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  • 1.
    Andersson, Andreas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering. Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Sjöblom, A.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala; University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen, Norway.
    Sahlée, E.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Falck, E.
    University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen, Norway.
    Rutgersson, A.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Enhanced Air–Sea Exchange of Heat and Carbon Dioxide Over a High Arctic Fjord During Unstable Very-Close-to-Neutral Conditions2019In: Boundary-layer Meteorology, ISSN 0006-8314, E-ISSN 1573-1472, Vol. 170, no 3, p. 471-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eddy-covariance measurements made in the marine atmospheric boundary layer above a high Arctic fjord (Adventfjorden, Svalbard) are analyzed. When conditions are unstable, but close to neutral −0.1 < z/L < 0, where z is the height, and L is the Obukhov length, the exchange coefficient for sensible heat CH is significantly enhanced compared with that expected from classical surface-layer theory. Cospectra of the vertical velocity component (w) and temperature (T) reveal that a high-frequency peak develops at f ≈ 1 Hz for z/L > − 0.15. A quadrant analysis reveals that the contribution from downdrafts to the vertical heat flux increases as conditions become close to neutral. These findings are the signature of the evolving unstable very-close-to-neutral (UVCN) regime previously shown to enhance the magnitude of sensible and latent heat fluxes in the marine surface layer over the Baltic Sea. Our data reveal the significance of the UVCN regime for the vertical flux of the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration (C). The cospectrum of w and C clearly shows how the high-frequency peak grows in magnitude for z/L > − 0.15, while the high-frequency peak dominates for z/L > − 0.02. As found for the heat flux, the quadrant analysis of the CO2 flux shows a connection between the additional small-scale turbulence and downdrafts from above. In contrast to the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat, which are primarily enhanced by the very different properties of the air from aloft (colder and drier) during UVCN conditions, the increase in the air–sea transfer of CO2 is possibly a result of the additional small-scale turbulence causing an increase in the water-side turbulence. The data indicate an increase in the gas-transfer velocity for CO2 for z/L > − 0.15 but with a large scatter. During the nearly 2 months of continuous measurements (March–April 2013), as much as 36% of all data are associated with the stability range −0.15 < z/L < 0, suggesting that the UVCN regime is of significance in the wintertime Arctic for the air–sea transfer of heat and possibly also CO2.

  • 2.
    Boltemo Edholm, Jenny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering.
    How can Ecosystem Services be implemented in local Climate Adaptation?: A case study of Arjeplog2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem services are essential for human climate adaptation. As climate change is a direct driver of change for ecosystem service provisioning, it is of importance to care for our ecosystems to be able to cope with future challenges. Local governance has a central role in climate adaptation due to its responsibility in physical planning. To be able to plan for changes driven by climate change, a flexible, adaptive strategy is necessary. Ecosystem-based Adaptation, EbA, can provide this flexibility to an overall adaptation strategy. In this case study, the potential of EbA to help Nature-based Tourism, NbT, to adapt to a changing climate was spatially mapped to be a useful part of the basis for local physical planning. The mapping includes areas of biodiversity, water infrastructure and features that provide resilience to climate change. The results show that there are areas with potential for EbA that can address adverse effects of climate change for the NbT. These spatial mapped areas provide an instant overview of the key areas to consider when planning for climate adaptation. These mapped areas are also combined with a qualitative assessment of the potential for EbA. By providing decision-makers with information on where and how ecosystem services can assist local climate adaptation, decisions that support both the future of humanity and ecosystems are enabled. However, to reach enforcement of EbA, the knowledge has to be included in binding documents such as detail plans.

  • 3.
    Freitas, Flavio L M
    et al.
    KTH, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    Univ Sao Paulo, Soil Sci Dept, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, Phys Resource Theory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Martin
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, Phys Resource Theory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Englund, Oskar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering. Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, Phys Resource Theory, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Baretto, Alberto
    Univ Sao Paulo, Soil Sci Dept, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Potential increase of legal deforestation in Brazilian Amazon after Forest Act revision2018In: Nature Sustainability, E-ISSN 2398-9629, Vol. 1, no 11, p. 665-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian Amazon rainforest is protected largely by command and control regulation of public and private land. The Brazilian Forest Act requires private landholders within the Amazon to set aside 80% of their land as legal reserves for nature protection, but this requirement can be reduced to 50% if more than 65% of a state’s territory is protected public land (for example, public conservation units and indigenous reserves). In the ongoing land designation process in Brazil, some Amazonian states may cross this 65% threshold. We assess the potential reduction in the legal reserve requirement from 80% to 50%, through spatially explicit modelling of scenarios concerning land tenure consolidation, employing up-to-date databases on land ownership. Depending on the outcome of land designation processes and political priorities, some 6.5–15.4 million hectares of private land previously protected as legal reserves may become available for legal deforestation. While protection of public land is crucial for safeguarding the Amazon, revisions of federal and state legislation may be needed to avoid the further extension of protected public land triggering increased legal deforestation on private lands. Zero-deforestation commitments and other initiatives may mitigate impacts in the absence of such revision.

