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  • 1.
    Aaby, Jovanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Entreprenörskap i Sverige och Japan: En komparativ studie utifrån GEM 20072011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose with this thesis has been to compare entrepreneurship in Sweden and in Japan. It has also been to get a wider understanding why two so different countries both have a low level of entrepreneurship compared to other countries. Since the subject is wide I have chosen to delimitate to data from GEM 2007.

    Methodology: In this thesis I have compared entrepreneurship in Sweden and in Japan. This I have done by obtaining secondary data from GEM’s report from 2007. My approach in this thesis has foremost been abductive. 

    Theoretical perspectives: Wennekers (2006) have studied the U-shape curve that occurs when you put entrepreneurship in relation to economic growth. Countries tend to go from a high level of entrepreneurship to a low level when they go from agricultural economy to an industrial economy. Then they tend to go up again when they reach a advanced level of economic development. However countries seem to differ when it comes to entrepreneurship despite this relation and the differences seems to be lasting. Wennekers (a.a.) believe that these differences has to do with cultural differences rather than economics differences since cultural differences are relatively immutable over time.

    Empirical foundation: GEM stands for Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and is a not-for-profit academic research consortium. Their goal is to make international research of high quality about entrepreneurial activity in the world that is able to reach a wide public. GEM’s study is the biggest study in the world about entrepreneurial activity and started 1999. In this thesis I have used data from GEM’s report from 2007, which is the latest report with both Sweden and Japan.

    Conclusions: In a comparison between Japan and Sweden I have found some similarities but mostly differences. This suggests that there are no simple answers to a low level of entrepreneurship in a country. However, in my opinion, I think that the national experts were right to put government policies as the biggest problem for Sweden and Cultural, Social norms as Japan’s biggest problem.

  • 2. Aamodt, A.
    et al.
    Gundersen, O. E.
    Loge, J. H.
    Wasteson, Elisabet
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Szczepanski, T.
    Case-based reasoning for assessment and diagnosis of depression in palliative care2010In: Proceedings - IEEE Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems, 2010, p. 480-485Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the research presented is to create a computational framework and system architecture for clinical decision support in palliative care. The application focused is the classification of depression. The method under investigation is case-based reasoning, motivated by the complexity of the domain and a lack of generalized principles of sufficient coverage and strength for diagnosis and treatment. A system architecture is described and exemplified through an implemented prototype. The outcome of the research so far is a system that captures the properties intended, and for which a clinical test set-up has been defined. © 2010 IEEE.

  • 3.
    Aasa, Liv
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Thor, Sofia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Socialarbetares känsla av sammanhang och uppfattningar av ledarskap inomsocialtjänsten2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsmiljö och utbrändhet har ett samband och faktorer som hög arbetsbelastning, dåligtstöd från kollegor och otydlighet är bidragande till utbrändhet och tidigare forskning visar påatt det finns en koppling mellan ledarskap och stress. Denna kvantitativa studie, som har entvärsnittsdesign, har undersökt sambandet mellan känsla av sammanhang (KASAM) ochledarskap inom socialtjänsten samt i vilken utsträckning socialarbetare upplever känsla avsammanhang på sin arbetsplats. För att undersöka detta har en enkätundersökning, byggd påAntonovskys självskattningsformulär KASAM-29, gjorts på 42 socialarbetare i tre olikakommuner i Jämtlands län. Kvantitativa dataanalyser i form av bivariata sambandsanalyserhar gjorts. Resultatet visar att socialarbetarna i genomsnitt hade en hög KASAM-nivå och attdet finns ett starkt samband mellan ledarskap och KASAM. Däremot krävs vidare forskningför att förstå orsakssambandet.

  • 4.
    Abbasghomi, Amir
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Olsson, Markus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Svårt sjuka barn i prehospital miljö: -        En intervjustudie om ambulanssjuksköterskans upplevelse av att vårda svårt sjuka eller skadade barn prehospitalt2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5.
    Abbasi, Seyed
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Determinants of social inequalities in cardiovascular disease among Iranian patients2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single largest cause of mortality in the world. Similar to other health issues, CVD is generally affected either by individual risk factors, which may influence the risk for developing an illness or its complications, or by social indicators (social determinants of health). There is evidence from developed countries which shows that the so-called "upstream factors"—including social determinants such as political, social, spiritual, cultural, and economic factors—may affect the prevalence and incidence of CVD. Scarce evidence from studies in low- and middle-income countries also suggests that social factors may affect the distribution of CVD across population groups. However, there is a dearth of such data in Iran, where only a few small-sizedstudies have focused on the social determinants of health. Therefore, the present thesis sought to fill this gap by assessing the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on the distribution of CVD and the relevant inequalities within the Iranian context.

    Methods: This thesis is based on four studies, which used data from the Tehran Heart Center’s Databases. In Study I, a total of 44,820 patients who underwent coronary angiography at Tehran Heart Center between 2005 and 2010 were recruited. Then, their pre- and post-procedural data—including demographics, CVD risk factors, symptoms, and laboratory tests—were compared between men and women. In Study II, 6,246 patients with acutecoronary syndrome who were hospitalized between March 2004 and August 2011 were included and, based on their education and their employment status, were divided into high- and low-SES groups. Thereafter, the effect of SES on the in-hospital death of the patients was evaluated. In Study III, 20,165 patients with documented coronary artery disease who underwent coronary angiography at Tehran Heart Center were enrolled and CVD risk factors and severity (measured by the Gensini score) were assessed among the six major Iranian ethnic groups. In Study IV, 9,088 patients with acute coronary syndrome who were hospitalized at Tehran Heart Center between May 2007and June 2014 were recruited and the association between in-hospital death due to acute coronary syndrome and place of residence (rural/urban) was assessed using logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders.

