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  • 9401.
    Öhlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Metodutvärdering av ett implementationsprojekt: En leverantörs perspektiv på en implementationsmetod för affärssystem2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Affärssystem är idag mer aktuellt än tidigare. Ett affärssystem automatiserar en verksamhets kärnaktiviteter såsom produktion, Human Resources, bokföring och redovisning, och leverantörshantering genom användandet av Best Practice för att möjliggöra snabbare och effektivare beslutstagande, kostnadsminskning och ge en bättre styrning av verksamheten. Att införa ett affärssystem kan medföra fördelar såväl som nackdelar för verksamheten om införandet eller implementationen inte blir lyckad. Det finns ett flertal metoder utvecklade för att assistera under implementationen av ett affärssystem varav en av dessa har undersökts. Arbetet har genomförts med hjälp av datainsamling följt av empiriska iakttagelser. Genom fallstudien undersöktes hur väl implementationsmetoden har agerat stödjande för studieprojektet. Fallstudien genomfördes genom telefonintervjuer med personer som är väl insatta i projektet på övergripande nivå. Informanternas åsikter visar på att det finns områden där metoden inte har tagit hänsyn i undersökningen. Dessa områden är att inte ta hänsyn till klientens förväntingar på systemet, misslyckas med att höja klientens kompetens tidigt, klientnatur, upphandlingsnatur och organisationsstruktur. Utifrån detta identifierades två separata huvudområden: Metodspecifika- och klientspecifika problem. Problemen som har existerat i studieprojektet härrör inte endast metoden Ascendant for SAP utan till stor del den specifika klienten.

  • 9402.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Coated Surfaces for Inkjet-Printed Conductors2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, a number of commercially available paper substrates of various types are characterized and their characteristics related to the performance of inkjet-printed conductors using silver nanoparticle ink. The evaluated performance variables are electrical conductivity as well as the minimum achievable conductor width and the edge raggedness. It is shown that quick absorption of the ink carrier is beneficial for achieving well defined conductor geometry and high conductivity. Surface roughness with topography variations of sufficiently large amplitude and frequency is detrimental to print definition and conductivity. Porosity is another important factor, where the characteristic pore size is much more important than the total pore volume. A nearly ideal porous coating has large total pore volume but small characteristic pore size, preferably smaller than individual nanoparticles in the ink. Apparent surface energy is important for non-absorbing substrates but of limited importance for coatings with a high absorption rate.Additionally, a concept for improving the geometric definition of inkjet-printed conductors on nonporous films has been demonstrated. By coating the films with polymer–based coatings to provide a means of ink solvent removal, minimum conductor width were reduced a factor 2 or more.Intimately connected to the end performance of printed conductors is a well adapted sintering methodology. A comparative evaluation of a number of selective sintering methods has been performed on paper substrates with different heat tolerance. Pulsed high-power white light was found to be a good compromise between conductivity performance, reliability and production adaptability.The purpose of the work conducted in this thesis is to increase the knowledge base in how surface characteristics of papers and flexible films affect performance of printed nanoparticle structures. This would improve selection, adaption of, or manufacturing of such substrates to suit printed high conductivity patterns such as printed antennas for packaging.

  • 9403.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Metal Films for Printed Electronics: Ink-substrate Interactions and Sintering2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new manufacturing paradigm may lower the cost and environmental impact of existing products, as well as enable completely new products. Large scale, roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible electronics and other functionality has great potential. However, a commercial breakthrough depends on a lower consumption of materials and energy compared with competing alternatives, and that sufficiently high performance and reliability of the products can be maintained. The substrate constitutes a large part of the product, and therefore its cost and environmental sustainability are important. Electrically conducting thin films are required in many functional devices and applications. In demanding applications, metal films offer the highest conductivity.

     

    In this thesis, paper substrates of various type and construction were characterized, and the characteristics were related to the performance of inkjet-printed metal patterns. Fast absorption of the ink carrier was beneficial for well-defined pattern geometry, as well as high conductivity. Surface roughness with topography variations of sufficiently large amplitude and frequency, was detrimental to the pattern definition and conductivity. Porosity was another important factor, where the characteristic pore size was much more important than the total pore volume. Apparent surface energy was important for non-absorbing substrates, but of limited importance for coatings with a high absorption rate. Applying thin polymer–based coatings on flexible non-porous films to provide a mechanism for ink solvent removal, improved the pattern definition significantly. Inkjet-printing of a ZnO-dispersion on uncoated paper provided a thin spot-coating, allowing conductivity of silver nanoparticle films. Conductive nanoparticle films could not form directly on the uncoated paper.

     

    The resulting performance of printed metal patterns was highly dependent on a well adapted sintering methodology. Several sintering methods were examined in this thesis, including conventional oven sintering, electrical sintering, microwave sintering, chemical sintering and intense pulsed light sintering. Specially designed coated papers with modified chemical and physical properties, were utilized for chemical low-temperature sintering of silver nanoparticle inks. For intense pulsed light sintering and material conversion of patterns, custom equipment was designed and built. Using the equipment, inkjet-printed copper oxide patterns were processed into highly conducting copper patterns. Custom-designed papers with mesoporous coatings and porous precoatings improved the reliablility and performance of the reduction and sintering process.

     

     

     

     

    The thesis aims to clarify how ink-substrate interactions and sintering methodology affect the performance and reliability of inkjet-printed nanoparticle patterns on flexible substrates. This improves the selection, adaptation, design and manufacturing of suitable substrates for inkjet-printed high conductivity patterns, such as circuit boards or RFID antennas.  

  • 9404.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Effect of Paper Properties on Electrical Conductivity and Pattern Definition for Silver Nanoparticle Inkjet Ink2012In: Proceedings of LOPE-C 2012, 2012, p. 115-119Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, electrical conductivity and print pattern definition isstudied for silver nanoparticle ink, printed on ten commerciallyavailable paper substrates. Interrelations and correlations betweenelectrical conductivity, print pattern definition and a set ofmeasured paper properties are analyzed with a multivariatestatistical method. The papers are characterized in terms ofabsorption rate, porosity, apparent surface energy, surfaceroughness and surface material content. The statistical analysisshows that electrical conductivity and print pattern definition arecorrelated. Conductivity and print definition are correlatedpositively with absorption rate and negatively with surfaceroughness. A model based on projection to latent structures (PLS) isbuilt from the measurement data, showing adequate values of modelfit and predictive ability. This suggests that the chosen propertiesand methods for surface characterization are relevant in estimatingoverall performance of inkjet-printed conductors on paper.Additionally, a qualitative examination of the nanoparticle layercharacteristic is conducted with SEM cross section microscopy.Some of the properties and mechanisms of importance to theconductivity of the printed conductors are highlighted, of whichsome are crucial for achieving conductivity. Physical characteristicsof a suitable paper surface should ideally include large absorptioncapability for the ink carrier, but most importantly, a characteristicpore size and surface roughness amplitude that are both smallcompared to the dry ink layer thickness. If these criteria are met,paper media can be a low cost, comparably high performancealternative for metal nanoparticle inks in printed electronics applications.

