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  • 1.
    Abedi, Shiva Masoumeh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Considering a sustainable approach tonitrogen removal of waste waterin south-west Iran2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pollution of the drinking water environment has long been thought to be a primary cause of diseases. According to environmental research, there is a global water quality crisis. From an environmental stand point, eutrophication or accumulation of nitrates in wastewater are expected to cause high ammonium, low pH and increased nitrate concentrations [Koren et al. 2000] which are a critical form of nitrogen that needs our attention. This study considers the case of eutrophication in south-west Iran. This region is located in the Khuzestan province and consists of two basins (Karun and Dez) which can be seen as susceptible to the effect of eutrophication. This paper analyses the environmental pollution impact, economic, and social approaches of two waste water treatment plants. The case study focuses on a waste water treatment plant operated by activated sludge in Iran and the reference study is technology combined Sharon-Anammox treatment in Netherlands. The environmental impact assessment of these Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) has been analyzed by a Triple Bottom Line method. The hypothesis is to prove a general and specific outlook of the lowest environmental emissions, the lowest costs and creation of better welfare. The other method applied in this study is the barriers of transferring technology. The results show that the combined Sharon-Anammox method is able to significantly reduce the environmental impact based on the methods applied in this study.In this study, the generally considered barriers are problems of methods of transferring combined Sharon-Anammox technology to Iran and the possible obstacles that may be encountered in the transfer of technology to Iran. The result of this study is estimated with respect to an evaluation of political, environmental, economic, social, and technological capacity. The result is that most potential problems are political and economic in nature, which may be because these two issues are so closely related to each other. In this case, lack of management is a problem in the institution of policy, and could affect the economic situation. In fact each of the barriers could be overlapped and affect each other. Regarding all barriers and problems that are in the process of transferring technology, Iran as a developing country would be able to receive technologies.

  • 2.
    Adolfsson, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Diverting human urine from outhouses into agriculture in Nicaragua: for sanitation, fertilizer and recycling purposes2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human urine is a   valuable resource which has good potential to be used as a fertilizer all   over the world. In the developing countries sanitation and food security are   both issues that need urgent attention.    A urine separation toilet can be constructed with minimal investment   in the Nicaraguan context, and the usage of the urine as a fertilizer can   help establish higher yields and is a good alternative to chemical   fertilizers. This field experiment is trying this in practice in the context   of rural Nicaragua, to determine the effect of urine on two plants on. For   this study, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and the Chaya (Cnidoscolus   aconitifolius) was selected and the results confirm that urine has potential   as a fertilizer in the Nicaragua context. The common bean yield was twice as   large after urine fertilization and the Chaya reacted positively to urine   fertilization. For urine separation purposes, two different separators were   constructed on the site to showcase the benefits with separating the urine   from the faeces, creating lower latrine volume and better sanitation in the   outhouse. The risks associated with human urine are low if the urine is   separated securely to avoid crosscontamination from faeces. If a   safety-barrier system is adopted, the overall risks with using urine as a   fertilizer are negligible. The spreading potential of urine separation and   fertilization in rural Nicaragua is high, but more experiments and   demonstrations are needed to reach adopters of the technology.  

  • 3.
    Alfred, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Byggstenar för en hållbar by: En fallstudie på föreningen Permakultur Stjärnsund2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many definitions and thoughts around the idea of sustainability but a main theme for most of the modern and accepted approaches is the idea that the nature provides the frame for mankinds social and economic development. Still it is not clear how a sustainable life within this frame should be lived practically. The aim of this study is therefore to contribute to the understanding of how sustainable lifestyles should be promoted. To do that, this report searches for buildingblocks to create sustainable villages.

    The study has focused its work around a case study on the organisation Permakultur Stjärnsund, an organisation that has gotten attention for their alternative lifestyle. The case study was carried out with the help of four interviews from members of the organisation. To support the case study, earlier studies of sustainable villages was used. In addition, a framework of approaches to the concept sustainability was added.

    The conclusion of this study is that sustainable villages value a life closer to nature and social community higher than consuming goods and the ownership of things. Anti-consuming thoughts is the antipole to what people in the villages want to achieve. This is supported in part, even if it is in a less direct way, by the selected approaches to sustainability. They suggest a thoughtful usage of natural resources. The social community is the most important part of village life. Without a strong community and reciprocity the life within natures framework cannot even begin. This priority is in contrary to what the approaches suggest, where nature provides the base for the social. Both on village level and among the approaches there is an evident rule implying that the ecosystem provides the frame for our living-conditions. This is the most apparent similarity between the two groups. Mostly, though, there are not that many clear similarities. There is a form of dissidence between the approaches and the villages. There is simply a lack of understanding. There is a need for better communication between the practical and the governmental way of doing things.

  • 4.
    Ali, kathem Hassan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Associated Petroleum Gas management in the south of Iraq2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is considered as the second largest oil producer in organization of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC) with oil production average of 3.2 MMbbl/day. Iraq has very ambitious plans to increase oil production in the coming few years, which means rapid increase of the associated petroleum gas (APG) which has dissolve form in crude oil and consider as a common by-product with crude oil extraction.

    This study aims to give more understanding about APG management in the south of Iraq and highlight the most important reasons standing behind utilize failure of a huge amount of APG instead of flare it and what the consequences of flare option in the environmental, economic and political perspectives.

    Natural gas featuring as a cleanest fossil fuel with less emission comparing with other types of fossil fuels. In addition, natural gas is considered as an important source for thermal, electrical and mechanical energy and can be used in very wide branches such as transport, industry, electricity and in the housing sector. Furthermore, it is considered as a raw material for petrochemical, fertilizer industries and for the productions of pesticides.

    In this study, APG flaring from economic and environmental perspectives were studied. This study has produced three different scenarios for the future gas production. Three different scenarios were studied (business as usual (BAU), new processing facilities (NPF) and gas to grid (GTG)). BAU scenario depends on rehabilitate the entire infrastructures which are old, unsufficient and it is platform capacity is very small to capture and process a huge amount of APG which expected to be produced in the coming years. NPF means build new capturing and processing facilities to treat the total expected amount of APG and the GTG scenario depend on the same assumptions of the second scenario but, all the produced dry gas will destined to the power plant to produce electricity.

    Most promising results (economic and environment results) gained by adapting GTG scenario. These results, however, might explain and justify the economic investment that should be used in the Iraqi gas industry will give more revenue, improve Iraqis people life conditions and reduce the global environmental degradation.

    As a result of that the imported gas, electricity and natural gas liquids (NGL) will be stopped after three to five years. So it is recommended that the produced dry gas should utilize in the power plant as a feedstock instead of crude oil and diesel and after the increasing of provide dry gas can Iraq stop import gas and electricity as well.

    More involved by adopting gas to grid scenario because the produced dry gas used as feedstock in the power generations to cover the domestic and industry demand for electricity. More investment needs to apply this scenario but also more benefit will be gain due to replacing oil and diesel which are currently used in the power plants by using natural gas.

    Iraq has to take rapid steps toward changing all the existing fuel fire generators to cover the shortage of electricity supply and guaranteed the domestic and the industrial sectors of stable providing of electricity. Iraq is facing a real problem at the moment because of the burning of Iraqi gas, which causes to accumulate of 20 million tons per year of carbon dioxide emissions, the equivalent of three million tailpipe emissions car.

    Accompanied with the increasing in crude oil production during the past few years an increase in the production of APG, which means an increase in the quantities of burned gas and that needs to evolution of energy installations of gas collection and treatment in the same period. In addition, increase the quantities of liquid petroleum gas and light naphtha for domestic demand, will be an urgent need for the establishment of appropriate facilities for the storage and export in the south harbors to export the surplus for the local need.

    The implementation of these scenarios beginning in 2015 requires speeding up the construction of the assembly plants, pressure, treatment and the related infrastructures at the level of the oil fields production. The construction of the necessary pipelines infrastructure needs to connect the centers of demand treatment plants, power plants and the oil wells. It is also required to raise the capacity of the gas filling facilities near centers of domestic consumption.

