while it was 120 s at NB (p < 0.05). HR was similar in the SR group, while it was initially elevated at HB in the FR group (p < 0.05). We conclude that HB efficiently increases SaO2 recovery in SR individuals, but not in the FR group. The proposed mechanism is that increased pulmonary pressure with HB will reverse any pulmonary edema and facilitate oxygen uptake in divers with delayed recovery.

  • 32.
    Forsberg, Hanna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Norstrand, Annika
    Public Health Center, Region Norrbotten, Luleå.
    Risberg, Anitha
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    Kostenius, Catrine
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    Positive self-reported health might be an important determinant of student's experiences of high school in northern Sweden2019In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 78, no 1, article id 1598758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for more knowledge about positive health determinants in the school setting. The overall aim of this study was to analyse if positive self-reported health is associated with experiences of school among high-school students. Data originated from the health dialogue questionnaire answered by students in grade 1 of high school. A total of 5035 students participated from the academic years 2013 to 2016. Logistic regression with positive odds ratio (POR) was used to analyse associations between positive self-reported health and school experiences. There was an association between positive self-reported health and school experiences among students. Positive mental health was the strongest predictor for positive school experiences. To frequently participate in Physical Education, have a positive body image and satisfactory sleep nearly doubled the students' odds for positive school experiences. The results also revealed gender differences; boys more often reported positive experiences of school and positive health than girls. Positive self-reported health is associated with positive experiences of school, particularly mental health. Moreover, these findings have significant implications for how students experience school and demonstrate the importance of including health-promoting interventions in systemic school improvement, meeting both girls' and boys' needs.

  • 33.
    Frisk, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Dietisters attityder och åsikter om skatt på sockersötade drycker2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 34.
    Frisk, Lolita
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Yoga och Livsbalans – ett helhetsperspektiv: Kvinnors upplevelse av yoga, livsbalans och återhämtning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 35.
    Gibson, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Unga kvinnors egna upplevelser av hur sociala medier påverkar det psykiska måendet: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 36.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Stein, Nan
    Wellesley Centers for Women, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA, USA.
    Do schools normalise sexual harassment? An analysis of a legal case regarding sexual harassment in a Swedish high school2019In: Gender and Education, ISSN 0954-0253, E-ISSN 1360-0516, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 920-937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual harassment has become so frequent and ubiquitous in schools that these behaviours have become normalised and expected. In order to prevent the re-enactment and perpetuation of this problem, it is important to explore processes that contribute to its existence. A high school sexual harassment lawsuit in Sweden is used as a case study to illustrate ways that might explain how sexual harassment is normalised at the organisational level. A thematic analysis has been used to identify themes and subthemes. The results show a multi-layered web of factors and practices related to sexual harassment at the organisational level in the school. In order to change a school’s culture from one where sexual harassment is normalised, multiple needs must be addressed: organisational weaknesses must be strengthened; adults enact their responsibility to change the situation; and awareness of the relationship between sexual harassment, gender, and power needs to be increased.

  • 37.
    Granberger Harasaki, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    ”Varför händer detta mig?”: En studie om meningsskapandeprocessen och hur personer skapar mening och förståelse kring sin sjukskrivning för utmattningssyndrom och återgång i arbete.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 38.
    Grape, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Det sjuka arbetslivet.: En kvalitativ studie om hur chefer i offentlig verksamhet upplever sjuknärvaro i sina arbetsgrupper.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    CHESS, Stockholms universitet.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The gender time gap: Time use among self-employed women and men compared to paid employees in Sweden2019In: Time & Society, ISSN 0961-463X, E-ISSN 1461-7463, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 680-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the authors set out to study the time use of men and women in Sweden, comparing self-employed and employed individuals. Previous studies indicate that there are reasons to believe that both gendered time use and mechanisms related to time use might differ between the self-employed and employees. Employing time use data, the aim was to study whether there are differences in gendered time use between self-employed individuals and employees in Sweden, and furthermore, which mechanism relates to gendered time use among self-employed individuals and employees. The results show that self-employed men and women distribute their time in a more gender-traditional manner than employees. In addition, relative resources are found to be an important factor related to gendered time use among the self-employed. For employees, gender relations tend to be a mechanism related to gendered time use. The conclusion is that working conditions are important for gendered time use and should be considered in future studies.