  • 9405.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Sintering Inhibition of Silver Nanoparticle Films via AgCl Nanocrystal Formation2017In: Nanomaterials, ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 7, no 8, article id 224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically conductive films are key components in most printed and flexible electronics applications. For the solution processing of conductive films, inks containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) remain important because of their relatively easy processing and generally low resistivity after a sintering procedure. Because the commonly used, moderate sintering temperatures of 150-300 °C are still too high for most low-cost flexible substrates, expanding the knowledge of surface-ink interactions that affect the sintering temperature is desirable. It is known that chloride ions can assist the sintering of AgNP films by displacing capping agents on the surfaces of AgNPs. However, very little is known about other possible Cl-AgNP interactions that affect the resistivity and no interaction having the opposite effect (sintering inhibition) has been identified before. Here we identify such a Cl-AgNP interaction giving sintering inhibition and find that the mechanism involves the formation of AgCl nanocrystals within the AgNP film. The AgCl formation was observed after inkjet-printing of AgNP inks with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the capping agent onto papers with quick-absorbing coatings containing 0.3 wt % KCl. Our findings show that chloride can have opposite roles during sintering, either assisting or inhibiting the sintering depending on the prevalence of AgCl formation. The prevalence of AgCl formation depends on the absorption properties and the capping agent.

  • 9406.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schuppert, Anna
    Schoeller Technocell GmbH & Co KG, D-49086 Osnabruck, Germany.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schmidt, Wolfgang
    Schoeller Technocell GmbH & Co KG, D-49086 Osnabruck, Germany.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Assisted sintering of silver nanoparticle inkjet inks on paper with active coatings2015In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 5, p. 64841-64849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inkjet-printed metal films are important within the emerging field of printed electronics. For large-scale manufacturing, low-cost flexible substrates and low temperature sintering is desired. Tailored coated substrates are interesting for roll-to-roll fabrication of printed electronics, since a suitable tailoring of the ink-substrate system may reduce, or remove, the need for explicit sintering. Here we utilize specially designed coated papers, containing chloride as an active sintering agent. The built-in sintering agent greatly assists low-temperature sintering of inkjet-printed AgNP films. Further, we examine the effect of variations in coating pore size and precoating type. Interestingly, we find that the sintering is substantially affected by these parameters.

  • 9407.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schuppert, Anna
    Institut Charles Gerhardt de Montpellier, France.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Inkjet Fabrication of Copper Patterns for Flexible Electronics: Using Paper with Active Precoatings2015In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 7, no 33, p. 18273-18282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-cost solution-processing of highly conductive films is important for the expanding market of printed electronics. For roll-to-roll manufacturing, suitable flexible substrates and compatible postprocessing are essential. Here, custom-developed coated papers are demonstrated to facilitate the inkjet fabrication of high performance copper patterns. The patterns are fabricated in ambient conditions using water-based CuO dispersion and intense pulsed light (IPL) processing. Papers using a porous CaCO3 precoating, combined with an acidic mesoporous absorption coating, improve the effectiveness and reliability of the IPL process. The processing is realizable within 5 ms, using a single pulse of light. A resistivity of 3.1 ± 0.12 μΩ·cm is achieved with 400 μm wide conductors, corresponding to more than 50% of the conductivity of bulk copper. This is higher than previously reported results for IPL-processed copper.

  • 9408.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sintering Methods for Metal Nanoparticle Inks on Flexible Substrates2009In: NIP 25: DIGITAL FABRICATION 2009, TECHNICAL PROGRAM AND PROCEEDINGS, The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2009, p. 614-617Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a number of selective sintering methods suitable for inkjet printed nanoparticles are demonstrated on two different coated papers. The selective methods demonstrated here are electric current heating, microwave sintering and photonic curing. As a reference, conventional heat chamber sintering is also included. Conductivity measurements and studies of sintered structures with optical and scanning electron microscopy are performed, as well as a qualitative evaluation of how the heat-sensitive substrates are affected. The purpose is to analyze characteristics of each method and gain insight in how different process parameters affect overall performance and reliability. With heat chamber sintering the best achievable conductivity without substrate deformation corresponded to less than 20% of pure silver. With some selective methods, conductivity reached well above 50% of pure silver.

     

     

  • 9409.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The importance of surface characteristics for structure definition of silver nanoparticle ink patterns on paper surfaces2010In: NIP26 and Digital Fabrication, Austin: The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2010, p. 309-313Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9410.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Paper Surfaces for Metal Nanoparticle Inkjet Printing2012In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 259, p. 731-739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread usage of paper and board offer largely unexploited possibilities for printed electronics applications. Reliability and performance of printed devices on comparatively rough and inhomogenous surfaces of paper does however pose challenges.Silver nanoparticle ink has been deposited on ten various paper substrates by inkjet printing. The papers are commercially available, and selected over a range of different types and construction. A smooth nonporous polyimide film was included as a nonporous reference substrate. The substrates have been characterized in terms of porosity, absorption rate, apparent surface energy, surface roughness and material content. The electrical conductivity of the resulting printed films have been measured after drying at 60°C and again after additional sintering at 110°C. A qualitative analysis of the conductivity differences on the different substrates based on surface characterization and SEM examination is presented. Measurable parameters of importance to the final conductivity are pointed out, some of which are crucial to achieve conductivity. When certain criteria of the surfaces are met, paper media can be used as low cost, but comparably high performance substrates for metal nanoparticle inks in printed electronics applications.