    Preparation of technical plans for the gas system, gas industries, electricity generation and all the investment possibilities will be very important and it should be ready by 2015 to exploit the total gas production in Iraq and its treatment, so that it becomes available to transfer it to the local and international markets. At that point, gas flaring may reach to the lowest level, and then will meet all the requirements of the local gas demand, local electricity demand and contributing with international efforts to protect the global environment.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Andreas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering. Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Falck, E.
    Univ Ctr Svalbard, Dept Arctic Geophys, Longyearbyen, Norway.
    Sjöblom, A.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Uppsala; Univ Ctr Svalbard, Longyearbyen, Norway.
    Kljun, N.
    Swansea Univ, Swansea, Wales.
    Sahlee, E.
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala.
    Omar, A. M.
    Bjerknes Ctr Climate Res, Bergen, Norway.
    Rutgersson, A.
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala.
    Air-sea gas transfer in high Arctic fjords2017In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 2519-2526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Arctic fjords and high-latitude seas, strong surface cooling dominates during a large part of the year, generating water-side convection (w(*w)) and enhanced turbulence in the water. These regions are key areas for the global carbon cycle; thus, a correct description of their air-sea gas exchange is crucial. CO2 data were measured via the eddy covariance technique in marine Arctic conditions and reveal that water-side convection has a major impact on the gas transfer velocity. This is observed even at wind speeds as high as 9ms(-1), where convective motions are generally thought to be suppressed by wind-driven turbulence. The enhanced air-sea transfer of CO2 caused by water-side convection nearly doubled the CO2 uptake; after scaled to open-sea conditions the contribution from w(*w) to the CO2 flux remained as high as 34%. This phenomenon is expected to be highly important for the total carbon uptake in marine Arctic areas.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Sebastian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Varmformade eller kallformade konstruktionsrör ur ett lönsamhetsperspektiv: Undersökning av ekonomisk differens i valet mellan VKR och KKR2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, hot formed rectangular hollow sections (HFRHS) can be 15-23 % more expensive than cold formed rectangular hollow sections (CFRHS) of the same section size. Although the price on CFRHS is lower, estimations reveals that   - from the total use of HFRHS and CFRHS in Swedish steel buildings - CFRHS is only utilized by less than 5 % compared to 95 % HFRHS. This study began by examining the differences between these two types of steel. The price difference between the two processed metal types was then calculated when both of them were subjected to a centric compressive force under the same conditions. The purpose was to compare prices and find out which one is the most economically feasible, offering a more profitable choice between HFRHS or CFRHS.

    The design buckling resistance of all the section sizes in Tibnor kon­­struktions­tabeller was calculated for every possible combination out of ten different lengths between 1 m and 10 m, ten different loadings between 100 kN and 1000 kN and two different support conditions being pinned at both ends and fixed at both ends. The sections sizes of CFRHS and HFRHS that withstood the loading and held the lowest prices were compared by calculating the price difference as per­centage increment or decrement between the two types of hollow sections.

    In 80 % of the cases, when pinned at both ends, CFRHS showed to be the most economically feasible alternative. When fixed at both ends the same number was 86 %. The average price difference was 10-11 %, showing an absolute deviation of approximately 8‑12 %.

    These findings conclude that using only CFRHS can result in savings of 10‑11 % from reduced costs of steel, compared to only using HFRHS. From the observed variation of the price differences another conclusion is drawn that there aren’t any tendencies showing HFRHS or CFRHS to be more economically feasible than the other in a specific interval of length or loading.

    The recommendation is to optimize and use the type of steel that is the most economically feasible under the current circumstances. If an optimization isn’t possible then the recommendation is to use CFRHS.

  • 7.
    ARTHUR, FRANK
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    CARBONDIOXIDE FLUXES FROM A CONTROLLED BOREAL RIVER2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    River, lakes and   streams account for more carbon dioxide emissions than all other freshwater   reservoirs together. However, there is still lack of knowledge of the   physical processes that control the efficiency of the air-water exchange of   CO2 in these aquatic systems. In the more turbulent water sections   of a river, the gas transfer is thought to be governed by the river’s   morphology such as bottom topography, slope and stream flow. Whiles for wider   sections of the river, the gas transfer could potentially be influenced by   atmospheric forcing (e.g. Wind speed). The main purpose of this project is to   study the fluxes of carbon dioxide and how (wind speed and stream discharge)   influence the CO2 fluxes in the river. In this study, direct and   continuous measurements of CO2 emission was conducted for the   first time in a controlled boreal river in Kattstrupeforsen (Sweden) from   18th April to 10th May 2018. A unique measurement setup which combines eddy   covariance techniques, general meteorology and in situ water variables (for   high accuracy emission measurements) was used. The results show that   in the late winter, an   upward directed CO2 fluxes measured in the river was approximately   2.2 μmol m−2 s−1. This value agrees with many other small and   large rivers where CO2 fluxes has been studied. The river can be   said to serve as source of CO2 to the atmosphere in the day due to   the dominant upward fluxes recorded during the daytime. The results also show   that carbon dioxide fluxes increase with increasing wind speed notably at   wind speed above 2 m s-1. There   was no relation between CO2 fluxes and stream discharge. This   indicates that wind speed could be one principal factor for air- river gas   exchange. The findings in this work on river gas exchange will provide   a basis for a regional estimate and be applicable for many river systems on a   global scale.

     

  • 8.
    askelund, sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Problems and improvements in reindeer’s habitat2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9.
    Augustsson, Olof
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Svenska Turistföreningens fjällstugor - Uppvärmning, ventilation och elförsörjning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    STF is constructing a single-storey house. The house is 279 m2, of which about a third arecommon areas with kitchen, living room, toilet, hygiene and drying room. It’s planned to be 10bedrooms with 24 beds. The assignment is to examine whether it is possible to meet up with thedemands of the indoor climate in terms of heating, ventilation and electricity needs where thepossibility of external power is not available. The report also present calculations and informationthat highlights the possible energy saving measures and their effect on energy consumption. Thisis to provide a basis for planning the first Stensdal cottage but also other structures ininaccessible environment where external power is not available. The research question in thisreport is: How can a house in the isolated mountains meet the requirements for heating andventilation and to what extent can the local electricity needs met up by solar and wind energy?The work is structured as a problem-solving case study with exploratory and descriptive design.The results section is divided into two parts. The first estimated the energy loss of the buildingbased on insulation, heating and ventilation systems. The second part studied differentpossibilities in order to ensure energy consumption by using solar cells, wind, wood andgenerator. When comparing the FTX and exhaust air ventilation the total heat loss is about onethirdlower with FTX ventilation. The design heat loss becomes more than a third lower for asystem with FTX ventilation. From the analysis of energy consumption, one can estimate thetotal power consumption of 184-325 W. When calculating on energy production a power of 350W was used to meet the need by some margin. In the calculation of one of the two methods ofcalculation used in this report requires 564 m2 of solar panels to meet demand year round withjust solar cells. To meet the demand from March to September requires 25m2 solar cells. Thesecond method of calculation gives that it is impossible to cover all needs without any kind ofbackup power, at the same time this calculation method does not require the same amount ofsolar cells but requires that you install batteries. There is much uncertainty in how the windconditions are at the site. Therefore, it has not been possible to explore the potential for windpower generation. It is possible to meet the electricity demand caused by heating and ventilationsystems, with most of photovoltaic energy. This is particularly true for the open period from lateFebruary to late September. It is impossible to guarantee a 100 per cent access to electricity foroperating systems without using any kind of backup system. If the system is in operation all yearround it may require up to ten times as great facility of solar cells while demands for energysupplied from the backup system increases.

  • 10.
    Axellie, Rebecka
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Skogens sociala värden: Går det att sätta en prislapp på skogens sociala värden?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med denna undersökning har varit att besvara frågan om det går att sätta en prislapp på skogens sociala värden och att testa några av de vanligaste metoderna som används till ekonomisk värdering i dagsläget. Undersökningen har genomförts med hjälp av fyra olika metoder; travel cost method (TCM), contingent valuation method (CVM) och genom att undersöka hur skogsägare och länsstyrelsen har värderat området i fråga.

    Uppsatsen är en fallstudie av ett skogsområde i Rättvik och en enkät med 50 svarande har används för att testa de olika metoderna. Det empiriska materialet har analyserats och resultaten har använts för att fördjupa förståelsen av hur de olika metoderna i studien beskriver sociala värden hos fallstudieskogen.

