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  • 1. Aabrekk, S.
    et al.
    Tommerup, H.
    Svendsen, S.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Paiho, S.
    Ala-Juusela, M.
    Deliverable 2.2 Possible market strategies for one stop shops of renovation of single family house.: Report prepared for Nordic Innovation Centre2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The document describes examples of missions, visions and strategies based on the potentialpiloting models defined in report 3.2. It is based on status of interest amongst thestakeholders, and the information, figures and challenges which were discussed in the reportD 2.1 Stakeholder interests. The different service models will request different missionsdepending on the stakeholder in charge of the model. Also visions and strategies could bedifferent depending on the composition of services (core business) offered within each pilot aswell as the additional services offered by sub suppliers and the network connected to the pilot.In the report D2.1 Stakeholders interests, the following 5 different piloting models aresuggested:Type 1 Joint venture of industry, retailers and contractorsType 2 Joint venture of construction/renovation, industry and architect/engineering companiesType 3 Complementary businesses expand their business into renovationType 4 Joint venture of type house producer, bank and home owner associationType 5 Energy/building consultant, real estate agent and financing institutions, e.g. bankIn this report we have described mission, vision and market strategies for 4 existing orproposed models; The Project Manager by Bolig Enøk, from Norway (type 1), ENRA concept(type 2) and K-Rauta & Rautia (type 3) from Finland, and ProjectLavenergi (type 2) fromDenmark. Cleantech by Dong Energy (type 3) from Denmark is also addressed, but notdescribed in detail. As there is no concrete examples representing two of the models fromD2.1 (types 4 and 5), we have made a theoretical exercise in developing mission, vision andmarket strategies for type 5 model, while type 4 is not handled.It may be concluded that there are commercial actors in different parts of the value chainwhich see an opportunity in developing different approaches of “one stop shops” for energyefficient holistic renovations. The concepts are still in a development phase and differ inrespect to how they are organised (as supply side). We may say that the pilots in the differentcountries also find inspiration from each other through this research project. Due to thecomplexity of a holistic renovation project, it is a prerequisite with good partnerships even inthe development phase. In all identified models there is however one main actor taking thelead and ownership to the business model.Independent of the business model the responsible company needs to make some strategicchoices. The starting point is the SWOT analysis which sums up all major challenges for therespective business model. How the strategies should be developed is described in this report.Although the main target group for this report is companies seeing an interest in developingbusiness models for renovation, we found some important issues identified in the SWOTanalysis which the authorities may influence including lack of interest in the market (need ofmore public attention through holistic campaigns), fragmented solutions (stop subsidisingsingle measures without a holistic plan), serious vs unserious companies (need of certificationsystems to build credibility), cost focus leads to limited renovation (need of subventionschemes for holistic retrofitting including tax deduction measures) and finally lack incompetence within companies (need of support to training and collaboration acrosscompanies).

  • 2.
    Ahlrén, Caroline
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sundler, Sofie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Underlag till klimatledningssystem för skolor2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The climate issue is a significant question, and the problem is mainly caused by human activities. Everyone can help to counteract the enhanced Greenhouse effect by reducing the amounts of energy they use and by not consuming more products then they need.

    Schools are some of societies many consumers and therefore contribute to the Greenhouse effect. The School also has an important task; to teach and disseminate knowledge and information about the climate and the environment. According to the Swedish National Agency for Education, Skolverket, must all schools regularly consider the environment and sustainable development throughout the entire education process. Unfortunately, this is not the case for many schools in Sweden today.

    One of many tools that can be used to coordinate environmental work and initiatives, and also to make it more efficient, is environmental management systems. The most well known environmental management systems are developed for companies and consist of, for example, ISO 14001 and EMAS. Schools also have their specific versions of environmental management systems. In Sweden there are two of this kind; Green Flagg (Grön Flagg) and School for Sustainable Development (Skola för hållbar utveckling). There is also a third, called Environmental diploma (Miljödiplomering), though this particular one can be used both in companies, schools and other organizations. The authors regard these management systems as fine but insufficient. They need to be complemented by another management system aimed at climate and energy, which will work both as a startup for School for Sustainable Development and a continuation from Green Flagg.

    This study has had the aim of finding the components that need to make up such a climate management system. The system needs to be; easy to introduce into the school activities, be of good use in the tuition and contribute to lessen the schools impact on the climate. The study is based on literature relevant for the subject as well as two parallel empirical studies, where environmental work and environmental management systems in two schools were evaluated.

    The result of the study showed that most schools integrate environmental issues in their education, although to a varying extent. Environmental work in schools today need more structure and the authors regards environmental management systems adapted to the school activities, as helpful tools. To ensure that such a management system will be used, it needs to be limited to a more specific issue. The authors have, in this study, chosen to work with climate and energy as the main focus. The management system should be built as a conventional environmental management system suited for companies, for example ISO 14001, and contain the following components:

     PDCA

     Physical environmental aspects

     Documentation

     Clearly rooted in governing documents

     Communication

     Tools

     Stairs of knowledge

     Continuous updates and follow-up:s

     Distinction

     

  • 3.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Roller skis' rolling resistance and grip characteristics: influences on physiological and performance measures in cross-country skiers2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate roller ski characteristics; classical and freestyle roller skis’ rolling resistance coefficients (μR) and classical style roller skis’ static friction coefficients (μS), and to study the influence of different μR and μS on cross-country skiers’ performance and both physiological and biomechanical indices. The aim was also to study differences in skiing economy and efficiency between recreational skiers, female and male junior and senior elite cross-country skiers.The experiments showed that during a time period of 30 minutes of rolling on a treadmill (warm-up), μR decreased significantly (p<0.05) to about 60-65 % and 70-75 % of its initial value for freestyle and classical roller skis respectively. Also, there was a significant influence of normal force on μR, while different velocities and inclinations of the treadmill only resulted in small changes in μR.The study of the influence on physiological variables of a ~50 % change in μR showed that during submaximal steady rate exercise, external power, oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate were significantly changed, while there were non-significant or only small changes to cycle rate, cycle length and ratings of perceived exertion. Incremental maximal tests showed that time to exhaustion was significantly changed and this occurred without a change in maximal power, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate and blood lactate, and that the influence on ratings of perceived exertion was non-significant or small.The study of classical style roller skis μS showed values that were five to eight times more than the values of μS reported from on-snow skiing with grip-waxed cross-country skis.The subsequent physiological and biomechanical experiments with different μS showed a significantly lower skiing economy (~14 % higher v̇O2), higher heart rate, lower propulsive forces coming from the legs and shorter time to exhaustion (~30 %) when using a different type of roller ski with a μS similar to on-snow skiing, while there was no difference between tests when using different pairs of roller skis with a (similar) higher μS.The part of the thesis which focused on skiing economy and efficiency as a function of skill, age and gender, showed that the elite cross-country skiers had better skiing economy and higher gross efficiency (5-18 %) compared with the recreational skiers, and the senior elite had better economy and higher efficiency (4-5 %) than their junior counterparts, while no differences could be found between the genders.

  • 4.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The rolling resistances of roller skis and their effects on human performance during treadmill roller skiing2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern ski-treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers to test their physical performance in a laboratory environment using classical and freestyle techniques on roller skis. For elite athletes the differences in performance between test occasions are quite small, thus emphasising the importance of knowing the roller skis’ rolling resistance coefficient, µR, in order to allow correct comparisons between the results, as well as providing the opportunity to study work economy between different athletes, test occasions and core techniques.