    Results: In this thesis, the data analyses were based on the hypothesis that there is a potential association between the different socioeconomic indicators and the selected cardiovascular outcomes. In Study I, among the recruited participant, 25,363 men and 11,995 women had coronary artery disease and the women not only were significantly older, less educated, and more overweight but also had higher blood levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and fasting blood sugar than the men. Moreover, hypertension and diabetes mellitus showed the strongest association in the women with coronary artery disease (OR=3.45, 95% CI: 3.28to 3.61 and OR=2.37, 95% CI: 2.26 to 2.48, respectively). In addition, the frequency of post-procedural recommendations for non-invasive procedures was higher in the women than in the men (20.1% vs 18.6%; P<0.001). In StudyII, of the 6,246 recruited patients with acute coronary syndrome, 3,290individuals were considered low-SES and 2,956 high-SES individuals. In-hospital death occurred in 79 (1.26%) patients: 1.9% in the low-SES and 0.6% in the high-SES groups. After adjustment for the possible cofounders, our multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant effect of the patients’ SES on their in-hospital death and a lower in-hospital mortality rate was shown in the high-SES patients (OR=0.30, 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.98; P=0.046). In Study III, the Fars (8.7%) and Gilak (8.6%) ethnic groups had the highest frequency of having at least four simultaneous risk factors. Additionally, the mean Gensini score was lowest in the Lurs (67.5±52.8) and highest among the Gilaks (77.1±55.9). The multivariable regression analysis indicated that the Gilaks showed the worst CVD severity (β: 0.056, 95% CI: 0.009 to 0.102; P=0.018), followed by the Turks (β: 0.032, 95% CI: 0.005 to 0.059; P=0.020), and the lowest CVD severity, was detected in the Lurs (β: -0.087, 95% CI: -0.146 to -0.027;P=0.004). Study IV showed that while smoking (P=0.002), positive family history of coronary artery disease (P=0.003), higher body mass index (P=0.013),and hyperlipidemia (P=0.026) were more prevalent in the urban patients, the rural patients showed lower educational levels (P<0.001) and higher frequency of unemployment (P=0.009). Meanwhile, in-hospital death occurred in 135 (1.5%) patients: 125 (1.5%) urban and 10 (1.2%) rural. To adjust the effects of the possible confounders, we utilized the Firth regression model, which showed no significant difference regarding in-hospital death betweenthe rural and urban patients (OR=1.57, 95% CI: 0.376 to 7.450; P=0.585).

    Conclusions: The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effects of social determinants (particularly SES) on CVD and its modifiable risk factors among Iranian patients. Results showed that medical treatment for CVD was more recommended (by treating physicians) to the women than the men, and the low-SES patients with acute coronary syndrome were more likely to die in the hospital than their high-SES counterparts. In addition, the thesis found heterogeneity in the distribution of the traditional risk factors for CVD as well as CVD severity in the major Iranian ethnic groups. Further, there were no differences concerning the in-hospital death rates due to acute coronary syndrome between the urban and rural patients after adjustment for the potential confounders.

  • 6.
    Abbasi, Seyed H
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    De Leon, AP
    Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Intitutet, Sweden.
    Kassaian, SE
    Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Karimi.,, AA
    Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gender Differences in the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease in Iran2012In: Iranian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 0304-4556, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 36-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Given gender differences in the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), the present study sought to investigate these dissimilarities amongst patients who underwent angiography at a major, tertiary heart hospital in Iran. Methods: Between 2005 and 2010, 44,820 patients who underwent coronary angiography were enrolled in a registry. Pre-procedural data such as demographics, CAD risk factors, presenting symptoms, and laboratory tests, as well as postprocedural data were collected. The data were, subsequently, compared between the men and women. Results: Out of the 44,820 patients (16,378 women), who underwent coronary angiography, 37,358 patients (11,995 women) had CAD. Amongst the CAD patients, the females were not only significantly older, less educated, and more overweight than were the males but also had higher levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, highdensity lipoprotein, and fasting blood sugar (P< 0.001). Of all the risk factors, hypertension and diabetes mellitus showed the strongest association in our female CAD patients (OR=3.45, 95%CI: 3.28-3.61 and OR=2.37, 95%CI: 2.26- 2.48, respectively). Acute coronary syndrome was more prevalent in the men (76.1% vs. 68.6%, P< 0.001), and chronic stable angina was more frequent in the females (31.4% vs. 23.9%, P< 0.001). With respect to post-procedural recommendations, the frequency of recommendations for non-invasive modalities was higher in the females (20.1% vs. 18.6%, P< 0.001). Conclusion: Hypertension and diabetes mellitus had the strongest association with CAD in our female patients. In the extensive CAD patients, medical treatment was recommended to the women more often.

  • 7.
    Abbasi, Seyed H
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jalali, Arash
    Teheran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Ethnic differences in the risk factors and severity of coronary artery disease: a patient-based study in Iran2018In: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, ISSN 2197-3792, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 623-631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Diverse ethnic groups may differ regarding the risk factors and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). This study sought to assess the association between ethnicity and CAD risk and severity in six major Iranian ethnic groups.

    Methods In this study, 20,165 documented coronary artery disease patients who underwent coronary angiography at a tertiary referral heart center were recruited. The demographic, laboratory, clinical, and risk factor data of all the patients were retrieved. The Gensini score (an indicator of CAD severity) was calculated for all, and the risk factors and severity of CAD were compared between the ethnical groups, using adjusted standardized residuals, Kruskal–Wallis test, and multivariable regression analysis.

    Results The mean age of the participants (14,131 [70.1%] men and 6034 [29.9%] women) was 60.7 ± 10.8 years. The Fars (8.7%) and Gilak (8.6%) ethnic groups had the highest prevalence of ≥4 simultaneous risk factors. The mean Gensini score was the highest for the Gilaks (77.1 ± 55.9) and the lowest among the Lors (67.5 ± 52.8). The multivariable regression analysis showed that the Gilaks had the worst severity (β 0.056, 95% CI 0.009 to 0.102; P = 0.018), followed by the Torks (β 0.032, 95% CI 0.005 to 0.059; P = 0.020). Meanwhile, the Lors showed the lowest severity (β −0.087, 95% CI −0.146 to −0.027; P = 0.004).

    Conclusions This study found that there was heterogeneity in CAD severity and a diverse distribution in its well-known traditional risk factors among major Iranian ethnic groups.

  • 8.
    Abbasi, Seyed
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ponce De Leon, Antonio
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kassaian, Seyed Ebrahim
    Department of Cardiology, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Karimi, Abbasali
    Department of Cardiology, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jalali, Arash
    Department of Cardiology, Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Socioeconomic status and in hospital mortality of acute corony syndrome: Can education and occupation serves as preventive measures?2015In: International Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 2008-7802, E-ISSN 2008-8213, Vol. 6, article id Art. no. 6:36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) can greatly affect the clinical outcome of medical problems. We sought to assess the in‑hospital mortality of patients with the acute coronarysyndrome (ACS) according to their SES.

    Methods: All patients admitted to Tehran Heart Center due to 1st‑time ACS between March 2004 and August 2011 were assessed. The patients who were illiterate/lowly educated (≤5 years attained education) and were unemployed were considered low‑SES patients and those who were employed and had high educational levels (>5 years attained education) were regarded as high‑SES patients. Demographic, clinical, paraclinical, and in‑hospital medical progress data were recorded. Death during the course of hospitalization was considered the end point, and the impact of SES on in‑hospital mortality was evaluated.

