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  • 1.
    Abbasi, Seyed H
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    De Leon, AP
    Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Intitutet, Sweden.
    Kassaian, SE
    Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Karimi.,, AA
    Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gender Differences in the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease in Iran2012In: Iranian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 0304-4556, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 36-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Given gender differences in the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), the present study sought to investigate these dissimilarities amongst patients who underwent angiography at a major, tertiary heart hospital in Iran. Methods: Between 2005 and 2010, 44,820 patients who underwent coronary angiography were enrolled in a registry. Pre-procedural data such as demographics, CAD risk factors, presenting symptoms, and laboratory tests, as well as postprocedural data were collected. The data were, subsequently, compared between the men and women. Results: Out of the 44,820 patients (16,378 women), who underwent coronary angiography, 37,358 patients (11,995 women) had CAD. Amongst the CAD patients, the females were not only significantly older, less educated, and more overweight than were the males but also had higher levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, highdensity lipoprotein, and fasting blood sugar (P< 0.001). Of all the risk factors, hypertension and diabetes mellitus showed the strongest association in our female CAD patients (OR=3.45, 95%CI: 3.28-3.61 and OR=2.37, 95%CI: 2.26- 2.48, respectively). Acute coronary syndrome was more prevalent in the men (76.1% vs. 68.6%, P< 0.001), and chronic stable angina was more frequent in the females (31.4% vs. 23.9%, P< 0.001). With respect to post-procedural recommendations, the frequency of recommendations for non-invasive modalities was higher in the females (20.1% vs. 18.6%, P< 0.001). Conclusion: Hypertension and diabetes mellitus had the strongest association with CAD in our female patients. In the extensive CAD patients, medical treatment was recommended to the women more often.

  • 2.
    Adamsson Abdel Halim, Hanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Patientens upplevelse av att leva med en implanterbar defibrillator (ICD): - en litteraturöversikt2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: En implanterbar defibrillator (ICD) har till uppgift att återställa hjärtats rytm vid en arytmi. Implantationerna ökar stadigt, studier har dock visat att sjuksköterskor inte upplever sig ha tillräckligt med kunskaper om ICD:n och de upplevelser som patienter kan väntas få efter implantation. Syfte: Syftet var att belysa patienters upplevelse av att leva med en implanterbar defibrillator. Metod: Uppsatsen är gjord som en litteraturöversikt med 15 kvalitativa vetenskapliga artiklar inkluderade. Artikelsökningar gjordes i databaserna Cinahl, Pubmed och PsycInfo. I analysen identifierades meningsenheter som delades in i olika teman och underteman utifrån likheter och olikheter. Resultat: Patienterna visade sig ha dubbla känslor gentemot ICD:n, upplevelser som identifierades var: besvikelse, tacksamhet, rädsla/ångest, trygghet, känna sig begränsad och acceptans. Diskussion: Några patienter upplevde bland annat ett bristande stöd från hälsopersonalen, det är viktigt att sjuksköterskan försöker förstå patientens perspektiv för att kunna vara ett så bra stöd som möjligt. Slutsats: Studien bidrog med kunskap om vilka olika upplevelser ICD-patienter kan ha efter en implantation. Eventuella orsaker till upplevelserna skulle kunna ligga till grund för framtida studier.

  • 3.
    Adler, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Analys av gjorda och insläppta mål över matchtid i herrallsvenskan i fotboll2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den ultimata indikatorn på ett fotbollslags prestation är matchresultatet som beror på balansen av gjorda och insläppta mål. Syftet med studien var att analysera de allsvenska herrlagens målproduktion under säsongen 2010. Detta för att undersöka de svenska elitlagens förekomst av gjorda och insläppta mål över matchtid. Ytterligare syfte var att undersöka om framgångsrika och mindre framgångsrika lag uppvisar olika mönster gällande dessa parametrar. Samtliga 240 matcher, totalt 600 mål, från säsongen 2010 studerades på förekomst av mål över matchtid. Målen kategoriserades lagvis i åtta stycken tidsperioder. Lagen delades även in i tre olika grupper beroende på tabellplacering. Resultaten baserat på samtliga lag visade signifikant större andel gjorda mål under den andra halvleken jämfört med den första, 55,2% mot 44,8% (p<0,05). Inga signifikanta skillnader mellan 15-minutersperioderna kunde ses. Däremot sågs signifikanta skillnader mellan 15-minutersperioderna inom de olika grupperna. Topplagen uppvisade signifikant större andel insläppta mål under period 76-90min jämfört med 31-45min, 46-60min och 61-75min (p<0,05). Mittenlagen uppvisade signifikant mindre andel insläppta mål under period 76-90min jämfört med 31-45min, 46-60min och 61-75min (p<0,05). Sammanfattningsvis, svenska herr-elitlag följde en ökande trend av gjorda mål över matchtid med större andel mål under andra halvleken jämfört med första. Resultaten antydde även att topplagen uppvisade hög resultatmässig prestation genom hela matcherna medan bottenlagen uppvisade låg prestation och mittenlagen varierande prestation, vilket delvis förklarar varför grupperna placerar sig i toppen, botten och mitten av tabellen.