    Thus, one of the aims of this thesis was to evaluate how roller skis’ µR is related to warm-up, mass, velocity and inclination of the treadmill. It was also necessary to investigate the methodological variability of the rolling resistance measurement system, RRMS, specially produced for the experiments, with a reproducibility study in order to indicate the validity and reliability of the results.

    The aim was also to study physiological responses to different µR during roller skiing with freestyle and classical roller skis and techniques on the treadmill as a case in which all measurements were carried out in stationary and comparable conditions.

    Finally, the aim was also to investigate the work economy of amateurs and female and male junior and senior cross-country skiers during treadmill roller skiing, i.e. as a function of skill, age and gender, including whether differences in body mass causes significant differences in external power per kg due to differences in the roller skis’ µR.

    The experiments showed that during a warm-up period of 30 minutes, µR decreased to about 60-65% and 70-75% of its initial value for freestyle and classical roller skis respectively. For another 30 minutes of rolling no significant change was found. Simultaneous measurements of roller ski temperature and mR showed that stabilized mR corresponds to a certain running temperature for a given normal force on the roller ski. The study of the influence on mR of normal force, velocity and inclination produced a significant influence of normal force on mR, while different velocities and inclinations of the treadmill only resulted in small changes in mR. The reproducibility study of the RRMS showed no significant differences between paired measurements with either classical or the freestyle roller skis.

    The study of the effects on physiological variables of ~50% change in µR,showed that during submaximal steady state exercise, external power, oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate were significantly changed, while there were non significant or only small changes to cycle rate, cycle length and ratings of perceived exertion. Incremental maximal tests showed that time to exhaustion was significantly changed and this occurred without a significantly changed maximal power, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate and blood lactate, and that the influence on ratings of perceived exertion was non significant or small.

    The final part of the thesis, which focused on work economy, found no significant difference between the four groups of elite competitors, i.e. between the two genders and between the junior and senior elite athletes. It was only the male amateurs who significantly differed among the five studied groups. The study also showed that the external power per kg was significantly different between the two genders due to differences in body mass and mR, i.e. the lighter female testing groups were roller skiing with a relatively heavier rolling resistance coefficient compared to the heavier testing groups of male participants.

  • 5.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Roller ski rolling resistance and its effects on elite athletes’ performance2008In: ENGINEERING OF SPORT 7, VOL 2, 2008, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 393-400Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern ski-treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers to test their physical fitness in a laboratory environment whilst performing classical and freestyle (skating) techniques on roller skis. For elite athletes the differences in performance between test occasions are quite small, thus emphasising the importance of knowing the roller skis’ rolling resistance in order to allow the correct comparison between the results of different test occasions. In this study the roller skis’ rolling resistance has been measured using equipment on the ski-treadmill. The study investigates the influence of significant changes in rolling resistance on physiological variables. The results show that during submaximal exercise, heart rate, blood lactate, power and oxygen uptake are significantly changed by different rolling resistances, while there are no significant or only small changes to cycle rate, cycle length and ratings of perceived exertion. Incremental maximal tests show that time to exhaustion is significantly changed by different rolling resistances and this occurred without significant changes in maximal oxygen uptake and heart rate, and the influence on maximal power and ratings of perceived exertion were insignificant or small.

  • 6.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Roller ski rolling resistance and its effects on elite athletes’ performance2009In: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 143-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern ski-treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers to test their physical fitness in a laboratory environment whilst performing classical and freestyle (skating) techniques on roller skis. For elite athletes, the differences in performance between test occasions are quite small, thus emphasising the importance of knowing the roller skis’ rolling resistance in order to allow the correct comparison between the results of different test occasions. In this study, the roller skis’ rolling resistance was measured on the ski-treadmill’s surface using a roller ski rolling resistance measurement system specially produced for this purpose. The study investigated the influence of significant changes in rolling resistance on physiological variables. The results showed that during submaximal exercise, power, oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate were significantly changed by different rolling resistances, while there were no significant or only small changes to cycle rate, cycle length and ratings of perceived exertion. Incremental maximal tests showed that time to exhaustion was significantly changed by different rolling resistances and this occurred without significant changes in maximal power, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate and blood lactate, and that the influence on ratings of perceived exertion were insignificant or small.

     

  • 7.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Rolling resistance for treadmill roller skiing2008In: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 23-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers to test their physical performance under laboratory conditions using classical and freestyle techniques on roller skis. The differences in performance between tests are quite small for elite athletes, and it is therefore of great importance to control the rolling resistance of the roller skis. Otherwise different physiological tests cannot be accurately compared.

    This study shows that during a warm-up period of  30 minutes the coefficient of rolling resistance (µR) decreases to about 60-65% and 70-75% of its initial value for freestyle and classical roller skis respectively.

    Simultaneous measurements of temperature and µR shows that stabilized rolling resistance corresponds to a certain running temperature for a given normal force on the roller ski.

    Tests were also performed on the influence on µR of normal force, velocity and inclination. Normal forces produced significant influence on µR , while different velocities and inclinations of the treadmill only resulted in small changes in µR.

  • 8.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Laaksonen, Marko
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Work economy of amateur and elite cross-country skiers during treadmill roller skiing2009In: 4th Asia Pacific Congress on Sports Technology, APCST2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on the work economy of cross-country skiers during treadmill roller skiing in the perspectives; skill, age and gender. The study was investigating the external power output from elevating the transported mass against gravity and overcoming the roller skis rolling resistance, and the internal power from measured oxygen uptake and energy consumption. The roller skis rolling resistance was measured with a fixture on the ski-treadmill and the results showed a significant correlation between normal force and rolling resistance. The results also showed that it was only the amateur skiers who significantly differed in work economy among the five studied groups.

  • 9.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Classical style constructed roller skis and grip functionality2011In: Procedia Engineering: The Impact of Technology on Sports IV / [ed] Subic A., Fuss F.K., Alam F., Clifton P., Elsevier, 2011, p. 4-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roller skis are used by cross-country skiers for snow-free training, with the aim of imitating skiing on snow. The roller skis on the market that are constructed for use in the classical style are equipped with a front and a back wheel, one of which has a ratchet to enable it to grip the surface when diagonal striding and kick double poling.

    A new type of roller ski was constructed with a function which makes it necessary to use the same kick technique as that used on snow, i.e. the ski has a camber that must be pushed down to obtain grip. Its stiffness can be adjusted based on factors that influence grip, i.e. the skier’s bodyweight and technical skiing skills.

    Thus, our aim was to make comparative measurements as regards grip between ratcheted roller skis and the roller ski with a camber and compare with previous published results for grip waxed skis during cross-country skiing on snow.  The measurements were carried out using specially developed equipment, with a bottom plate and an overlying rubber mat of the same type as used on many treadmills and a function for applying different loads and generating traction on the back of the roller ski.

