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  • 1.
    Ahmad, Jawad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Screen Printed Piezoresistive Sensors for Monitoring Pressure Distribution in Wheelchair2019In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 2055-2063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prolonged sitting inadequacies cause pressure ulcer to many individuals, especially to disadvantaged with reduced mobility. The measurement of distributed pressure and detection of irregular sitting postures is essential for preventing the risk of developing pressure ulcer. In this paper, a pressure sensing system capable of recognizing sitting postures by means of measuring interface pressure through printed pressure sensors is presented. A thin and flexible large area sensor is screen-printed using silver flake and carbon particle inks and comprises 16 sensing elements. For the evaluation of practical usability, the sensor characterization is carried out by conducting stability, repeatability, drift and bending tests. The performance of the sensor is checked under varying environmental conditions. Sitting posture detection accuracy above 80 % is achieved using a classification algorithm for four different sitting postures. Pressure distribution is monitored at a scanning rate of 10 Hz. A low power and small form factor of read-out electronics enables a compact packaging inside the seat cushion. The presented sensor design targets smart wheelchairs, but it is extendable to much larger areas, for example to be used in beds. The proposed sensing system would be of a great assistance for caregivers and health professionals.

  • 2.
    Allahgholi, Aschkan
    et al.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Becker, Julian
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Delfs, Annette
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Dinapoli, Roberto
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Goettlicher, Peter
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Greiffenberg, Dominic
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Henrich, Beat
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Hirsemann, Helmut
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Kuhn, Manuela
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Klanner, Robert
    Univ Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Klyuev, Alexander
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Krueger, Hans
    Univ Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Lange, Sabine
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Laurus, Torsten
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Marras, Alessandro
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Mezza, Davide
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Mozzanica, Aldo
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Niemann, Magdalena
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Poehlsen, Jennifer
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Schwandt, Joern
    Univ Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Sheviakov, Igor
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Shi, Xintian
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Smoljanin, Sergej
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Steffen, Lothar
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Sztuk-Dambietz, Jolanta
    European XFEL, Schenefeld, Germany.
    Trunk, Ulrich
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Xia, Qingqing
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Zeribi, Mourad
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Zhang, Jiaguo
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Zimmer, Manfred
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Schmitt, Bernd
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    The Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector at the European XFEL2019In: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, ISSN 0909-0495, E-ISSN 1600-5775, Vol. 26, p. 74-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD) is an X-ray imager, custom designed for the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL). It is a fast, low-noise integrating detector, with an adaptive gain amplifier per pixel. This has an equivalent noise of less than 1keV when detecting single photons and, when switched into another gain state, a dynamic range of more than 10(4)photons of 12keV. In burst mode the system is able to store 352 images while running at up to 6.5MHz, which is compatible with the 4.5MHz frame rate at the European XFEL. The AGIPD system was installed and commissioned in August 2017, and successfully used for the first experiments at the Single Particles, Clusters and Biomolecules (SPB) experimental station at the European XFEL since September 2017. This paper describes the principal components and performance parameters of the system.

  • 3.
    Ashraf, Shakeel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Mattsson, Claes
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Fabrication and characterization of a SU8-epoxy membrane based thermopile detector with an integrated multilayered absorber structure for the mid-IR region2019In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of a thermopile detector with an integrated mid-infrared absorber structure. The fabricated absorber structure has shown an absorption of more than 95% in the wavelength range of 3.2 – 5.47 μm. The detector was fabricated with standard cleanroom process techniques and equipment. The serial resistance was measured at about 315 kΩ at room temperature. The photosensitivity of the detector was characterized for a signle wavelength (4.26 µm) and a band of wavelength ranging from 2.5 –5.5 µm through two different measurement setups. In the first measurement setup, the photosensitivity was estimated at 57.5 V·mm2·W-1 through a MEMS-based infrared radiation source and with an optical band-pass filter of wavelength 4.26µm. The following characterization was performed to characterise the photosensitivity of the detector in a broader wavelength range. This measurement was taken using a monochromator setup utilizing a reference photodetector for calculations of the optical power of the infrared source. The photosensitivity and the specific detectivity (D*) of the fabricated detector were measured to values of 30-92 V·W-1 and 8.0×107-2.4×108 cm·Hz1/2·W-1, respectively, in the wavelength range of 2.8 – 5 µm. The time constant was estimated to around 21 ms