  • 4.
    Adén, Camilla
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Caroline
    Strategier som sjuksköterskan använder vid bedömning av akut och postoperativ smärta2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5.
    Aglen, B.
    et al.
    Nord Trondelag Univ Coll, Fac Hlth Sci, N-7601 Levanger, Norway .
    Hedlund, M.
    Telemark Univ Coll, Porsgrunn, Norway .
    Landstad, B. J.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Self-help and self-help groups for people with long-lasting health problems or mental health difficulties in a Nordic context: A review2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 39, no 8, p. 813-822Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this review is to provide systematic knowledge of research from Nordic countries about the meaning of self-help and self-help groups when these are used as a concept or method addressing issues related to long-lasting health problems or mental health difficulties. Methods: Included were studies conducted in the Nordic countries that were published between January 1999 and September 2009. These studies investigated self-help and self-help groups addressing issues related to long-lasting health problems. Results: A total of 83 publications met the inclusion criteria. Four major characteristics of self-help were found to be present in the publications: self-help as an intrapsychological process, self-help as an interpsychological or group process, self-help as a coping, individual learning or empowerment process, and self-help as an alternative or complement to medical treatment. Of the 83 studies, 72 publications used a professional treatment perspective for studying self-help and 11 publications used a perspective derived from alternative or complementary therapies. Conclusions: The review shows that most of the research on self-help and self-help groups for people with long-lasting health problems or disability is conducted with an interest to improve the professional healthcare system. That is, the health-promotion strategy is mainly considered in the framework of treatment or care settings. This means that self-help in this context does not challenge the dominant biomedical health model. © 2011 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  • 6.
    Ahlerup, Robert
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hamrén, Timmy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Livskvalitet efter radikal prostatektomi på grund av prostatacancer – en litteraturöversikt2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Vid prostatacancer är radikal prostatektomi en vanlig behandlingsmetod. Behandlingen förknippas dock med besvärliga biverkningar, så som erektil dysfunktion och urininkontinens. Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturöversikt var att belysa upplevelser av livskvalitet hos män som opererats med radikal prostatektomi på grund av prostatacancer med avseende på urologisk funktion, sexualitet samt psykosociala aspekter. Metod: En litteraturöversikt med 10 vetenskapliga artiklar som är baserad på både kvalitativa och kvantitativa studier. Resultat: Teman som identifierades var, ”Påverkan på urologisk funktion”, ”Påverkan på sexualitet” samt ”Psykosocial påverkan”. Funktionsnedsättningar så som erektil dysfunktion och urininkontinens, samt psykosociala delar visade sig påverka männens livskvalitet på ett negativt sätt. Diskussion och slutsats: Radikal prostatektomi innebar en stor förändrig för mäns livskvalitet. Ytterligare kvalitativ forskning inom ämnesområdet behövs för att få en djupare förståelse för dessa mäns livssituation.

    Bakgrund: Vid prostatacancer är radikal prostatektomi en vanlig behandlingsmetod. Behandlingen förknippas dock med besvärliga biverkningar, så som erektil dysfunktion och urininkontinens. Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturöversikt var att belysa upplevelser av livskvalitet hos män som opererats med radikal prostatektomi på grund av prostatacancer med avseende på urologisk funktion, sexualitet samt psykosociala aspekter. Metod: En litteraturöversikt med 10 vetenskapliga artiklar som är baserad på både kvalitativa och kvantitativa studier. Resultat: Teman som identifierades var, ”Påverkan på urologisk funktion”, ”Påverkan på sexualitet” samt ”Psykosocial påverkan”. Funktionsnedsättningar så som erektil dysfunktion och urininkontinens, samt psykosociala delar visade sig påverka männens livskvalitet på ett negativt sätt. Diskussion och slutsats: Radikal prostatektomi innebar en stor förändrig för mäns livskvalitet. Ytterligare kvalitativ forskning inom ämnesområdet behövs för att få en djupare förståelse för dessa mäns livssituation.

  • 7.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå Univ, Dept Community Med & Rehabil, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden .
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Struggle for time to teach. Teachers experiences of their work situation.2011In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 40, no Suppl 1, p. 111-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of this study was to from a gender perspective, explore elementary school teacher' experiences of their work situation, and identify conditions that could be health risks. Participants: Eighteen female teachers who work in an elementary school in Northern Sweden. Method: Thematic interviews were conducted using an interview guide. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the transcribed text and interpretations were made within gender theory. Results: Four categories emerged: "Squeezed between dream and reality", "Effort to keep up with demands", "We can make it together" and "The school needs men's qualities". The categories were linked together with the theme "A struggle for time to teach". The theme describes the conflict between the teachers' ambitions to teach and create a stimulating learning environment versus the increased need for behaviour control that took time from classroom work. Beside work at the school, the teachers carried a large burden of domestic work.Conclusions: Teachers' work includes both endless demands and great joy. Their work is structured within the schools gender system in which caring duties are subordinated despite a growing demand for behaviour control. Traditional gender roles affect their domestic work load.

  • 8.
    Ahlgren, Åsa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Bergroth, Alf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ekholm, Jan
    Work resumption or not after rehabilitation?: A descriptive study from six social insurance offices.2004In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 171-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to describe measures and outcomes of vocational rehabilitation at six local national insurance offices in the same county in Sweden. Data were collected from mainframe registers and other records at each office. There were great differences in sickness allowance, incapacity rate, selected rehabilitation measures and resuming work. The percentage of sick-listed people who received any rehabilitation measure differed from 1.2 to 8.7%. The gender distribution for the study population was 36% men and 64% women and the predominant diagnosis was musculoskeletal pain conditions, which was followed by psychiatric disorders. Outcomes varied from office B, which reported 58% fully fit after completed planned rehabilitation, to office C, which reported only 24% fully fit. The clear differences in outcome between the offices indicate that various rehabilitation measures differ in effectiveness. The rehabilitation measure 'investigation of working ability' was not linked to any great proportion of people resuming work, but showed a greater correspondence to full disability pension. There were also large differences in social and demographic factors in the different municipalities. The effect of these on the rehabilitation process requires further investigation.

  • 9.
    Ahlgren, Åsa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Bergroth, Alf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ekholm, Jan
    Schüldt Ekholm, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Selection of clients for vocational rehabilitation at six local social insurance offices.: a combined register and questionnaire study on rehabilitation measures and attitudes among social insurance officers.2008In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 178-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences between local social insurance offices with regard to their selection of clients for vocational rehabilitation. A further aim was to determine whether social insurance officers from different local insurance offices have uniform attitudes regarding professional practice in their application of the insurance system. METHODS: A register-based investigation of 815 vocational rehabilitees served by 6 local social insurance offices in a Swedish county. The study was supplemented with a questionnaire to 30 officers about attitudes to social insurance. RESULTS: The office with the lowest rate of sick-listing periods exceeding one year, and a high frequency of employment training, showed the highest degree of work resumption and the lowest pension rate after vocational rehabilitation. There were wide differences in attitude among the local social insurance officers regarding professional practice in their application of the system. CONCLUSION: Intra-county differences occur in handling people on sick-leave who undergo vocational rehabilitation. The local social insurance offices with the highest and lowest outcome rates of work resumption and disability pension, respectively, select clients for vocational rehabilitation from different categories of cases. Social insurance officers from different local offices differ in their attitudes towards the social insurance system and its clients.