  • 10.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    The multi functional roller ski2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Akambih Tajam, Joseph
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    SMALL SCALE IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATIONOF DIESEL CONTAMINATED SOIL –SCREENING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE2010In: ECO-TECH´10, 22-24 November 2010, Kalmar, Sweden: International Conference on Natural Sciences and Technologies for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Remediation, Emissions Related to Climate, Environmentaland Economic Effects / [ed] FABIO KACZALA, SANDRINE ARZUR, IDA TJÄDER WILLIAM HOGLAND, 2010, p. 827-835Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spillage of diesel oil and other petroleum products is a commonly creating need for siteremediation of contaminated soils. In Sweden the most common remediation action isexcavation of the contaminated soil and off site biological treatment by composting.However, a number of small sites spread out in rural areas end up low on priority lists, andwill not be attended to within foreseeable future if ever. For such areas a low cost, easy toapply remediation techniques would be of interest. Enhanced bioremediation of dieselcontaminants in soil by whey addition has been demonstrated in lab scale. Whey is a byproductfrom cheese production. A first pilot remediation trial on an actual site in Gäddede,County of Jämtland, was started the summer of 2010. Using this site as a case study ascreening life cycle assessment model has been set up. The goal of the study was toinvestigate the environmental performance of the whey method, to benchmark the wheymethod toward the excavation and composting practice and to identify environmental hotspots in the whey treatment life cycle. The study aims at establishing if further work shouldbe put into developing the method, or if the environmental performance is such that the wheymethod should be abandoned. It should be noted that even with a slightly worseenvironmental performance compared to other remediation alternatives whey treatment couldstill be of interest, since the small scale sites in rural areas we talk about here otherwise mostoften would not be attended to.Results from the screening life cycle assessment indicate a rather good environmentalperformance of the whey method, partly depending on impact category considered. For thewhey method, impacts from farming activities in the milk production chain allocated to thewhey give significant contributions. Transportation gives important impacts from both thewhey method and the excavation and off site composting, thus logistics should always beconsidered and optimized. The whey on-site treatment could be an interesting alternative forbioremediation especially at sites that would not otherwise be treated, due to small size orremote location.

  • 12. Ala-Juusela, M.
    et al.
    Paiho, S.
    Tommerup, H.
    Svendsen, S.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Haavik, T.
    Aabrekk, S.
    Successful sustainable renovation business for single-family houses2010In: SB10, Sustainable Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13. Andersson, Johan P A
    et al.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Repeated apneas do not affect the hypercapnic ventilatory response in the short term2009In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 105, no 4, p. 569-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term training of breath-hold diving reduces the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR), an index of the CO(2) sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether also short-term apnea training (repeating apneas with short intervals) reduces the HCVR, thereby being one contributing factor explaining the progressively increasing breath-holding time (BHT) with repetition of apneas. Fourteen healthy volunteers performed a series of five maximal-duration apneas with face immersion and two measurements of the HCVR, using the Read rebreathing method. The BHT increased by 43% during the series of apneas (P < 0.001). However, the slope of the HCVR test was not affected by the series of apneas, being 2.52 (SD 1.27) and 2.24 (SD 1.14) l min(-1) mmHg(-1) in the control test and in the test performed within 2 min after the last apnea of the series, respectively (NS). Thus, a change in the HCVR cannot explain the observed short-term training effect on BHT.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Johan P.A.
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Biasoletto-Tjellströma, Gustaf
    Schagatay, Erika K.A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Pulmonary gas exchange is reduced by the cardiovascular diving response in resting humans2008In: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, ISSN 1569-9048, E-ISSN 1878-1519, Vol. 160, no 3, p. 320-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diving response reduces the pulmonary O2 uptake in exercising humans, but it has been debated whether this effect is present at rest. Therefore, respiratory and cardiovascular responses were recorded in 16 resting subjects, performing apnea in air and apnea with face immersion in cold water (10 ◦C). Duration of apneas were predetermined to be identical in both conditions (average: 145 s) and based on individual maximal capacity (average: 184 s). Compared to apnea in air, an augmented diving response was elicited by apnea with face immersion. The O2 uptake from the lungs was reduced compared to the resting eupneic control (4.6 ml min−1 kg−1), during apnea in air (3.6 ml min−1 kg−1) and even more so during apnea with face immersion (3.4 ml min−1 kg -1). We conclude that the cardiovascular djustments of the diving response reduces pulmonary gas exchange in resting humans, allowing longer apneas by preserving the lungs’ O2 store for use by vital organs.

  • 15.
    Argården, Linda
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Nielsen, Helena
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Successful keys for implementing feedback to design in Lean TPM2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Howcan a feedback to design system be successfully implemented in Lean TPM? Andwhat are the successful keys? Even when working with quality and qualityimprovements, in an innovative and systematic way, a lot of improvement worksfails to be implemented. So, how do you plan, organize, andexecute change effectively? Successful organizations use a defined model forimprovements, rather than working ad hoc. The theories that have formed the basis forour implementation plan are; Kotter's eight-step model, Lewin's model for change, and the five phase model according to Sörqvist. Our research is based on a single case studywith an empirical framework. We have used qualitative methods forcollecting both primary and secondary research data tofind the answers to our questions. Thereare a lot of different key factors contributing to the success for implementingimprovements successfullyfrom a human perspective. We have however found four different factors thatseems to play a huge roll in the success or failure; Management commitment andsupport, Employee engagement and motivation, Information sharing and Leadership.

  • 16.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fransson, Kristin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Palm Oil2011In: Palm Oil: Nutrition, Uses and Impacts / [ed] Palmetti, Maria L., Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, p. 159-186Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Palm oil is used for cooking in Southeast Asia and Africa and as a food additive in a number of processed foods world-wide. The production of palm oil is increasing, and it is of special interest from a nutritional point of view due to its high energy content and its significant content of micronutrients. In addition, palm oil is increasingly used to produce various biofuels. Due to large production volumes and diverse applications of palm oil, it is highly interesting and important to study the environmental impacts of its production. This chapter discusses how the environmental impacts of palm oil can be assessed, focusing on the life cycle environmental impacts of palm oil in comparison to similar products. A brief overview of life cycle assessment as a method is given, and results are presented together with suggestions for environmental improvements of palm oil cultivation and production. It is shown that the magnitude of the environmental impacts connected to palm oil in relation to other products is heavily affected by the choice of environmental indicators, which in LCA studies consist of both an environmental impact category and a so-called functional unit. Regarding impact categories, the global warming and acidification potentials of palm oil are lower than those of rapeseed oil per kg oil. The water footprint of palm oil and rapeseed oil are about the same on a mass basis, but for the two land use indicators soil erosion and heavy metal accumulation, rapeseed oil has a lower impact than palm oil. Specific interest is given to the life cycle energy use of palm oil in response to the unclear and diverse definitions of this impact category in different studies. It is concluded that there is a need to carefully define the energy use impact category when reporting on palm oil or similar products, and also to differentiate between different kinds of energy sources. If instead of mass the micronutrient content is applied as functional unit, palm oil still has lower global warming potential and acidification than rapeseed oil when compared on the basis of vitamin E content. However, if β-carotene content is used as functional unit, rapeseed oil is not relevant for comparison due to its negligible content of β-carotene. For that case, palm oil is therefore instead compared to tomatoes on a β-carotene basis, since tomatoes are rich in β-carotene. The tomatoes were shown to perform better then palm oil regarding global warming potential on a β-carotene basis. The effects of time and scale on the environmental impacts of palm oil, which includes changes in technical performance and electricity sources, are also discussed in this chapter. It is shown that combustion of the methane formed from the palm oil mill effluent can significantly reduce the global warming potential.