  • 9411.
    Öhlén Holmström, Hannes
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Karlsson, Linnea
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Dyra bilar och lättklädda kvinnor: En studie av förstasidorna i Hot Rod-magasin, ur ett genusperspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9412. Öhman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Theliander, Hans
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tomani, Per
    Axegård, Peter
    Method for separating lignin from a lignin containing liquid/slurry (Patent application WO2006038863)2011Patent (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 9413.
    Öhman, Gerth
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Idé och innovation2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Present thesis is to deepen the current knowledge about the concept and development of ideas of innovators and the potential small businesses in rural areas has to adopt innovation and new technology. The thesis is limited tostudying the process itself and the progression from concept and development of ideas for invention and innovation to market and customer. The research questions include: What motivates an inventor to innovate? Howto practice innovation in small companies? How are innovators approach toproblem solving? What opportunities exist for small businesses in rural areas toadopt innovations and new technologies? The thesis also discusses on the one hand innovators approaches to motivationand attitude and on the other hand, how ideas are selected and then developed inthe process and progression in the author via the invention to market andcustomer innovation. In the present thesis has been both quantitative andqualitative approach, based on behavioural research.Important conclusions from this thesis is: that the innovation process should bedeleted and recorded by the (basic) idea and author; innovator must remain in thedevelopment of ideas with complementary and alternative ideas, innovationprocess, the progression from idea to innovation should be based on a “bottom up” perspective, where the patent law “previous user rights” supports innovatorsinvolvement in the process and progression

  • 9414.
    Öhman, Gerth
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sandberg, Karl W
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A phenomenological study of innovators attitude to creative problem solving2009In: The 17th World Congress on  Ergonomics, IEA, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9415.
    Öhman, Gerth
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sandberg, Karl W
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Inventor motivations to go from idea to innovation?2011In: Ergonomis for all: Celebrating PPCOE's 20 Years of Excellence - Selected Papers of the Pan-Pacific Conference on Ergonomics, PPCOE 2010 / [ed] An-Hsiang Wang, CRC Press, 2011, p. 461-464Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of present paper is to describe the motivations that underlie the choices made by inventors in the development of their technologies. These classifications can help managers of innovation programs direct sparse resources to inventors with the greatest probability of commercial success. The categorisation of motivation to go from idea to innovation and commercialisation of new technologies is presented for inventors for the small business in rural area of Sweden. The main results showed least eight different inventor motivations.

  • 9416.
    Öhmark, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Winter browsing by moose and hares in subarctic birch forest: Scale dependency and responses to food addition2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite their difference in body size and morphology, the moose (Alces alces) andthe mountain hare (Lepus timidus) sustain themselves during winter on similar plantspecies and plant parts in in subarctic environments, namely apical twigs ofmountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii). Herbivores must select areas anditems of food that provide sufficient intake rates and food nutritional quality whilebalancing this against their intake of dietary fiber and potentially detrimental plantsecondary metabolites. This selection takes place simultaneously at multiple spatialscales, from individual plants and plant parts to patches of food and parts of the wider landscape. While the herbivores must consider their need for food to sustaindaily activities, for body growth and reproduction it is also necessary to avoid predators and harsh environmental conditions. For managers, an understanding of key factors for animal foraging distributions is pivotal to reach intended goals ofmanagement and conservation plans. Knowledge in this area is also important formodels to make accurate predictions of foraging responses of herbivores to resource distributions. The mountain birch forest displays a naturally heterogeneous distribution of trees and shrubs which presents herbivores with a challenge to findgood feeding areas. In an investigation of the spatial distribution of moose browsing on birch and willows (Salix spp.) in two winter seasons separated in time by 14 years,it was found that moose browsing patterns in 1996 were correlated to those observed in 2010. It was also found that moose browsing was spatially clustered within the same distances (1000-2500 m) as densities of willow and birch, but at other spatial scales, browsing was mostly randomly distributed. It was concluded that foragedensity is a cue for moose but only at certain spatial scales. Similarly, a comparison of foraging distribution by hare and moose showed that high birch density was a key factor for both species. In spite of this, hares and moose used different parts ofthe same environment because they respond to food resource distribution at different spatial scales. Hares fed from smaller plants, and focused their foraging activity on smaller spatial scales than moose. These results emphasize the importance of taking into account the distribution of food resources at spatial scales relevant for each species in plans for conservation and management. In an experimental study it was found that intensified browsing on natural forage by mountain hares can be induced locally through placement of food. The induced browsing varied with the amount and quality of the added food, but also with thedensity of natural food plants and natural foraging distribution by hares. Finally, ina last experiment habitat preference of mountain hares across edges between open and forested areas was studied. The results were not consistent; hares utilized baitto a greater extent within forested areas than bait placed on a nearby lake ice, butbait on mires and heaths was either preferred over bait in nearby forest, or utilizedto a similar extent. A possible explanation is that hares have knowledge of their environment such that both forested areas and subarctic mires and heaths are partof its natural home range, whilst the extreme environment on the lake ice is not. During recent decades arctic areas have had an increase in vegetation density andwill be affected by future climate warming and therefore, factors that determineforaging ecology of key herbivores need to be identified. This thesis sheds some light on these factors in relation to spatial scale and forage distribution for two high profile herbivores in the subarctic.

  • 9417.
    Öhmark, Sara
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Palo, Thomas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Wildlife Fish & Environm Studies, S-90183 Umea, Sweden.
    Iason, Glenn
    James Hutton Inst, Aberdeen AB15 8QH, Scotland, UK.
    Spatially segregated foraging patterns of moose (Alces alces) and mountain hare (Lepus timidus) in a subarctic landscape: different tables in the same restaurant?2015In: Canadian Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0008-4301, E-ISSN 1480-3283, Vol. 93, no 5, p. 391-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differences in body sizes of mountain hares (Lepus timidus L., 1758) and moose (Alces alces (L., 1758)) affect their abilityto perceive and respond to environmental heterogeneity and plant density. Therefore, we expect these species to show nicheseparation at different scales in the same environment. Results showed that the numbers of mountain birches (Betula pubescenssubsp. czerepanovii L.) browsed by moose per unit area was inversely related to hare browsing. Moose browsed larger birchescompared with hares, and while hares targeted areas with high birch densities regardless of tree sizes, moose preferentiallybrowsed areas with high densities of large birches. Moose browsing was clustered at spatial intervals of 1000–1500 m, while harebrowsing was clustered at intervals of less than 500 m. Willows (genus Salix L.) in the study area were heavily browsed by moose,while few observations of hare browsing on willow were made. Regarding both hare and moose, numbers of birch stems withnew browsing per sample plot were positively correlated with the numbers of birch stems with old browsing, indicating thathare and moose preferred the same foraging sites from year to year. These findings have implications for management of thespecies because they show the importance of scale and landscape perspectives in planning and actions.