  • 10.
    Ahlgren, Åsa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Bergroth, Alf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ekholm, Jan
    Schüldt Ekholm, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Work resumption after vocational rehabilitation: a follow-up two years after completed rehabilitation2007In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 343-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A short-term evaluation of vocational rehabilitation (VR) may give conclusions not automatically applicable over a longer term. The present study follows up alterations in work resumption or in social insurance benefits from the time of completed VR and during the following two years. AIM: The primary objective was to evaluate work resumption among previous sick-leavers granted vocational rehabilitation. The aim of the follow-up was to assess the stability of the outcome of VR over time and to analyse factors of importance for clients that remained at work. METHOD: A register investigation was based on 815 cases where the clients had taken part in vocational rehabilitation and were served by one of six local social insurance offices of a Swedish county. RESULTS: Of the clients studied, 52.4% had attained full working capacity The proportion had decreased to 37.4% two years later. One factor that differed between those who resumed work and those who returned to sick leave was the duration of the previous sick-leave period. Those who returned to work had had shorter sick leave, had jobs to return to and had received job training as a vocational rehabilitation measure. CONCLUSIONS: The clients with the best chances of being in work two years after completed vocational rehabilitation were those with short sickness absence, who had been selected for job training as a vocational rehabilitation, were aged 16-29 years and were employed in industry.

  • 11.
    Ahlgren, Åsa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Broman, Lisbet
    Bergroth, Alf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ekholm, Jan
    Disability pension despite vocational rehabilitation: A study from six social insurance offices of a county2005In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Reserch, ISSN 0342-5282, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 33-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many long-term sick-listed individuals move from vocational rehabilitation to pension, rather than reaching the goal of return to work. There is thus reason to consider whether rehabilitation resources are being used optimally. Individuals receiving disability pensions are consuming financial and personnel resources at the insurance offices and also consume a large amount of health care. The general objective of the study was to evaluate the proportion of individuals granted vocational rehabilitation but then obtaining temporary or permanent disability pensions. All persons receiving any kind of rehabilitation and attending one of six local national insurance offices in a county in Sweden in 1998 and 1999 were studied. A 2-year follow-up was carried out to assess changes in status among those who had received temporary disability pensions. Of all individuals receiving rehabilitation, 46.2% ended up with a disability pension allowance. In addition, a large portion of the temporary disability pensions was transformed to permanent disability pensions within 2 years. For clients with a temporary disability pension, the rate of resuming work was close to nil. Among rehabilitation measures, investigation showed the lowest figures of work resumption while job training showed the best outcome in this respect. The study concluded that a large portion of the financial and personnel resources allocated by the national insurance offices to rehabilitation resulted in disability pensions.

  • 12. Ahlström, B H
    et al.
    Skarsäter, I
    Danielson, Ella
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The meaning of major depression in family life: the viewpoint of the ill parent2010In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 19, no 1-2§, p. 284-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and objective.

    The aim was to elucidate the meaning of major depression in family life

    from the viewpoint of an ill parent.

    Background.

    Major depression according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of

    Mental Disorders is common and may appear repeatedly over several

    years, and affects family life. Depression in parents has a negative

    impact on family function and children's health; however, studies

    regarding the deeper understanding of major depression in family life

    are lacking.

    Design.

    A qualitative explorative study using narrative interviews with eight

    parents who were identified with major depression.

    Methods.

    A phenomenological-hermeneutic method of interpretation was used for

    analysing interview texts and included naive understanding, a

    structural analysis where text was divided into meaning units, which

    were condensed and abstracted, and finally a comprehensive

    understanding.

    Result.

    Two themes were extracted: 'to be afflicted in an almost unmanageable

    situation' with sub-themes 'feeling hopelessly bad', 'being worthless',

    'being unsatisfied' and the theme 'to reconcile oneself to the

    situation' with sub-themes 'being active', 'being satisfied' and

    'maintaining parenthood'.

    Conclusion.

    Comprehensive understanding revealed the parents' simultaneous

    suffering and dignity in family life; suffering with serious lack of

    well-being and health, destroyed self-confidence and unhappiness, and

    dignity with strength, confidence and joy in children. The movement

    between suffering and dignity complicated family life. Dignity was

    threatened by the awareness that suffering in major depression was

    recurrent. Dignity had to be repeatedly restored for self and the

    family, and family dignity has to be restored before others outside the

    family circle.

    Relevance to clinical practice.

    A deeper understanding of the meaning of major depression in family

    life is helpful and for healthcare professionals to prevent individual

    and family suffering by assisting and preserving dignity.

     

  • 13. Ahlström, B H
    et al.
    Skärsäter, I
    Danielson, Ella
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Major depression in a family: what happens and how to manage - a case study2007In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 691-706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Major depression challenges the ways of living for both individuals and families. The aim of this study was to describe what happens and how to manage major depression in a family. The case in this paper is a family with a mother who is suffering major depression and her son and daughter. Narrative interviews and qualitative content analysis were conducted. The findings revealed six themes: "a stealthy intruder," "moving slowly to helplessness," "saving the situation," "protecting oneself and others," "conveying things that are beyond words," and the "dispersal of shadows." These themes elucidated the family members' varying views of depression and the unique ways they managed the situation.

     

     

  • 14.
    Ahrne, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet. Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson, Roine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Between Organizations1994In: Social organizations: Interaction inside, outside and between organizations, London: Sage Publications , 1994Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 15.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The rolling resistances of roller skis and their effects on human performance during treadmill roller skiing2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern ski-treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers to test their physical performance in a laboratory environment using classical and freestyle techniques on roller skis. For elite athletes the differences in performance between test occasions are quite small, thus emphasising the importance of knowing the roller skis’ rolling resistance coefficient, µR, in order to allow correct comparisons between the results, as well as providing the opportunity to study work economy between different athletes, test occasions and core techniques.

