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  • 751.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Broadband Parameters of Compact FT Spectrometer based on Fabry-Perot Interferometer Integrated with detector2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 752.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Evaluation of an Integrated Fourier-Transform Spectrometer Utilizing a Lateral Effect Position Sensitive Detector with a Multi-Channel Fabry-Perot Interferometer2008In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 045306-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The basis of this paper is the evaluation of an integrated multi-channel Fourier-transform (FT) spectrometer based on a multi-channel wedge Fabry-Perot interferometer and a one-dimensional lateral effect position sensitive detector (PSD). The use of a PSD for an interferogram readout allows for a simple scanning mechanism with no requirement for any position reference. The use of a wedge-shaped interferometer makes it possible to integrate it directly onto the PSD surface, thus producing a very compact spectrometer. The capabilities of the spectrometer are demonstrated by absorption spectral measurements using a reference sample. In addition, spectral measurements on 532 nm DPSS and 632.8 nm He-Ne lasers are presented. The resolution of the spectrometer is approximately 5 nm. The evaluated spectrometer set-up can be used in applications where compact and low cost spectrometers are required, such as in process control and in education. Further, it is shown that there are deteriorations in very high accuracy position measurements, which are caused by changes in incident light intensity. A model describing the above-mentioned nonlinearities was developed based on analysing the equivalent circuit for PSDs and parameters such as leakage current and serial resistance. Additionally, a method is proposed to assist in the reduction of the nonlinearity caused by this effect.

  • 753.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Unander, Tomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lidenmark, Cecilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Inkjet printed silver nanoparticle humidity sensor with memory effect on paper2012In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 1901-1905Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the design and the manufacture of an inkjet printed resistive type humidity sensor on paper are reported. After having been exposed to humidity above a given threshold level, the resistance of the sensor decreases substantially and remains at that level even when thehumidity is reduced. It is possible to deduce the humidity level by monitoring the resistance. The main benefit of the printed sensor presented in this case is in relation to its very low production costs. It has also been shown that both the ink type and this paper combination used prove to be crucial in order to obtain the desired sensor effect. More research is required in order to fully understand the humidity sintering effect on the nano particle ink and the role of the substrate. However, the observed effect can be put to use in printed humidity sensors which possess a memoryfunction. The sensor can be used in various applications for environmental monitoring, for example, in situations where a large number of inexpensive and disposable humidity sensors are required which are able to detect whether they have been subjected to high humidity. This could be the checking of transportation conditions of goods or monitoring humidity within buildings. © 2001-2012 IEEE.

  • 754.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Mattsson, Claes
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lundgren, Anders
    SiTek Electro Optics.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The effect of mechanical stress on lateral-effect position sensitive detector characteristics2006In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 563, no 1, p. 150-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Position-sensitive detectors (PSDs) are widely used in noncontact measurement systems. In order to minimize the size of such systems, interest has increased in mounting the PSD chip directly onto printed circuit boards (PCBs). Stress may be induced in the PSD because of the large differences in thermal expansion coefficients, as well as the long-term geometrical stability of the chip packaging. Mechanical stress has previously been shown to have an effect on the performance of semiconductors. The accuracy, or linearity, of a lateral effect PSD is largely dependent on the homogeneity of the resistive layer. Variations of the resistivity over the active area of the PSD will result in an uneven distribution of photo-generated current, and hence an error in the readout position. In this work experiments were performed to investigate the influence of anisotropic mechanical stress in terms of nonlinearity. PSD chips of 60×3 mm active area were subjected, respectively, to different amounts of compressive and tensile stress to determine the influence on the linearity.