  • 40.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences. Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tritter, Jonathan Q
    Aston University, UK.
    Wall, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Nord-Tröndelag Hospital Trust, Norway.
    The Same, Only Different: Doing Management in the Intersection between Work and Private Life for Men and Women in Small-scale Enterprises2019In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to elucidate how male and female managers of small-scale enterprises in Norway and Sweden relate to and experience the intersection between work and private life. A qualitative content analysis was adopted to explore interviews with 18 managers. The analysis resulted in three primary categories: conflict as a part of the deal, using management to construct balance, and management identity contributing to enrichment. A key theme that emerged was doing management. Both men and women reproduced masculine values in describing their management identities and in explaining how they enacted management. This clear identification was used to legitimate conflict, construct balance and explain the interaction between work and private life as enriching. How the managers enacted gender emerged primarily in how they related to family responsibilities and their feelings of guilt in relation to home and children.

  • 41.
    Haidar, Angelika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ett hälsofrämjande ledarskap?: En kvantitativ studie om det transformativa ledarskapets relation till medarbetares motivation, hälsa och emotioner2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 42.
    Hammarlund, Carina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vägen tillbaka till arbete efter utmattningssyndrom: En kvalitativ studie om hur chefer arbetar för att underlätta återgång2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 43.
    Hanstock, Helen
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales.
    Edwards, Jason
    Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales.
    Walsh, Neil
    Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales.
    Tear Lactoferrin and Lysozyme as Clinically Relevant Biomarkers of Mucosal Immune Competence2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 1178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tears have attracted interest as a minimally-invasive biological fluid from which to assess biomarkers. Lactoferrin (Lf) and lysozyme (Lys) are abundant in the tear fluid and have antimicrobial properties. Since the eye is a portal for infection transmission, assessment of immune status at the ocular surface may be clinically relevant. Therefore, the aim of this series of studies was to investigate the tear fluid antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) Lf and Lys as biomarkers of mucosal immune status. To be considered biomarkers of interest, we would expect tear AMPs to respond to stressors known to perturb immunity but be robust to confounding variables, and to be lower in participants with heightened risk or incidence of illness. We investigated the relationship between tear AMPs and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI; study 1) as well as the response of tear AMPs to prolonged treadmill exercise (study 2) and dehydration (study 3). Study 1 was a prospective cohort study conducted during the common cold season whereas studies 2 and 3 used repeated-measures crossover designs. In study 1, tear Lys concentration (C) as well as tear AMP secretion rates (SRs) were lower in individuals who reported pathogen-confirmed URTI (n = 9) throughout the observation period than in healthy, pathogen-free controls (n = 17; Lys-C, P = 0.002, d = 0.85; Lys-SR, P < 0.001, d = 1.00; Lf-SR, P = 0.018, d = 0.66). Tear AMP secretion rates were also lower in contact lens wearers. In study 2, tear AMP SRs were 42–49% lower at 30 min−1 h post-exercise vs. pre-exercise (P < 0.001, d = 0.80–0.93). Finally, in study 3, tear AMPs were not influenced by dehydration, although tear AMP concentrations (but not secretion rates) displayed diurnal variation. We conclude that Lf and Lys have potential as biomarkers of mucosal immune competence; in particular, whether these markers are lower in infection-prone individuals warrants further investigation.