    Thus, one of the aims of this thesis was to evaluate how roller skis’ µR is related to warm-up, mass, velocity and inclination of the treadmill. It was also necessary to investigate the methodological variability of the rolling resistance measurement system, RRMS, specially produced for the experiments, with a reproducibility study in order to indicate the validity and reliability of the results.

    The aim was also to study physiological responses to different µR during roller skiing with freestyle and classical roller skis and techniques on the treadmill as a case in which all measurements were carried out in stationary and comparable conditions.

    Finally, the aim was also to investigate the work economy of amateurs and female and male junior and senior cross-country skiers during treadmill roller skiing, i.e. as a function of skill, age and gender, including whether differences in body mass causes significant differences in external power per kg due to differences in the roller skis’ µR.

    The experiments showed that during a warm-up period of 30 minutes, µR decreased to about 60-65% and 70-75% of its initial value for freestyle and classical roller skis respectively. For another 30 minutes of rolling no significant change was found. Simultaneous measurements of roller ski temperature and mR showed that stabilized mR corresponds to a certain running temperature for a given normal force on the roller ski. The study of the influence on mR of normal force, velocity and inclination produced a significant influence of normal force on mR, while different velocities and inclinations of the treadmill only resulted in small changes in mR. The reproducibility study of the RRMS showed no significant differences between paired measurements with either classical or the freestyle roller skis.

    The study of the effects on physiological variables of ~50% change in µR,showed that during submaximal steady state exercise, external power, oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate were significantly changed, while there were non significant or only small changes to cycle rate, cycle length and ratings of perceived exertion. Incremental maximal tests showed that time to exhaustion was significantly changed and this occurred without a significantly changed maximal power, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate and blood lactate, and that the influence on ratings of perceived exertion was non significant or small.

    The final part of the thesis, which focused on work economy, found no significant difference between the four groups of elite competitors, i.e. between the two genders and between the junior and senior elite athletes. It was only the male amateurs who significantly differed among the five studied groups. The study also showed that the external power per kg was significantly different between the two genders due to differences in body mass and mR, i.e. the lighter female testing groups were roller skiing with a relatively heavier rolling resistance coefficient compared to the heavier testing groups of male participants.

  • 16.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Roller ski rolling resistance and its effects on elite athletes’ performance2008In: ENGINEERING OF SPORT 7, VOL 2, 2008, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 393-400Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern ski-treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers to test their physical fitness in a laboratory environment whilst performing classical and freestyle (skating) techniques on roller skis. For elite athletes the differences in performance between test occasions are quite small, thus emphasising the importance of knowing the roller skis’ rolling resistance in order to allow the correct comparison between the results of different test occasions. In this study the roller skis’ rolling resistance has been measured using equipment on the ski-treadmill. The study investigates the influence of significant changes in rolling resistance on physiological variables. The results show that during submaximal exercise, heart rate, blood lactate, power and oxygen uptake are significantly changed by different rolling resistances, while there are no significant or only small changes to cycle rate, cycle length and ratings of perceived exertion. Incremental maximal tests show that time to exhaustion is significantly changed by different rolling resistances and this occurred without significant changes in maximal oxygen uptake and heart rate, and the influence on maximal power and ratings of perceived exertion were insignificant or small.

  • 17.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Roller ski rolling resistance and its effects on elite athletes’ performance2009In: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 143-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern ski-treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers to test their physical fitness in a laboratory environment whilst performing classical and freestyle (skating) techniques on roller skis. For elite athletes, the differences in performance between test occasions are quite small, thus emphasising the importance of knowing the roller skis’ rolling resistance in order to allow the correct comparison between the results of different test occasions. In this study, the roller skis’ rolling resistance was measured on the ski-treadmill’s surface using a roller ski rolling resistance measurement system specially produced for this purpose. The study investigated the influence of significant changes in rolling resistance on physiological variables. The results showed that during submaximal exercise, power, oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate were significantly changed by different rolling resistances, while there were no significant or only small changes to cycle rate, cycle length and ratings of perceived exertion. Incremental maximal tests showed that time to exhaustion was significantly changed by different rolling resistances and this occurred without significant changes in maximal power, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate and blood lactate, and that the influence on ratings of perceived exertion were insignificant or small.

     

  • 18.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Rolling resistance for treadmill roller skiing2008In: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 23-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers to test their physical performance under laboratory conditions using classical and freestyle techniques on roller skis. The differences in performance between tests are quite small for elite athletes, and it is therefore of great importance to control the rolling resistance of the roller skis. Otherwise different physiological tests cannot be accurately compared.

    This study shows that during a warm-up period of  30 minutes the coefficient of rolling resistance (µR) decreases to about 60-65% and 70-75% of its initial value for freestyle and classical roller skis respectively.

    Simultaneous measurements of temperature and µR shows that stabilized rolling resistance corresponds to a certain running temperature for a given normal force on the roller ski.

    Tests were also performed on the influence on µR of normal force, velocity and inclination. Normal forces produced significant influence on µR , while different velocities and inclinations of the treadmill only resulted in small changes in µR.

  • 19.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Laaksonen, Marko
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Work economy of amateur and elite cross-country skiers during treadmill roller skiing2009In: 4th Asia Pacific Congress on Sports Technology, APCST2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on the work economy of cross-country skiers during treadmill roller skiing in the perspectives; skill, age and gender. The study was investigating the external power output from elevating the transported mass against gravity and overcoming the roller skis rolling resistance, and the internal power from measured oxygen uptake and energy consumption. The roller skis rolling resistance was measured with a fixture on the ski-treadmill and the results showed a significant correlation between normal force and rolling resistance. The results also showed that it was only the amateur skiers who significantly differed in work economy among the five studied groups.