    Results: A total of 6246 hospitalized patients (3290 low SES and 2956 high SES) were included (mean age = 60.3 ± 12.1 years, male = 2772 [44.4%]). Among them, 79 (1.26%) patients died. Univariable analysis showed a significantly higher mortality rate in the low‑SES group (1.9% vs. 0.6%; P < 0.001). After adjustment for possible cofounders, SES still showed a significant effect on the in‑hospital mortality of the ACS patients in that the high‑SES patients had a lower in‑hospital mortality rate (odds ratio: 0.304, 95% confidence interval: 0.094–0.980; P = 0.046).

    Conclusions: This study found that patients with low SES were at a higher risk of in‑hospital mortality due to the ACS. Furthermore, the results suggest the need for increased availability of jobs as well as improved levels of education as preventive measures to curb the unfolding deaths owing to coronary artery syndrome.

  • 9.
    Abbasi, Seyed
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jalali, A
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Mortality by acute Coronary syndrome in Iran: Does place of residence matter?In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    The anthropology of climate change: an integrated critical perspective, by Hans A. Baer and Merrill Singer2016In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 1062-1064Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Hellgren, Carina
    Internationella programkontoret.
    Working conditions for female and immigrant cleaners in Stockholm county: An intersectional approach2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Hellgren, Carina
    International Programme Office.
    Working Conditions for Female and Immigrant Cleaners in Stockholm County: An Intersectional Approach2012In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 161-181Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Attitudes towards participation in business development programmes: An ethnic comparison in Sweden2015In: European Journal of Training and Development, ISSN 2046-9012, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 59-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of the study is to investigate whether there are any differences between the attitudes towards participation in development programmes of entrepreneurs who are immigrants and those who are native-born. Design/methodology/approach – Several statistical methods, including a binary logistic regression model, were used to analyse a unique, firm-level dataset collected by the Swedish Small Business Forum in October and November 2012. The dataset was based on a questionnaire composed of 60 closed questions that was completed by 531 participants representing 395 companies. Findings – Based on the analysis of 15 different attitude variables, the empirical findings are that immigrant managers/owners are more likely to show a positive attitude to participation in development programmes, in terms of nine of those attitude variables, than their native counterparts. Because there are no data about second generation of immigrants in the sample, thus, this category may have had an impact on the results. However, there is no possibility to identify any impact on the results. Originality/value – There is no prior research focusing specifically on this question, and to the authors' knowledge, this study is the first that has attempted to deal with the issue. This study is based on a recent and unique database, and provides new evidence on the relationship between ethnicity and attitude towards participation in development programmes among entrepreneurs. Its context is different from that of prior research.

  • 14.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Exploring the financing gap between native born women- and immigrant women-owned firms at the start-up stage: Empirical evidence from Swedish data2013In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 157-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to provide empirical evidence which identifies the impact of ethnicity and other relevant variables on external capital acquisition among Swedish women-owned businesses at start-up. Design/methodology/approach: Several methods have been employed to analyze the sample including a binary logistic regression model. The sample consists of 836 women-owned businesses in southeast Sweden; 97 immigrant-owned, 739 native born-owned. Findings: The results indicate that there are partly significant differences between native women-owned firms and immigrant woman-owned businesses at start-up. Unlike the native-owned firms, the immigrant woman-owned businesses rely more on loans from family members and less on bank loans. Practical implications: The results reveal that age has a positive impact on loans from family members, while the additional job outside one's own business, the amount of the owner's personal start-up capital and firm size positively influenced access to capital from banks. The owners' level of education, previous business experience, the legal form taken by the firm and the industry affiliation conversely played no significant role in explaining the women owners' attitudes toward loans from either friends or the bank. Originality/value: To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first empirical investigation addressing this issue in the Swedish context. 

  • 15.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Gender and informal financing at Start-up Stage2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Gender as a determinant of informal capital in the financing of small firms' start-ups: Swedish data2015In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 249-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores the differences in informal capital acquisition between female- and male-owned firms in the start-up stage in Sweden. A binary logistic regression model is used to analyse a sample including 836 female- and 1928 male-owned firms in 2008, providing 47,022 observations. The results indicate that the main explanatory variable, gender, is significant in distinguishing between female- and male-owned firms with regards to the use of informal capital in terms of loans from family members. Thus, female-owned firms tend to rely more on loans from family members than male-owned firms. The findings also indicate that one control variable, namely owners previous experience of starting up a company, negatively influences the use of loans from family members as a financing source in the start-up stage. This study is based on a unique and large sample including many different variables compared with previous research. Knowledge on the differences between Swedish female- and male-owned firms in using informal capital in the start-up stage is limited and ambiguous. The presented results contribute to research into small firm financing by adding insight into the relationships between informal capital acquisition, gender, and other relevant variables.

  • 17.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Impact of Owner and Firm Characteristics on External Capital Acquisition at Start-up: Empirical Evidences from Swedish Data2012In: International Business Research, ISSN 1913-9004, E-ISSN 1913-9012, Vol. 5, no 12, p. 19-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates whether owner and firm characteristics influence the use of external financing sources among Swedish small-owned firms at start-up stage. Several methods, including multinomial binary logistic regression have been employed to analyse a unique and comprehensive firm-level database, consisting of 2,814 firms gathered through interviews. The results show that three variables, i.e., loans from family members and friends, bank debt and funding from angel investors, are significant in distinguishing between Swedish native and immigrant-owned firms in the acquisition of financial sources in start-up. In addition, immigrant-owned firms tend to relay more on informal financial sources e.g. loan from family member, friends and angel investors, and less on bank loan. Furthermore, whereas, ethnicity influences the change of all these four variables significantly, gender merely affects loans from family members. Other variables, such as the owners’ age, prior experience in business, education, having an additional job beside one’s own business, the amount of personal start-up capital and firm size, as well as legal form and industry affiliation are partly important to explain the acquisition use of external capital at start-up stage.

  • 18.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Hedberg, Charlotta
    Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden .
    The determinant of external financing at the start-up stage: Empirical evidences from Swedish data2014In: World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1746-0573, E-ISSN 1746-0581, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 124-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small firms in general have limited access to funding, which is a major problem for entrepreneurs. In particular, this problem is evident for women and ethnic minority groups. The purpose of the study is to examine empirically the impact of gender, ethnicity and other relevant variables on the access to external financing of new small firms. A sample of 2,764 female- And male-owned small businesses, based on a unique and large database gathered through interviews, was investigated employing binary logistic regression models. The results suggest that both gender and ethnicity are significant explanatory variables influencing the access to external capital at the start-up stage. Entrepreneurs' age, experience of starting businesses and education, as well as additional jobs beside their own business, are other variables that influence the way in which entrepreneurs finance their business. Moreover, firm characteristics in terms of personal start-up capital, firm size and legal form have an impact on financing behaviour at start-up. Since the knowledge about this issue is limited, the results of this study add to our understanding of the variables affecting the behaviour of small business endeavours in seeking funding at start-up.