  • 4.
    Ashraf, Shakeel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Niskanen, Ilpo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Kanyathare, Boniphace
    Electronics and Telecommunications Department, Dar es salaam Institute of Technology, Tanzania.
    Vartiainen, Erik
    LUT School of Engineering Science, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Mattsson, Claes
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Heikkilä, Rauno
    Faculty of Technology, Structures and Construction Technology, University of Oulu, Finland.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Determination of complex refractive index of SU-8 by Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation method at the wavelength range 2.5 – 22.0 μm2019In: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, ISSN 0022-4073, E-ISSN 1879-1352, Vol. 224, p. 309-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate determination of the complex refractive index of SU-8 epoxy has significant for the wide variety of applications in optical sensor technology at IR range. The complex refractive index of SU-8 is determined by recording the transmission of light spectra for the wavelength range of 2.5 – 22.0 μm.  The data analysis is based on the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation method. The method has several merits, such as ease of operation, non-contact technique, measurement accuracy, and rapid measurement. The present method is not restricted to the case of SU-8 but it is also proposed to be applicable across a broad range of applications, such as assessment of the optical properties of paints and biomedical samples.

  • 5.
    Bader, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Ma, Xinyu
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    One-diode photovoltaic model parameters at indoor illumination levels – A comparison2019In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 180, p. 707-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Models of photovoltaic devices are used to compare the properties of photovoltaic cells and panels, and to predict their I-V characteristics. To a large extent, modeling methods are based on the one-diode equivalent circuit. Although much research exists on the implementation and evaluation of these methods for typical outdoor conditions, their performance at indoor illumination levels is largely unknown. Consequently, this work performs a systematic study of methods for the parameter extraction of one-diode models under indoor conditions. We selected, reviewed and implemented commonly used methods, and compared their performance at different illumination levels. We have shown that most methods can achieve good accuracies with extracted parameters regardless of the illumination condition, but their accuracies vary significantly when the parameters are scaled to other conditions. We conclude that the physical interpretation of extracted parameters at low illumination is to a large extent questionable, which explains errors based on standard scaling approaches. 

  • 6.
    Dian, E.
    et al.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Budapest, Hungary; European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund; Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Budapest, Hungary.
    Kanaki, K.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Khaplanov, A.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Kittelmann, T.
    European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Zagyvai, P.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Budapest, Hungary; Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Budapest, Hungary.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ESS ERIC, Lund.
    Suppression of intrinsic neutron background in the Multi-Grid detector2019In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 14, article id P01021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the key requirements for neutron scattering instruments is the Signal-toBackground ratio (SBR). This is as well a design driving requirement for many instruments at the European Spallation Source (ESS), which aspires to be the brightest neutron source of the world. The SBR can be effectively improved with background reduction. The Multi-Grid, a large-area thermal neutron detector with a solid boron carbide converter, is a novel solution for chopper spectrometers. This detector will be installed for the three prospective chopper spectrometers at the ESS. As the Multi-Grid detector is a large area detector with a complex structure, its intrinsic background and its suppression via advanced shielding design should be investigated in its complexity, as it cannot be naively calculated. The intrinsic scattered neutron background and its effect on the SBR is determined via a detailed Monte Carlo simulation for the Multi-Grid detector module, designed for the CSPEC instrument at the ESS. The impact of the detector vessel and the neutron entrance window on scattering is determined, revealing the importance of an optimised internal detector shielding. The background-reducing capacity of common shielding geometries, like side-shielding and end-shielding is determined by using perfect absorber as shielding material, and common shielding materials, like B4C and Cd are also tested. On the basis of the comparison of the effectiveness of the different shielding topologies and materials, recommendations are given for a combined shielding of the Multi-Grid detector module, optimised for increased SBR.

  • 7.
    Engholm, Magnus
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hammarling, Krister
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sandberg, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. RISE Acreo.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    A Bio-Compatible Fiber Optic pH Sensor Based on a Thin Core Interferometric Technique2019In: Photonics, ISSN 2304-6732, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing demand for compact, reliable and versatile sensor concepts for pH-level monitoring within several industrial, chemical as well as bio-medical applications. Many pHsensors concepts have been proposed, however, there is still a need for improved sensor solutionswith respect to reliability, durability and miniaturization but also for multiparameter sensing. Here wepresent a conceptual verification, which includes theoretical simulations as well as experimentalevaluation of a fiber optic pH-sensor based on a bio-compatible pH sensitive material not previouslyused in this context. The fiber optic sensor is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometric technique,where the pH sensitive material is coated on a short, typically 20-25 mm thin core fiber splicedbetween two standard single mode fibers. The working principle of the sensor is simulated by usingCOMSOL Multiphysics. The simulations are used as a guideline for the construction of the sensorsthat have been experimentally evaluated in different liquids with pH ranging from 1.95 to 11.89. The results are promising, showing the potential for the development of bio-compatible fiber optic pH sensor with short response time, high sensitivity and broad measurement range. The developedsensor concept can find future use in many medical- or bio-chemical applications as well as inenvironmental monitoring of large areas. Challenges encountered during the sensor developmentdue to variation in the design parameters are discussed.