  • 9418.
    Öhrberg, Niklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Industrial Design.
    Handkontroll2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9419.
    Öhrling, Petter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sahlin, Lukas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    KLICK: En kvantitativ studie av sportnyhetsvärdering på nätet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9420.
    Öjdal, Katrin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Industrial Design.
    Utveckling av det humana och gröna produktionsledet "allesammans" på Grönborgs aktivitetscenter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att skapa ett koncept för ett produktionsled och en produkt som kan helt eller delvis produceras eller monteras på Grönborgs dagcenter för funktionsnedsatta människor. Det viktiga är att skapa meningsfull sysselsättning; att produktionsledet har en variation av moment som kan utföras utan maskiner eller starka kemikalier och är av olika svårighetsgrad för att passa människor med olika fysiska och kognitiva funktionsnedsättningar på ett värdigt sätt.

  • 9421.
    Örnered, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Science Education and Mathematics.
    Hur introduceras begrepp inom naturvetenskapen?: En studie om hur lärare arbetar med att introducera nya naturvetenskapliga begrepp för elever.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att synliggöra hur lärare arbetar med att introducera naturvetenskapliga begrepp samt hur lärare beskriver sin utformning av denna undervisning. Detta undersöks med hjälp av en kvalitativ studie med observationer i årskurs 4, 5 och 6 samt genom intervjuer med lärare som undervisat på de lektioner som observerats. För att elever ska kunna utveckla sin begreppsliga förståelse krävs att elever lär sig innebörden av ett naturvetenskapligt begrepp samt hur dessa begrepp kan knytas till ett sammanhang. För att hjälpa elever utveckla sin begreppsförståelse krävs att eleverna exponeras för dessa begrepp och får en fördjupad förståelse för begreppet. Arbetet med att introducera de naturvetenskapliga begreppen blir således en viktig del i en lärares arbete inom naturvetenskapliga ämnen. Resultaten visar att de två lärare som deltagit i studien till största del undervisar på ett sätt som forskning visat vara gynnsamt för elevernas utveckling av förståelsen för naturvetenskapliga begrepp. Det framkom att lärarna i huvudsak var eniga om att det sociala samspelet i klassrummet är viktigt för elevernas inlärning samt att eleverna måste få möjlighet att exponeras för de naturvetenskapliga begreppen med hjälp av olika medier.

  • 9422.
    Örnfjärd, John
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Schemaläggning på webben: Ett planeringsverktyg2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through modern technology, scheduling and displaying these schedules has moved from its static paper form, to computerized form through development of dynamic scheduling tools. These tools can cover a variety of different uses but generally share one purpose; To plan future events. Since scheduling on a digital platform often allows the user to plan more events in less time, this has become a common form of scheduling. Although tools are available, it does not mean this kind of scheduling is flawless. You may experience problems when employees work irregular shifts and/or hours, need work related courses and go on vacations. In this scenario the scheduling tool need to show if the resources allotted a given time period is sufficient to reach maximum efficiency that day. This thesis aims to help IF Sundsvall with scheduling and the visualization of the qualifications of those currently working. This was done using a prototype that acts as a planning tool. This planning tool is meant to give IF Sundsvall the information they need in order to plan properly and thereby improve the contact with customers. The tool has undergone a usability test which results were ana- lyzed on a qualitative and quantitative level. A comparison has also been carried out comparing the previous scheduling tool and the prototype. The results of the usability test show that scheduling and the visualization of this scheduling with the prototype is possible without previous knowledge. The prototype developed in this project did however not reach the projects set goal.

  • 9423.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Alfthan, Elisabeth
    Hägglund, Jan-Erik
    Paper for high speed inkjet: a study on dimensional stability and print quality2012In: Conference proceedings International Paper Physics Conference, Innventia AB, 2012, p. 129-130Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inkjet printing technology has developed in recent years, and inkjet machines for print production are now on the market. Inkjet printing at high speed puts new demands on the paper. In this work, pilot papers with known content were produced in a pilot paper machine. Inkjet printing was carried out with waterbased inkjet ink and dimensional stability and print quality were evaluated.

  • 9424.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Andersson, Nina
    Alberius, Peter
    Bergström, Lennart
    Lindgren, Mikael
    Spectroscopic investigations of spirooxazine and spiropyran incorporated in hybrid organic/inorganic silica particles2005In: Proceedings of SPIE: Nanophotonic Materials and Systems II, Redondo Beach, CA: SPIE , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9425.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Eklund, Johan
    Norstedt-Moberg, Jakob
    Alfthan, Elisabeth
    Hägglund, Jan-Erik
    Engisch, Lutz
    Erikson, Arne
    Inkjet Printing Dynamics: Influence on Ink Distribution in Paper and Print Quality2007In: NIP 23: 23RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DIGITAL PRINTING TECHNOLOGIES, TECHNICAL PROGRAM AND PROCEEDINGS/DIGITAL FABRICATION 2007, The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2007, p. 595-598Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inkjet technology is becoming established as a production method and emerges as a printing technology for printing functionalities on various media. The development has encouraged intensified research in the fields of inkjet technology and paper media. The work presented here is pail of a research program that attempts to bridge the gap between the two disciplines. The overall objective is to control and improve the print quality and print functionality by observing and controlling the dynamic processes that occur in paper media in the inkjet printing process. Detailed information about the dynamic processes is however not available with the experimental methods present today, and improvements of experimental techniques is consequently a prerequisite for a better understanding. Therefore, inkjet printing machines were built and tested The printers allow for inkjet printing with various types of inks and print heads at freely chosen paper feeding speed Methods to study the inkjet printing process in-situ by use of camera and high-speed video camera were developed It is shown that the in-situ methods capture spreading and absorption processes of inkjet droplets on still-standing paper and paper fed at high speed The in-situ measurements and analysis are discussed in terms of relevant print quality parameters.

  • 9426.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lindgren, Mikael
    Swedish Defence Research Establishment.
    Pyroelectric liquid crystalline polymers for second order nonlinear optics2002In: Recent Research Developments in Optics, 2 / [ed] S.G. Pandalai, India: Trivandrum Research Signpost , 2002, p. 53-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9427.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lundberg, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ink -Media Interaction: Aggregation Of Color Pigments By Salt With Different Valency And Impact On Print Quality2014In: International Conference on Digital Printing Technologies, The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2014, p. 437-439Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We previously reported on the effect of surface properties on inkjet print quality and print functionality. Printing can furthermore be used to effectively functionalize paper surfaces or to modify surface properties of paper for subsequent inkjet printing. Migration of molecules and particles from the paper surface may cause destabilization of the pigment dispersion and result in aggregation of pigments, as shown previously for different concentrations of calcium chloride at the surface of uncoated paper. In this work, utilizing standardized methods such as inkjet printing, ink draw down and print density measurements, it is shown that surface functionalisation using di- and trivalent salts may effectively destabilize a pigment dispersion, causing aggregation of pigments which in turn has a major impact on the print quality.