  • 755.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Rusu, A
    EPFL-STI-IEL-NANOLAB, Bat ELB342, Station 11, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Haller, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ayöz, S
    EPFL-STI-IEL-NANOLAB, Bat ELB342, Station 11, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    System of nano-silver inkjet printed memory cards and PC card reader and programmer2011In: Microelectronics Journal, ISSN 0959-8324, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 21-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes the development of inkjet printed, low-cost memory cards, and complementary pair of memory card reader and card reader/programmer for PCs. This constitutes a complete system that can be used for various applications. The memory cards are manufactured by inkjet printing nano-silver ink on photo paper substrate. The printed memory structures have an initial high resistance that can later be programmed to specific values representing data on the cards, the so called Write Once Read Many (WORM) memories. The memory card reader measures the resistance values of the memory cells and reads it back to the computer by USB connection. Using multiple resistance levels that represent different states it is possible to have a larger number of selectable combinations with fewer physical bits compared to binary coding. This somewhat counters one of the limitations of resistive memory technology that basically each cell needs one physical contact. The number of possible states is related to the resolution of the reader and the stability of the WORM memory.

  • 756.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Skerved, Vincent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Li, Xiaotian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Gyllner, Linnea
    Iniss Triab AB, S-16250 Vällingby.
    Soldering Surface Mount Components onto Inkjet Printed Conductors on Paper Substrate using Industrial Processes2016In: IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 2156-3950, E-ISSN 2156-3985, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 478-485, article id 7422029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes mounting of standard surface mount component packages on a paper substrate using an industrial solder process with a low-temperature solder. The use of paper as a substrate for printed flexible electronics is becoming more and more widespread as an alternative to the more commonly used plastic substrates, such as polyethylene and polyimide. Paper has the benefits of being environmentally friendly, recyclable, and renewable, as well as inexpensive. It is shown that it is possible to mount standard surface mount device components on paper substrates using low-temperature solder in an industrial soldering process. The contact resistances obtained are mostly low, although the yield of functioning contacts is low. The reason is cracking of the substrate coating layer that goes through the printed silver tracks. It was observed that the cracks appear mostly close to the contact pads, the most likely cause is thermal mismatch between the coating layer and solder and also thermal expansion of the photo paper resin coating. The smallest component package size, 0201, resulted in the highest yield of >80% with decreasing yield for larger package sizes.

  • 757.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lundgren, A.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Processing and characterization of a position sensitive lateral-effect metal oxide semiconductor detector2004In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 531, no 1-2, p. 140-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Position sensingdetectors (PSDs) are useful in many applications, such as vibration, displacement, and triangulation measurements. In this paper we present a lateral-effect metal oxide semiconductor PSD with switchingcapability fabricated by our group. The detector can be switched off by the application of 0V on the substrate and 0.2V on the gate. A linear current-position behaviour is exhibited by the detector at a substrate bias of both 5 and 10V with the gate at 0V. There is no effect on the linearity when the substrate voltage is changed from 5 to 10V. The non-linearity is within 0.2% at a distance of 71.5mm from origin for 5, 10 and 15mm device length.

  • 758.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Electroless deposition and silicidation of Ni contacts into p-type Porous Silicon2008In: Journal of porous materials, ISSN 1380-2224, E-ISSN 1573-4854, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 335-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Porous Silicon (PS) has attracted much attention since the discovery of its photo luminescent behavior. It has also been used for various other applications such as electroluminescent light emitting-diodes (LEDs), photodetectors and solar cells. For such devices, it is important to make good metallic Ohmic contacts to the PS in order to maximize the efficiency. In order to produce buried contacts, barrier layers, Schottky devices, etc. in PS, it is advantageous to deposit metal that covers not only the surface of the porous layer, but also the inside walls and the bottom of the pores. In this work experiments were performed to examine the morphology and properties of electroless deposition of Nickel into p-type PS and subsequent formation of Nickel silicide after heat treatment. Circular PS samples of 6 mm diameter were produced by anodizing p-type Silicon wafers for 15 min and were subsequently plated with Ni using three different plating baths. The pores are on average 20 µm deep and 4 µm wide. Two samples of each type were heat treated in an nitrogen atmosphere for one hour at 400 and 600°C respectively to produce Nickel silicide. Reference samples were made by means of electron beam evaporation of Ni. SEM micrographs show that the best pore coverage was achieved using the Ni plating bath containing hypophosphite. I–V characterization shows that different rectifying and Ohmic contacts can be formed between electroless deposited Ni and PS depending on the conditions of the heat treatment. XRD and EDX characterizations show that both the NiSi and Ni2Si phases exist in the sample at the same time.