  • 20.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Rolling resistance for treadmill roller skiing: Presented at International Congress on Science and Nordic Skiing 2006, June 18-20, 2006, Vuokatti, Finland2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Albano, Emil
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Wassberg, Jerker
    Mid Sweden University. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Psykiska reaktioner vid fysiskt trauma: en litteraturöversikt2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Fysiskt trauma är ett av de största hälsoproblemen i världen. Fysiska skador står för 16 % av den globala sjukdomsbördan. Med nya träningsprogram och arbetssätt har kvalitén på vården förbättrats men vanligen följer en psykisk reaktion på traumat som kan kvarstå under lång tid. Syfte: Syftet var att belysa vuxna personers psykiska hälsa efter ett fysiskt trauma. Metod: Uppsatsen är en litteraturöversikt som baseras på 13 vetenskapliga artiklar. En induktiv innehållsanalys utfördes på artiklarnas resultat. Resultat: Personer som är med om ett fysiskt trauma kan utveckla psykiska störningar relaterat till skadan, bl.a. PTSD (postraumatiskt stress syndrom), ångest, depression och sömnstörningar. Patienter berättar att de inte får hjälp med deras psykiska hälsa. Diskussion: De psykiska påfrestningarna vid trauma är stora. Det är viktigt för vårdpersonal att vara medveten om detta för att inte negligera ev. sjukdomsutveckling hos patienten. Slutsats: Patienters upplevelser av fysiskt trauma är något som behöver uppmärksammas inom vården. Det är viktigt att dessa patienter och anhöriga får möjlighet träffa personal som är utbildad inom krishantering.

  • 22.
    Albertsson, Lotten
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Ingela
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Konsekvenser av ungdomars sömnbrist: en systematisk litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many adolescents do not get the sleep they need to maintain good health. Young people's circadian rhythms do not always correspond with the rest of society, times and requirements. The aim of this study was to compile whether there is scientific evidence that sleep deprivation has consequences for adolescent people. Studies were selected from Pubmed, Cinahl and Psychinfo. After quality assessment eleven remained studies that were considered in three themes and six sub-themes. The results showed that adolescents who had lack of sleep had physical consequences such as increased daytime sleepiness and physical symtoms such as increased BMI, blood pressure, headaches and atopic dermatitis. Sleep shortage resulted in psychological consequences with symptoms of increased feelings of stress, nightmares, depression, anxiety and aggression. Social impacts due to lack of sleep impaired school performance, frequent use of stimulants and drugs, and the risk behavior increased. This indicates that district nurses have a major role in drawing attention to young people's sleep habits to prevent illness in primary and school health. A short sleep screening as part of the health survey would involve early detection of adolescents with sleep problems and reduce the risk for development of risk behaviors.

  • 23.
    Albinsson Eriksson, Catherine
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Faktorer associerade med låg respektive hög sjukfrånvaro vid Försäkringskassans avdelning för aktivitetsstöd2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background of our thesis is that the Department of Social Insurance (Försäkringskassan) should lower their absenteeism amongst staff. There is a risk of high absenteeism at several units at the Försäkringskassan and a risk of high costs causes by illness. The purpose of this study was to investigate the employees´ perception on the basis of high and low sick leave at the Försäkringskassan/ activity benefit. The research questions we asked ourselves were;

    • Why do certain units at the Nationellt försäkringscenter/department of Social Insurance have low absenteeism and other units’ high absenteeism?
    • How does leadership affect the employees’ absenteeism?
    • How much does the satisfaction of work environment affect the employees’ absenteeism?
    • How do employees at Nationellt försäkringscenter/activity benefit perceive their physical and psychosocial work environment?

    As a case study organization, the Department of Social Insurance/Nationellt försäkringsccenter/activity benefit has been selected. The results, based on a quantitative survey and a cross-sectional design, show that whether you are working at a unit with low or high absenteeism, many employees have ailments such as pain and stress. This is because the work- environment, requirements and leadership does affect employees’ health. A large number of the employees´ feel dissatisfaction when they go to work and there are many who despair because of the difficulties they face at the workplace. With supported management the employees´ had less insomnia, dissatisfaction and less musculoskeletal disorders.

  • 24.
    Albinsson, Katrin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sundin, Jeanette
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Familjens upplevelse att leva med barn som har diabetes.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 25.
    Alfredsson, Heléne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tallstig, Pauline
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Mäns kunskap om och upplevelse av att drabbas av erektil dysfunktion: -en litteraturstudie2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Erektil dysfunktion (ED) definieras som nedsatt erektionsförmåga. En källa till bekräftelse är att utrycka sig sexuellt och att kunna tillfredställa kvinnor sexuellt är förenat med stolthet för många män. Kvinnor söker hjälp för bristande lust medan männen söker för erektions- eller andra funktionsstörningar. Sjukdomar, läkemedel och psykiska orsaker kan ge upphov till ED, oftast samverkar flera faktorer. Syfte: Litteraturstudiens syfte var att belysa mäns kunskap om och upplevelse av att drabbas av ED. Metod: Artiklar söktes via PubMed och Cinahl, bearbetades utifrån syfte och frågeställningar, kvalitetsbedömdes och sammanställdes. Tretton artiklar analyserades efter inspiration av innehållsanalys. Resultat: Män drabbade av ED upplevde att problemet inverkat på sexuallivet, självförtroendet och manligheten men inte i relationen till sin partner. Männen hade liten kunskap om riskfaktorer och efterfrågade mera information. Mer än hälften av männen med ED ansåg att gensvaret från vårdens var otillfredsställande. Diskussion: Mer resurser efterfrågas för att hjälpa män och par med ED, sannolikt skulle deras livskvalitet och livet i helhet förbättras, då detta är nära sammankopplat med tillfredställelsen i sexuallivet, parförhållandet och familjelivet. Slutsats: Begränsad specificerad hjälp finns för män och ämnet känns många gånger genant därför är det sjuksköterskans skyldighet att lyfta sexualitet i samtal och anamnesupptagning.