  • 8.
    Gaynullin, Bakhram
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Engineer.
    Hummelgård, Christine
    Rödjegård, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Mattsson, Claes
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Efficient pressure compensation of low-cost NDIR sensors for environmental studiesIn: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using commercial low-cost NDIR gas sensors for atmospheric measurements requires pressure compensation for an accurate readout; this is normally not implemented. Herein, we present an efficient pressure compensation method. This includes a lab test system for studying pressure dependence in accuracy-demanding applications to introduce interpolation in the concentration dimension. A two-dimensional algorithm allows compensation in the entire pressure-concentration space using a minimum of data. The obtained compensation parameters are used for the recalculation of the measured concentrations to true molar fractions valid for standard atmospheric pressure.

  • 9.
    Hammarling, Krister
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hydrogel-based pH-sensors: Development and characterisation of optical and electrical pH sensors based on stimuli-responsive hydrogels2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to measure the chemical parameter pH is of high importance in many areas. With new government regulations and evolving markets, there is a strong motivation for improving such measurements and conducting research on new types of pH sensors and sensor materials. Stimuli-responsive hydrogels (a group of polymers) have attracted a lot of attention in recent decades, due to their ability to be customized to suit many applications. One specific area where they have attracted attention is pH sensor technology.

    Two stimuli-responsive hydrogels are used in this thesis. One is a non-toxic hydrogel, 1,4-acryl-terminated oligo(beta-amino esters) (1,4-AOBAE). Although it was previously used in drug- and DNA- delivery systems, it has not (to my knowledge) been used in a sensor configuration, and thus it is interesting to study. The second hydrogel, 1,3-acryl-terminated oligo(beta-amino esters) (1,3-AOBAE), is an improved variant of the first one. This improved hydrogel was synthesized because the original hydrogel crystallizes at room temperature, which meant that it was not optimal for various coating techniques. This hydrogel was characterized and verified for pH responsivity in two sensor configurations: electrical and optical. Designing a hydrogel for a specific application can be a complex procedure due to the many synthesizing parameters. For example, increasing a hydrogel's mechanical strength by introducing a higher degree of cross linking, leads to a smaller mesh size, which in turn leads to a lower diffusion rate and less solution absorption. The two hydrogels examined in this thesis respond to pH changes by absorbing or desorbing water; this change in the hydrogel's water content also changes its effective refractive index and permittivity. These changes can be measured using optical or electrical sensor systems. Three types of sensor systems were used in this thesis to verify the hydrogel's pH response and to ensure that they are suitable for use in thin-film techniques on various substrates (e.g. glass and plastic). The experimental results prove that these hydrogels are suitable for use in both electrical and optical sensor configurations. For electrical systems, a pH range of approximately 3-12 was achieved, and for optical, the range was approximately 2-12. These ranges can likely be improved, as the sensor film delaminated from the substrate at low pHs due to adhesion problems and as measurements above 12 were not conducted.

    The findings of this thesis could, after more research, have strong implications for the development of improved pH-sensor configurations, especially for medical and healthcare applications and in environmental monitoring.

  • 10.
    Kronander, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bortom melodi och harmoni: det beväpnande ljudet: Om ljud som vapen och sonisk krigsföring2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete undersöker hur soniska vågor kan användas som vapen. Särskild vikt läggs vid att

    förstå hur ljudet avtäcktes från att vara en osynlig och hämningslös energi till att bli en fysiskt

    producerande våldsam kraft under den megafoniska eran och efter. Uppsatsen argumenterar för

    att soniska vapen måste föregås av avancerad teknologisk utveckling samt ett intresse för att föra

    ett annat typ av krig, utan dödsfall och skjutvapen. Flera exempel ges som visar att ljudvapen

    också ofta används för att kontrollera en population. Sonisk krigsföring fastställs till att innefatta

    användandet av psykologisk, våldsam och fysisk akustisk kraft för att alternera eller påverka

    psykiska och fysiska aspekter hos en population, kropp eller folkmassa.