  • 44.
    Hanstock, Helen
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Govus, Andrew
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Stenqvist, Thomas B.
    University of Agder, Norway.
    Melin, Anna K.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sylta, Øystein
    University of Agder, Norway.
    Torstveit, Monica K.
    University of Agder, Norway.
    Influence of Immune and Nutritional Biomarkers on Illness Risk During Interval Training2019In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensive training periods may negatively influence immune function, but the immunological consequences of specific high-intensity training (HIT) prescriptions are not well defined. Purpose: This study explored whether three different HIT prescriptions influence multiple health-related biomarkers and whether biomarker responses to HIT were associated with upper respiratory illness (URI) risk. Methods: Twenty-five male cyclists and triathleteswere randomised to three HIT groups and completed twelve HIT sessions over four weeks. Peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak) was determined using an incremental cycling protocol, while resting serum biomarkers (cortisol, testosterone, 25(OH)D and ferritin), salivary immunoglobulin-A (s-IgA) and energy availability (EA) were assessed before and after the training intervention. Participants self-reported upper respiratory symptoms during the interventionand episodes of URI were identified retrospectively. Results: Fourteen athletes reported URIs, but there were no differences in incidence, duration or severity between groups. Increased risk of URI was associated with higher s-IgA secretion rates (odds ratio=0.90, 90% CI:0.83-0.97). Lower pre-intervention cortisol and higher EA predicted a 4% increase in URI duration. Participants with higher V̇O2peak reported higher total symptom scores (incidence rate ratio=1.07, 90% CI:1.01-1.13). Conclusions: Although multiple biomarkers wereweakly associated with risk of URI, the direction of associations between s-IgA, cortisol, EA and URI risk were inverse to previous observations and physiological rationale. There was a cluster of URIs within the first week of the training intervention, but no samples were collected at this time-point. Future studies should incorporate more frequent sample time-points, especially around the onset of new training regimes, and include athletes with suspected or known nutritional deficiencies.

  • 45.
    Hedlund, M.
    et al.
    Nord University, Levanger, Norway; NTNU, Norway.
    Landstad, Bodil J.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Levanger Hospital, Nord-Trøndelag Hospital Trust, Norway.
    Tritter, J. Q.
    Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    The disciplining of self-help: Doing self-help the Norwegian way2019In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 225, p. 34-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore how Norwegian self-help groups are defined and managed to create a particular form of health system governmentality. Self-help groups are typically framed as therapeutic communities where participants define the agenda creating a space where open and equal interaction can produce individual learning and personal growth. In Norway, however, self-help groups are managed in a way that integrates them in to the health system but insulates them from clinical medicine; an approach that disciplines participants to act in a particular way in relation to the health system. We draw on the analysis of 1456 pages of public documents and websites from the National Nodal Point for Self-Help (NPSH), the organisation that manages self-help groups, and central government including individual testimonies from participants published between 2006 and 2014. We argue, drawing on Foucault, that self-help premised on lay-leadership and self-determination is at odds with the centrally defined regulation apparent in the model adopted in Norway and an example of disciplining that reinforces health system governmentality and serves the interests of the medical profession and the state. Further we propose that this illustrates the contestation between the pastoral power of medics, the National Nodal Point for Self-Help and the Ministry of Health. Our analysis of Norwegian self-help as a mechanism to create a particular form of health system governmentality helps explain the expansion of self-help and self-management within developed health systems and provides an explanation for why self-help within health systems, is typically situated adjacent to, rather than integrated into, clinical medicine.

  • 46.
    Henriksson, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Söderkvist, Söderkvist
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Att vara närstående till någon som lider av cancer.: - En litteraturöversikt utifrån ett familjefokuserat perspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Familjefokuserad omvårdnad är av stor vikt då sjuksköterskan bidrar till patientens välmående genom att se till den närståendes behov av stöd. Syfte: Belysa olika behov av stöd en närstående till någon som lider av cancer önskar sig få eller faktiskt får. Metod: En litteraturöversikt med en induktiv ansats. Materialet har analyserats och resulterat i fem olika kategorier: Att bli sedd och involverad; Att bli informerad; Att ha någon nära; Att känna trygghet i sin tro på Gud; Att känna meningsfullhet. Resultat: I resultatet framkom betydelsen av att sjuksköterskor erbjuder stöd i olika former som en familj eller närstående önskar sig. Erbjudande av stöd till närstående bidrar till ökad livsvalitet hos patienten. Diskussion: Om närstående får det stöd som de har behov av så underlättar det för dem att vårda sin sjuka anhöriga då de lättare kan uppleva meningsfullhet, begriplighet och hanterbarhet. Det ger dem ambition till att ge en god vård till den sjuke i hemmet. Slutsats: Sjukvårdspersonalen får inte isolera de närstående från patienten då de alla är involverade i den uppstådda situationen. Som vårdpersonal är det viktigt att ha ett holistiskt synsätt och se till hela familjen. Om de närstående bilr omhändertagna så ökar även patientens välbefinnande.