  • 26. Alkner, Björn A
    et al.
    Tesch, Per A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle size and function following 90 days of bed rest with or without resistance exercise.2004In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, Vol. 93, no 3, p. 294-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skeletal muscle atrophy and strength loss induced by short-term simulated spaceflight are offset or attenuated by resistance exercise (RE). This study compared the effects of plantar flexor and knee extensor RE on muscle size and function in 17 healthy men (aged 26–41years) subjected to 90 days 6 head-down-tilt bed rest with (BRE; n=8) or without (BR; n=9) RE. The RE program consisted of coupled maximal concentric and eccentric actions in the supine squat (4 sets of 7 repetitions) and calf press (4·14) every third day employing a gravity-independent flywheel ergometer (FW). Prior to, and following bed rest, muscle volume was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Similarly, muscle strength and power and surface lectromyographic (EMG) activity were determined during maximal actions using FW or isokinetic dynamometry. In BR, knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle volume decreased (P<0.05) 18% and 29%, respectively. Torque or force and power decreased (P<0.05) 31–60% (knee extension) and 37–56% (plantar flexion) while knee extensor and plantar flexor EMG activity decreased 31–38% and 28–35%, respectively following BR. Muscle atrophy in BRE was prevented (P>0.05; knee extensors) or attenuated ()15%; plantar flexors). BRE maintained task-specific force, power and EMG activity. The decrease in non-task-specific torque was less (P<0.05) than in BR. The present data imply that the triceps surae and quadriceps muscles show different responsiveness to long-term bed rest with or without resistance exercise. The results also suggest that designing in-flight resistance exercise protocols for space travellers is complex and must extend beyond preserving

  • 27. Alkner, Björn
    et al.
    Tesch, Per A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Efficacy of a gravity-independent resistance exercise device as a countermeasure to muscle atrophy during 29-day bed rest.2004In: Acta Physioloogica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, Vol. 181, no 3, p. 345-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study determined changes in knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle volume during 29 days of bed rest with or without resistance exercise using a gravity-independent flywheel ergometer. METHODS: Seventeen men (26-41 years) were subjected to 29 days of bed rest with (n = 8) or without (n = 9) resistance exercise; Supine Squat (SS) and Calf Press (CP) performed every third day. Quadriceps and triceps surae muscle volume was determined before and after bed rest and force and power were measured during training. Prior to these interventions, reproducibility of this device for training and testing was assessed in 23 subjects who performed bilateral maximal concentric, eccentric and isometric (MVC) knee extensions and plantar flexions over repeated sessions with simultaneous measurements of force, power and electromyographic (EMG) activity. RESULTS: Quadriceps and triceps surae muscle volume decreased (P < 0.05) 10 and 16%, respectively, after 29 days bed rest. Exercise maintained quadriceps volume and mitigated triceps surae atrophy. Thus, either muscle showed different response across subject groups (P < 0.05). Force and power output during training were either maintained (P > 0.05) or increased (P < 0.05). EMG amplitude in the training mode was similar (SS; P > 0.05) or greater (CP; P < 0.05) compared with that elicited during MVC. Peak force and power test-retest coefficient of variation (CV) ranged 5-6% and 7-8% for SS and CP, respectively. CONCLUSION: The present data suggest that this resistance exercise paradigm counteracts quadriceps and abates the more substantial triceps surae muscle atrophy in bedridden subjects, and therefore should be an important asset to space travellers.

  • 28.
    Alm, Lena
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Enarsson, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Triage på akutmottagning: -vad påverkar sjuksköterskans arbete?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Triagesystem användes för att identifiera allvarligt sjuka från mindre sjuka på akutmottagningar. En snabb och adekvat behandling var viktig för en god patientsäkerhet. En sjuksköterskas felbedömning kunde ge allvarliga konsekvenser för en patient och andra vårdsökande. Syfte: Att belysa faktorer som påverkar sjuksköterskan i sitt triagearbete på akutmottagning. Metod: En litteraturöversikt gjordes och 18 resultatartiklar inkluderades. Analysarbetet inspirerades av kvalitativ innehållsanalys och resulterade i 4 kategorier och 13 underkategorier. Resultat: Sjuksköterskans triagearbete påverkades av färdigheter, personliga egenskaper, organisation och tillgång till information. Diskussion: Få sjuksköterskor hade utbildning i triage vilket borde uppmärksammas mer med tanke på att ett stort antal patienter söker till akutmottagningar varje dag. Sjuksköterskor borde utgå ifrån gemensamma riktlinjer för att patienter skall behandlas lika oberoende vilken akutmottagning de söker vård på. Slutsats: Erfarenhet, utbildning, kommunikation, intuition, självtillit, arbetsbelastning, arbetsteam, arbetsuppgift, triageskala, helhetsbedömning, initial bedömning, objektiv- samt subjektiv data påverkade triagebedömningen. Troligen förekom en samverkan mellan dem vilket gjorde området komplext.

  • 29.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Dans ger bättre resultat i skidspåren? 1999Other (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 30.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Dans ger friskare ryggar hos längdåkare2004In: Glid, ISSN 1652-2737, no 4Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 31.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Musculoskeletal Disorder2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Domalewski, D
    Physical activity, health and prevalence of overweight and musculoskeletal complaints in young women2008In: Exercise and Women's Health Research, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2008, p. 143-155Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Domalewski, D
    Romild, Ulla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Asplund, Ragnar
    Physical activity, health, body mass index, sleeping habits and bodycomplaints in Australian senior high school students2008In: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, ISSN 0334-0139, E-ISSN 2191-0278, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 501-512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescents in the industrial world are becoming less physically active and are increasingly adopting a sedentary life-style in front of computers and television screens. OBJECTIVE: to determine self-related health, physical activity, sleeping habits, prevalence of overweight, and body complaints in Australian senior high school students. METHODS: Participants were 466 high school students aged 15-17 years enrolled in academic and vocational programs. A questionnaire was completed at two senior high schools with questions about weight and height, health, physical activity, type of physical activity/sport, intensity, sleeping habits, and possible injuries or complaints during the last three months. RESULTS: Seventy seven percent of the high school students participated in sports on a regular basis. Compared with vocational programs, more males and females in academic programs participated in sports (71% and 80% respectively) (p = .036). Males reported significantly better health than females (p < .0001). 65% of the study group reported body complaints during the last 3 months. A higher number of females than males reported complaints about the back (p = .007) and the hip (p = .05). Good sleep was reported in 82.1% of males and in 76.6% of females. In males, 44.3% were often sleepy in the daytime (females 56.6%, p < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Underweight, physical activity and good sleep are factors with significant positive effect on good health, whereas overweight is a negative factor. Proper sleep habits and higher physical activity levels should be promoted among high school students, and TV viewing time and video game use restricted. Additionally, schools should provide opportunities for young people to participate in a wider range of physical activities that address their individual needs while promoting the health benefits of engaging in regular exercise.