  • 11.
    Margato, L. M. S.
    et al.
    Univ Coimbra, Dept Fis, LIP Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004516 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Morozov, A.
    Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Blanco, A.
    Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Fonte, P.
    Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; Coimbra Polytech ISEC, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Fraga, F. A. F.
    Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Guerard, B.
    ILL Inst Laue Langevin, Grenoble, France.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Lund.
    Höglund, C.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Lund; Linköping Univ, Linköping.
    Mangiarotti, A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Robinson, L.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Lund.
    Schmidt, S.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Lund; IHI Ionbond AG, Olten, Switzerland.
    Zeitelhack, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, Garching, Germany.
    Boron-10 lined RPCs for sub-millimeter resolution thermal neutron detectors: Feasibility study in a thermal neutron beam2019In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 14, no 1, article id P01017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of an experimental feasibility study of a position sensitive thermal neutron detector based on a resistive plate chamber (RPC) are presented. The detector prototype features a thin-gap (0.35 mm) hybrid RPC with an aluminium cathode and a float glass anode. The cathode is lined with a 2 mu m thick (B4C)-B-10 neutron converter enriched in B-10. A detection efficiency of 6.2% is measured at the neutron beam (lambda = 2.5 angstrom) for normal incidence. A spatial resolution better than 0.5 mm FWHM is demonstrated.

  • 12.
    Marras, Alessandro
    et al.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany; Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Hamburg, Germany.
    Wunderer, Cornelia
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany; Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Hamburg, Germany.
    Correa, Jonathan
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany; Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Hamburg, Germany.
    Boitrelle, Benjamin
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany; Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Hamburg, Germany; SOLEIL Synchrotron, Saint Aubin, France.
    Goettlicher, Peter
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Kuhn, Manuela
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany; Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Hamburg, Germany.
    Krivan, Frantisek
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Lange, Sabine
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany; Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Hamburg, Germany.
    Okrent, Frank
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany; Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Hamburg, Germany.
    Shevyakov, Igor
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Supra, Joshua
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Tennert, Maximilian
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Zimmer, Manfred
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Guerrini, Nicola
    cience & Technology Faculties (STFC), Didcot, U.K; Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Didcot, U.K.
    Marsh, Ben
    cience & Technology Faculties (STFC), Didcot, U.K; Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Didcot, U.K.
    Sedgwick, Iain
    cience & Technology Faculties (STFC), Didcot, U.K; Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Didcot, U.K.
    Cautero, Guiseppe
    ELETTRA Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste, Italy.
    Giuressi, Dario
    ELETTRA Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste, Italy.
    Khromova, Antastasya
    ELETTRA Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste, Italy.
    Menk, Ralf
    ELETTRA Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste, Italy.
    Pinaroli, Giovanni
    ELETTRA Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste, Italy; Udine University, Udine, Italy.
    Stebel, Luigi
    ELETTRA Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste, Italy.
    Greer, Alan
    Diamond Light Source (DLS), Didcot, U.K.
    Nicholls, Tim
    Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Hamburg, Germany.
    Pedersen, Ulrik
    Pohang Accelerator Lab (PAL), Pohang, South Korea.
    Tartoni, Nicola
    Pohang Accelerator Lab (PAL), Pohang, South Korea.
    Hyun, Hyo Jung
    SOLEIL Synchrotron, Saint Aubin, France.
    Kim, Kyung Sook
    SOLEIL Synchrotron, Saint Aubin, France.
    Rah, Seung Yu
    SOLEIL Synchrotron, Saint Aubin, France.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany; Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Hamburg, Germany.
    Percival: A soft x-ray imager for synchrotron rings and free electron lasers2019In: AIP Conference Proceedings, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2019, Vol. 2054, article id 060060Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we are presenting the Percival detector, a monolithic CMOS Imager for detection of soft x-rays in Synchrotron Rings and Free Electron Lasers. The imager consists in a 2D array of many (2M) small (27um pitch) pixels, without dead or blind zones in the imaging area. The imager achieves low noise and high dynamic range by means of an adaptive-gain in-pixel circuitry, that has been validated on prototypes. The imager features on-chip Analogue-to-Digital conversion to 12+1 bits, and has a readout speed which is compatible with most of Free Electron Laser Facilities. For direct detection of low-energy x-rays, the imager is back-illuminated and post-processed to achieve 100% fill factor. 