  • 19.
    Abdalla, Martina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Rydén, Alva
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Interviews with people currently in a heavy drug use about why they are not in treatment and their perception and attitudes towards treatment.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden there are approximately 45 000 people that show signs of being dependant on narcotics, and there are approximately 26 000 people who can be defined as heavy users. Heavy users is defined by Centralförbundet för alkohol- och narkotikaupplysning as persons who have injected narcotics of any kind in the last 12 months or persons who have had a daily or practically daily use of narcotics the last four weeks. The aim of this study was to understand why people with a current heavy drug use are not in treatment. Through interviews their perceptions and attitudes towards drug treatment were raised to create understanding as to why they are not in treatment. The information was collected through semi-structured interviews with ten people with a current heavy drug use. The interviews were transcribed and a content analysis was applied. The results indicated that there are mixed thoughts about treatment but also that most participants did want treatment. Even though all participants had experience of treatment not working for them, many were motivated to try something new or try the same treatment again. The conclusion was that the participants are searching for a more individual based treatment since they felt like the treatment that they had been offered did not work for them.

  • 20.
    Abdihakim, Aden
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Moberg, Edvin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Föräldrars upplevelser av att leva med barn 0-12 år som har typ 1-diabetes: En litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 21.
    Abdollah, Shamal
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck - En studie om hur socialsekreterare i enkommun i Sverige arbetar med hedersrelaterat våld2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 22.
    Abdulla, Awder
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Söderberg, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Det här måste upphöra igår” En undersökning om diskriminering på arbetsplats och potentiella förklaringar till minskade anmälningar till DO.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats är riktad till att ta reda på hur det kommer sig att allt färre personer anmäler till Diskrimineringsombudsmannen (DO) vid diskriminering på arbetsplatser. Uppsatsen kommer även illustrera hur diskriminering kan upplevas bland de utsatta genom kvalitativa intervjuer samt hur arbetstagare i Östersund och Eskilstunas kommun ställer sig till ämnet genom kvantitativ enkätundersökning. Undersökningen har visat att majoriteten av de som blir utsatta för diskriminering söker stöd från annat håll i första hand istället för att anmäla till DO. När medarbetare vid bevittning av diskriminering hanterade situationen visade sig i två delar där ena sidan var medvetna om diskriminering på sin arbetsplats och inte agerade eller agerade minimalt, resterande ställde sig till antagandet att diskriminering eller trakasserier/kränkningar inte förekom på arbetsplatsen. Det råder brist på kunskap om DO och deras arbete i arbetslivet och det här kan vara orsak till att arbetstagare inte anmäler.

  • 23.
    Abdullah, Semko
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Styrman, Sofie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hur personlighet, konflikter och coping relateras till hälsa i arbetslivet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 24.
    Abdullah, Shayee
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Rezai, Laila
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Ungdomsarbetslöshet och stigmatisering: En kvalitativ studie om unga vuxnas upplevelser av att vara arbetslös2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Youth unemployment has been a controversial topic in many Swedish debates. However, youth unemployment has been studied in several different ways. There are some research that usually investigate the cause of unemployment while others highlight the experience of being out of work. This study, however, seeks to increase the knowledge about the experience of unemployment when it comes to foreign born young people, which is investigated through these research questions:How do foreign born young people experience the reactions from their social environment when they are not working?How does the social relations of foreign born young people become affected when they are not working?How do foreign born young people handle the experience of the social environments reactions?The above research questions have been studied using 6 qualitative research interviews. The results of this study shows that foreign-born young people feel labeled because of their unemployment, but also because of their ethnic background, which is associated with double stigmatization. This also affects their social relationships by simply hanging out with their unemployed friends, which leads to an exclusion from the friends who are employed. These experiences are then handled by the fact that some respondents choose to conceal their unemployment while others choose to share their experiences with others around their surroundings. These results differ from previous studies, which above all highlight the unemployed in general. For this reason, further research needs to focus more on foreign born young people's experiences by highlighting experiences of unemployment, but also other factors such as ethnicity.

  • 25.
    Abdulrahman Ali, Duaa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Saari, Frida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Att vårda patienter med kronisk obstruktiv lungsjukdom: Sjuksköterskans upplevelse2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Kronisk obstruktiv sjukdom är en allvarlig, icke reversibel sjukdom som ses som den tredje största dödsorsaken i världen och försämrar individens dagliga liv. Sjuksköterskan är viktig i samarbetet med patienten för att uppnå en bra vård samt för att upptäcka och förhindra en dålig nutritionsstatus och minska risken för negativ sjukdomsutveckling. Syfte: Att belysa sjuksköterskans upplevelse av att vårda patienter med KOL. Metod: En litteraturöversikt uppbyggd på 12 vetenskapliga artiklar. Litteratursökningen gjordes i PubMed och Cinahl. Artiklarna som inkluderats var av kvalitativ och kvantitativ design. Resultat: Sjuksköterskan upplevde osäkerhet och otillräcklighet i mötet med patienterna. De upplevde att skapa en tillitsfull relation var viktig för att kunna ge rätt vård och på så sätt kunna motivera patienterna till att förstå vikten av nutrition. Diskussion: Det är viktigt att öka sjuksköterskans egen kunskap för att kunna upprätthålla patientsäkerheten. Travelbees omvårdnadsteori kan i stort sett användas i mötet och vårdarbetet av patienter med KOL. Slutsats: Bättre kunskap om sjukdomen ger sjuksköterskan bättre förutsättning att vårda patienter med kronisk obstruktiv sjukdom och minska sjukhusinläggningar och besök.