  • 34.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Domalewski, Debra
    Romild, Ulla
    Asplund, Ragnar
    Health, sleeping Habits and Physical activity2009In: Obesity and Adolescence: A Public Health Concern / [ed] Omar H A, Greydanus D E, Patel D R, Merrick J., New york: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2009, p. 97-105Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Karin
    Eriksson, K
    Werner, Suzanne
    The effect of dance training on joint mobility, muscle flexibility, speed and agility in young cross-country skiers,: a prospective controlled intervention study.2003In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 237-243Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Karin
    Larsson, Börje
    Linder, Jan
    Werner, Suzanne
    Neck muscle strength and endurance in fighter pilots: effects of a supervised training program2004In: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 23-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Karin
    Schüldt, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ekholm, Jan
    linder, Jürgen
    Mobility, muscular strength and endurance in the cervical spine in Swedish air force pilots2001In: Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 336-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Muscle strength, endurance and range of movement of the cervical spine in a group of Swedish Air Force jet pilots (AF) and in a reference group of conscripts doing their military service (RG) were compared. METHODS: We tested 30 (AF) 24-42 yr and 33 (RG) 19-22 yr. A questionnaire was used to document complaints. Maximum voluntary isometric muscle strength of the flexor and extensor muscles of the cervical spine and sub-maximum isometric endurance in the flexor and extensor muscles were measured. RESULTS: Eleven AF (37%) and four RG (12%) had experienced discomfort in the neck within the previous year. The pilots' flexor and extensor muscle strength (47 Nm and 65 Nm) was superior to that of the conscripts (36 Nm and 59 Nm) (p = 0.0001, p = < 0.05, respectively). However, the RG group had greater isometric endurance in the flexor muscles than AF (p = < 0.05) and greater neck rotation (p = <0.005). There was no difference between the two groups in the other variables. CONCLUSION: Differences between the groups with regard to muscle strength and endurance might depend on variations in work-related physical muscle strain, and/or differences in fiber composition in the muscles, which might be reflected by pilot selection procedures.

  • 38.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Harms-Ringdahl, Karin
    Werner, Suzanne
    Reliability of sports related functional tests with emphasis on speed and agility in young athletes.2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 229-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present investigation was to test the reliability of two sports related functional tests, a speed test (slalom-test) and an agility test (hurdle-test). Eleven athletes aged 11 years (8 boys, 3 girls) participated voluntarily in the study. All subjects completed four different test sessions for both the slalom-test and the hurdle-test using six standard track hurdles placed at 2-m intervals along a 12-m length of track. There were no significant differences between testing sessions for either the slalom-test (P=0.99) or the hurdle-test (P=0.96), showing no systematic variation between test times. The intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.96 and 0.90 respectively, indicating a good reliability. We conclude that the slalom-test and the hurdle-test are reliable sports related functional tests for measuring speed and agility in groups of young athletic individuals.

  • 39.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Physical activity, self-related health and complaints in adolescents2007In: Adolescent behaviour research: International perspectives, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2007, , p. 179p. 119-128Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Romild, Ulla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Gundersen, KT
    Physical activity, health, BMI and body complaints in high school students2008In: Minerva Pediatrica, ISSN 0026-4946, E-ISSN 1827-1715, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 19-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    AIM: Children and adolescents in the industrial world are becoming less

    physically active and are adopting a sedentary lifestyle in front of computers

    and TV. The aim of the present investigation was to determine self-related

    health, physical activity, prevalence of overweight and body complaints in

    high school students in Norway, and to compare students in academic

    programs with those in vocational programs. METHODS: Seven hundred and

    two high school students aged 16-19 years were included in the study. A

    questionnaire was completed in three high schools and included questions

    about weight and height, health, physical activity, type of physical

    activity/sport, intensity, possible injuries or complaints during the last three

    months. RESULTS: Twenty three percent of the students suffers from

    overweight/obesity are at risk of being overweight. Males reported better

    health than females (P<0.02). Sixty-six percent of the study group reported

    body complaints during the last three months, a higher number of females

    than males (P=0.001). Students in vocational programs reported poorer selfrelated

    health than those in academic programs and the males reported

    better self-related health generally than females. Furthermore, there were a

    higher level of prevalence of overweight students in vocational programs

    than academic programs (P=0.039). CONCLUSION: It is important to make it

    easy for school children and adolescents to do physical activity at school and

    during leisure time in order to prevent overweight and obesity as well as

    chronic diseases later in life.

     

  • 41.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Romild, Ulla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Self-related health, physical activity and complaints in Swedish high school students2006In: Scientific World Journal, ISSN 1537-744X, E-ISSN 1537-744X, Vol. 6, p. 816-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this investigation was to study self-related health, physical activity and level of exertion, as well as body complaints in Swedish high school students. A total of 993 high school students aged 16–19 years participated in the study. A questionnaire was completed at school and included questions about self-related health, physical activity behavior, type of physical activity/sport, intensity, duration, possible injuries or complaints, and absence from physical training at school, during the last 3 months. The results showed that 26% of the high school students participated in sports on a regular basis. Males reported significantly better health than females (p < 0.0005). A significantly higher number of females participated in physical activities at a lower level of effort (p < 0.0005) and a higher number of males trained at a higher level of effort (p < 0.005). Sixty-one percent reported body pain during the last 3 months, representing a higher number of females than males (p = 0.03). A higher number of females than males reported complaints from the back (p = 0.002), the knees (p = 0.015), the neck (p = 0.001), and the hip (p = 0.015). Females with body complaints reported poorer health than those without complaints. There was a correlation between poor self-related health and a lower level of physical effort (0.219; p < 0.001). The results showed that the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms was high in this population and demonstrated a certain association with self-related health. Therefore, it is important to make it easy for adolescents to perform physical activity at school and during their leisure time in order to prevent chronic diseases.