  • 17.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fransson, Kristin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Molander, Sverker
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Energy use indicators in energy and life cycle assessments of biofuels: review and recommendations2012In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 31, p. 54-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate how indicators for energy use are applied in a set of life cycle assessment (LCA) and energy analysis case studies of biofuels. We found five inherently different types of indicators to describe energy use: (1) fossil energy, (2) secondary energy, (3) cumulative energy demand, (4) net energy balance, and (5) total extracted energy. It was also found that the examined reports and articles, the choice of energy use indicator was seldom motivated or discussed in relation to other energy use indicators. In order to investigate the differences between these indicators, they were applied to a case. The life cycle energy use of palm oil methyl ester was calculated and reported using these five different indicators for energy use, giving considerably different output results. This is in itself not unexpected, but indicates the importance of clearly identifying, describing and motivating the choice of energy use indicator. The indicators can all be useful in specific situations, depending on the goal and scope of the individual study, but the choice of indicators need to be better reported and motivated than what is generally done today.

  • 18.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fransson, Kristin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Molander, Sverker
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    How do we know the energy use when producing biomaterials or biofuels? [Eco-Tech'12]2012In: Proceedings of ECO-TECH 2012, 26-28 November, Kalmar, Sweden., 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How much fossil energy that is used in the production of biomaterials or biofuels (e.g. fuel used in harvesting) is a parameter of obvious interest when optimizing the production systems. To use more fossil fuels in the production of a biofuel than what will be available as the biofuel product is obviously a bad idea. With increasing interest in biomaterials and biofuels, a shift from a sole focus on fossil energy will be necessary. Optimized use of energy over the whole life cycle is one important parameter to ensure sustainability. However, to report and interpret values on life cycle energy use is not as straight forward as what might immediately be perceived. The impact category ‘energy use’ is frequently used but is generally not applied in a transparent and consistent way between different studies. Considering the increased focus on biofuels, it is important to inform companies and policy-makers about the energy use of biofuels in relevant and transparent ways with well-defined indicators. The present situation in how energy use indicators are applied was studied in a set of LCA studies of biofuels. It was found that the choice of indicator was seldom motivated or discussed in the examined reports and articles, and five inherently different energy use indicators were observed: (1) fossil energy, (2) secondary energy, (3) cumulative energy demand (primary energy), (4) net energy balance, and (5) total extracted energy. As a test, we applied these five energy use indicators to the same cradle-to-gate production system and they give considerably different output numbers of energy use. This in itself is not unexpected, but indicates the importance of clearly identifying, describing and motivating the choice of energy use indicator. Direct comparisons between different energy use results could lead to misinformed policy decisions.

  • 19.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fransson, Kristin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Molander, Sverker
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    How much energy is used when producing biofuels?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the increased focus on biofuels, it is important to inform companies and policy-makers about the energy use for production of biofuels in relevant and transparent ways, using well-defined indicators. The amount of fossil energy used in the production of a biofuel (e.g. diesel fuel used in harvesting) is a parameter of obvious interest when comparing different biofuels or when optimizing the production systems. With increasing worldwide production of different biofuels, a shift in focus from fossil energy to the entire energy use will also be necessary. In that context, not only reducing the use of fossil fuels in biofuel production, but also optimizing the use of all energy sources over the whole life cycle becomes an important to ensure the sustainability of biofuels. However, to report and interpret values on life cycle energy use is not straight forward due to methodological difficulties. The impact category ‘energy use’ is frequently used in life cycle assessment (LCA). But the term ‘energy use’ is generally not applied in a transparent and consistent way between different LCA studies of biofuels. It is often unclear whether the total energy use, or only fossil energy, has been considered, and whether primary or secondary energy has been considered. In addition, it is often difficult to tell if and how the energy content of the fuel or the biomass source was included in the energy use. This study presents and discusses the current situation in terms of energy use indicators are applied in LCA studies on biofuels. It was found that the choice of indicator was seldom motivated or discussed in the examined reports and articles, and five inherently different energy use indicators were observed: (1) fossil energy, (2) secondary energy, (3) cumulative energy demand (primary energy), (4) net energy balance, and (5) total extracted energy. As an illustration, we applied these five energy use indicators to the same cradle-to-gate production system (production of palm oil methyl ester), resulting in considerably different output numbers of energy use. This in itself is not unexpected, but indicates the importance of clearly identifying, describing and motivating the choice of energy use indicator. All five indicators can be useful in specific situations, depending on the goal and scope of the individual study, but the choice of indicator needs to be better reported and motivated than what is generally done today. Above all, it is important to avoid direct comparisons between different energy use results calculated using different indicators, since this could lead to misinformed policy decisions.

  • 20.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fransson, Kristin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Molander, Sverker
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Towards transparent and relevant use of energy use indicators in LCA studies of biofuels2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of energy has led to resource crises during the history of mankind, such as the deforestation of the Mediterranean during antiquity, and of Great Britain before the 19th century, and the oil crisis in the 20th century and continuing. Considering this, the frequent use of the impact category ‘energy use’ in the environmental assessment tool life cycle assessment (LCA) is not surprising. However, in a previous study, some of the authors noted that the term ‘energy use’ was not applied in a transparent and consistent way in LCA studies of biofuels. In this work we investigate how energy use indicators are applied in a set of life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of biofuels. In the examined reports and articles, the choice of indicator was seldom motivated or discussed and we observed five inherently different energy use indicators: (1) fossil energy, (2) secondary energy, (3) cumulative energy demand, (4) net energy balance, and (5) total extracted energy. These five energy use indicators were applied to the same cradle-to-gate production system of palm oil methyl ester (PME), giving considerably different output results. This is in itself not unexpected, but indicates the importance of clearly identifying, describing and motivating the choice of energy use indicator. All five indicators can all be useful in specific situations, depending on the goal and scope of the individual study, but the choice of indicators need to be better reported and motivated than what is generally done today. Authors of LCA studies should first define the purpose of their energy use indicator (fossil scarcity, energy scarcity, energy efficiency, cost/benefit comparison) and may then make a motivated choice of the energy use indicator.

  • 21.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Chalmers, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Persson, Sara
    Chalmers, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Life cycle assessment of hydrotreated vegetable oil from rape, oil palm and Jatropha2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 2-3, p. 129-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A life cycle assessment of hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) biofuel was performed. The study was commissioned by Volvo Technology Corporation and Volvo Penta Corporation as part of an effort to gain a better understanding of the environmental impact of potential future biobased liquid fuels for cars and trucks. The life cycle includes production of vegetable oil from rape, oil palm or Jatropha, transport of the oil to the production site, production of the HVO from the oil, and combustion of the HVO. The functional unit of the study is 1 kWh energy out from the engine of a heavy-duty truck and the environmental impact categories that are considered are global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP) and embedded fossil production energy. System expansion was used to take into account byproducts from activities in the systems; this choice was made partly to make this study comparable to results reported by other studies. The results show that HVO produced from palm oil combined with energy production from biogas produced from the palm oil mill effluent has the lowest environmental impact of the feedstocks investigated in this report. HVO has a significantly lower life cycle GWP than conventional diesel oil for all feedstocks investigated, and a GWP that is comparable to results for e.g. rape methyl ester reported in the literature. The results show that emissions from soil caused by microbial activities and leakage are the largest contributors to most environmental impact categories, which is supported also by other studies. Nitrous oxide emissions from soil account for more than half of the GWP of HVO. Nitrogen oxides and ammonia emissions from soil cause almost all of the life cycle EP of HVO and contribute significantly to the AP as well. The embedded fossil production energy was shown to be similar to results for e.g. rape methyl ester from other studies. A sensitivity analysis shows that variations in crop yield and in nitrous oxide emissions from microbial activities in soil can cause significant changes to the results.