  • 26.
    Abel, Maxime
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Impact of Working Capital Management on Cash Holdings: A Quantitative Study of Swedish Manufacturing SMEs2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the impact of working capital management on cash holdings of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises in Sweden. The aim of this work is to theoretically derive significant factors related to working capital management which have an influence on the cash level of SMEs and test these in a large sample of Swedish manufacturing SMEs. The theoretical framework for this study consists of a treatise of motives for holding cash, working capital management and cash level. From these theoretical findings, two hypotheses are deduced:

    • H1: Cash holdings are negatively related to the presence of cash substitutes

    • H2: Cash holdings are positively related to working capital management efficiency

    The quantitative investigation consists of the statistical analysis – namely comparison of means and correlation analysis – of key figures which are calculated from the financial statements of a large sample of firms. The dataset contains 13,287 Swedish manufacturing SMEs of the legal form ‘Aktiebolag’. Both hypotheses are confirmed by the results. Empirical evidence is presented which substantiates the supposition that the presence of cash substitutes – namely inventory and accounts receivable – entails lower cash holdings. Furthermore, it is confirmed that working capital management efficiency – measured by the cash conversion cycle – is positively related to cash level. The discussion of the empirical findings pays regard to the different subordinate components of both cash substitutes and working capital management efficiency. Implications of the detected findings are highlighted with respect to their potential utility for the achievement and maintenance of a firm’s target cash level.

  • 27.
    Abraham, Winta
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ghirmai, Beilul
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Etnisk diskriminering En studie om universitetsstudenters upplevelser av etnisk diskriminering2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 210 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    r

    This study has focused on university students' perceptions and experiences of ethnic

    discrimination that occurs within university environments. The ethnic discrimination consists

    of categorizations based on ethnicity, nationality, cultural background and so forth. The study

    used qualitative method by conducting eight semi-structured interviews with the focus group

    of individuals between the ages 20 - 37 years. The result of the collected data illustrated that

    ethnic discrimination was directed towards a specific group, where the common denominator

    is that concerned individuals was evaluated, seen as "non – Swedish”. Normative beliefs

    about swedishness and immigrant status are seen as two different categorizations of groups

    that have formed a hidden ground of discrimination within the university environment. A

    characteristic feature of the discrimination structure and duration is its denial attitude in

    relation to the existence of discrimination. These attitudes are reflected in agencies,

    institutions and the responsible individuals who effectively treat individuals differently based

    on their ethnicity. The ethnic discrimination is based on attribution of distinctive features

    correlated with the individual characteristics that exist in every human being ignored. This

    disadvantage contributes to certain groups of individuals per systematics, is in a subordinate

    position regarding participation, influence and power. The central role of understanding ethnic

    discrimination and its structure and composition, is to analyze the exercise of power within

    the society and the institutions.

  • 28.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden .
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden .
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work. School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden .
    Sense of coherence of reindeer herders and other Samis in comparison to other Swedish citizens2013In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 72, no 1, p. Art. no. 20633-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Samis are indigenous people in north Europe. In the territory called Sapmi (Lapland), reindeer herding is the traditional base for the Sami economy. The relation between living conditions and positive health of the Swedish Samis has been sparsely studied. As health is closely linked to sense of coherence (SOC), an understanding of the background factors to SOC may contribute knowledge that might be useful in promoting living conditions and health. Methods. The study examines relations between the level of SOC and background factors from surveys in a Sami population (n = 613) in comparison to a non-Sami population (n = 525) in Sweden, and in comparison between 2 subsamples of Samis, that is, herders and non-herders. Results. There are more similarities than differences between the Sami and non-Sami populations. However, dividing the Sami population, reindeer herders had significantly lower SOC, and in specific the subcomponent manageability, that is, less ability to use available resources to meet different demands in life, compared to non-herders. Conclusions. In addition to age and health, predictors of SOC are related to the life form of reindeer husbandry and the belonging to the herding community.

  • 29.
    Abrahamsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nordin, Joanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Från Platon till dickpic: En kvalitativ studie om det social fenomenet dickpics2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fallosens symbolik med den hegemoniska maskuliniteten som följd skapar ettsamhälle där mannens makt och styrka premieras, detta kan ta sig uttryck på mångaolika sätt. I denna studie har 11 förundersökningsprotokoll och domar för sexuelltofredande online legat som grund till en kvalitativ studie som undersöker dickpicensom ett socialt fenomen i dagens digitaliserade samhälle. Genom en diskursanalys avmaterialet visar det sig i vilket syfte mannen skickat en oönskad dickpic men ävenvilka konsekvenser en bild på en erigerad penis kan ha på den drabbade. Dickpicenhar skickats i avsikt för att söka kontakt eller för att utöva makt, som sprunget ur denhegemoniska maskuliniteten. Den rådande stereotypa föreställningen om hurmannen är överordnad (aktiv) och kvinnan underordnad (passiv) lyser igenom idenna studie. Det finns en tydlig symbolik i de oönskade bilderna. Tillsammans meden hotfull retorik begränsar detta kvinnans livsutrymme i mångt och mycket. Dendigitaliserade onlinevärlden blir en ojämställd sfär där trakasserier inskränker påkvinnans yttrandefrihet och där mannen, med hot om sexuellt våld, tar det störstautrymmet.

  • 30.
    Abrahamsson, Eila
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Lingman, Denise
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Personer med Diabetes typ 2 erfarenhet av att genomföra livsstilsförändringarEn litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 31.
    Abrahamsson, Eila
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Lingman, Denise
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Personer med Diabetes typ 2 erfarenhet av att genomföra livsstilsförändringarEn litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 32.
    Abrahamsson, Erik
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    A living based on breath-hold diving in the Bajau Laut2014In: Human Evolution, ISSN 0393-9375, Vol. 29, no 1-3, p. 171-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sea nomads or 'sea people,' namely the 'Bajau Laut' in the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia are skilled divers, and many Bajau Laut make a living from freediving. Men do most of the spearfishing, but women also dive, predominantly for gathering sea food. They start to dive at an early age and spend most days of their lives on and in the sea. Our objective was to study their diving and way of life, to reveal if modern humans have the physiological potential for making a living from breath-hold diving for fishing and gathering. Bajau Laut were visited for a total of nine months, during three periods from 2010-2013, in a combined physiological and social-Anthropological study. The diving physiology studies focused on a total of 10 male divers, whose working day diving while spearfishing was logged with time-depth loggers. One group of 5 divers were engaged in shallow (5-7 m) spearfishing with an underwater working time of 60%, when diving for 2-9 h. The other group of 5 divers went to a mean depth of 10 m and had an underwater working time of 50%, when diving for 3-9 h per day. During that time, between one and eight kilograms of coral fish, blow fish, moray eels and octopuses were caught, per diver. Seafood collected by the women included clams, crustaceans, sea weed and sea cucumbers. Life among the Bajau Laut was much like it was 25 years ago, although in some areas the fish stock is diminishing, making it necessary for the Bajau Laut to spend more time in the water to obtain the same quantity of fish. It was concluded that modern humans do possess the physiological qualities necessary for making a living from hunting-gathering via breath-hold diving.