  • 13.
    Niskanen, Ilpo
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Forsberg, Viviane
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. KTH.
    Zakrisson, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Reza, Salim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Fedorov, Igor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Suopajärvi, Terhi
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Liimatainen, Henrikki
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Determination of nanoparticle size using Rayleigh approximation and Mie theory2019In: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405, Vol. 201, no 29, p. 222-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate determination of the size of nanoparticles has an important role in many different scientific and industrial purposes, such as in material, medical and environment sciences, colloidal chemistry and astrophysics. We describe an effective optical method to determine the size of nanoparticles by analysis of transmission and scattering of visible spectral range data from a designed UV-Vis multi-spectrophotometer. The size of the nanoparticles was calculated from the extinction cross section of the particles using Rayleigh approximation and Mie theory. We validated the method using polystyrene nanospheres, cellulose nanofibrils, and cellulose nanocrystals. A good agreement was achieved through graphical analysis between measured extinction cross section values and theoretical Rayleigh approximation and Mie theory predictions for the sizes of polystyrene nanospheres at wavelength range 450 - 750 nm. Provided that Rayleigh approximation's forward scattering (FS)/back scattering (BS) ratio was smaller than 1.3 and Mie theory's FS/BS ratio was smaller than 1.8. A good fit for the hydrodynamic diameter of nanocellulose was achieved using the Mie theory and Rayleigh approximation. However, due to the high aspect ratio of nanocellulose, the obtained results do not directly reflect the actual cross-sectional diameters of the nanocellulose. Overall, the method is a fast, relatively easy, and simple technique to determine the size of a particle by a spectrophotometer. Consequently, the method can be utilized for example in production and quality control purposes as well as for research and development applications.

  • 14.
    Olsson, Carl
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Att arbeta med ”Synchronization management”2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay revolves around Synchronization management & Synchronization licensing, or in short sync. The development of sync as a career choice and profession has been fast and is still ongoing. It is not until later years that sync has become a proper profession, whereas before it was just part of a publisher or sales person’s regular work.

    In short, sync deals with the commercial use of copyright protected music. A synchronization manager negotiates fees and licensing agreements while handling the dialogue between commercial businesses, publishers and in some cases song writers. Once a deal has been made a Synchronization license is granted by the owner of the copyrighted music, allowing the licensee (the person wanting to use the material) to use the music according to the agreement. A Synchronization license is most commonly used when a company wants to use music in either commercial, television or any kind of visual media.

    To get a better understand of Synchronization management a series of interviews were conducted to get three different perspectives. The first interview helped establish what a synchronization manager actually does, and was held with a person who works with the profession in question. To better grasp the song writing point of view when it comes to sync an interview with a person who was writing for sync briefs was conducted. Lastly, a publisher was interviewed to help understand synchronization licensing from a publishing point of view.

    The result generated by the interviews in combination with already written articles about Synchronization management helped get a better understanding of the profession and how different individuals are using it in their daily life in music. The main question of this essay was to establish if sync is a reliable source of income for “up-and-coming” song writers and music producers.

  • 15.
    Reza, Salim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Stressed in a small group or university? Think Big!2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Rydblom, Staffan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thörnberg, Benny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Olsson, Esbjörn
    Swedish Meteorol & Hydrol Inst (SMHI), Sundsvall.
    Field Study of LWC and MVD Using the Droplet Imaging Instrument2019In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 614-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The droplet imaging instrument (DII) is a new instrument for cost-effective in situ measurements of the size and concentration of water droplets. The droplet size distribution and the concentration of atmospheric liquid water are important for the prediction of icing on structures, such as wind turbines. To improve the predictions of icing, there is a need to explore cost-effective working solutions. Through imaging, a wide range of droplet sizes can be measured. This paper describes a study of the atmospheric liquid water content and the median volume diameter using the DII and a commercial reference instrument--the cloud droplet probe 2 from Droplet Measurement Technologies Inc. The measurement is done at a weather measurement station in mid-Sweden. For a second validation, the result is compared with predictions using a numerical weather prediction model. The size measurement of the DII is verified using polymer microspheres of four known size distributions. The study shows that the DII measurement is precise, but there is a systematic difference between the two compared instruments. It also shows that droplets larger than 50 μm in diameter are occasionally measured, which we believe is important for the prediction of icing.