  • 4.
    Grönlund, Sven Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering.
    Indicators and methods to assess sustainability of wastewater sludge management in the perspective of two systems ecology models2019In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 100, no May 2019, p. 45-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper, inspired by Sven Erik Jørgensen's academic life, takes a systems ecology perspective on sustainability in wastewater sludge management. First, an overview identifies the indicators and methods currently used to assess sustainability and sustainable development in the area of wastewater sludge. Second, two systems ecology conceptual models are presented. Third, the indicators and methods are discussed in the perspective of these systems ecology models. Four methods were found common in assessing wastewater sludge sustainability: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Exergy Analysis (ExA), Emergy Analysis (EmA), and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) was added since it was found to be used in the larger wastewater treatment context, and complements the other four methods. When comparing the indicators and methods with the systems ecology models it was found that no method covered every aspect of the models. ExA, EmA and ERA covered the full extent of the models but not from every aspect interesting from a sustainability point of view. LCA and CBA had a lower reach at the ecosystem side of the models, but produced deeper knowledge regarding environmental impacts for LCA, and economic flows and storages for CBA. The investigation concludes that a complementary approach of methods and indicators is needed to assess sustainability, and they are suggested to be used in an integrated way, in the spirit of Sven Erik Jørgensen's findings. 

  • 5.
    Haller, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering.
    Business Models for reclaiming contaminated soil2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Haller, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering.
    Reforestación como un medio para capturar carbono, combatir pobreza y remediar suelos en Mesoamérica2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Haller, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering.
    Phytoremediation and Agroforestry- mitigation of climate change, poverty reduction and cleaning of soils2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Jonsson, Elise
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering.
    Defining and assessing the first/last mile problem of public transport: A case study in Stockholm, Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The first/last mile (FM/LM) problem is directly connected to the accessibility of public transport, which in turn is linked to a reduction of problems such as greenhouse gas emissions, traffic congestion, and related health and environmental problems. Despite a growing interest of FM/LM studies, there is a lack of a common definition and framework. This study aims to define and develop a framework of the FM/LM problem and then evaluate the extent of FM/LM problems of public transport in a case study of Stockholm County. Thresholds are established using willingness to walk studies. A GIS service area model was built and used for case study relevant for the years 2019 and 2035.The first and last mile is defined as the distances between public transport and destination or residence, with problem areas defined as buildings outside of willingness to walk thresholds. Literature study shows a wide spread of thresholds, with individuals willing to walk further to faster services and a high willingness to walk in Stockholm compared to other cities. Almost all buildings currently lacking access to public transport are smaller houses in rural areas, with about a third being in holiday home areas. Future scenarios show that areas prioritized for development have access to public transport, with one exception; Arlanda/Märsta.The proposed method for evaluating FM/LM problems is less time-consuming and requires less data collection than some other methods, while still providing insight into areas lacking access to public transport. Most buildings in Stockholm currently have access to public transport, especially apartments and commercial buildings. Future development shows promise of improved public transport. However, if future development plans fail to account for population growth, the perceived accessibility of public transport will likely be negatively affected.

  • 9.
    Lindstrand, Åsa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering.
    Samråden i samband med slutförvaret för använt kärnbränsle i Östhammars kommun2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a case study where Swedish nuclear fuel and waste management company's (SKB) consultations in the municipality of Östhammar during the years 2002-2011 have been studied. Together with the application submitted by SKB to the Land and Environmental Court in 2011, the company needed an environmental impact assessment (EIA). In order to do this, consultations was a necessity. The planned repository is a complex activity and may be difficult to consult, both by the operator and by participants.

    The purpose of the consultation is to bring in comments and questions about the intended activities, which can then be used to develop and improve the environmental impact assessment. Common ways of conducting consultations are holding information meetings, which was also the way SKB chose. The material available from these consultations is summaries that SKB itself has made.

    When SKB submitted its application, a consultation report was also submitted, describing the consultations conducted.

    SKB has conducted its consultations in a fairly predictable manner. Since there is only written material from the consultations, it is difficult to determine whether they have been reproduced in a fair way. It is with hesitation that the purpose of the consultations can be seen as fulfilled.

  • 10.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering.
    Activities of environmental convention-secretariats: Laws, functions and discretions2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 11, article id 3116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilateral Environmental Agreements-MEAs-are indispensable legal frameworks for environmental sustainability and also define the operating rules of their implementation bodies ("Secretariats"). The contribution assesses in how far the norms defining Secretariats' functions differ and also reflect on actual functions for three MEAs, namely (1) the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora-CITES (1973), (2) the Convention on Biological Diversity-CBD (1992), and (3) the Convention on Migratory Species-CMS (1979). It does so by comparative legal interpretation of the main norms of these MEAs laying down the functions of its respective Secretariats as well as an in-depth review of academic literature about these functions. The results for these three conventions divide into nine functional areas and show an unexpectedly wide range of different functions laid down in the conventions as well as extensive variety in the discretion for many of these functional areas. Some potential explanations of these formal differences are provided. The paper further finds that actually executed functions may not be fully covered by the underlying legal norms but rather by "flexible" highest governing bodies of MEAs and concludes that occasionally an unusual legislative style was chosen, and shows potential solutions and future research directions. 