    Resultatet av metoderna ger värden som varierar inom ett stort spann och de metoderna för sociala värdena ger ett avsevärt högre värde än de metoder som baseras på materiella värden – så som mark och virke. En möjlighet är att använda metoderna parallellt med varandra, för att inte mista värdet av varken det ena eller det andra, dvs. inkludera både transportkostnader (som idag faktiskt redan betalas) och det personliga mervärdet (som idag upplevs men inte kräver monetär motprestation av den som har upplevelsen). 

    Variationen i svaren som framkommit i resultatet, visar att det behövs större antal enkäter för att undvika differenser. Det är svårt att säga hur väl metoderna fungerar för att värdesätta skogens sociala värden i och med underlaget som resultatet är baserat på. Det går ändå att fastställa att ju större mängd svarande överlag till metoderna och om respondenterna kan ge mer precisa svar till TCM, desto säkrare och mer tillförlitliga blir svaren.

  • 11.
    Axelsson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    BIM: Förvaltning, inventering och användningsområden2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Building Information Modeling, BIM is a complex idea which has varying meaning depending on where in the building process it is used. There is no simple definition of how the working with BIM is applied and consists of many areas of activity.  

     

    This report is based upon the study of available literature and interview questions, which both have set the ground for the result and conclusions presented. These have aimed to investigate how digital information processing can be applied in the facility management for a building and furthermore, how inventory of an already built building can be improved by today’s technology.  By studying what´s already have been written on the subject and contacting people who works in the building consulting business or building facility management, a combination of available techniques is presented. The bottom-line is that BIM (Building Information Modeling) is a modern working method which can be used by all disciplines for applying information to a project, and which also can be used progressively into production, facility management, rebuilding and renovation, and finally deconstruction.

     

    Inventorying of an old building which lacks data can be recreated by the use of laser scanner technique and gives a reliable collection of data, which afterwards is processed in a CAD program. Studies have been made in order to find a way for localizing inbuilt material without making any permanent damage to the building construction.

     

  • 12.
    Bakhtiari, Babak
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    The Challenges of Feed-in Tariff Law as a Policy Instrument to Promote Wind Power in Iran2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13.
    Bakhtiari, Babak
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    The Challenges of Feed-in Tariff Law as a Policy Instrument to Promote Wind Power in Iran2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was carried out with the aim of finding out the challenges towards Feed-in Tariff law instrument in order to promote renewable energy in Iran. The targets of the study were chosen among authorities and investors in the field of wind energy. Wind power was selected as the case study because of its more popularity among investors. Qualitative research design was used to conduct the study and semi-structured interviews served as the method. Although there were a few studies done with the focus on renewable energy challenges in Iran, however, none of them focused on the challenges through Feed-in Tariff law. The results show that the law's long administrative process, lack of communication between authorities and investors, and rather low remuneration rate are the barriers to promote renewable energy in Iran. Furthermore, lack of financial assistance and imposed political and economical sanctions against Iran play an important role in this regard.

  • 14.
    Bakker, Emily
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway.
    Engan, Harald
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Patrician, Alexander
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Karlsen, Trine
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway.
    Wisloff, Ulrik
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway.
    Gaustad, Svein Erik
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway.
    Effects Of Dietary Nitrate Supplementation On Endothelial Function At High Altitude2014In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 424-424Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Barthelson, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Linking ecological and economical progress at micro level by Nature-Economy (SDR) model.2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Barthelson, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Myringer, Brittmarie
    Lindberg, J Ola
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Experiences on blended learning as an approach in higher education2013In: EDEN 2013 Annual Conference. The joy of learning. Enhancing learning experience. Improving learning quality., 2013, p. 99-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Bergkvist, Lisa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Jonsson, Elisie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Haller, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    CARBON SEQUESTRATION POTENTIALOF AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMSFOR PHYTOREMEDIATION IN CHINANDEGA, NICARAGUA2018In: The Eleventh International Conference on the Establishment of Cooperation between Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region,and the World, Kalmar, November 19-21, 2018: Proceedings of the Linnaeus Eco-Tech 2018 international conference on natural sciences and technologies for waste and wastewater treatment remediation emissions related to climate environmental and economic effects / [ed] William Hogland, 2018, p. 211-211Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have increased to earlier unrecorded levels, causing global climate change that increases GMT and threaten ecosystems and livelihoods. IPCC report suggest that agroforestry offers considerable carbon sequestration (c seq.) potential, especially for developing countries. The purpose of this study is to estimate the c seq. potential in different agroforestry systems suitable in Chinandega, Nicaragua - a deforested region where the ground is polluted by toxaphene and other POP:s. Three scenarios where studied; Shading system using Tectona grandis and Pogostemon cablin; Alley cropping using Erythrina poeppigiana and Ricinus communis and Silvopasture using Cordia alliodora and Brachiaria ruziziensis, the last scenario being divided into two subscenarios; unmanaged (grazed) and managed (harvested) grass. Calculations were performed using the modelling program CO2FIX v. 3.2, with a runtime of 100 years and assuming deforested area with no previous land use. Results show a significantly higher c seq. potential in Shading system (168/217 MgC/ha). Alley cropping yields 71 MgC/ha and Silvopasture results in 80/84 MgC/ha unmanaged and 65/70 MgC/ha managed. The higher number includes products from harvest. All scenarios show fluctuations over time due to thinning and harvesting practices. Phytoremediation potential of POPs has been shown in Ricinus communis and grass species. Soil c seq. is especially important to consider in longterm scenarios as this c seq. can be sustained over longer time. The inclusion of crop residue, the effect of grazing animals or changes in density of trees and crops and environmental fate of the toxic compounds need further assessment before considering large scale applications. Agroforestry practices could contribute to several benefits, including climate change mitigation and phytoremediation.

  • 18.
    Bergwall, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Lönsamhetsanalys för nybyggnad i passivhusutförande2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Östersund fire department is in need of a building where firemen and firewomen can gear and clothing after an exercise. Energy prices are expected torise, and with new technology and knowledge it is possible to build energy-efficient houses. The report therefore examines whether it would beeconomically viable for Östersund fire department to construct the building inpassive house design with respect to the costs during a 20 year period. Theconstruction proposed by Moelven has therefore been set against a revisedmodel with a passive customized envelope. Only walls, roofs, floors (slab),windows and doors have been replaced. Otherwise, the buildings are equal.Energy demand (kWh / m 2 per year) and the construction cost has beencalculated for both models, and set against each other in a 20 years perspective.For the energy calculations, some standard values and simplifications havebeen used when data has been difficult to access or does not exist. Whencalculating the total price for the two buildings the construction cost programBidcon was used. The finished structural members adapted to conform to thebuilding components carrying the energy calculation.The results showed that passive house has about halved the energy demandfor heating against Moelven's proposal. The estimated cost of the twobuildings did not differ so much, and the only reason that passive housingbecame more expensive, its greater area (because of its thick walls). Unit Hourson building parts in Bidcon deemed to disadvantage Moelven's proposals andpassive model should be more expensive than the calculated price.It should therefore be in Östersund fire department interest to construct thebuilding with a performance more like a passive house model, however a moreaccurate calculation should be made.

  • 19. Björkhagen, M
    et al.
    Björkhagen, A
    Engan, Harald
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Role of group dynamics and leadership in the development of acute mountain sickness2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Blomberg, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Hållbart lärande i Varbergs kommun2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The aim of this study is to investigate how the teaching of sustainable development looks for five primary schools in the municipality of Varberg. Hopefully, the study’s findings will help primary schools to revise their teaching regarding sustainable development and contribute to a brighter future.

    Method - The current study is based on a qualitative approach, based on semi-structured interviews with seven teachers at five public primary schools in the municipality of Varberg. The interviews consisted of eight questions, which the author has assumed from the review of the curriculum and the current teaching practices on sustainable development.

    Results – Teachers for the study expresses lack of skills, time and support from Skolverket and the municipality of Varberg in their teaching regarding work of sustainable development. Based on the collected interviews, it was found that education for sustainable development is done mainly through environmental education, especially at younger ages. There, the focus is on learning about the local environment, material properties and change and recycling.

    Conclusion - The author can conclude that teachers need more resources for to be able to follow the curriculum's sustainable development objectives. It is not enough that teachers perform their intended hours with given textbooks to reach the objectives of the curriculum. In order to achieve sustainable development goals, teachers must find their own material that inspires students and meet the proficiency requirements that are currently bearing in learning.