  • 759.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Evaluation of InkAid surface treatment to enhance print quality of ANP silver nano-particle ink on plastic substrates2010In: Large Area, Organic & Printed Electronics (LOPE-C) 2010, Frankfurt, 2010, p. 241-245Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 760.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Šuly, Pavol
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Zlin, Czech Republic.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Engholm, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Mašlík, Jan
    Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Zlin, Czech Republic.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    PEDOT: PSS thermoelectric generators printed on paper substrates2019In: Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications, ISSN 2079-9268, Vol. 9, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible electronics is a field gathering a growing interest among researchers and companies with widely varying applications, such as organic light emitting diodes, transistors as well as many different sensors. If the circuit should be portable or off-grid, the power sources available are batteries, supercapacitors or some type of power generator. Thermoelectric generators produce electrical energy by the diffusion of charge carriers in response to heat flux caused by a temperature gradient between junctions of dissimilar materials. As wearables, flexible electronics and intelligent packaging applications increase, there is a need for low-cost, recyclable and printable power sources. For such applications, printed thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are an interesting power source, which can also be combined with printable energy storage, such as supercapacitors. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), or PEDOT:PSS, is a conductive polymer that has gathered interest as a thermoelectric material. Plastic substrates are commonly used for printed electronics, but an interesting and emerging alternative is to use paper. In this article, a printed thermoelectric generator consisting of PEDOT:PSS and silver inks was printed on two common types of paper substrates, which could be used to power electronic circuits on paper. 

  • 761.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    3D Video Playback: A modular cross-platform GPU-based approach for flexible multi-view 3D video rendering2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of depth‐perception visualization technologies, emerging format standardization work and research within the field of multi‐view 3D video and imagery addresses the need for flexible 3D video visualization. The wide variety of available 3D‐display types and visualization techniques for multi‐view video, as well as the high throughput requirements for high definition video, addresses the need for a real‐time 3D video playback solution that takes advantage of hardware accelerated graphics, while providing a high degree of flexibility through format configuration and cross‐platform interoperability. A modular component based software solution based on FFmpeg for video demultiplexing and video decoding is proposed,using OpenGL and GLUT for hardware accelerated graphics and POSIX threads for increased CPU utilization. The solution has been verified to have sufficient throughput in order to display 1080p video at the native video frame rate on the experimental system, which is considered as a standard high‐end desktop PC only using commercial hardware. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed solution a number of throughput evaluation metrics have been introduced measuring average frame rate as a function of: video bit rate, video resolution and number of views. The results obtained have indicated that the GPU constitutes the primary bottleneck in a multi‐view lenticular rendering system and that multi‐view rendering performance is degraded as the number of views is increased. This is a result of the current GPU square matrix texture cache architectures, resulting in texture lookup access times according to random memory access patterns when the number of views is high. The proposed solution has been identified in order to provide low CPU efficiency, i.e. low CPU hardware utilization and it is recommended to increase performance by investigating the gains of scalable multithreading techniques. It is also recommended to investigate the gains of introducing video frame buffering in video memory or to move more calculations to the CPU in order to increase GPU performance.

  • 762.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Parallel Simulation: Parallel computing for high performance LTE radio network simulations2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Radio access technologies for cellular mobile networks are continuously being evolved to meet the future demands for higher data rates, and lower end‐to‐end delays. In the research and development of LTE, radio network simulations play an essential role. The evolution of parallel processing hardware makes it desirable to exploit the potential gains of parallelizing LTE radio network simulations using multithreading techniques in contrast to distributing experiments over processors as independent simulation job processes. There is a hypothesis that parallel speedup gain diminishes when running many parallel simulation jobs concurrently on the same machine due to the increased memory requirements. A proposed multithreaded prototype of the Ericsson LTE simulator has been constructed, encapsulating scheduling, execution and synchronization of asynchronous physical layer computations. In order to provide implementation transparency, an algorithm has been proposed to sort and synchronize log events enabling a sequential logging model on top of non‐deterministic execution. In order to evaluate and compare multithreading techniques to parallel simulation job distribution, a large number of experiments have been carried out for four very diverse simulation scenarios. The evaluation of the results from these experiments involved analysis of average measured execution times and comparison with ideal estimates derived from Amdahl’s law in order to analyze overhead. It has been shown that the proposed multithreaded task‐oriented framework provides a convenient way to execute LTE physical layer models asynchronously on multi‐core processors, still providing deterministic results that are equivalent to the results of a sequential simulator. However, it has been indicated that distributing parallel independent jobs over processors is currently more efficient than multithreading techniques, even though the achieved speedup is far from ideal. This conclusion is based on the observation that the overhead caused by increased memory requirements, memory access and system bus congestion is currently smaller than the thread management and synchronization overhead of the proposed multithreaded Java prototype.