  • 17.
    Saeedian, Meysam
    et al.
    Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Pouresmaeil, Edris
    Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Samadaei, Emad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Godinho Rodrigues, Eduardo Manuel
    Management and Production Technologies of Northern Aveiro—ESAN, Oliveira de Azeméis, Portugal.
    Godina, Radu
    New University of Lisbon, Caparica, Portugal.
    Marzband, Mousa
    Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    An innovative dual-boost nine-level inverter with low-voltage rating switches2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an innovative switched-capacitor based nine-level inverter employing single DC input for renewable and sustainable energy applications. The proposed configuration generates a step-up bipolar output voltage without end-side H-bridge, and the employed capacitors are charged in a self-balancing form. Applying low-voltage rated switches is another merit of the proposed inverter, which leads to extensive reduction in total standing voltage. Thereby, switching losses as well as inverter cost are reduced proportionally. Furthermore, the comparative analysis against other state-of-the-art inverters depicts that the number of required power electronic devices and implementation cost is reduced in the proposed structure. The working principle of the proposed circuit along with its efficiency calculations and thermal modeling are elaborated in detail. In the end, simulations and experimental tests are conducted to validate the flawless performance of the proposed nine-level topology in power systems.

  • 18.
    Samadaei, Emad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Kaviani, Mohammad
    Mazandaran University of Science and Technology University.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    A 13-levels Module (K-Type) with two DC sources for Multilevel Inverters2019In: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 66, no 7, p. 5186-5196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new reconfiguration module for asymmetrical multilevel inverters in which the capacitors are used as the DC links to creates the levels for staircase waveforms. This configuration of multilevel converter makes a reduction in DC sources. On the other hand, it is possible to generate 13 levels with lower DC sources. The proposed module of multilevel inverter generates 13 levels with two unequal DC sources (2VDC and 1VDC). It also involves two chargeable capacitors and 14 semiconductor switches. The capacitors are self-charging without any extra circuit. The lower number of components makes it desirable to use in wide range of applications. The module is schematized as two back-to-back T-type inverters and some other switches around it. Also, it can be connected as cascade modular which lead to a modular topology with more voltage levels at higher voltages. The proposed module makes the inherent creation of the negative voltage levels without any additional circuit (such as H-bridge circuit). Nearest level control switching modulation (NLC) scheme is applied to achieve high quality sinusoidal output voltage. Simulations are executed in MATLAB/Simulink and a prototype is implemented in the power electronics laboratory which the simulation and experimental results show a good performance.

  • 19.
    Sandberg, Sebastian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Musikens inverkan på lyssnaren.: En litteraturstudie kompletterad med en implementering av strukturerad lyssnande.2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Ohälsa har de senaste åren ökat bland befolkningen nationellt. Det finns ett större

    behov för alternativa behandlingar för att kunna ge lindring. En av dessa alternativa metoder är

    implementering av musik. Det talas om ’’musikmedicin’’ - ett sätt att främja, förstärka och berika

    patienters status.

    Bakgrund: Det finns omfattande studier om musikens påverkan på människan. Studier på

    fysiologisk och psykologisk respons vid musiklyssnande har fått ett större intresse de senaste tjugo

    åren. Tidigare så har musikerns roll varit frikopplad från studierna då dessa mestadels

    implementerat inspelade medier.

    Syfte: Att identifiera hur musiken påverkar lyssnaren.

    Metod: Litteratursökning har innefattat litteratur på ämnet musik och hälsa, avhandlingar på nätet

    och även strömmande videos. En enkätmetod med implementerande lyssningsmoment har

    upprättats med en testgrupp. Testgruppen bestod av nio deltagare, 5 kvinnor och fyra män, som fått

    lyssna på ett eget utvalt verk 2 gånger om dagen i 3 veckors tid.

    Resultat: Musik fungerar som ett medie som kan påverka kroppen och sinnet i ett hälsofrämjande

    syfte. Resultat talar för att musiklyssnande kan främja individens hälsa genom fysiologiska

    reaktioner, som exempelvis dopaminfrisättning. Det faktorer som spelar in för att få önskvärda

    resultat är bland andra musiksmak, social - och kulturell koppling och emotionell koppling till

    musiken. Det finns mallar som går att förhålla sig till för att förstå sambandet mellan musik, hälsa

    och individen för implementering. Resultaten från enkätmetoden talar för att majoriteten av

    deltagarna har upplevt förbättrade resultat med sänkta stressnivåer än innan utfört moment.

    Diskussion: Diskussionen jämför resultatet i enkätstudien med tidigare försök från litteraturstudien.

    Metodens för och nackdelar diskuteras. Musikerns och kompositörens roll i ämnet diskuteras och

    framställs med alternativa positioner för framtida bruk. Detta för att skapa förståelse hos musikern/

    kompositören mot resultaten i denna studie och även. Metoddiskussionen fördjupar sig i för och

    nackdelar med studiens metoder.