  • 21.
    Bodin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energisparande åtgärder för en villa från 1960-talet2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to increase knowledge about reducing heating costs for an existing house from the 1960s. It also aims to highlight some possible measures that reduce energy use and to examine whether these measures are economically justified. To answer the research questions have literary studies conducted and information about the house were taken from drawings and technical specifications. Different types of calculations have been performed to calculate the building's energy needs. Measures that are calculated is reduction of indoor temperatures, switch to new windows and doors and isolation on the attic. By lowering the temperature in the house from 20°C to 19°C gives an annual saving of 5,3 %, which corresponds to SEK 1072. Switch windows is a major investment and it is not profitable to switch windows if need not exist. The most viable option for the house is to switch to 3-glass windows with U-value 1,1 and doors with U-value 1,0 that contribute to a savings of the annual cost of heating with SEK 4390. The repayment period is 34 years. The most cost-effective measure is to add isolation in the attic floor. Additional isolation with 25 cm creates a saving in heating costs by SEK 1254 per year and a repayment period of 12 and a half years. Implementing energy efficiency measures often involves an investment cost. However, it is not always the investment costs in energy efficiency measures that will be in focus, but the future savings of energy.

  • 22.
    Bois, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Miljömärkning av små logiverksamheter: Varför och varför inte?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The tourism industry is growing which means an increased impact on the environment and an increased resource use. At the same time a healthy environment is of significant importance for many operators within the tourism industry. Many lodging operations want to put on display that they are responsible and that they are doing improvements to decrease their environmental impact. A number of ecolabels are available to help them do so.

    The purpose of this study is to learn the motives behind why small lodging operations in Sweden choose to put an ecolabel on their companies, or the motives behind why they choose not to. The study also includes research about what ecolabel opportunities small lodging operations in Sweden have and what they mean.

    The study is based on qualitative research interviews and literature studies. The respondents are six small lodging operations. One Bed & Breakfast, two hotels, one hostel and two guesthouses. Three of the companies are ecolabelled, the other three are not. Ecolabels that are focused on in the study are Svanen (Nordic Ecolabel), Green Key, EU-blomman (EU Eco label) and Naturens Bästa (Nature's Best).

    The study shows that an ecolabel works as both a marketing tool and an environmental management system for lodging operations. The study also indicates that reasons to get an ecolabel are marketing gains, better track of the environmental work, new ideas and personal commitment.

    Motives behind not putting an ecolabel on the lodging operation have in the study shown to be the cost, expenditure of time and unawareness of the ecolabel opportunities. It has also been mentioned that the ecolabels are not always suitable for the smaller lodging operations.

    The respondents considers that an ecolabel has meant or would mean a small or no decrease of the environmental impact of their lodging operation.

    No conclusion has been reached regarding ecolabels effect on lodging operations' environmental impact.

  • 23.
    Boltemo Edholm, Jenny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Samband mellan ekosystemtjänster - Synliggörande av påverkan från gruvverksamheten i Mertainen.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are several perspectives of the environmental impacts of mining in Mertainen, this study is an attempt to assess the impact on ecosystem services.

    An identification and valuation of ecosystem services can highlight the value of the ecosystem services affected by operations, and how they in turn drive a further impact on other ecosystem services.

    In order to reach a methodical identification and valuation of ecosystem services the Environmental Protection Agency's Guide for valuation of ecosystem services, was used where both quantitative and qualitative valuation was conducted.

    The identification showed connections between ecosystem services, which compiled visualized feedback loops. The result shows both how the ecosystem services can influence each other, and that consideration needs to be taken regarding possible threats to ecosystem services on a local, regional and global level.

    Although more studies are necessary for higher certainty in the results, the identification and valuation of ecosystem services contribute to a systemic perspective of the impacts on the ecosystem..

  • 24.
    Borgh, Christoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Kostnadsjämförelse av stomsystem: Beroende av spännvidder och materialval2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It built a lot in Sweden today with pillar- beam structures where large open spaces are in demand, this requires large spans of the materials used to handle the forces that affect the building. The most common materials today are glulam or steel or a combination of these, where the different material properties are combine to achieve the most advantageous properties for the structure. In this thesis, the cost of steel beams and glulam beams between 2-24 meters developed and studied to make a cost estimate of which material is the most cost-effective at each span. The calculations were performed at three different locations in Sweden, Kiruna, Östersund and Stockholm, where the beams were calculated as part of the roof construction with spans of 10-24 meters. Calculations were also performed as floorbeams with spans between 2-10 meters where the beams are subjected to three different useful loads to see if any price difference occurred between the materials. Of the results that occurred in the measurements of the study showed that glulam beams was the most cost-effective in approximately 57%, independent of an abbreviation or increase of the girder spans of the ration ranges from 2-24 meters. The different geographical locations in the country affected the beams through an increased or decreased cross-section of both materials which meant that the price difference between the beams remained around 57% there glulam beams where the more economical choice. Which leads to the conclusion that the glulam beams between the intervals 2-24 meters is the most cost-effective choice of material for beams in a pillar- beam frame compared to steel beams. The influence of loads or geographic location does not contribute to an economic change in material choice, but it contributes solely to the increase or decrease of the structural cross-section with increasing or decreasing load

  • 25.
    Brandén, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Ombyggnad av liggtimmerstomme: Aktionsstudie av ombyggnad av ladugården på Nygården, Vemdalens Kyrkby 4:5.2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The need to use old outbuildings in its original use has decreased. The old houses, however, has qualities that are worthy of protection which should be borne in mind before they are teared down.

    This report is an action study of the barn on Nygården, Vemdalens Kyrkby 4; 5th. The project building is a lug building from the mid-1800s, currently used as garage and storage. The owners of the estate intend to tear down the barn to make space for a new guest house. The report treats the possibility to maintain the barn and rebuild it into a modern residence, within the framework of building preservation. The report examines benefits with rebuilding the barn instead of tearing it down and new produce.

    Different research methods are used. A visual inspection of the building is done in cooperation with a lug carpenter who gives his opinion on structural conditions. Based on the inspection, an interview with another carpenter and literature studies a proposal on measures, within the framework of building preservation, is presented. Profitability in terms of economy, ecology and quality is discussed and compared with demolition and new production.

    The conclusion is that the project building is suitable for renovation due to good quality, good condition and it has a construction suitable for change. The measures of change are relatively simple but time consuming. Qualitative, economic and ecological benefits to be find is among other thermal inertia, material consuming savings and reduction of waste.

  • 26.
    Brink, Rasmus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Effektivisering av dimensioneringsprocessen i FEM-design för pelardäck.: En jämförelse av stödarmering2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the design work today, the use of calculation programs is obvious. There are a variety of

    programs based on different theories. One type of these programs are the FEM programs based

    on the finite element method which is an elasticity theory method. Because the FEM programs

    can handle complicated constructions, they are widely used. FEM is based on the elasticity

    theory and regular calculations on plastic theory, it is important to be aware of the differences

    that may arise between the different theories. It has been demonstrated before that FEM designs

    more reinforcement in concrete slabs in several cases compared to plastic theory. The problem

    is largely due to point supports for example columns. The study compares flat slab that are

    designed directly with FEM designs automatic design function against dimensioning using a

    developed method picked from existing literature, the comparison also includes a Eurocode 2

    flat slab example. This creates a method that will streamline the support momentum in flat

    slabs. But also create an understanding of how similar problems in similar constructions can be

    solved. The method manages how to redistribute torques and the areas in which it will be

    redistributed. To verify the method, the comparison of the flat slab construction is done. The

    result is clear and demonstrates a clear efficiency towards the program's own dimensioning

    function. The developed method also proves more effective compared to Eurocod's own

    dimensioning example.