  • 33.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Lunds universitet.
    Gremyr, Ida
    Chalmers.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Svenska handelshögskolan i Helsingfors.
    Lindahl, Marcus
    Uppsala universitet.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Rehn, Alf
    Åbo Akademi.
    Segerstedt, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Högskolan Jönköping.
    Öhman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Industriell ekonomi och organisering2015 (ed. 1:1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Abrahamsson, Louise
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Blom Haraldsson, Elina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Rörelsekapitalshantering i svenska SME-företag: Hur kundfordringar påverkar ett företags tillväxt och lönsamhet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies which are active on the market are in need of capital to finance their operations. In cases where external funding is not possible, the alternative is to see what is available within the company. Working capital binds large quantities of capital and consists of accounts receivable, accounts payable, inventory, and liquid assets. The management of these may result in the company having access to more liquid assets which can lead to increased profit and greater competitiveness. The aim of the study is to gain an understanding and investigate the effect of two performance variables by companies effectively use of trade receivables in Swedish small and medium-sized wholesale enterprises. The study focuses on studying the performance variables profit and growth. A company's age and size is also checked against these performance variables. To meet the aim, collection and analysis of 2675 corporate accounts has been made. The results show that profitability and growth are both affected positively by the use of accounts receivable in the working capital. This result proves that the management of working capital and value creation is important when working capital is considered to be the core of a business.

  • 35.
    Ackerot, Elise
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Barns situation framlänges, baklänges, uppifrån och ner: En deskriptiv studie av fem socionomers tankar om tillämpning av Barnkonventionen i socialt arbete2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Aktuell studie undersöker hur fem socionomer inom kommunal

    verksamhet tänker kring tillämpandet av Barnkonventionen i

    socialt arbete. Fokus ligger på deras egen arbetssituation; de

    problem och möjligheter som de möter i sitt dagliga arbete

    inom socialtjänsten. Underlaget för resultatet togs fram genom

    kvalitativa intervjuer med de fem

    socionomerna. Resultatet presenteras genom ett deskriptivt

    angreppssätt och problematiseras med hjälp av

    Barnkonventionen, mänskliga rättigheter och

    Barnkonventionens lagstatus i Sverige. Intervjuerna visade att

    socionomerna i många fall inte hade tillräcklig kunskap om

    Barnkonventionen som helhet. Alla arbetade med

    barnperspektiv och barnets bästa, men inte genom

    konventionen i sig. De visade också på att ledningens stöd och

    direktiv är viktiga faktorer för att arbetet med en tillämpning av

    Barnkonventionen skall kunna startas och utvecklas. BBIC var

    inte alltid tillräcklig för att jobba med Barnkonventionens alla

    principer och det var ofta en svårighet för tillämpning att

    Barnkonventionen inte är lag i Sverige.

  • 36.
    Ackrén, Maria
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Olausson, Pär M
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Condition(s) for Island Autonomy2008In: International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, ISSN 1385-4879, E-ISSN 1571-8115, Vol. 15, no 2-3, p. 227-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inquiry is focusing on why island autonomy occurs. Our point of departure considers four possible conditions such as geographical distance, ethnicity, GDP/capita and size according to population leading towards island autonomy. We use two sample groups in our study: one encompassing autonomous islands deriving from different parts of the world, with three main islands illustrating what we mean by island autonomy. These consist of the Azores, the Faroe Islands and Isle of Man. The second group consists of so called non-autonomous islands scattered around the world. The analysis is carried out with a specific technique within the Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) family and that is Multi-Value QCA (MVQCA). MVQCA is an extension of the Crisp-Set QCA (CSQCA) and withholds a dichotomous dependent variable, while the possible explanatory variables (independent variables) can have multi-values. As a second technique Fuzzy-Set QCA (FSQCA) is employed as a control technique only. While assessing these techniques we receive combinations of conditions leading to the outcome in question. Results show that with MVQCA we receive four different paths towards island autonomy. Ethnicity as the only explanation is one route towards the outcome. A second path is small or large size. Long geographical distance combined with no ethnic diversity is a third way towards island autonomy. The fourth path is long geographical distance combined with the lower or upper middle income group. All the paths are equally valid.

  • 37.
    Adamsson Abdel Halim, Hanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Patientens upplevelse av att leva med en implanterbar defibrillator (ICD): - en litteraturöversikt2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: En implanterbar defibrillator (ICD) har till uppgift att återställa hjärtats rytm vid en arytmi. Implantationerna ökar stadigt, studier har dock visat att sjuksköterskor inte upplever sig ha tillräckligt med kunskaper om ICD:n och de upplevelser som patienter kan väntas få efter implantation. Syfte: Syftet var att belysa patienters upplevelse av att leva med en implanterbar defibrillator. Metod: Uppsatsen är gjord som en litteraturöversikt med 15 kvalitativa vetenskapliga artiklar inkluderade. Artikelsökningar gjordes i databaserna Cinahl, Pubmed och PsycInfo. I analysen identifierades meningsenheter som delades in i olika teman och underteman utifrån likheter och olikheter. Resultat: Patienterna visade sig ha dubbla känslor gentemot ICD:n, upplevelser som identifierades var: besvikelse, tacksamhet, rädsla/ångest, trygghet, känna sig begränsad och acceptans. Diskussion: Några patienter upplevde bland annat ett bristande stöd från hälsopersonalen, det är viktigt att sjuksköterskan försöker förstå patientens perspektiv för att kunna vara ett så bra stöd som möjligt. Slutsats: Studien bidrog med kunskap om vilka olika upplevelser ICD-patienter kan ha efter en implantation. Eventuella orsaker till upplevelserna skulle kunna ligga till grund för framtida studier.