  • 9428.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Niga, Petru
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Makeen, Khalid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Print quality issues concerning inkjet printing of colour and electronics on paper2012In: PTS Symposium: Paper and Imaging 2012, Munich, Germany, 2012, p. 251-263Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The market value of the digital printing technologies electrophotography and inkjet is expected to grow during this decade. The introduction of multicolour high speed inkjet machines in recent years has again turned print quality into an important issue. In addition, the combination of digital printing and traditional printing technologies for variable data print production requires paper and ink which gives good and comparable print quality using different printing technologies. Printed electronics, most commonly utilizing the printing technologies screen, gravure, flexography or inkjet, is forecasted a bright future. The interest in paper as print media for printed electronics and flexible electronics has recently increased, mainly due to the widespread usage of paper, the low cost of paper, and due to the fact that paper is produced mainly from natural renewable resources. The requirements on the print concern here not primarily the visual impression, but rather the functionality, for example the conductivity of printed tracks.

    We have studied the effect of surface treatment of paper on inkjet print quality; we have looked more closely at the effect of different paper surface parameters, and shown that these parameters can have a large impact on both chroma and detail reproduction when printing with pigmented inkjet inks. Combination of inkjet with traditional printing technologies can give good print quality when carefully combining printing technology, ink and print media. Moreover, some knowledge concerning printing of colour may be transferred to the field of printed electronics, although the prerequisites on the print products are quite different. We have studied how the surface properties of coated paper affects the electrical conductivity and the print quality of inkjet printed electronics. In addition, coating of paper surfaces by laboratory methods and evaluation of functionality has been performed. The work is a base for our ongoing research on adding of functionalities to paper and packaging in a flexible and cost efficient way by utilization of printing technologies and novel materials.

  • 9429.
    Öst, Albert
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Evaluating LoRa and WiFi Jamming2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things changes our world with everything we have around us, our everyday things will be connected to the Internet. According to experts, in two years there will be up to 29 billion devices connected to the Internet. With all of the information that is produced it is important to keep the communication secure, otherwise there can be serious problems in the future. Therefore the objective with this study has been to investigate the area of jamming attacks on wireless communication for Internet of Things, more specifically on LoRa and WiFi technologies. This was made by a literature study to research about Internet of Things, the industrial side of it, the two communication technologies and wireless jamming of them. Additionally to this a small scale test bed system consisting of two LoRa nodes (an Arduino and a LoRa gateway), two WiFi nodes (a laptop and router) and a software defined radio frequency jammer (a HackRF One) were set up. Jamming was performed on the system and evaluated form the perspective of a typical industrial Internet of Things scenario. The testing on the system was done by measuring the received signal strength index, round trip time for a message and packet losses. The study showed that the WiFi communication broke down completely while the LoRa communication stood strong up to the jammer. This concluded that LoRa communication is secure for a typical Internet of Things scenario, from this particular jamming device, or a similar one.

  • 9430.
    Östberg, Tomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effects of organic amendments on the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 9431.
    Östberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bylund, Dan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lundström, Ulla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    The effects of carbon sources and micronutrients in fermented whey on the biodegradation of n-hexadecane in diesel fuel contaminated soil2007In: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 334-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of organic amendments on the biodegradation of n-alkanes and phenanthrene in diesel contaminated soil was evaluated. The organic amendments used were fermented and non fermented sweet milk whey and the mineralization was estimated by analysis of evolved 14CO from added 14C-hexadecane, 14C-octadecane and 14C-phenanthrene. The addition of 2100 mg dry weight (dw) sweet whey kg-1 soil dw at the start of the experiment increased the extent of mineralization after 184 days compared to a control, from 45 % to 61 % for n-hexadecane and from 35 % to 46 % for n-octadecane. The stimulation was characterized according to a three-half-order kinetic such as if a greater part of the substrates was mineralized according to first order kinetics. Similar stimulation was achieved from the fermented whey when 210 mg dw kg-1 soil dw was added to the soil every second week during the 184 days of incubation.

  • 9432.
    Östberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Lundström, Ulla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Enhanced biodegradation of diesel fuel hydrocarbons in soil by the addition of fermented whey2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial organic byproducts such as whey or fermented whey contain easily accessible carbon and micronutrients which could be used to stimulate microbial degradation of hazardous organic contaminants in soil. In this work we have investigated the possibility to use fermented whey as a growth supplement to enhance the aerobic degradation of diesel fuel hydrocarbons in soil. Experiments were carried out with two soils, a sand soil and a loamy sand soil, contaminated with diesel fuel at a concentration of 5000 mg kg-1 soil dry weight (dw). Fermented whey was added at different dosages to nutrient amended soil microcosms. Petroleum hydrocarbon mineralization was monitored by analysis of evolved 14CO2 from added 14C-labeled n-hexadecane. Mineralization curves were fitted to a three-half-order kinetics model. Enhanced mineralization was observed in sand soil at 7 and 22C and in loamy sand soil at 22C but the stimulatory effect was most pronounced in the sand soil at 22C, where the addition of 6 and 60 ml fermented whey kg-1 soil dw, increased the final degree of n-hexadecane mineralization from 49% in the control soil to 60 and 67% respectively. The increased total mineralization was characterized by an increase in the amount of substrate mineralized by first-order kinetics despite a decrease in the first order rate constant, k1. The highest concentration of fermented whey, 60 ml kg-1, gave rise to substrate competition, diauxie, which resulted in an extended lag phase.

  • 9433.
    Östberg, Tomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lundström, Ulla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Enhanced degradation of n-hexadecane in diesel fuel contaminated soil by the addition of fermented whey2007In: Soil & sediment contamination: an international journal, ISSN 1532-0383, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 221-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this work has been to investigate the possibility of using fermented whey as an organic growth supplement in order to enhance the aerobic degradation of n-hexadecane in soil. Fermented whey was added at different dosages to nutrient amended soil microcosms contaminated with 5000 mg diesel fuel kg-1 dry weight (dw). The target substance was 14C-labeled n-hexadecane, and the biodegradation was monitored by analysis of evolved 14CO2. Biodegradation curves were fitted to a three-half-order kinetics model. Enhanced biodegradation was observed in sand at 7 and 22C and in loamy sand at 22C but the effect was most pronounced in the sand soil at 22C. The addition of 6 or 60 ml fermented whey kg-1 soil dw, increased the degree of n-hexadecane biodegradation at the end of the experiment, 167 days, from 49% in the untreated sand to 60 or 67% respectively. This increase in biodegradation was characterized by an increase in the amount of substrate biodegradation by first-order kinetics despite a decrease in the first order rate constant, k1. The highest concentration of fermented whey, 60 ml kg-1, gave rise to substrate competition, diauxie, which resulted in an extended lag phase.