  • 27.
    Bujtar, Peter
    et al.
    Southern General Hospital, Glasgow.
    Simonovics, Janos
    Southern General Hospital, Glasgow.
    Koptyug, Andrey
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    George, Sandor
    Southern General Hospital, Glasgow.
    Varadi, Karoly
    Southern General Hospital, Glasgow.
    Emerging manufacturing bioengineering technologies 2: Scaffold designing experiment using titanium scaffolds2014In: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, ISSN 0266-4356, E-ISSN 1532-1940, Vol. 52, no 8, p. e60-e61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Substantial volume defects of the head and neck oftenrequire customized solutions to improve quality of life likefree flap transfers.Titanium and its alloys are versatile materialsproviding the feature of osteointegration. The conditionswhich facilitate the deposition of lamellar bone are underextensive research. Our project aimed to determine whethertitanium can function as a scaffold - unlike simple plates - toenhance bone regeneration for load bearing structures. Thereaction of stem cells to scaffolds with varying stiffness willbe presented.Additive manufacturing were used to produce a variety ofscaffolds to optimize titanium structures. Electric beam melting(EBM) manufacturing allowed us to optimize the elasticmodulus (Young) of the titanium to match with cadaveric 

    bone from a previous project. Multidirectional mechanicaltests were performed on the various designs of titanium cellstructures (n=80). The predictability and quality of manufacturingwas assessed statistically and also with scanningelectron microscope (SEM).The results demonstrated structures matching the mechanicalproperties of bone and even anisotropy as our resultssuggest 3GPa elasticity. This allows the possibility to buildregenerating bone with predictable properties. In addition,predictable patterning - unlike etching and sandblasting - ofmicroscopic (nano) features found to be significant and nonhomogenous simple repetitive patterns provide better cellularresponse.The benefit that tissue engineering techniques offer isdecreased morbidity, relative independence from donor site,with a highly specific and customized shape. Titanium basedreconstruction constructs seems to offer an alternative futurefor bony reconstruction.

  • 28.
    Burger, Marcel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Gröna tak, för- och nackdelar i relation till styrning2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Green roofs are an alternative way to cover roofs. Their application has started to rise in Sweden, mainly in the south though, in the last 15 years.

     

    There are three different kinds of green roof: intensive, extensive and a combination of both, which are called semi-intensive. Extensive roofs, with sedum plants, are the ones that are applied most. This is because of the fact that these kind of roof need less care and that have a longer life span than conventional roofs, and even have bigger long term financial advantages.

     

    Today the application of green roofs happens mainly because of esthetical views but also because of some more functional aspects. It delays rainwater to come to ground level because of absorption and evaporation. This helps also to diminish so called “heating islands”.

    Other effects that are named are: improved isolation of the roof, improved air quality, positive effect on noise, but even the quality of water that runs down the roof changes. From an ecological point of view have green roofs even a positive effect on biological diversity.

     

    I think that the relation between green roofs and biological diversity is interesting because ít gives rise to the possibility to answer a diversity of “stage goals”.

     

    The theoretical part of this report will contain pro’s and con’s to the application of green roofs. Many of the effect of green roofs can be of importance when dealing with sustainability questions.

     

    Of the results a conclusion can be drawn that it is difficult to give a certain value to the different effects, because they depend on example the thickness and kinds of substrate and the plants used and where the roof is situated.

     

    To get enough information to be able to create a green roof that is adapted to different climatological regions, one needs all the variables, choice of roof types but even material to get a positive effect on the end results. This information can be used to create application directives for example. Besides that it will describe which effect a green roof has on an environmental leading system.

     

    I think as well that a steering in the application of green roofs needs to be dependent on the effects one wishes to achieve. Good directives can be a helpful way to accomplish this but need to have some foundation in decent scientific research adapted to Swedish circumstances. The law does not need to be changed, because the effect one wants to achieve is more related to regions, based on specific situations or desires. It is even possible to regulate green roofs in “city plans”

  • 29.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Models and methods as support for sustainable decision-making with focus on legal operationalisation2015In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 306, p. 95-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960s the urgency to steer mankind towards a more sound environment has grown. Currently humanity is in a transition period between today’s old paradigm – business as usual – and the new one, aiming at operationalise sustainable development goals. There is a growing understanding, that to move towards sustainable development, ecological sustainability is necessary but not sufficient. Steering society in this direction necessitates making decisions that at least do not counteract sustainability.

    Such decisions have to rest firmly on a natural scientific basis. Natural laws, such as thermodynamics, and conditions set by ecosystems can therefore not been ignored, when (a) searching for technical solutions to environmental problems and to fully understand the consequences of such solutions, and (b) improving steering instruments to guide human actions.

    Over the years a number of models/methods/systems have been developed to underpin sustainable decision-making, such as Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Ecological Footprints, and Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA). Ecological modelling contributes or complements such methods. Emergy analysis, an environmental accounting and assessment method takes a wider grip embracing both ecology and economy. Less known is environmental legal modelling.

    This paper puts ecological models in the context of societal steering systems for sustainable development, and focuses on a legal model for implementing environmental policy goals.

  • 30.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Where did requirements for alternatives in EIA go?2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1960s the growing interests for environmental questions became prominent and were worldwide recognized. The safeguard of natural resources, the recognition of the environment´s carrying capacity, and the need for planning to minimize conflicts between environment and development were issues pointed out. In 1969 the US enacted the National Environmental Policy Act, NEPA, with its “action forcing” provisions in section 102(2). The provisions included a procedure and a document and was directed towards activities, with likely significant impact on the environment. What gave this section teeth was the requirement for “alternatives to the proposed action”. This tool, internationally known as EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) was later picked up by other countries and international organisations, where it was considered as a vital component for decision making processes aiming at environmental awareness. EIA was outlined as guidelines and principles by UNEP 1972, reflected in the Espoo convention in 1991 and 1992 declared as principle 17 in the Rio Declaration. This clearly reflects a special degree of acceptance in modern environmental law. However, the postulate to investigate alternatives has been circumvented in practice. Today it can be left out without even being challenged. Many lawyers obviously have difficulties to really understand EIA and the idea behind it. From a sustainability perspective this is indeed fatal. This article puts the request for alternative investigations in perspective of a) effective decision making and sustainable use of natural resources, b) environmental quality standards and environmental planning and c) sustainable assessment tools.

  • 31.
    Carlman, Inga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Longueville, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Grönlund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Models and methods as support for sustainable decision-making2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1960s the urgency to steer mankind towards a more sound environment has grown. Currently humanity is in a transition period between today’s old paradigm - business as usual - and the new one, aiming at operationalize sustainable development goals. There is a growing understanding, that to move towards sustainable development ecological sustainability is necessary but not sufficient. Steering society in this direction necessitates making decisions that at least do not counteract sustainability.

    Such decisions have to rest firmly on a natural scientific basis. Natural laws, such as thermodynamics and conditions set by ecosystems, can therefore not been ignored, when a) searching for technical solutions to environmental problems and fully understand the consequences of such solution and b) improving steering instruments to guide human actions.

    During the years a number of models/methods/systems have been developed to underpin sustainable decision-making. Related to ecosystems we have e.g. the carrying capacity and resilience models, to resource use there are Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Ecological Footprints, to economy there are eco-economy and green economy, to law there are Environmental Law Methodology (ELM) and Sustainable law. Emergy synthesis, an environmental accounting and assessment method takes a wider grip embracing everything from thermodynamics to economy.

    There still is no “standard method” for this kind of decisions, which makes it important to contrast different methods. Some methods might enforce each other, whereas others might drive in different directions. It is therefore important to understand the methods in relation to each other.

  • 32.
    Carlsson, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Aquaponic systems: Potentials on a northern latitude2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaponics is a food production method that combines hydroponic and aquaculture to form a system that, through symbiosis, re-circulates all the water and nutrients – and thereby negates any discharge of eutrophied or contaminated residuals – in order to grow terrestrial plants and aquatic life. To study the possibilities of aquaponics at northern latitude, a small scale aquaponic system was constructed in Jämtland, a county in the Mid Sweden region (latitude 63°) and studied while running over a nine month period, August 2012 to April 2013.

    The fish species grown in the fish tank was a species of trout prominent in local lake and stream fauna. The plants in the growbed were a mixture of different flora with herbs as a dominating part. Water from a local groundwater well was used. At start, appropriate nitrogen level in the system was achieved by adding ammonia. The values of nitrate, nitrite, pH, carbonate and total hardness were analyzed in repeatedly measured samples. The values stabilized quickly and stayed stable over the duration of the experiment. Heavy metals were analyzed at one point in time and showed no levels causing reason for alarm. Electric energy use for pumps and lighting was measured to reach close to 40 kWh per month.