  • 42.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Molin, Ibe
    Physical activity and health among adolescents with cerebral palsy in Sweden2009In: International journal of adolescent medicine and health, ISSN 0334-0139, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 623-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common disorder of movement and posture in children. The disorder results from a non-progressive brain lesion occurring in the fetal or infant brain. Children with CP have challenges with movement, posture, and mobility that last a life time. Few studies describe physical activity and health among adolescents with CP. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe self-related health, physical activity, and body complaints among adolescents with CP in Sweden. Methods: A questionnaire was answered by 64 adolescents with CP, with 143 adolescents without disabilities serving as controls. Results: Adolescents with CP reported their general health to be better than adolescents without disabilities (p = .001). Adolescents with CP participated less than adolescents without disabilities in sport during recreation time (p = .009). About 19% of adolescents with CP were never or seldom physically active, compared with 8% in the control group (p = .025). A total of 50% of adolescents with CP reported musculoskeletal complaints during the last three months, compared with 69.5% in the control group. There was a correlation between musculoskeletal complaints and self-related health in adolescents with CP (p = .015) but not in the controls. Conclusion: Adolescents with CP reported their general health to be good. Adolescents with CP were less physically active than adolescents without disabilities. There was a correlation between musculoskeletal complaints and self-related health among adolescents with CP. Further research is needed to determine the cause of the low physical activity among adolescents with CP and also to determine the relationship between musculoskeletal complaints and physical activity.

  • 43.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sjöström, Rita
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Asplund, Ragnar
    Back to work - evaluation of multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme with emphasis on musculoskeletal disorders. A two year follow-up2007In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 35-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 2-year outcome of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme for working-age people, regarding sick leave and mental health. Method. The test persons consisted of 40 women and 20 men (mean age 46.8 +/- SD 7.9) with musculoskeletal disorders, mainly neck and back pain. The rehabilitation programme was individually adapted and consisted of physical activity in several forms, relaxation, theoretical and practical education and individual guidance. Before, during and after the programme all participants were evaluated with the Global Self-Efficacy Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and stress test. Results. At the 2-year follow-up full-time sick leave had decreased by 37% (p < 0.0001) in the women, and by 25% (p < 0.05) in the men. Both women and men showed an increased quality of life (QoL) and decreased anxiety, depression and self-experienced stress at the 2-year follow-up compared with the start of the rehabilitation programme. Conclusions. The most important conclusion was that the effects of the rehabilitation programme persisted for up to 2 years. At 2 years the majority of the participants were still physically active, their QoL was increased, and most participants had returned to work.

  • 44.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Dansträning för längdskidåkare: får jag lov, Per Elofsson?2002In: Svensk idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 77-79Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 45.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Dansträning ger längdskidåkare mindre ryggbesvär. 2004In: Svensk Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 23-26Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 46.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Hälsa, aktivitetsgrad och besvärsfrekvens bland längdskidåkare vid Sveriges riksskidgymnasier.2004In: Svensk idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 22-24Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 47.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Reliability tests of joint motion and muscle flexibility of the hip. 2002In: Nordisk fysioterapi, ISSN 1402-3024, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 119-124Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Section of Sports Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Section of Sports Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm; Capio Artro Clinic, S:t Görans Hospital, Stockholm.
    Self-reported health, physical activity and prevalence of complaints in elite cross-country skiers and matched controls2005In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 547-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to compare physical health, physical activity and location for possible symptoms in high school students with cross-country skiers of the same age from ski high schools. Another aim was to study back pain with regards to influence on skiing.Methods. The subjects studied were: 92% (n=120) of all Swedish cross-country skiers at ski high schools and 68% (n=993) of regular high school students from the North part of Sweden answered a reliable questionnaire (r=1) with regards to health, physical activity and location of possible symptoms/injuries during the last 3 months. Furthermore, the skiers answered questions on possible ski related back pain.Results. All skiers were active also in other sports compared with 26% of the controls and at considerably higher levels of physical effort than the controls; 92% of the skiers and 76% of the controls described themselves as healthy, meaning "very good" or "good" (P=0.0001); 55% of the skiers and 64% of the controls reported recent symptoms (P=0.06); 47% of the skiers reported previous or present complaints of back pain, mainly low back pain, which could be relieved by changing body position from a flexed to a more extended one while skiing, and 77% reported their back pain to disappear during rest.Conclusion. These results show the need for encouraging regular high school students to participate in sport. It also shows the importance of introducing preventative strategies regarding back pain to long-distance cross-country skiers, who are exposed to a prolonged flexed position of their back.

  • 49.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Werner, Suzanne
    The effect of pre-season dance training on physical indices and back pain in elite cross-country skiers: a prospective controlled intervention study2004In: British journal of sports medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 148-153Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Alricsson, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Young elite cross-country skiers and low back pain: A 5-year study2006In: Physical Therapy in Sport, ISSN 1466-853X, E-ISSN 1873-1600, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 181-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To evaluate possible changes in spinal curvature over a period of 5 years of an elite cross-country skiing squad, and to study whether there are any differences in this respect between individuals who report low back pain and those how do not. Participants Fifteen young cross-country skiers (M age=13.6±0.9) participated voluntarily throughout the entire study period. Main outcome measures Debrunner's kyphometer was used for measuring the difference between thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis of the spine. All subjects also answered a questionnaire including questions about ski-related low back pain, the amount of ski training, and participation in other sports. Results The results at the end of the 5-year period comprise data from 15 skiers (M age=18.5±0.9 years). The relationship between thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis increased from 3.5° to 13.1°, respectively (p=0.0001). Of the 15 elite cross-country skiers, seven reported low back pain at the 5-year examination. At the 5-year follow-up, skiers with low back pain showed significantly higher relationship between thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis than did those skiers without low back pain, 18.2° and 10.5°, respectively (p=0.035). Of the eight elite cross-country skiers without low back pain, seven were also involved in other sports (p=0.005). Conclusions Based on these findings, our advice is that adolescent cross-country skiers also should participate in other physical activities besides cross-country skiing.

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