  • 9434.
    Östberg, Tomas L
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jonsson, A P
    Lundström, Ulla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bylund, Dan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effects of whey addition on the biodegradation of n-hexadecane, n-octadecane and phenanthrene in diesel fuel contaminated soilManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9435.
    Östberg, Tomas L.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Jonsson, Anders P
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Lundström, Ulla S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Accelerated biodegradation of n-alkanes in aqueous solution by the addition of fermented whey2006In: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 190-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of fermented whey on the aerobic degradation of n-alkanes by a microbial consortium was investigated in an aqueous system. Microbial degradation of 100 mg n-alkanes (C12, C14, C16 and C18) in mineral nutrient medium was assessed by measuring the decrease in n-alkanes, production of CO2 and increase in biomass. The addition of fermented whey at a concentration of 5 mg dry weight to a nutrient medium receiving a small-sized inoculum (103.4 CFU ml-1)shortened the lag phase from 8 to 3 days, but the degradation rate during the degradation phase was not enhanced. The shortened lag phase at low initial concentration of microorganisms indicates that the fermented whey stimulates growth in the initial phase, without reducing the consortium's capacity for n-alkane degradation.

  • 9436.
    Österberg, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Linderot, Elvira
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Fler partiledardebatter – “men det är ungefär samma ingredienser”: –  en kvalitativ studie om ökad konkurrens och nya strategier när SVT, TV4, Aftonbladet och Expressen producerade partiledardebatter i valrörelsen 20142015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Fler partiledardebatter  – “men det är ungefär samma ingredienser” –  en kvalitativ studie om ökad konkurrens och nya strategier när SVT, TV4, Aftonbladet och Expressen producerade partiledardebatter i valrörelsen 2014.

    Författare: Emma Österberg och Elvira Linderot

    Kurs, termin och år: Vetenskaplig C-uppsats, HT 2014

    Antal ord i uppsatsen: 18 785

    Problemformulering och syfte: I studien undersöks partiledardebatterna i tv och webb-tv i valrörelsen 2014, samt den nya konkurrenssituation som uppstod i samband med det. Valet 2014 var första gången som kvällstidningarna, Aftonbladet och Expressen, producerade partiledardebatter - något som SVT och TV4 tidigare gjort. Studien utgår från ett konkurrensperspektiv och hur medieföretagen konkurrerar på olika marknader, där de bland annat vill få många tittare och ha hög trovärdighet. När medieföretagen producerar partiledardebatter kan de ha olika strategier, dels genom vilken publik de vänder sig till, dels genom hur de utformar själva programmen. Tidigare forskning har visat att ökad konkurrens kan påverka medieföretagens strategier, till exempel genom att de vill stärka sina varumärken eller göra “bra tv” med ökat tempo och dramaturgi. Syftet med studien var att ta reda på hur SVT, TV4, Aftonbladet och Expressen förhöll sig till den nya konkurrenssituation som uppstod i valet 2014, samt att ta reda på vilka strategier de hade vid programutformningen för partiledardebatterna.          Metod: I den empiriska undersökningen användes två kvalitativa metoder. Först gjordes en analys av partiledardebatternas programkoncept, utifrån fyra teman: miljö, medverkande personer, programmoment samt publikmedverkan. Genom samtalsintervjuer fick en programansvarig på varje medieföretag sedan svara på vilka strategier de haft när de utformade programmen samt hur de såg på konkurrenssituationen.          Resultat: Samtliga medieföretag förhöll sig till den nya konkurrensen, främst genom att de ville göra partiledardebatter som stack ut och stärkte deras varumärken, genom bland annat välkända programledare. En strategi var också att göra “bra tv”, genom dramaturgi och tempoväxling. När det gällde att rikta sig till en viss publik stack Aftonbladet ut i valet av en ung målgrupp, medan de övriga riktade sig till en mer bred publik. En strategi var också att göra program som kändes seriösa och granskande, framförallt gällde det SVT, som har ett public service- uppdrag och dessutom konkurrerar med sin trovärdighet. För kvällstidningarna var partiledardebatterna ett sätt att utveckla sin tv-satsning – och de kände sig fria att testa och prova nya grepp. Även TV4 ville sticka ut och försökte ha med “annorlunda moment”. SVT såg sig mer bundna av traditioner, men samtidigt inspirerades de av kvällstidningarnas “ton och identifikation” och trodde att det var något de kunde ta till sig av i framtiden. De programansvarige poängterade att partiledardebatterna har en demokratisk betydelse och såg det främst som positivt att det gjordes fler debatter. 

  • 9437.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Efficient multicast video streaming over heterogeneous networks2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for real-time video streaming over Internet is ever growing. The aggregated bandwidth of the video flows can be substantial, which motivates the use of bandwidth-preserving techniques such as multicast transmission and powerful source coding algorithms. With powerful video source coding follow an increased sensitivity to lost or corrupted data. Error-correcting codes may be applied to deal with this side effect. Another topic, which arises when multicast is introduced, is its effect on the notion of fairness. It is debatable if a unicast flow with a single receiver should be entitled to the same amount of bandwidth as a multicast flow with hundreds of receivers. This licentiate thesis aims at exploiting and combining existing techniques and developing new ones, all with the common goal of creating higher satisfaction and fairness for the end users of video streaming services. One of the techniques that are being evaluated is priority dropping, where less important packets are the first to be dropped in the routers in case of congestion. Then a scheme where multicast end users can deal with varying packet-loss rates by individually choosing the amount of error-correcting data they want to receive, is proposed. Further, the area of fairness in multicast environments is addressed, and a new definition of multicast fairness is presented.