  • 22.
    Bahadori, Fariborz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Lean Mjukvaruutveckling2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 23.
    Bazyan, Saloume
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Environmental impact of war technology and prohibition processes2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays humans struggle to supply and attain longer and more appropriate life time.

    Introducing new technologies, which, speeded up by modernization and industrialization, is the

    main subject in many branches of science to improve the human’s life; but this rate of innovation

    is not always pleasurable. As seen in many cases, side effects of using new technology come up

    as warning signs, and lead to huge environmental and humanitarian disaster with irreversible

    impact. Moreover, most of these technologies might be applied in different kinds of warfare

    where nations use high-Tech as tools to reach other’s resources and raise their economic

    benefits. As in most wars that happened in the world, updated technologies have been applied to

    overcome the combatant, which finally shows up as damages on the environment, economy,

    civilians and soldiers. In this study we reviewed the reasons of shaping warfare and its

    consequences in different aspects of environment, civilians, soldiers and economy. The questions

    I followed to answer were: What are those main factors that induced by technology to form

    different kinds of warfare? And, can technology be altered as a tool to make a war more

    environmentally friendly? To answer these two main questions, we need to know reasons for

    shaping warfare a) Economy, b) Ideological/religious, and c) Power/pride/love which raise many

    theories such as Economic, Behavioural, Evolutionary, Demographic, Rational, and Political

    science theory. In 1990 members of the committee of environmental issue discussed

    development of technology in the future which should follow by consideration of global

    environmental issue. Therefore, new technology should bring solution to environmental

    problems. Nowadays technology creates some kind of competition, not only in combat, but also

    in cold war. According to reviews of many studies, the harshness of war increases and the

    aftermath becomes more severe on the environment and societies, consequently irreversible

    rehabilitation in short and long term. Applied technologies in some warfare have been considered

    by their impact on natural and human environment. As a case study I considered the recent war

    in Libya and its consequences, not only in the country, but also its impact on other nations and

    neighbours as well. Strict international laws is needed to explicit and declare the rights of each

    individual and nation to prevent and ban any activities in the term of war crime. Also groups of

    authentic authorities should set up to conduct an investigation into each activity in countries and

    survey on introduced technologies to ensure them about their result and consequences. Finally

    some reviews were released about how international committees and conventions, declarations

    and agreement has been set to prevent and prohibit crime in wars, and some international laws

    has been brought to guide nations about their rights and responsibility against each other.

  • 24.
    Bazyan, Saloume
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Environmental impact of war technology and prohibition processes2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays humans struggle to supply and attain longer and more appropriate life time. Introducing new technologies, which, speeded up by modernization and industrialization, is the main subject in many branches of science to improve the human’s life; but this rate of innovation is not always pleasurable. As seen in many cases, side effects of using new technology come up as warning signs, and lead to huge environmental and humanitarian disaster with irreversible impact. Moreover, most of these technologies might be applied in different kinds of warfare where nations use high-Tech as tools to reach other’s resources and raise their economic benefits. As in most wars that happened in the world, updated technologies have been applied to overcome the combatant, which finally shows up as damages on the environment, economy, civilians and soldiers. In this study we reviewed the reasons of shaping warfare and its consequences in different aspects of environment, civilians, soldiers and economy. The questions I followed to answer were: What are those main factors that induced by technology to form different kinds of warfare? And, can technology be altered as a tool to make a war more environmentally friendly? To answer these two main questions, we need to know reasons for shaping warfare a) Economy, b) Ideological/religious, and c) Power/pride/love which raise many theories such as Economic, Behavioural, Evolutionary, Demographic, Rational, and Political science theory. In 1990 members of the committee of environmental issue discussed development of technology in the future which should follow by consideration of global environmental issue. Therefore, new technology should bring solution to environmental problems. Nowadays technology creates some kind of competition, not only in combat, but also in cold war. According to reviews of many studies, the harshness of war increases and the aftermath becomes more severe on the environment and societies, consequently irreversible rehabilitation in short and long term. Applied technologies in some warfare have been considered by their impact on natural and human environment. As a case study I considered the recent war in Libya and its consequences, not only in the country, but also its impact on other nations and neighbours as well. Strict international laws is needed to explicit and declare the rights of each individual and nation to prevent and ban any activities in the term of war crime. Also groups of authentic authorities should set up to conduct an investigation into each activity in countries and survey on introduced technologies to ensure them about their result and consequences. Finally some reviews were released about how international committees and conventions, declarations and agreement has been set to prevent and prohibit crime in wars, and some international laws has been brought to guide nations about their rights and responsibility against each other.

  • 25.
    Bergman, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sterilisering av medicinska modeller: En studie av lämpliga metoder2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of medical models within the Swedish healthcare is limited. One reason for this is the lack of knowledge how to sterilize them to be able to use the in an operating room. The goal of this thesis has therefore been to investigate if medical models manufactured by rapid prototyping can be sterilized by any of the methods approved by the Swedish authority Socialstyrelsen. The study has covered two different rapid prototyping methods FDM - Fused Deposition Modeling and JP - Jet Print. The two machines that were used are Stratasys Prodigy Plus (FDM) and ObJet Eden 260v (JP). The building materials that were used are P400 ABS in FDM and FullCure720 in JP. The support materials that were used are P400-SR in FDM and FullCure705 in JP. In order to avoid misconceptions with various stakeholders has a definition of what a medical model is been created. Different grades of purity has been studied and how to achieve them. In order to determine the purity of the samples before and after they have been sterilized have an environmental investigation been performed. Due to different sterilization methods can affect the material in different ways and hence its shape have a deformation study been performed. A number of reference geometries have been measured before and after they have been subjected to the sterilization process.  In order not to skip any aspect and to have measurable and comparable values have an experimental plan been constructed. The conclusion to be drawn after the study is: Sterilization of FullCure720 with saturated water vapour works and the material can be considered sterile. Sterilization of P400 ABS with cold chemical sterilization also works; however, the material can only be classified as a high-purity material. The other test samples can only be classified as clean. The shape changes that have been measured are all below 0.5 mm and are therefore considered not to have any bearing on the medical model's function.

  • 26.
    Bergström, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    The Absorption of Laser Light by Rough Metal Surfaces2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Bergström, David
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Kaplan, AFH
    Powell, J
    The absorption of light by rough metal surfaces - a three-dimensional ray-tracing analysis2008In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 103, no 10, p. 103515-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The laser absorptance of rough surfaces has been investigated by using Monte Carlo simulations based on three-dimensional (3D) ray tracing. The influence of multiple scattering, shadowing, and the Fresnel-equation based angle dependence is discussed. The 3D results are compared to previously published results from a two-dimensional ray-tracing analysis and the different applications of the two models are explained.