  • 20.
    Vijeh, Mahdi
    et al.
    Mazandaran University of Science and Technology, Babol Iran.
    Rezanejad, Mohammad
    University of Mazandaran, Iran.
    Samadaei, Emad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    A General Review of Multilevel Inverters Based on Main Submodules: Structural Point of View2019In: IEEE transactions on power electronics, ISSN 0885-8993, E-ISSN 1941-0107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilevel inverters (MLIs) are being used in wide range of power electronics applications. These converters that are attracted a lot of attentions during recent years have different topologies with similar basic concept. This paper presents five main submodules (SMs) that are used as the basic structures of MLIs. The paper reviews the common multilevel inverter topologies with the structural point of view. The topologies are divided to main SMs to show conventional MLIs configuration and future topologies that can be created from the main SMs. The comparative study on topologies is investigated with details. The MLIs are categorized and investigated with due attention to some indexes such as the number of components, the ability to create inherent negative voltage, working in regeneration mode and using single DC source.

  • 21.
    Vitucci, G.
    et al.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Minniti, T.
    STFC Rutherford Appleton Lab, Berks, England.
    Angella, G.
    IENI CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Croci, G.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Muraro, A.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Hoglund, C.
    Linköping Univ, Linköping; European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Lai, C. C.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Cippo, E. Perelli
    IFP CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Albani, G.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Robinson, Linda
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Grosso, G.
    IFP CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Tardocchi, M.
    IFP CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Gorini, G.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Measurement of the thickness of B4C layers deposited over metallic grids via multi-angle neutron radiography2019In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 30, no 1, article id 015402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the present time, different kinds of thermal neutron detectors are under development at the European Spallation Source research facility, in order to overcome the well-known problem of the He-3 shortage. One of these new systems relies on the use of a 3D neutron convener cathode that consists of a stack of aluminum grids, covered by a 0.9 mu m B-10 enriched boron carbide layer ((B4C)-B-10). As the conversion efficiency is a function of the boron thickness and the mean free path of the charged particles produced in the neutron induced reaction, the characterization of the boron carbide layer uniformity over the grids becomes crucial. In this work, a non-destructive method to map the thickness distribution of the converter layer over the grids is shown. The measurements exploit the white-beam neutron radiography technique where the specimen is irradiated at different angles. This experiment has been performed at the IMAT beamline operating at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). The results confirm that this non-destructive, wide-ranging technique allows a reliable and fast sample characterization and that it may be exploited in similar analyses where equivalent requirements are requested.

  • 22.
    Wang, Guilei
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Kolahdouz, M.
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Luo, Jun
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Qin, Changliang
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Gu, Shihai
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Kong, Zhenzhen
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yin, Xiaogen
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Xiong, Wenjuan
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhao, Xuewei
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Jinbiao
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yang, Tao
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Junfeng
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yin, Huaxiang
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhu, Huilong
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Wenwu
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhao, Chao
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Ye, Tianchun
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Growth of SiGe layers in source and drain regions for 10 nm node complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)2019In: Journal of materials science. Materials in electronics, ISSN 0957-4522, E-ISSN 1573-482XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the integration of Si 1−x Ge x (50% ≤ x ≤ 60%) selective epitaxy on source/drain regions in 10 nm node FinFET has been presented. One of the major process issues was the sensitivity of Si-fins’ shape to ex- and in-situ cleaning prior to epitaxy. For example, the sharpness of Si-fins could easily be damaged during the wafer washing. The results showed that a DHF dip before the normal cleaning, was essential to clean the Si-fins while in-situ annealing in range of 780–800 °C was needed to remove the native oxide for high epitaxial quality. Because of smallness of fins, the induced strain by SiGe could not be directly measured by X-ray beam in a typical XRD tool in the lab or even in a Synchrotron facility. Further analysis using nano-beam diffraction technique in high-resolution transmission electron microscope also failed to provide information about strain in the FinFET structure. Therefore, the induced strain by SiGe was simulated by technology computer-aided design program and the Ge content was measured by using energy dispersive spectroscopy. Simulation results showed 0.8, 1 and 1.3 GPa for Ge content of 40%, 50% and 60%, respectively. A kinetic gas model was also introduced to predict the SiGe profile on Si-fins with sharp triangular shape. The input parameters in the model includes growth temperature, partial pressure of the reactant gases and the exposed Si coverage in the chip area.