    The trout growth was monitored and found to be comparable with (equal or slightly higher than in) the conventional aquaculture where the fish were originally obtained, when comparing with the same species and same brood. Among flora three herbs were the species thriving best, Oregano, Rosemary and Thyme. They kept growing throughout the winter with Oregano never ceasing to bloom. The total mass of produced vegetables and herbs were fairly low, since the herbs grew best. Results indicate that present aquaculture systems (fish only) could potentially be converted or adjusted into aquaponic systems (recirculating and purifying the water through a growbed) and thereby decrease potential risks of fresh water pollution from fish farming, especially regarding excessive nutrients.

    From the results in this study it seems aquaponic systems on northern latitudes are more favorable if focusing on fish growth, with herbs or vegetables as added benefit, and not focusing on maximizing vegetable growth. Continued studies would do well to investigate optimization parameters through, for instance, mass balance calculations and to identify optimal mixtures of plants over the year.

  • 33.
    Carlsson, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Environmental Crime Intelligence: The need for a locally and regionally oriented intelligence system on the field of environmental crime2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns researching the need for an environmental crime intelligence system at regional and local level geared specifically for environmental crimes within the Swedish Police as well as the need for such a combined operation towards e.g. supervisory authorities.

    The study views the current situation of environmental crime and environmental damage in part being caused due to an environmental legal implementation deficit. The study explains and defines the need as well as initiates a theoretical systematic design for an Environmental Crime Intelligence which could help reduce the deficit and so help reduce environmental damage. An Environmental Intelligence which in operation from the national level down through the organization would be linking police, prosecutors and county administrations. Authorities – who are assumed to enable, simplify, and standardize discoveries, obligations, investigations and prosecution – would be better interlinked and processed for an improved view and control in the field of environmental crime.

    This study shows the need to rethink and reevaluate the current state of environmental crime prevention process in terms of priorities and chronological regard. It has shown to verify the theory of legal implementation deficiency. Besides this, the study has also shown a way to reduce that deficiency. With this in mind it has been made visible how the need for an Environmental Intelligence system on a local and regional level would with all probability do very well by current anthropogenic systems.

    The study finds the presence of an Environmental Intelligence a consistently desired, preferred, alternative from the perspectives of the authorities mentioned above. Many of the findings points straight towards a similarity – principally in prioritization and procedures – through the intent and purpose of research for reducing environmental crime on an international level. This is viewed as a suitable segment of the methodological foundation.

  • 34.
    Carlsson, Frida
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Tenggren, Jonatan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    En studie om remissförslagen från Boverket gällande nära‐nollenergibyggnader2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the European Parliament and the Councils

    directive (2010/31/EU) all EU member states must tighten

    their energy consumption requirements for buildings to

    ensure a sustainable development and an energy-efficient

    union. The directive requires all member states to introduce

    directives so that all newly built constructions will be near‑zero energy‑buildings by the end of 2020.

    Boverket has developed directives (BFS 2017: xx BBR (A);

    BFS 2017: xx BBR (B); BFS 2017: xx BEN 2) to determine how

    energy consumption should be calculated and what

    requirements will apply to near‑zero energy‑buildings in

    Sweden.

    This report will analyse what these new directives mean for

    two standard wall system solutions from two suppliers of

    prefabricated solid wood walls. The wall systems are applied

    to a reference building where the ceiling, foundation,

    windows and doors are predetermined, the only parameter

    that varies is the wall systems.

    The wall systems analysed are Isotimber'ʹ wall Per‑Albin 2.0

    and Martinsons wall YV-16-01. Isotimber has a product

    consisting of solid woodblocks with milled slots for

    increased insulation (Isotimber, 2016). Martinsons

    manufactures cross‑laminated timber elements that makes

    form‑stable sheets of solid wood (Martinsons, u.å.a).

    In order to achieve results, hand calculations of U‑values,

    energy consumption and primary energy have been

    performed. Calculations are based on legal texts, formulas

    and standard values from the workplace as well as literature

    studies, for example energihushållning och värmeisolering

    (Elmroth 2015), byggnaden som system (Adel, E., & Elmroth,

    A. 2012) among others.

    The result shows that none of the wall systems will meet the

    new requirements for near‑zero energy buildings with this

    design on the reference building and with these wall

    systems.

  • 35.
    Chandolias, Pavlos
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Diesel from wood biomass: Screening LCA of a proposed KDV-plant in Jämtland, Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The KDV-process uses catalytic depolymerisation to convert biomass into diesel oil. The environmental performance of KDV-diesel in a proposed KDV-plant located in the County of Jämtland, Sweden, was assessed using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The functional unit of the study was one litre of KDV-diesel and the environmental impact categories that were considered were Global Warming Potential (GWP), Eutrophication Potential (EP) and Acidification Potential (AP). The acquisition of wood biomass significantly affected the life cycle performance of KDV-diesel production in all three impact categories. When benchmarked against conventional diesel oil, KDV-diesel contributed significantly less to GWP, since there are no fossil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the use phase, but it contributed more to EP and AP due to slightly higher emissions in the production phases. This conclusion holds true for five investigated electricity-supply scenarios for the production of KDV-diesel. Each scenario utilised a different source for electricity production: wind power; hydro power; nuclear power; coal power; and using part of the produced KDV-diesel for on-site electricity production. Another scenario analysis compared an alternative use of the wood biomass and assumed that the same amount of wood biomass was used to generate bio-electricity, instead of being converted into KDV-diesel. The scenario analysis indicated that whether wood biomass should be used for KDV-diesel production or for bio-electricity production depends on the type of electricity that is used throughout the life cycle of KDV-diesel.

  • 36.
    Chebil, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Att skapa trygga och tillgängliga boendemiljöer: Hur man med relativt små medel och insatser kan förbättra tillgängligheten i befintliga fastigheter2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The existing housing stock in Sweden is standing in front of a big challenge and restoration is a must when we are not building in the same rate that our population increases. This report is aiming to enable older people and those with disability to live longer in their homes and also to facilitate those that do not have a disability to easier move in and about their own homes. This report highlights improvements from an availability perspective for a multi-family property from 1987 that is owned and administrated by HSB rental property and shows how they shall work to make a safe and available housing environment in their housing stock, so that they can fulfill the claims of highest rank in the inventory tool TIBB. The report is defined to investigate potential improvement and propose measures for a building Mimer 10, Hörnellgatan 18 that is owned by HSB in Skellefteå and also to investigate entry’s, common areas and the apartments floorplan.

    The report is based on a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods which complements each other well for this study. Two case studies have been implemented and discussion with expert in availability have occurred to establishment a proposal to ensure the validity.

    The author concluded a line of improvements that can be implemented in the property which resulted in a measure- and priority list. Above all it was about level balancing measures and to introduce automatic doors to common areas. In consolation with the employer HSB there was a proposal develop to convert the existing bicycles storehouse to an electric wheelchair and walker storehouse, illustrations for this have been created in the architect program ArchiCAD.

    In the investigated property the average age for the tenants is high and many would benefit from a more accessible living environment. To be an attractive landlord it is important to listen to the tenants´ needs and continually strive to raise the quality of the property. If the arrangements are carried out and developed like the proposal suggests, the property Mimer 10 will fulfil the highest level of availability according to the inventory tool TIBB. 

  • 37.
    Chryssanthou, Emanuel Chryssanthou
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Studie ifall en nybyggnad går att åtgärda med energisparande lösningar, jämförelse av olika isoleringsmaterial och med en investeringsbudget på 5-6 miljoner kronor.: Jämtlands räddningstjänst personalbyggnad2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Jämtland’s rescue center has an investment budget of 5-6 million SEK. At present time an exercise house is being built in Furulund and together with that building Jämtland’s rescue center is planning to build a house for recovery and for relief of clothing that may have been exposed to pollution and contamination. The aim of this thesis is to investigate if a new building is possible to construct on Jämtland rescue exercise area. In essence, the focus of this work has been to design two new buildings proposed with two sub-options for each proposal. The first option has focused on applying the use of portable welding fume extractors and the second alternative without portable welding fume extractor and how it compensates to the specific energy use. Further proposals include energy-efficient solutions and comparisons between different insulation materials. In addition, calculations have been made including these alternatives with regard to construction costs. The work has been based on a qualitative and quantitative approach. Calculations of the new constructions have exceeded the budget with 1-1.4 million SEK excluding VAT. The proposals have been designed with 375 m2 and 394 m2 of cross floor area. A saving of 7-9 kWh / year has been calculated for the options without portable welding fume extractors. If there is low air pollution content in the premises, an airflow  that exceeds 0.35l/s m2 can be used in the building, but an average airflow of maximum 1l/s m2 can be used when the specify energy consumption is calculated according to building and planning, the national board of housing. The specific energy consumption for premises with increased exhaust flow can be increased by 110 (qmedel-0:35) during these circumstances. The building expenses can thus be reduced significantly in order to achieve the requirements of the specific energy consumption of the building for example by applying less insulation, however, this contributes to increased energy costs.