  • 9438.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fair Treatment of Multicast Sessions and Their Receivers: Incentives for more efficient bandwidth utilization2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Media-streaming services are rapidly gaining in popularity, and new ones are knocking on the door. Standard-definition Internet protocol television (IPTV) has already entered many living rooms, and high-definition IPTV will become common property in the not too distant future. Then even more advanced and resource-demanding services, such as three-dimensional and free-view TV, are next in line. Video streaming is by nature extremely bandwidth intensive, and this development will put the existing network infrastructure to the test.

    In scenarios where many receivers are simultaneously interested in the same data, which is the case with popular live content, multicast transmission is more bandwidth efficient than unicast. The reason is that the receivers of a multicast session share the resources through a common transmission tree where data are only transmitted once along any branch. The use of multicast transmission can therefore yield huge bandwidth savings. There are however no really strong incentives for the Internet service providers (ISPs) to support multicast transmission, and the deployment has consequently been slow.

    We propose that more bandwidth is allocated to multicast flows in the case of network congestion. The ratio is based upon the number of receivers and the bitrate that they are able to obtain, since this is what determines the degree of resource sharing. We believe that it is fair to take this into account, and accordingly call the proposed allocation multicast-favorable max-min fair. Further, we present two bandwidth-allocation policies that utilize different amount of feedback to perform allocations that are reasonable close to be multicast-favorable max-min fair.

    We also propose two cost-allocation mechanisms that build upon the assumption that the cost for data transmission should be covered by the receivers. The mechanisms charge the receivers based on their share of the resources usage, which in general is favorable to multicast receivers. The two cost-allocation mechanisms differ in that one strives for optimum fair cost allocations, whereas the other might give discounts to some receivers. The discounts facilitate larger groups of receivers, which can provide cheaper services for the non-discounted receivers as well.

    The proposals make multicast transmission more attractive to the users of media-streaming services. If the proposals were implemented in multicast-enabled networks, the rest of the ISPs would be forced to support multicast, to stay competitive.

  • 9439.
    Österberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsgren, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Receiver-controlled dynamic forward error correction for video streaming2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The proportion of real-time traffic, being transported over IP networks, appears to be ever increasing. Real-time traffic may, for example, consist of video and audio data, which have real-time constraints in terms of metrics such as maximum delay, delay jitter and packet loss. Bounds on such metrics can be hard to satisfy by the network, hence there is an incentive to make multicast streaming of video more packet-loss resilient. Receiver-driven layered multicast has been proposed for dealing with band limitations, and environments with heterogeneous terminals. We have extended these ideas to handle packet loss, by adding receiver-driven forward error control (FEC). The aim of this paper is to further improve the performance, by optimizing the distribution of the error protection between the layers.

  • 9440.
    Österberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsgren, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Receiver-Controlled Joint Source/Channel Coding on the Application Level, for Video Streaming over WLANs2003In: The 57th IEEE Semiannual Vehicular Technology Conference, 2003. VTC 2003-Spring.: Vol. 3, 2003, p. 1558-1561Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proportion of real-time traffic, being transported over internet protocol (IP) networks, appears to be ever increasing. Real-time traffic may, for example, be video and audio, which have real-time constraints such as maximum delay and delay jitter. Such requirements can be hard to satisfy in a wired infrastructure, and are even more so in a wireless network. Therefore there is a need to make transmission over wireless local area networks (WLANs) more reliable. The aim of this paper is to outline a proposal of such a scheme, which enables efficient transmission of MPEG-4 video over an IEEE 802.11b WLAN, and to experimentally verify its efficiency. Receiver-driven layered multicast has been proposed before, for dealing with band limitations and environments with heterogeneous terminals. We extend these ideas to handle packet loss, by adding receiver-driven unequal error protection (UEP). The proposal can be viewed as receiver-controlled joint source/channel (JSC) coding on the application level.

  • 9441.
    Österberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A Bandwidth-Allocation Policy Taking Layered Video Multicast into Consideration2004In: Proceedings of the Eighth IASTED International Conference on Internet and Multimedia Systems and Applications, Acta Press , 2004, p. 347-352Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As multicast is slowly gaining in support, the concept of multicast fairness is starting to attract some attention. Should multicast flows be favored at the expense of unicast flows, and if so to what extent? Allocating link bandwidth in proportion to the logarithm of the number of receivers of a flow has been proposed. That kind of policies favors multicast flows, without totally starving unicast flows. A problem of maintaining such policies emerges if layered multicast flows are introduced, since each layer is transmitted to a separate multicast IP address and will therefore be treated as an individual flow. Layered multicast flows will consequently be allocated too much bandwidth. In this paper, a logarithmic bandwidth-allocation policy that copes with layered multicast is proposed and evaluated through simulations. The results confirm that the proposal meets the expectations by preserving the intended fairness properties in scenarios with layered multicast traffic.

  • 9442.
    Österberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Bid-Based Cost Sharing Among Multicast Receivers2007In: 4th International Conference on Heterogeneous Networking for Quality, Reliability, Security and Robustness and Workshops, QSHINE '07, ACM Press, 2007, article id 37Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In scenarios where many receivers simultaneously are interested in the same data, multicast transmission is more bandwidth efficient than unicast. The reason is that the receivers of a multicast session share the resources through a common transmission tree. Since the resources are shared between the receivers, it is reasonable that the costs corresponding to these resources should be shared as well. This paper deals with fair cost sharing among multicast receivers, and the work is based upon the assumption that costs should be shared according to the resource usage. However, it is not for certain that an optimally fair cost allocation is most beneficial for the receivers; receivers that cannot cover their fair share of the costs may nevertheless be able to contribute to the cost sharing to some extent. We propose a cost-allocation mechanism that strives to allocate the costs fairly, but gives discount to poor receivers who at least manage to cover the additional cost of providing them with the service.

  • 9443.
    Österberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fair Allocation of Link Capacity through Feedback of Bottleneck Information2007In: Digital Telecommunications, , 2006. ICDT '06. International Conference on 29-31 Aug. 2006, IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 59-59Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose a bandwidth-allocation policy that is fairer and more bandwidth efficient than existing policies. The improvements are achieved through feedback of information regarding the largest bottleneck link of the downstream receivers of each flow. According to this information, the router nodes can avoid allocating more bandwidth to a flow than will be of use to at least one of its receivers. The proposed bandwidth-allocation policy, called bottleneck-feedback and receiver dependent (BFRD), is simulated with promising results

  • 9444.
    Österberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fair Allocation of Multicast Transmission Costs2008In: International Journal On Advances in Telecommunications, ISSN 1942-2601, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In scenarios where many receivers simultaneously are interested in the same data, multicast transmission is more bandwidth efficient than unicast. The reason is that the receivers of a multicast session share the resources through a common transmission tree. Since the resources are shared between the receivers, it is reasonable that the costs corresponding to these resources should be shared as well.