  • 28.
    Björkqvist, Olof
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Engstrand, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Fridén, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Energiåtervinning vid LC-raffinering – Förstudie2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Normally, steam recovery from a conventional low consistency (LC) mechanical pulprefining system is not possible. This is due to the fact that the temperature level in theLC-refiner is less than 100°C. The steam with such a low temperature and associatedpressure has limited value in the mill. In this project, we study a concept of increasingthe temperature in the refiner to a level were process steam with higher quality can berecovered. The temperature level can be increased by transferring heat from outgoingpulp or drainage to incoming pulp or water. This makes it possible to recover heat fromthe process.An initial estimate indicates that steam recovery from LC-refining systems may have agood economic potential. Three cases have been analyzed: Case A: Steam recovery incombination with pulp/pulp heat exchanging, Case B: Steam recovery in combinationwith a pressurized screw press and finally Case C: steam recovery in combination withpump/water heat exchanging.Case B show the best specific steam recovery, 87% kWh recovered steam per kWh usedelectricity. This concept has a lower technological uncertainty compared to cases A andC as it does not need heat exchanging from pulp.The specific heat recovery from case A and C is 78% and 82% respectively. However,the suggested heat exchangers used in these cases do not exist on the market today.There is hence a need for development of exchangers that can handle pulp with highviscosity. The technological risk associated with the screw press scenario is lower and itis likely that this concept is easier to implement.

  • 29.
    Bobeck, Michaela
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Organic Household Waste in Developing Countries: An overview of environmental and health consequences, and appropriate decentralised technologies and strategies for sustainable management2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on environmental impacts and health hazards as a result from inadequate management of organic household waste in developing countries. It gives details of water and soil contamination, air pollution and spread of diseases through expanding breeding grounds for pathogens, vectors and rodents. To manage this waste flow sustainably, decentralised composting and anaerobic digestions technologies have been studied to give an overall picture of existing appropriate technologies, including: windrow, box/bin/barrel, THM, aerated static pile, in-vessel, vermi, ARTI compact biogas digester and BARC’S NISARG-RUNA. Comparing different technologies showed that it is crucial to consider local conditions and markets when choosing which method to implement. However, the manual composting methods: windrow/box/bin/barrel, THM and vermi, are more likely to be appropriate in regard to current conditions in developing countries. A comparison between the environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and composting did not result in a clear indication of which technology is most favourable. However, in the literature studied, biogas production showed an overall better energy balance, and composting a better result regarding nutrient recycling and xenobiotic compounds. In terms of the mitigation effect on global warming, the results varied essentially depending on the technology used and its loss of methane during the biogas production process. Finally, this paper investigates common constraints for implementation of the above-mentioned technologies, as well as recommendations for future projects. The study of general constraints revealed the need for directing attention to education, key consequences and benefits, co-operation, exchange of knowledge and bottom-up driving forces, for sustainable and successful implementation of organic household waste management practices in developing countries.

  • 30.
    Boström, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gradin, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sjuksköterskors och läkares delaktighet i kvalitetsutveckling: En fallstudie vid Karlskoga lasarett2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this master's degree thesis was to develop an understanding of how hospital management, in the case studied, worked to achieve changes in an organization influenced by differing professional cultures. To gain insight into the conditions that may have contributed to nurses and physicians developing appropriate attitudes and behaviours, which may have affected the organization's ability to achieve the Swedish Quality Award 2012.

     A qualitative single case study was conducted at Karlskoga Hospital, with focus groups as well as individual depth interviews.

     

    The results of the case study showed the following conditions provided nurses and physicians the potential to develop appropriate attitudes and behaviours, which may have influenced the hospitals ability to achieve the Swedish Quality Award:  

    • Responsibility and influence over the development processes.
    • Participation in management teams and quality development groups as well as individual fields of responsibility.
    • Training programs that have given insights and skills in quality management related to clinical practice.
    • Nurses and physicians as key individuals gave legitimacy to development process, and served as management advisors.
    • Collaboration between all kind of employees and responsibilities.
    • Committed management.    
  • 31.
    Brandén Klang, Anders
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Vikman, Per-Åke
    bThe Swedish Institute for Transport and Communications Analysis, Akademigatan 2, SE-831 25 Östersund, Sweden.
    Brattebö, Helge
    Sustainable management of combustible household waste-Expanding the integrated evaluation model2008In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 8-9, p. 1101-1111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A previously described model for the evaluation of sustainability in waste management has been expanded and applied to biodegradable and other combustible household waste. The model was applied to a case-study focusing on the special conditions in a municipality in the sparsely populated region of northern Sweden. In this region it is usual that the collection distances are long, the volume of waste is low and treatment facilities are remote. Four scenarios for the management of municipal household waste were compared: incineration, anaerobic digestion, composting and landfilling. A system analysis was performed to ensure that each scenario fulfil all the functions that the waste could provide (heat, electricity, fuel, and soil with a high nutrient content) and a sensitivity analysis was carried out to test the reliability of the results. The results show that the evaluation model can be used to assess the sustainability aspects of different treatment scenarios for combustible household waste. The model also allows for an individual interpretation of the results presented, depending on the choice of priorities. The effects of varying the time horizons and the difference in impact depending on what fuels are ultimately replaced in energy production are discussed.

  • 32.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    On the Relationship between Sustainable Health and Quality Management: Leadership and organizational behaviours from Swedish organizations2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sickness absence not only causes significant costs for organizations but also leads to other negative consequences for individuals and societies. Previous research has shown that working with organizational values within Quality Management affects job satisfaction and results in increased profitability and customer satisfaction. There would, in addition, seem to be great gains if managers, by working with Quality Management, can manage to establish sustainable health among co-workers.

     

    The purpose of the research described in this thesis was to examine how Quality Management could be practised in order to support sustainable health among co-workers and what it is within Quality Management that influences sustainable co-worker health. Accordingly, the purpose was also to contribute to the understanding of the relation between sustainable health and Quality Management. To fulfil this purpose, three research questions were asked. The results are described in three parts related to the three research questions and are the product of six case studies carried out in seven different organizations.

     

    Interviews with managers and workshops with co-workers were carried out to investigate how Quality Management can be practised within organizations in order to promote sustainable co-worker health. These investigations took place in four organizations that had received awards. Three had been awarded for their excellence in leadership, work environment and co-workership, along with improved profitability; one for its successful implementation of quality programmes. The results are descriptions of methodologies, behaviours, values and organization structure used by the organizations to support sustainable health. These are exemplified with practical examples. The methodologies, behaviours, values, and organizational structure are considered possible for other organizations to adopt and all of them are already supported in the quality, management and leadership literature. Support from the health literature is also found for most of the behaviours, methodologies, values, and organizational structure.

     

    Surveys and focus groups interviews were carried out in five different organizations in order to find out what is of most importance when practising Quality Management in order to influence sustainable co-worker health. The results pointed to ‘Leadership Commitment’ as the most central of the values for achieving sustainable health among the co-workers. Furthermore, the values ‘Continuous Improvements’, ‘Participation of Everybody’ and ‘Customer Orientation’ were found to be related to sustainable health among the co-workers. The values ‘Leadership Commitment’ and the value ‘Participation of Everybody’ were then further elaborated to find aspects of importance for sustainable co-worker health. From the value ‘Leadership Commitment’ four aspects were extracted. These were labelled ‘Empathy’, ‘Presence and Communication’, ‘Integrity’, and ‘Continuity’. The results showed relations between the value ‘Leadership Commitment’ within Quality Management and sustainable health among the co-workers. Thus it is essential for leaders to work in accordance with that value to achieve results in the work towards sustainable co-worker health. The results indicate that this requires management and leadership that are characterized by the aspects above. The leaders have to:

     

    • Really understand the co-workers and their work situation.

    • Be present and available for co-workers and communicate with them.

    • Act as a role model, be fair and keep their promises.