  • 38.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Swerea IVF.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Peters, Gregory
    Ecolabels as drivers of clothing design2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 99, p. 345-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, the textile industry has worked to reduce its negative social and environmental im-pacts. Identifying and addressing important sustainability considerations already in the clothing designare of increasing importance in the continuation of this work. Many companies look to ecolabellingschemes as means to set performance criteria and to demonstrate progress to customers. This studyinvestigates the connection between ecolabels and clothing design from the perspective of moving thegarment industry towards sustainability. Information gathered from literature was aligned and con-trasted with interviews conducted with employees of garment companies in Sweden, and the materialwas analysed using a life-cycle perspective. The results reveal that the clothing design process currentlyonly marginally influences clothing's sustainability performance by applying ecolabelling criteria. For amore sustainable textile industry there is a need to expand the expertise and information already in thedesign process regarding sustainability of theirfinished products. Such a change is only possible if thedesigners can be guided by a clear vision of design for sustainability for the company they work in.

  • 39.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Changing from petroleum to wood-based materials: critical review of how product sustainability characteristics can be assessed and compared2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 39, p. 372-385Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a literature survey on available approaches for the assessment of product sustainability, with a specific focus on assessing the replacement of non-renewable petroleum-based materials with renewable wood-based materials in absorbent hygiene products. The results are contrasted to needs in a specific material development project. A diverse number of methods exist that can help in assessing different product sustainability characteristics for parts of or whole product lifecycles. None of the assessment methods found include guidelines for how to make a case-specific interpretation of sustainability and there is a general lack of assessment parameters that can describe considerations in the comparison between the use of wood or petroleum as main raw material. One reason for this is lack of knowledge and/or consensus on how to describe and assess impacts of land and water use, e.g. on ecosystem services, different types of resource depletion and social impacts.

  • 40.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Insights from guiding material development towards more sustainable products2013In: International Journal of Sustainable Design, ISSN 1743-8284, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 149-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with current challenges in society, many companies will need to develop more sustainable products in order to continue operations in the long term. Therefore, ways of identifying important sustainability considerations already in the early stages of material or product development are of importance. The article is based on action research in a material development project. The article provides a description of activities that were performed in the project in order to guide the material development process to enable more sustainable final products, reflections on the lessons learned from this project, and suggestions to similar projects in the form of an overall process based on team learning with the aim of guiding material development towards more sustainable products. The suggested process emphasises the material or product development team's need to understand which surrounding world and future-oriented considerations will have significant impacts on the specific product's sustainability performance.

  • 41.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Alänge, Sverker
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Actionable knowledge to develop more sustainable products2013In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Life Cycle Management, August 25-28, 2013, Göteborg, Sweden., 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies need to develop more sustainable products to fit into more sustainable future markets, and there is need for ways to guide towards and compare sustainability already early in material or product development. How this can be handled has been studied through action research in a material development project aiming to develop wood-based materials to replace petroleum-based materials while ensuring a more sustainable product. A specific focus was put on creating actionable knowledge to facilitate innovation towards more sustainable products by translating and integrating significant product sustainability characteristics into each team member’s specific area of expertise and everyday work. The insights are now used in different other on-going projects in a textile industry setting and in relation to companies’ management systems.

  • 42.
    Clausen, Anton
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Jämförelse av metoder för stambyte: Skillnader mellan ”rum-i-rum”-metoden och ett traditionellt stambyte2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After a political decision, about 1 million residential buildings were built between year 1965 and 1975. These buildings nowadays go under the name of “miljonprogrammet” and they represent 25% of all residential stock available. The need for renovation for these buildings is impending and many property owners foresee big investments in projects like renovation work on the drain systems.

     

    When doing renovation work on the drain systems all old drainpipes are replaced with new pipes. This often causes a lot of damage on the bathroom and therefore these are included in the renovation project. The most common method for replacing the drain systems is called traditional renovation (“traditionellt stambyte”). In this method all drains and layers in the bathrooms are removed and replaced with new ones.

     

    The modular bathroom is another method for a renovation of the drain system but there is no wrecking or tearing down walls going on. The new bathroom is built up inside the old one including new drains. The space between the new and old has the function of a ventilated air gap and is connected to the existing ventilation system.

     

    This thesis are comparing the traditional way of doing a renovation on the drain system and the way of a modular bathroom renovation, regarding the criteria of quality, environmental impact and the situation for tenants. The differences between the methods will be identified and form the foundation of the comparison. A decision whether to choose one of the methods over the other can be made with knowledge from the results of the report.

     

    The comparison shows that the differences between the methods above all originates from the approach to how the projects runs. The traditional way takes off from the contractors point of view and the way a of modular bathroom renovation use the tenants as their center of attention. A point that proves this is that a modular bathroom renovation spends less time in the tenants apartments comparing to the traditional way. One benefit with the traditional method is the ability to customize due to the need for the project.

     

    The choice of which methods to use should consider the characteristics of the current set-up. If the tenants have the need of a quick and smooth process the way of a modular bathroom renovation has the advantage, the traditional method suits a more technically difficult project better.

  • 43.
    Cox, Erica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Höjning av Fäbodträsket - Hur påverkas ekosystemtjänsterna om sjön höjs?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The lake ”Fäbodträsket” has under a long time decreased in height with overgrowth and a loss of water quality as a result. The lake´s interest group for cottages intends to research the possibility to increase the height of lake ”Fäbodträsket” and the adjacent lake ”Vallsträsket” to their original heights, by building a dam at their outlet to the river “Bureälven”. To get an approval for this, they need to complement their application to the environmental court of law with an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). This study aims to use the perspective of the regional ecosystem as a complement to the conclusion if it is suitable to increase the height of the lake ”Fäbodträsket” and thereafter discuss how ecosystem services can be incorporated in the EIA process. Parts of the EIA tool has been used as a foundation and relevant ecosystem services have been identified and evaluated based on if they will become more or less valuable after the increase of the lakes heights and after the “zero alternative”. The value of nine out of eleven chosen ecosystem services grows by increasing the height of the lakes ”. The cottages at “Fäbodträsket” grows in value by an increase in the lakes height, while some nearby farmland decreases in value.

    The results show that an increased height of the lake is justifiable from an ecosystemservice perspective and also gets support from both national and regional environmental goals.

  • 44.
    Daniali, Iran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    The Initial Deployment of Electric Vehicle Service Equipment: Case study: Green Highway Region, E14 from Sundsvall in Sweden to Trondheim in Norway2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) are considered a more sustainable alternative vehicle because of their efficient electric motor when compared to internal combustion engines (ICE), and thus help to mitigate environmental problems and reduce fossil fuel dependency. In or-der to support drivers of plug-in hybrid electrical vehicles (PEVs), the installation and adequate distribution of Electric Vehicle Service Equipment (EVSE) is a major factor. The availability of EVSE is a vital requirement in order to charge the vehicle’s battery pack through connection to the electricity grid. This thesis evaluates the likely distribu-tion of a sufficient number of charging stations, measured as the demand of EVSE, for initial deployment in the E14 highway. This highway is also known as the Green High-way region, where a plan has been outlined with the aim to create a fleet of 15% EVs in the area by 2020.In order to model EVSE distribution, the first step was to complete a survey in 2012 on the population density and location of cities, along with the location of already estab-lished charging station locations on the Green Highway. The survey was done with ge-ography information survey (GIS) software. The second step was to create a map of the region. Based on the map, the initial estimate of EVSE locations on the Green Highway project plan was analyzed, as the third step. This was used as an initial analysis. The forth step was to use the location of current gasoline stations to provide as alternative pattern for the EVSE sites.It was observed that the network of gasoline stations correlates positively with population density. Through using these stations, the optimal location of the EVSEs was proposed. However, the model results do not provide for sufficient placement of EVSE sites where the population density is very low. In order to assess the different potential options, it was necessary to create analytical models in Arc-GIS, in which buffer zones were created with a variable size of 10, 15, 20 and 31 miles. This permitted allocation of a geographical area to estimate the optimum sites for charging stations. The resultsiiishowed that for a buffer zone of 10 miles, 28 charging stations were calculated, using buffer zone of 15 miles gives 18 stations, and a buffer zone of 20 miles results in 13 charging station sites. Notably, the estimate of the 20-mile buffer zone gives the same results as for the 50 km (31 miles) buffer zone for residential areas along E14. Therefore, the results show that the optimal design is to deploy 14 fast charging stations with three-phase DC, or 14 fast charging stations with three-phase AC, installed adjacent to the E14 road.