  • 11.
    Mauerhofer, Volker
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering.
    An introduction and overview on law, politics and governance: Institutions, organizations and procedures for Ecological Economics2019In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 165, article id 106396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this Special Issue (SI) are to provide a broad and structured overview on literature published related to Law and Ecological Economics (EE) as well as to offer latest insights into this wide and further emerging combined field of research by means of contributed papers. Thus, this introduction into the SI firstly implements a systematic database term search and further analyses 129 papers identified. It was found that the majority refers to the “laws” of thermodynamics. Only 33 publications could be related to EE and Law, latter in the sense of the Rule of Law, with quite even allocation among the three streams identified, namely theoretical and philosophical considerations, strategic transition and transformation studies, and practical case studies. The literature overview also chronologically indicates that the vast majority of those 33 papers have been written during the past 15 years. The second part of this introduction describes the content of the seven contributions to this SI more in detail. Afterwards it shows that these contributions tend similarly more into the directions of providing strategic transition and transformation studies as well as practical case studies, indicating an overall shift from theory towards practical implementation of EE within Law. 

  • 12.
    Skytt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering.
    Nielsen, S. N.
    Aalborg University, København, Denmark.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering.
    Energy flows and efficiencies as indicators of regional sustainability – A case study of Jämtland, Sweden2019In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 100, no May 2019, p. 74-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of energy and material flows has been elaborated for the Swedish region Jämtland with the aim of monitoring and comparing regional sustainability by following the work energy flow method developed in a study of the Danish island of Samsø (Nielsen & Jørgensen, 2011). In the region of Jämtland about 46,000 TJ of energy flows into society, of which 88% is renewable. From this an amount corresponding to 30,800 TJ is exported as electricity from the region, while another 410 TJ is exported as waste to be incinerated. The remaining part, about 15,200 TJ (63% renewable), drives Jämtland. From an energy flow perspective, the most important production from the region, apart from electricity production, is biomass from the forest: 49,000 TJ estimated as energy content in the biomass harvested. Another 55,000 TJ is added to the standing biomass every year as forest growth (only productive forest land area has been calculated). Some suggested indices of sustainability have been calculated and Jämtland shows high values. However, it will be a challenge to transform the quite large transport sector of Jämtland, and therefore the potential to become fully sustainable (ref to indexes used for the Samsø study) might not be quite as high. In order to reduce the use of non-renewable energy, a major conversion of the transport fleet is needed, and this should be given high priority. The private sector is the largest single user of non-renewable energy (2,200 TJ). One successful transition is the Swedish diesel mix with 19% FAME/HVO derived from vegetable or animal sources and regarded as renewable. The consumption of FAME/HVO is predicted to increase significantly, increasing the importance of the forest as a source. A sustainability analysis based at work energy flows shows for both Samsø and Jämtland that large natural resources producing a high work energy output combined with low work energy use due to low population density, gives high sustainability indicators. This indicates that regions with high population density and the absence of natural resources (high import), as in most regions in the world, will show low sustainability indicators. 

  • 13.
    van den Brink, Paul
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering.
    Allard, Anna
    Ihse, Margareta
    Effekterna av ett kortvarigt vinterbete av ren i lavdominerad fjällvegetation, i Rogenområdet, HärjedalenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Waller, Judith
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering.
    A short story about k, the gas transfer velocity: Or what happens when it’s windy at Kattstrupeforsen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2), as one of the major anthropogenic greenhouse gases, is widely acknowledged to contribute to global warming and climate change. Historically, the major focus on the role of the aquatic environment in the carbon cycle has been on the atmosphere-ocean exchange. More recent findings suggest the importance of freshwater (lakes, rivers and streams) as a source for atmospheric CO2. The freshwater contribution is, however, poorly understood, mainly due to a paucity of data, especially from running waters.

    To address this issue, Eddy Covariance (EC) measurements in a large boreal river in Northern Sweden (Indalsälven), are being made as part of a two-year long continual study of the carbon dioxide exchange between the air and water. This is one of the first known studies of its kind where EC measurements are conducted in a river setting. Continual data acquisition began in April 2018, monitoring a variety of general meteorological parameters, turbulent emissions of carbon dioxide, latent, and sensible heat, together with water-side measurements of CO2. The aim of the study is to investigate the temporal control on river carbon dioxide emissions covering timescales from hours to seasons.

    This thesis focuses on the influence of the wind on the air-water CO2 exchange during the first quarter of 2019. The data indicates a positive influence of wind speed on the gas transfer velocity, k, with a threshold between a low dependency and high dependency state occurring around 5 ms-1. A further influence of wind stress, decreased by the alignment of current flow with wind direction is also demonstrated, indicating that higher wind speeds are required when flow is aligned with the wind direction to attain similar levels of k600 than for stationary water. The average value of k600 for over-water wind directions for the four month period considered was 11.7 cm.h-1, which is towards the upper end of the range of values expected for such a river from the existing literature.

    These findings help to provide clarity on the processes controlling the CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and boreal rivers, which can be used to improve the accuracy of carbon flux predictions on a global scale.

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