  • 38.
    Addo, Michelle Yaa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att bemöta personer med HIV/AIDS2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Adelmaid, Natalie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Medarbetarnas arbets- tillfredställelse: Ledarens betydelse för medarbetarnas arbets- tillfredställelse2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur medarbetare upplever ledarskapets betydelse för deras arbets- tillfredställelse. Studien ansluter sig till Bernin, Nyberg & Theorell (2005) definition gällande arbets- tillfredställelsen, vilket innebär att medarbetarna har förutsättningar för att få god kontroll, delaktighet och autonomi i arbetet som bidrar med intellektuell stimulans, en ledare som skapar god och tydlig struktur samt visar omtanke om sina anställda. Den metod som använts för insamling av empiri var halvstrukturerade intervjuer. Slutresultaten i denna studie visade sig ha likheter med tidigare forskning inom detta ämnesområde. Bland annat är delaktighet, engagemang och meningsfullhet är tre nyckelbegrepp i denna studies resultat av empiri, vilket bekräftar teorin av den tidigare forskning som representeras av Wolven (2000). Undersökningen studerar hur fem medarbetare i försäljningsbranschen på olika arbetsplatser inom den privata sektorn i Göteborg upplever arbets- tillfredställelsens betydelse i förhållande till sin ledare. Studien är av kvalitativ metod med halvstrukturerad intervjuform.Resultatet visade att respondenterna vill ha utifrån deras erfarenheter, en ledare som är demokratisk samtidigt som han skall vara auktoritär i viss utsträckning. Respondenterna vill helst arbeta under frihet, eget ansvar och få utmanande och stimulerande uppgifter som bidrar till personlig utveckling samtidigt som ledaren sätter tydliga strukturer. De vill att ledaren involverar dem i beslut och diskussioner som berör organisationsstrukturen och dem själva som medarbetare, på så sätt upplever de meningsfullhet och att deras arbetsuppgifter har betydelse. Detta är vad respondenterna upplever bidrar till arbets- tillfredställelse.

  • 40.
    Adelöw, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Österman, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Vad uppfattar lärare vara mest centralt i arbete mot mobbning?2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 41.
    Aden, Abdulahi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Mahmutovic, Ines
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    En kvalitativ studie om sociala nätverkens betydelse för studenter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 42.
    Adler, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Analys av gjorda och insläppta mål över matchtid i herrallsvenskan i fotboll2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den ultimata indikatorn på ett fotbollslags prestation är matchresultatet som beror på balansen av gjorda och insläppta mål. Syftet med studien var att analysera de allsvenska herrlagens målproduktion under säsongen 2010. Detta för att undersöka de svenska elitlagens förekomst av gjorda och insläppta mål över matchtid. Ytterligare syfte var att undersöka om framgångsrika och mindre framgångsrika lag uppvisar olika mönster gällande dessa parametrar. Samtliga 240 matcher, totalt 600 mål, från säsongen 2010 studerades på förekomst av mål över matchtid. Målen kategoriserades lagvis i åtta stycken tidsperioder. Lagen delades även in i tre olika grupper beroende på tabellplacering. Resultaten baserat på samtliga lag visade signifikant större andel gjorda mål under den andra halvleken jämfört med den första, 55,2% mot 44,8% (p<0,05). Inga signifikanta skillnader mellan 15-minutersperioderna kunde ses. Däremot sågs signifikanta skillnader mellan 15-minutersperioderna inom de olika grupperna. Topplagen uppvisade signifikant större andel insläppta mål under period 76-90min jämfört med 31-45min, 46-60min och 61-75min (p<0,05). Mittenlagen uppvisade signifikant mindre andel insläppta mål under period 76-90min jämfört med 31-45min, 46-60min och 61-75min (p<0,05). Sammanfattningsvis, svenska herr-elitlag följde en ökande trend av gjorda mål över matchtid med större andel mål under andra halvleken jämfört med första. Resultaten antydde även att topplagen uppvisade hög resultatmässig prestation genom hela matcherna medan bottenlagen uppvisade låg prestation och mittenlagen varierande prestation, vilket delvis förklarar varför grupperna placerar sig i toppen, botten och mitten av tabellen.

  • 43.
    Adlertz, Andrea
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Åkerberg, Jonna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    "Det är trots allt familjehemsföräldrarna som gör det största jobbet och vi ska stötta dem i det" - En kvalitativ studie om familjehemssekreterarnas stöd till familjehemsföräldrarna2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 44.
    Adogoy, Wegahta
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Zemichael, Saliem
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Vårdpersonalens erfarenheter av att vårda kvinnor som genomgått könsstympning: En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Kvinnlig könsstympning innebär en partiell eller total borttagning av de yttre kvinnliga könsorganen av icke medicinska skäl. Könsstympning är koncentrerad till 30 länder i Afrika, Mellanöstern samt Asien. Mer än 200 miljoner av de kvinnor och flickor som lever idag har genomgått könsstympning. Det finns många kulturella anledningar till varför kvinnor könsstympas. Det varierar från kultur till kultur. Vissa gör det för att kvinnan ska bli ren, vacker och betraktas som en moralisk kvinna som hennes familj kan vara stolt att senare lämna över till en annan familj för giftemål. Det finns fyra olika typer av ingrepp som alla kan leda till komplikationer. Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturöversikt är att belysa vårdpersonalens erfarenheter av att vårda kvinnor som genomgått könsstympning. Metod: Metoden har varit litteraturöversikt grundad på sex kvalitativa artiklar, sju kvantitativa artiklar och två artiklar med kombination av båda metoderna. Artiklarna har hämtats från tre olika databaser; Pub med, Cinahl och Academic Search. Resultat: Två huvudkategorier: komplexiteten i omvårdnaden vid mötet med främmande kulturer samt behov av kunskap och utbildning. Vårdpersonal ansåg att de har brist på kunskap. Mötet med kvinnor som genomgått könsstympning och deras familjer var komplicerad. Delvis beror detta på språkproblem delvis på kulturella skillnader. Diskussion: Både vårdpersonal och patienter kände sig säkra när vårdpersonalen var välutbildat och hade god kunskap. Resultatet har diskuterats utifrån Chios (2008) omvårdnads-teori "the theory of cultural marginality". Slutsats: Genom att införa formell utbildning, både teoretisk och praktisk tryggheten öka hos vårdpersonalen och det påverkar vården positivt. De kvinnor som genomgått könsstympning kommer även träffa annan vårdpersonal än barnmorskor. Därför anser författarna att det behövs mer forskning om sjuksköterskors och annan vårdpersonals erfarenheter av att vårda dessa kvinnor.

  • 45.
    Adolfsson, Elin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Berglund, Tove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Going concern varningar och finansiell stress2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and purpose – The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to describe and analyze the proportions of going concern warnings (GCW) among Swedish limited companies that went bankrupt in 2014. This study will analyze if the auditor's propensity of issuing GCW increases if companies are financially distressed from three different definitions of financial stress. The thesis also analyzes whether there are differences in the propensity to issue a GCWbetween authorized and approved auditor, and between the Big N firms and non-Big N firms. Previous research has not analyzed and compared different definitions of financial stress and GCW.Methodology – This bachelor thesis is a quantitative research and 939 companies were included in the survey. The variables in the study were collected separately and then added together to examine how the independent variables financial stress, the auditor's competence and the size of the firm affects the dependent variable GCW. Statistical processing has beendone by measuring regression and 2-proportionstest.Findings – The results show that the propensity that a Swedish auditor issues a GCW is low, the accuracy is 24,8 percent. The tendency that the auditor issues a GCW will increase if companies are financially distressed. The results are consistent with previous studies. The definition of financial distress are significant when we compare them with each other. Auditor competence are crucial for the issuing of GCW, however, auditor competence are not crucial for the issuing of GCW to financially distressed companies. The results shows no difference with the auditor´s propensity to issuing GCW among the Big N auditors and non-Big N auditors.Conclusions – Our conclusion is that an auditor's assessment of the going concern process remains problematic. There is a strong relationship between all the definitions of financial distress and GCW. When we compare the definitions of financial distress with each other, we found a difference. Two of the definitions, we can consider to be helpful in assessing the GCW.