    • Stay in their positions long enough to build up trust and confidence.

     

    The value ‘Participation of Everybody’ has also been shown to be related to sustainable health among the co-workers. This indicates that it is important to work in accordance with that value in the struggle to achieve sustainable health among the co-workers. The results imply that this value is characterized by the aspects ‘Development’, ‘Influence’ and ‘Being informed’. This could be done by:

     

    • Giving the co-workers opportunities to develop their skills and develop personally.

    • Letting the co-workers influence their work situation and taking suggestions and proposals from them seriously.

    • Having good communication within the whole organization.

     

    To manage this; the managers have to delegate more and empower the co-workers.

     

    These results were then further elaborated within another organization in order to develop a measurement approach that can clarify the extent to which the values, ‘Leadership Commitment’ and ‘Participation of Everybody’ permeate an organization. The developed measurement approach can be used to clarify the extent to which the organization is practising the health-promoting values within Quality Management and in what areas improvement is needed to increase co-worker health. The approach can also help the organization to detect those shortcomings within the management which are important for co-worker well-being. The developed measurement approach can be used to establish and enhance co-worker health by improving their well-being, satisfaction and motivation.

  • 33.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Eriksson, Lina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    A health-related Quality Management approach to evaluating health promotion activities.2011In: QMOD Conference on Quality and Service Sciences 2011: From LearnAbility & InnovAbility to SustainAbility / [ed] Carmen Jaca, San Sebastian: Servicios de Publicaciones Universidad de Navarra , 2011, p. 188-197Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper was to describe health promotion activities accomplished within a project and to measure the conditions for sustainable health within the case organizations. The purpose was also to test a previously developed measurement approach, which measures health-related Quality Management.

     

    Methodology/ApproachA health promotion project currently being carried out at eight Swedish elementary schools has been studied. In earlier research a measurement approach had been developed to measure health-related Quality Management. The approach was handed out to the co-workers at the eight different schools in the initial stage of the project.  The result was analyzed and the leaders at the schools were informed of the results of their own school and the mean value of all the eight schools. The consistency and reliability of the statements within the approach was  tested.

     

    Findings

    In the results a description of health promotion activities accomplished and planned within the project can be found. The results from the measurement of the health-related Quality Management in the eight schools is presented together with the mean score of all schools. The test of the measurement approach is presented and discussed.

    ValueA description of health promotion activities can help managers and project leaders to plan and carry out valuable health promotion activities in their striving for both sustainable health among the co-workers and efficient organizations. This measurement approach can help managers and project leaders to measure the starting point and also the effects of the health promotion activities.

  • 34.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Eriksson, Lina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    A health-related quality management approach to evaluating health promotion activities2012In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 76-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose

    – The purpose of this paper is to describe health promotion activities accomplished within a

    project and to measure the conditions for sustainable health within the case organizations. Also, the

    purpose is to test a previously developed measurement approach, which measures health-related

    quality management.

    Design/methodology/approach

    – A health promotion project currently being carried out at eight

    Swedish elementary schools has been studied. In earlier research a measurement approach was

    developed to measure health-related quality management. The approach was handed out to the

    co-workers at the eight different schools in the initial stage of the project. The leaders at the schools

    were informed of the results of their own school and the mean value of all the eight schools. The

    consistency and reliability of the statements within the approach was tested.

    Findings

    – A description of health promotion activities accomplished and planned within the project

    can be found. The results from the measurement of the health-related quality management in the eight

    schools are presented, together with the mean score of all schools. The test of the measurement

    approach is presented and discussed.

    Originality/value

    – A description of health promotion activities can help managers and project

    leaders to plan and carry out valuable health promotion activities in their striving for both sustainable

    health among the co-workers and efficient organizations. This measurement approach can help

    managers and project leaders to measure the effects of the health promotion activities.

  • 35.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Learning from others to adapt Quality Management to the future2011In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 187-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to compare leadership behaviours from two different approaches with the leadership behaviours within Quality Management in order to find possible areas for developing leadership within Quality Management. A case study has been carried out at a Swedish award-winning organisation in order to study leadership behaviours. In-depth interviews have been carried out with the intention to explore how the manager has worked to become one of Sweden’s best workplaces. Leadership behaviours from three different approaches are summarised in ‘The Core Leadership Behaviours’. The analysis of the leadership methodologies and behaviours used by the leaders and the ‘Core Leadership Behaviours’ from the three different approaches has been summarized for each approach. The comparison indicates that there are interesting leadership behaviours in Change Oriented Leadership as well as in KaosPilots that are not established within Quality Management. The leadership behaviours could complement Quality Management to meet new and challenging demands from customers and co-workers

  • 36.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Measuring the Starting Points for a Lean Journey2012In: 15 th QMOD conference: From LearnAbility and InnovAbility to SustainAbility / [ed] Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park, Jens J. Dahlgaard & Adam Hamrol, Poznan: Agence Reklamova Comprint , 2012, p. 146-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose –

    The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of measuring the starting

    point of improvement work focusing on soft values and to present one way of measuring the

    starting point of a Lean implementation. The purpose is also to describe the Lean

    implementation planned within a municipal division and also to present their measured

    starting conditions.

    Methodology/approach –

    A literature study, with Lean implementation, measuring starting

    points for improvement work, soft values and the effects of the improvement work in focus

    has been carried out. Documents from the planned Lean implementation within a municipal

    division have been studied. To measure the conditions for the implementation a previously

    conducted measurement approach that measured health-related Quality Management was used.

    Findings –

    The paper contains an argument for the importance of measuring the effect of a

    Lean implementation with a focus on soft values and measuring starting points. A description

    of one planned Lean implementation within a municipal division and their starting conditions

    are presented.

    Practical implications –

    To measure the conditions at the starting point of a Lean

    implementation gives managers information to help them focus on important improvement

    areas. A description of a Lean implementation can help other organizations to plan their

    implementation.

  • 37.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Lagrosen, Yvonne
    Högskolan Väst.
    Are successful organizations working in a way that provides co-workers with what they need to be healthy?2010In: 14th QMOD conference on Quality and Service Sciences ICQSS 2011, Cottbus, Germany, August 29 - 31 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Larsson, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Are healthy and successful organizations working accordingly to Quality Management?2009In: International journal of workplace health management, ISSN 1753-8351, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 245-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to examine if healthy and successful organizations are working accordingly to Quality Management. The purpose is also to describe in more detail how they are working.

     

    Methodology/Approach

    Three Swedish organizations that have shown excellence in leadership, internal partnership, working environment and profitability have been examined, to find out what methodologies they have used for their success. To discover whether these healthy and successful organizations are working accordingly to Quality Management, Deming’s 14-point list has been used as an analytical tool.

     

    Findings

    Identified methodologies used by the healthy and successful organizations are described.  Viewed in the light of our analysis, a relationship between the three examined healthy and successful organizations and Quality Management is indicated.

     

    Practical implications

    Working with the methodologies described in the paper, the three organizations have improved co-worker health. Other organizations could probably adopt the identified and described methodologies to improve the health of their co-workers and effectiveness in the organization.

     

    Originality/value

    Concerning the performance evaluation and the continuous improvement component in Quality Management, substantial contributions could be made to the health area by applying the tools that the quality area have used over a considerable period to improve the quality outcomes.

    Quality and health aspects have common success factors, and a focus on high quality could be seen as positive for health outcomes.