  • 23.
    Wunderer, C. B.
    et al.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Correa, J.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Marras, A.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Aplin, S.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Boitrelle, B.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany; Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Goettlicher, P.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Krivan, F.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Kuhn, M.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Lange, S.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Niemann, M.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Okrent, F.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Shevyakov, I.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Zimmer, M.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Guerrini, N.
    RAL, STFC, CMOS Sensor Design, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Marsh, B.
    RAL, STFC, CMOS Sensor Design, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Sedgwick, I.
    RAL, STFC, CMOS Sensor Design, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Cautero, G.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy.
    Giuressi, D.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy.
    Gregori, I.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy.
    Pinaroli, G.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy; Univ Udine, Udine, Italy.
    Menk, R.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy.
    Stebel, L.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy.
    Greer, A.
    Diamond Light Source, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Nicholls, T.
    RAL, STFC, CMOS Sensor Design, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Pedersen, U. K.
    Diamond Light Source, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Tartoni, N.
    Diamond Light Source, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Hyun, H.
    Pohang Accelerator Lab, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, South Korea.
    Kim, K.
    Pohang Accelerator Lab, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, South Korea.
    Rah, S.
    Pohang Accelerator Lab, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, South Korea.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    The Percival 2-Megapixel monolithic active pixel imager2019In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 14, article id C01006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The peak brilliance reached by today's Free-Electron Laser and Synchrotron light sources requires photon detectors matching their output intensity and other characteristics in order to fully realize the sources' potential. The Pixellated Energy Resolving CMOS Imager, Versatile And Large (Percival) is a dedicated soft X-ray imager (0.25-1 keV) developed for this purpose by a collaboration of DESY, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory/STFC, Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Diamond Light Source, and Pohang Accelerator Laboratory. Following several generations of prototypes, the Percival "P2M" 2-Megapixel imager - a 4.5x5 cm monolithic, stitched sensor with an uninterrupted imaging area of 4x4 cm(2) (1408x1484 pixels of 27x27 mu m - was produced and has demonstrated basic functionality with a first-light image using visible light. It is currently being brought to full operation in a front-illuminated configuration. The readout system being commissioned in parallel has been developed specifically for this imager which will produce - at full 300 Hz frame rate - data at 20 Gbit/s. A first wafer with eight Percival P2M chips has undergone backthinning to enable soft X-ray detection. It has been diced and chips are currently being wirebonded. We summarize here the P2M system, the project status, and show the P2M sensor's first response to visible light.

  • 24.
    Zhang, Renyun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Interaction of the human body with triboelectric nanogenerators2019In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 57, p. 279-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) is a new technique for energy harvesting at both small and large scales. Almost all types of mechanical energy can be harvested with TENGs by using four modes of operation that cover almost all mechanical motions. The interactions of the human body with TENGs range from energy harvesting, motion sensing, and biomedical applications to human-computer communications. Different types of TENGs have been developed to directly or indirectly involve the human body. This review will summarize the recent advances in the interaction of the human body with TENGs.

  • 25.
    Zhao, Xuewei
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Moeen, M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Toprak, M. S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Wang, G.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Luo, J.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Ke, X.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Z.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, D.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, W.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhao, C.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Design impact on the performance of Ge PIN photodetectors2019In: Journal of materials science. Materials in electronics, ISSN 0957-4522, E-ISSN 1573-482XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the impact of epitaxial quality, contact resistance and profile of Ge PIN photodetectors (PDs) on dark current and responsivity. The PD structures were processed with either selectively grown Ge with integrated waveguides on SOI wafer or globally grown Ge on the entire wafer. The contact resistance was lowered by introducing NiGe layer prior to the metallization. The n-type doped Ge PIN structure was formed by ion implantation and the contact resistivity was estimated to 2.6 × 10 −4  Ω cm 2 . This value is rather high and it is believed to be due to fomation of defects during implantation. The results show a minor difference in dark currents for selectively and globally grown PDs but in both types, it depends on detector area and the epitaxial quality of Ge. For example, the threading dislocation density (TDD) in non-selectively grown PDs with thickness of 1 µm was estimated to be 10 6  cm −2 yielding relatively low dark currents while it dramatically changes for PDs with thinner Ge layers where TDD increases to 10 8  cm −2 and the dark current levels increase almost by 1.5 magnitude. Surprisingly, for selectively grown PDs with Ge thickness of 500 nm, TDD was still low resulting in low dark currents. The dark current densities at − 1 V bias of non-selectively and selectively grown PDs with optimized profile were measured to be 5 mA/cm 2 and 47 mA/cm 2 , respectively, while the responsivity of these detectors were 0.17 A/W and 0.46 A/W at λ ~ 1.55 µm, respectively. Excellent performance for selectively grown PD shows an appropriate choice for detection of 1.55 µm wavelength. 

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