  • 46.
    Adolfsson Falk, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    ADHD i skolan.: En kvalitativ studie utifrån lärares uppfattningar om vilka förändringar som sker i skolan när en elev har eller misstänks ha ADHD.2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47.
    Adolfsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Jämtländska Gaseller: En Studie om Tillväxtfaktorer Hos Små och Mellanstora Företag i Jämtland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 48.
    Adolfsson, Josefin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Att leda och känna som chef: En studie kring användningen av emotionellt arbete bland kvinnor i chefspositioner2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Leadership and organizational research has historically been seen from a male perspective, this has led to the fact that women in management positions partly have been neglected in the field of research on leadership. To contribute to a better understanding of women's experiences and conditions in managerial positions this paper is based on a women perspective. The importance of emotions in leadership, is a relatively new phenomenon, one aspect that holds within that area is emotional labor. Emotional labor is about how people actively create and guide their emotions in line with social structures and institutions influence. The purpose of this paper is to explore and increase the understanding of emotional labor of women in management positions. Seven women in managerial positions has been interviewed, and the answers from these women have then been analyzed and discussed. The results show that women in the study use emotional labor both in terms of surface acting and deep acting. Furthermore, the results show that company's expectations and guidelines serve as emotional control, that to some extent control the women's use of emotional labor. A deeper understanding of emotional labor among women in management positions is discussed to create more knowledge about conditions and patterns that may need to be strengthened or broken. This understanding may be important both for companies in general, but also for policy makers who want to increase the number of women in management positions.

  • 49.
    Adolfsson, Kim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Davidsson, Zanna
    Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    "Även om jag bor här i 100 år så blir det inte samma": En kvalitativ studie av fem ensamkommande ungdomar och deras personliga identitetsutveckling i mottagarlandet.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING:

    Människor tvingas fly ifrån sina hemländer på grund av våld för att söka säkerhet någon annanstans. Att människor lämnar ett land eller tvingas fly har skett under alla tider. Människor flyr från förföljelse, fattigdom, svält eller krig. Uppskattningsvis finns 19,2 miljoner människor på flykt runt om i världen och nära hälften av dessa är barn. Av de barn som befinner sig på flykt är de ensamkommande ungdomarna en viktig grupp att urskilja. Då de ensamkommande asylsökande ungdomarna är i behov av särskilt skydd. Under 2003 var de flesta ensamkommande ungdomar i Sverige från Somalia, Irak, Serbien och Montenegro. Vårt syfte är att få ökad förståelse för ensamkommande ungdomars upplevelser av hur deras identitet formats i hemlandet och senare i mottagarlandet i samspel med människor i sin omgivning. Samt vilken betydelse asylprocessen och tidigare trauman har haft för ungdomarnas personliga identitetsutveckling. De faktorer som berörts som viktiga för ungdomens personliga identitetsutveckling är förluster, boende, ovisshet, familjeåterförening och nätverk samt språket.Vi har valt att göra en explorativ studie som innefattar kvalitativa halvstrukturerade intervjuer med fem ensamkommande ungdomar. Resultatet i form av empiri och analys har utförts utifrån tidigare forskning och från Cullbergs kristeori samt relevanta begrepp som etnicitet och identitet utifrån symbolisk interaktionism. Studien har visat att samtliga ungdomar upplevt att den ovisshet de levt i under asylprocessen samt tidigare trauman har påverkat dem mycket både psykiskt och fysiskt. De ungdomar vi har intervjuat upplever alla att de idag har en ny personlighet efter att ha fått uppehållstillstånd. Den nya identiteten har enligt ungdomarna påverkats bland annat av föräldrarnas uppfostran och de nya människor de möter i mottagarlandet samt av de nya miljöerna ungdomarna befinner sig i.

  • 50.
    Adongo, Dorcus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    THE PROS AND CONS OF WORKING IN TEMPORARY AGENCY WORK: CASE OF WORKER PERSPECTIVE INTHE SWEDISH LABOUR MARKET2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This thesis aims at exploring some of the possibilities,opportunities and challenges within the temporary agency work sector from boththe regular and the temporary agency workers points of view within the Swedish labourmarket. Background: Temporary agency work sector in the past two decadeshas been a fast growing sector that has got many young people into the labourmarket. With the current changes in the global economy, many organizations areturning more to these organizations to enable them adapt to changes in theirenvironment. In Sweden for instance, the growth and development of this sectorhas primarily been due to the constantly increasing rates of unemployment,massive job losses and also as a result of de-regulation of labour regulations. Methodology: A quantative survey was carried out using structuredquestionnaires in three companies that largely engage in hiring of temporaryworkers.  A total of 137 regular andtemporary agency workers, took part in the survey which was conducted through aweb-survey to e-mail addresses provided by client companies and temporary work agenciesand for those who had no access to e-mail received the questionnaires duringstaff meetings. Findings: Majorityof those engaged in this sector are young people of ages between 20 and 30years old, with high school education level and not married but maybe livingwith girlfriend or boyfriend. It resulted that many see these sectors asoffering an entry point into the labour market through which they feelrecognized and hopefully can advance their careers. Although all that glittersis not gold, those who work within this sector are also faced with variouschallenges that make it more of a stepping stone work place such as lack ofcontrol, complex interpersonal, insecurity and being treated as commodities andthe inability to decide when, where and how to work, with very little or nocontrol of when they can take off. Conclusion: On testing thehypothesis in relation to the possibilities, opportunities and challenges ofworking in the sector, it was not very obvious within the sector that ingeneral the regular staff had more favourable conditions than the temporary,but it did vary from one situation to the other and more often than not theyhad similar conditions. For instance, individualized flexibility was equallynot easy to achieve by the employees within the two groups.

    Keywords; Temporary Agency Work, Temporary Agency workers, Client Company, Regular/ordinarystaff, Motivation

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