  • 39.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Dahlén, Leon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ebrahimzadeh, Reza
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Taylor Made Titanium Insoles in Alpine Ski Boots2009In: Asia-Pasific Congress on Sports Technology, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Kuzmin, Leonid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Critical Factors Influencing Loss of Time after Shooting - A Case Study Performed During the 2008 IBU Biathlon World Championships2009In: The Impact of Technology on Sport III, 2009, p. 33-37Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The final result during a biathlon race is a composition of skiing, shooting and in some cases penalty time or rounds. One of the most decisive parts of the competition is the shooting component. The shooting component itself can be subdivided into separate parts: Actions just before shooting, the shooting itself and actions after the shooting. In the case of a slow approach to the firing line partially caused by dismounting of ski poles, time loss is tactically accepted by some skiers – heart rate decreases and a mental focus can be obtained. A slow departure from the firing line and the subsequent loss of time is on the contrary absolutely not desirable. A part of the lost time after shooting is observed to be related to mounting the ski poles. Modern ski poles can be divided into three groups of strap systems: 1. Simple loop; 2. Strap with Velcro fastener; 3. Click-in (typically Leki).

    The paper presents a case study aimed at finding how the ski pole strapping system influences time loss after shooting. The study was performed during the IBU Biathlon World Championship 2008 in Östersund, Sweden. Time measurements were made over a defined distance allowing the athletes to approach cruising speed after the last shot in a series. The measurements for each athlete have been normalized relative his/her racing performance. The results clearly indicate time differences between strap systems. In some cases the differences could mean achieving podium place or not.

  • 41.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Kuzmin, Leonid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Influencing factors on time-loss after shooting in Biathlon2011In: Moderns systems for application in Biathlon, Omck: Russian Sports Federation , 2011, p. 154-159Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Bäckstöm, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Dahlen, Leon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Essential ski characteristics for cross-country skis performance2008In: ENGINEERING OF SPORT 7, VOL 2, Paris: Springer, 2008, p. 543-549Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Winner or trail hog? Much depends on the ski characteristics. The manufacturing of skis is a complicated process involving several materials and different process steps. This gives as a result that every ski obtains unique characteristics such as span curve and bending stiffness etc. For high performance skiers as the member of the Swedish ski team the importance of equal characteristics of each ski in a pair is vital. The process of matching skis to a pair is the process of finding two individual skis with the most similar characteristics. This is traditionally done by hand with simpler equipment. Our measurement system is developed for faster and more accurate ski characteristics assessment. The characteristics do impose the overall performance of the ski. It produces the span curve with very high accuracy and gives a good representation of the pressure distribution over the full length of the ski. The measured characteristics could, in our opinion, also be used in selecting skis for different weather and track conditions. The ski measurement system has been used by the Swedish cross-country team during the last 2,5 years which have resulted in a faster and more accurate matching of skis. In collaboration with the Swedish ski team have also an investigation concerning correlation between ski characteristics and weather and track conditions has been initiated with some preliminary results already obtained.

  • 43.
    Carlborg, Jakob
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Spårbarhet och kvalitetssäkring i livsmedelsindustrin: fallstudie av Kungsörnens produktsortiment2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 44. Carle, Fredrik
    et al.
    Koptioug, Andrei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Portable rescue device and a method for locating such a device2007Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A portable rescue device and a method for locating, by means of a first rescue device set in a search mode, a second rescue device set in a distress mode. In the method, a distress signal carrying a device identification is received from said second rescue device. A first bearing and a second bearing to the second rescue device are obtained. The first and second bearings are taken from a first and a second position, respectively. A distance between these positions is determined. A current distance and a current bearing to the second rescue device are determined on basis of the first and second bearings and the distance. The current bearing and the current distance are communicated to a user of the first rescue device. The portable rescue device is used for performing the method and for that purpose it includes a first communication unit for distress signal transmission and reception; a compass; a processor; a user interface; and a mode switch for switching between a search mode and a distress signal mode. The first communication device has an antenna structure that provides directional capability.

  • 45.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Control System for Sustainable Development2008In: Computing Anticipatory Systems / [ed] Dubois, DM, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2008, p. 187-194Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological sustainability presupposes that a global human population acts in such ways, that their total impact on the biosphere, together with nature's reactions, keeps the biosphere sufficient for sustaining generations to come. Human conduct is ultimately controlled by means of law. The problem can be summed up as:

    Controlling system - Population - Sustainable ecosystems

    This paper discusses two interlinked issues: a) the social scientific need for systems theory in the context of achieving and maintaining sustainable development and b) how theory of anticipatory modelling and computing can be applied when constructing and applying societal controlling systems for ecological sustainability with as much local democracy and economic efficiency as possible.

  • 46.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Do not Miss the Forest for all the Trees2010In: Nordisk miljörättslig tidskrift, ISSN 2000-4273, E-ISSN 2000-4273, Vol. 2010, no 1, p. 69-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1960s environmental issues became analysed ina global context. 1992 sustainable development wasmade the overall policy. 2010 the biosphere is in a worsestate than in the 1960s, and the world human populationis higher than ever. For sustainability, human behaviourmust be kept within biospherical carrying capacity. Thispresents enormous social and human scientific challenges.However, main social scientific schools generallyoverlook what basically makes democratic systems tick,namely Rule of Law. Most social scientific input hasbeen hampered by pre-environmental sectoral paradigmsmissing the holistic prerequisites. Modernenvironmental law methodology has on the other handanalysed old law and developed theory for sustainablelaw capable of i.a. handling non-linearity, complexityand what makes societies tick – Rule of Law. Thanksto this, some of what other social sciences have broughtforward can be reinterpreted for inclusion in an adequatesustainability theory, while much of the rest canbe explained as ineffective.This paper brings this into broader environmentalscience. It will (1) rely upon the still degrading biosphereand that no country has so far established effectivecontrol for sustainability; (2) explain why such controlcannot be achieved in a democracy without recognisingthe Rule of Law and adapting the law to sustainability;(3) explain why mainstream social and human sciencesyet have not contributed more effectively; (4) presenta fundamental theoretical holistic structure essentialfor social environmental science, and (5) based on thisdemonstrate why it is impossible to solve the globalunsustainability problems without full understandingof the Rule of Law.

  • 47.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Positioning environmental science versus natural, social and human sciences – sustainably2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Jóhannsdóttir, Aðalheiður
    Faculty of Law, University of Iceland.
    Ecological Limits v. Economic Growth: The Role of Law and Legal Theory for the Need of Future Generations2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Carlsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Numeric Simulation of Cross Country Skiing2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Carlsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Numerical Simulation of Cross Country Skiing2011In: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 1025-5842, E-ISSN 1476-8259, ISSN 1025-5842, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 741-746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A program for numerical simulation of a whole ski race, from start to finish, is developed in MATLAB. The track ismodelled by a set of cubical splines in two dimensions and can be used to simulate a track in a closed loop or with the startand finish at different locations. The forces considered in the simulations are gravitational force, normal force between snowand skis, drag force from the wind, frictional force between snow and ski and driving force from the skier. The differentialequations of motion are solved from start to finish with the Runge–Kutta method. Different wind situations during the racecan be modelled, as well as different glide conditions on different parts of the track. It is also possible to vary the availablepower during the race. The simulation program’s output is the total time of the race, together with the forces and speedduring different parts of the race and intermediate times at selected points. Some preliminary simulations are also presented.

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