  • 45.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energy efficiency of new residential buildings in sweden: Design and Modelling Aspects2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy security and climate change mitigation have been discussed in Sweden since the oil crisis in the 1970s. Sweden has since then increased its share of renewable energy resources to reach the highest level among the EU member states, but is still among the countries with the highest primary energy use per capita. Not least because of that, increasing energy efficiency is important and it is part of the Swedish long term environmental objectives. Large potential for improving energy efficiency can be found in the building sector, mainly in the existing building stock but also in newly constructed buildings

    In this thesis, criteria for energy efficiency in new residential buildings are studied, several design aspects of residential buildings are examined, and possible further analysis from an energy system perspective discussed. Three case studies of existing residential buildings were analysed, including one detached house and multi-storey apartment buildings. The analysis was based on both energy simulations and measurements in residential buildings.

    The results show that the calculated specific final energy demand of residential buildings, before they are built, is too rough an indicator to explicitly steer society toward lower final energy use in the building sector. One of the reasons is assumptions made during calculation before the buildings is built. Another reason is the interior building design. A design that includes relatively large areas of heated corridors, service and storage rooms will lower the specific final energy demand without improving the building energy efficiency, which might increase both the total final energy demand and the use of construction materials in the building sector.

    Efficient thermal envelopes are essential in construction of energy efficient buildings, which include the thermal resistance and also the shape of the building. The shape factor of buildings was found to be an important variable for heat demand in buildings located in temperate and colder climates, particularly if they are exposed to strong winds.

    From a system perspective, energy efficiency measures and the performance of the end use heating technology in buildings should be evaluated together with the energy supply system, including the dynamic interaction between them.

  • 46.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energy performance of residential buildings design2016In: Society’s steering systems: a Friend book to Inga Carlman / [ed] E. Grönlund & A. Longueville, Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2016, p. 179-186Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the history of civilization, humans have built shelters to practice their social activities, while having protection against weather, wild animals, and other human beings. Over the course of time, vernacular dwellings have evolved to respond to climate challenges, available materials and cultural expectations in a given location. Such buildings include, e.g. the adobe house, the Inuit igloos in Greenland, and the open courtyard building design.Since the start of the postmodern architecture, in the middle of the 20th century, new technologies, new materials, and changes in societal structures have changed the way buildings have been designed and constructed. Modern lifestyle become more dependent on energy. For example Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems (HVAC) in buildings became widely used to improve indoor comfort. After the oil-supply crises in the middle of the 1970s, the connection between building design and the environment changed from just providing sufficient thermal comfort to promoting energy efficiency due to the awareness of the fact that natural resources are limited. That was the start of the sustainable architecture movement. It was during this time building regulations in many countries started to include aspects of energy efficiency. This chapter will discuss two aspects of building design and their effect on the overall energy efficiency of the building: the interior building design and the exterior building design.

  • 47.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energy performance of residential buildings: projecting, monitoring and evaluating2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy security and climate change mitigation have been discussed in Sweden since the oil crisis in the 1970s. Sweden has since then increased its share of renewable energy resources to reach the highest level among the EU member states, but is still among the countries with the highest primary energy use per capita. Not least because of that, increasing energy efficiency is important and it is part of the Swedish long term environmental objectives. Large potential for improving energy efficiency can be found in the building sector, mainly in the existing building stock but also in new constructions.

    Buildings hold high costs for construction, service and maintenance. Still, their energy efficiency and thermal performance are rarely validated after construction or renovation. As energy efficiency become an important aspects in building design there is a need for accurate tools for assessing the energy performance both before and after building construction. In this thesis criteria for energy efficiency in new residential buildings are studied. Several building design aspects are discussed with regards to final energy efficiency, energy supply-demand interactions and social aspects. The results of this thesis are based on energy modelling, energy measurements and one questionnaire survey. Several existing residential buildings were used as case studies.

    The results show that pre-occupancy calculations of specific final energy demand in residential buildings is too rough an indicator to explicitly steer towards lower final energy use in the building sector. Even post occupancy monitoring of specific final energy demand does not always provide a representative image of the energy efficiency of buildings and may result with large variation among buildings with similar thermal efficiency. A post occupancy method of assessing thermal efficiency of building fabrics using thermography is presented. The thermal efficiency of buildings can be increased by design with low shape factor. The shape factor was found to have a significant effect on the final energy demand of buildings and on the use of primary energy. In Nordic climates, atria in multi-storey apartment buildings is a design that have a potential to increase both energy efficiency (by lower shape factor) and enhance social interactions among the occupants.

  • 48.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    How to lift students 10,000 meter up above ground2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environment problems are complex and require a system integrated approach, which involves different time scales and spatial resolution. Yet, many parts of the world are facing similar environmental challenges. Therefore, mankind needs to share knowledge and work together across physical borders, language barriers, and cultures differences.

    In our International Master's programme in Ecotechnology and Sustainable Development in Mid-Sweden University, we use new pedagogical technologies to bring students from different nations and cultures together and reinforce teamwork. All courses in the program are in English and students can choose to be present in the classroom or to stream lectures online in real-time. Via special software, teachers are able to communicate both with classroom and distance students simultaneously. This provides flexibility to access graduate level courses in environmental science from anywhere in the world.

    Still, we aim to unify the students as one group. To achieve that, all students are invited to a joint activity in a mountain area nearby the university for one week. There, they are performing different field measurements, which help them to know each other and develop a group feeling. Group assignments are red thread throughout the program. It enhances student communication and exchange of information from different parts of the world.

    The overall aim of the master programme is to “lift” the students 10.000 meter up above ground. From that height they can see forests, water systems, cities and societies and not individual trees, streams, buildings or people. Only then they can understand how environmental issues are related and could be analyzed. This is achieved by introducing a variety of advanced system modelling tools, policy instruments, impact strategies, and communication skills. After graduation, the students are able to assist policy makers to resolve a variety of integrated environmental issues with ecological, social, cultural and economic perspectives.

  • 49.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Measurements of heat transfer coefficient of external walls with different insulation materials2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Diagnosis of buildings' thermal performance - a quantitative method using thermography under non-steady state heat flow2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 83, p. 320-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes a quantitative method using thermography to measure the thermal performance of complete building envelope elements that are subjected to non-steady state heat flow. The method presumes that thermal properties of external walls, like conductivity, could still be obtained by a linear regression over values of independent measurements. And therefore could be used during fluctuating indoor and outdoor thermal conditions. The method is divided into two parts. First, the convection heat transfer coefficient is measured by heat flux meters (HFM) and thermography. And then, the overall heat transfer coefficient of a complete building element is measured by thermography to include all non-uniformities.

    In this study the thermal performance of a 140 mm thick laminated timber wall was measured. The wall was subjected to the outdoor weather conditions in Östersund, Sweden during January and February. The measurement values were found to have a large disparity as expected due to the rapid change in weather conditions. But still a linear regression with low confidence interval was obtained. The thermography results from a small uniform wall segment were validated with HFM measurements and 4% difference was found, which suggest that the two methods could be equally effective. Yet, thermography has the advantage of measuring surface temperature over large area of building element. The overall heat transfer coefficient of a large wall area was found to be 11% higher in comparison to the HFM measurements. This indicates that thermography could provide a more representative result as it captures areas of imperfections, point and linear thermal bridges.

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