    This paper deals with fair cost sharing among multicast receivers, and the work is based upon the assumption that costs should be shared according to the resource usage. However, it is not for certain that an optimally fair cost allocation is most beneficial for the receivers; receivers that cannot cover their fair share of the costs may nevertheless be able to contribute to the cost sharing to some extent. We propose a cost-allocation mechanism that strives to allocate the costs fairly, but gives discount to poor receivers who at least manage to cover the additional cost of providing them with the service.

     

     

  • 9445.
    Österberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fair Cost Sharing Among Multicast Receivers2007In: 2007 Second International Conference on Digital Telecommunications, ICDT'07, IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, article id 4270571Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In scenarios where many receivers simultaneously are interested in the same data, multicast transmission is more bandwidth efficient than unicast. The reason is that the receivers of a multicast session share the resources through a common transmission tree. Since the resources are shared between the receivers, it is reasonable that the costs corresponding to these resources should be shared as well. This paper deals with fair cost sharing among multicast receivers. The work is based upon the assumption that costs should be shared based on resource usage. With this in mind, existing cost-allocation mechanisms are evaluated and the conclusion is that none of them is satisfactory fair. We therefore propose a new cost-allocation mechanism that allocates the costs according to the transmission path and obtained QoS level of each receiver.

  • 9446.
    Österberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fairer Allocation of Link Capacity Through Information Feedback2006In: Proceedings of the Fifth IASTED International Conference on Communication Systems and Networks, 2006, p. 143-148Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a bandwidth-allocation policy that is fairer and more bandwidth efficient than any other existing policy, is presented. The fairness is measured with the multicast-favorable max-min fairness (MFMF) definition as reference. The improvements introduced by our policy are achieved through feedback of information regarding the bottleneck link of all the downstream receivers of each flow. According to this information, the router nodes can locally allocate the link capacities in line with the MFMF definition.

  • 9447.
    Österberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Multicast-Favourable Max-Min Fairness: The Definition and How to Comply2011In: International Journal of Computers and Applications, ISSN 1206-212X, E-ISSN 1925-7074, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In scenarios where many receivers simultaneously are interested in the same data, multicast transmission is more bandwidth efficient than unicast. Consequently, the benefit of multicast transmission is growing with the rising interest in video-streaming services. To prioritize multicast flows and thereby create an incentive for the use of multicast transmission might therefore make sense. Research in this area is usually denoted multicast fairness. In this paper, we present a general definition of multicast fairness, named multicastfavourable max-min fairness (MFMF), which specifies the properties a global bandwidth allocation should possess to be considered fair to both unicast and multicast flows. A description of how the definition can be used to evaluate the fairness of other bandwidth allocations is also included. Further, two bandwidth-allocation policies that aim at producing allocations close to fulfilling the MFMF definition are presented.

  • 9448.
    Österberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Revised Definition of Multicast-Favorable Max-Min Fairness2006In: Proceedings of the Third IASTED International Conference on Communications and Computer Networks, CCN 2006IASTED International Conference on Communications and Computer Networks, Lima, Peru, October 2006, ACTA Press, 2006, p. 63-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In scenarios where many receivers simultaneously are interested in the same data, multicast transmission is more bandwidth efficient than unicast. As a consequence, the benefit of multicast transmission is growing with the rising interest in video-streaming services. Therefore, the concept of multicast fairness has started to attract attention, it might be sensible to prioritize multicast flows and thereby create an incentive for the use of multicast transmission. The most general definition of multicast fairness, which prioritizes multicast traffic, is probably multicast-favorable max-min fairness (MFMF). However, in this paper it is shown that the MFMF definition is afflicted with a flaw that for certain traffic scenarios leads to intuitively unfair bandwidth allocations. The flaw is analyzed whereupon a revised version of the definition is proposed, which solves the problem. A description of how the definition can be used to evaluate the fairness of other bandwidth allocations is also included.

  • 9449.
    Österberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Bandwidth Allocation in Broadband Access Networks2007In: Proceedings of 12th European cionference on networks & optical communications (NOC 2007), 2007, p. 525-532Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9450.
    Österdahl, Mathias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Water treatment at personal level: An examination of five products intended for a small scale, personal point-of-use2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Water, and particularly clean water is essential for humans with a profound effect on health and has the capacity to reduce illnesses. Paradoxical, water is a medium where disease causing agents could be transmitted into the human body. Water can cause illness both from distribution of pathogenic organisms into the human system and also if not consumed in a required amount, leading to dehydration and other complications. Today catastrophes and disasters hit different areas in various forms. When such an event occurs, infrastructure is often disturbed or destroyed, and the supply of fresh water may be threatened.

    The Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB) is a government agency in Sweden, with a task to developing the community’ssocietal ability to prevent and handle emergencies, accidents and crises. The agency support various actors when a crisis or an accident occurs, both abroad and at a national level. The personnelal supporting at a crisis zone is sometimes working under extreme conditions where basic needs, such as access to food and fresh water can be a deficiency. To ensure that the personnel working at these sites can continue to solve problems without risking their own health caused by dehydration or other waterborne diseases, different methods can be used to treat water for personal use.

    Five different products intended for personal water treatment are chlorine dioxide pills, chlorine dioxide liquid, the Katadyn filter bottle, the Lifesaver filter bottle and the UV-lamp SteriPEN. These products use different water treatment techniques to purify water and secure the access to fresh water during exposed conditions. The aim with this study is to create an information basis in order for MSB to choose water treatment product for their future international missions. This is done by examine four parameters of these different products; purification capacity, manageability, environmental impact and economic aspects.

    The study showed that there is no product that pervading is best according to all parameters, they all have their pros and cons. The product that was best on average throughout the whole study is the SteriPEN but only if used during 10 or more missions. If a product should be used for only five or fewer missions, the chlorine dioxide liquid is recommended to use.

    At sites where the raw water is heavily contaminated a combination of two products could be an option, as a result of this thesis it is recommended to combine the chlorine dioxide liquid and the SteriPEN.

    This study is done qualitative and the result is based on literature, laboratorial reports and own measurements and calculations. Actual field tests are needed to further evaluate the products. The importance is that the product functions practically during MSBs working conditions, so relief workers really applicate the product to purify water and not refrain because it is not compatible with the working situations. If the product isn’t used because of these reasons it shouldn’t be used because it puts the relief workers at health risks.

     

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