  • 47.
    Henriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    En kvalitativ studie om krav, handlingsutrymme och stöd i skiftarbetande ambulanssjuksköterskors arbetsmiljö2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 48.
    Hermansson, Jonas
    et al.
    Angered Hosp, Angered.
    Boggild, Henrik
    Aalborg Univ, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala.
    Karlsson, Berndt
    Umeå Univ, Umeå.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Sundsvall Hosp, Sundsvall.
    Reuterwall, Christina
    Umeå Univ, Umeå.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Interaction between Shift Work and Established Coronary Risk Factors2019In: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 2008-6520, E-ISSN 2008-6814, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 57-65, article id PII 1466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Shift work is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the causes have not yet been fully established. It has been proposed that the coronary risk factors are more hazardous for shift workers, resulting in a potential interaction effect with shift work. Objective: To analyse interaction effects of work schedule and established risk factors for coronary artery disease on the risk of myocardial infarction. Methods: This analysis was conducted in SHEEP/VHEEP, a case-control study conducted in two counties in Sweden, comprising all first-time cases of myocardial infarction among men and women 45-70 years of age with controls stratified by sex, age, and hospital catchment area, totalling to 4648 participants. Synergy index (SI) was used as the main outcome analysis method for interaction analysis. Results: There was an interaction effect between shift work and physical inactivity on the risk of myocardial infarction with SI of 2.05 (95% CI 1.07 to 3.92) for male shift workers. For female shift workers, interaction effects were found with high waist-hip ratio (SI 4.0, 95% CI 1.12 to 14.28) and elevated triglycerides (SI 5.69, 95% CI 1.67 to 19.38). Conclusion: Shift work and some established coronary risk factors have significant interactions.

  • 49.
    Holmström, Pontus
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Mulder, Eric
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lodin-Sundström, Angelica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Limbu, Prakash
    Nepalese Army Inst Hlth Sci, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The Magnitude of Diving Bradycardia During Apnea at Low-Altitude Reveals Tolerance to High Altitude Hypoxia2019In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, p. 1-12, article id 1075Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a potentially life-threatening illness that may develop during exposure to hypoxia at high altitude (HA). Susceptibility to AMS is highly individual, and the ability to predict it is limited. Apneic diving also induces hypoxia, and we aimed to investigate whether protective physiological responses, i.e., the cardiovascular diving response and spleen contraction, induced during apnea at low-altitude could predict individual susceptibility to AMS. Eighteen participants (eight females) performed three static apneas in air, the first at a fixed limit of 60 s (A1) and two of maximal duration (A2-A3), spaced by 2 min, while SaO(2), heart rate (HR) and spleen volume were measured continuously. Tests were conducted in Kathmandu (1470 m) before a 14 day trek to mount Everest Base Camp (5360 m). During the trek, participants reported AMS symptoms daily using the Lake Louise Questionnaire (LLQ). The apnea-induced HR-reduction (diving bradycardia) was negatively correlated with the accumulated LLQ score in A1 (r(s) = -0.628, p= 0.005) and A3 (r(s) = -0.488, p = 0.040) and positively correlated with SaO(2) at 4410 m (A1: r = 0.655, p = 0.003; A2: r = 0.471, p = 0.049; A3: r = 0.635, p = 0.005). Baseline spleen volume correlated negatively with LLQ score (r(s) = -0.479, p = 0.044), but no correlation was found between apnea-induced spleen volume reduction with LLQ score (r(s) = 0.350, p = 0.155). The association between the diving bradycardia and spleen size with AMS symptoms suggests links between physiological responses to HA and apnea. Measuring individual responses to apnea at sea-level could provide means to predict AMS susceptibility prior to ascent.

  • 50.
    Hummelblad, Christine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kariesprevention hos förskolebarn: med fokus på samverkan och samsyn2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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