  • 763.
    Andersson, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Science Education and Mathematics.
    Hur har digitaliseringen i skolan förändrat kemiundervisningen i årskurs 7-9?: En jämförelse mellan forskning och praktik2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den reviderade variation av LGR 11 (Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen ochfritidshemmet 2011) från 2017 lyfts digitaliseringen fram. Skolan är under förändringoch digitala verktyg finns i klassrum. Eleverna förväntas använda dessa och utvecklaförmågor som lyfts fram i LGR 11 och utveckla kunskaper om hur de ska förhålla sigtill ett konstant informationsflöde. Samtidigt använder lärare redan idag många digitalaverktyg i sin undervisning. Med de förändringar som gjorts markerar myndigheter iSverige vikten av att eleverna lär sig navigera och hantera den digitala världen.Frågan som då måste ställas är hur det ser ut i klassrum i Sverige och hurdigitaliseringen har påverkat undervisningen i kemi. När datorn gjorde entréförändrades klassrummet men det tog tid. Idag finns det en mängd olika digitalaverktyg att använda. Genom att gå ut och intervjua lärare skapades en bild avsituationen i det digitala kemiklassrummet. De arbetade med digitala böcker,interaktiva övningar och formativ feedback via delade dokument. Digitaliseringen iskolan speglar den utveckling som samhället har tagit och det är viktigt att alla få följamed i den utvecklingen.Det har även bedrivits forskning inom digitaliseringen i skolan där begrepp som digitalläsning återfinns. Hur har undervisningen hanterats i förhållande till den forskningsom finns och hur lyfter digitaliseringen undervisningen? Genom att göra en jämförelsemellan forskning och praktik skapas en bild av hur det ser ut i skolor men också varmöjligheter för utveckling ligger.

  • 764.
    Andersson, Ida
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelser av bedside-rapportering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 765.
    Andersson, Ida
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Lindström, Frida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Kvinnor med bröstcancer - behov av stöd och information från sjuksköterskor2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 766.
    Andersson, Ingela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Modin, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Bostadsprisets bestämmande faktorer: Är det fundamentala eller psykologiska krafter som styr?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med vår studie är att undersöka huruvida våra utvalda variabler visar något sambandmed bostadsprisutvecklingen på den svenska marknaden. Vi har valt att studera totalt tolvstycken variabler i vår undersökning varav två av dessa är beroende variabler och de andra tioär oberoende variabler. Dessa undersöks månadsvis mellan september 2005 till september2013, vilket innebär att antalet observationer uppgår till 1152 st.Vi fokuserar på bostadsrätts- och villapriser på den svenska marknaden och studien innefattarhela landet. Vi använder oss endast av rådata i form av sekundärdata som vi hämtat från olikadatabaser.De beroende variablerna vi studerar är pris per kvadratmeter för bostadsrätter och snittprisför villor. De oberoende variabler i vår undersökning är: MFI utlåningsränta bostadslån, MFItotal utlåning hushåll, MFI total inlåning hushåll, antal sålda objekt bostadsrätter, antalsålda objekt villor, konfidensindikatorn, hushållets syn på den egna ekonomin om 12 mån,hushållets syn på den egna ekonomin i dagsläget, hushållets inställning till att bygga ellerköpa bostad inom 12 mån och reporäntan.Resultaten visar att det finns ett starkt positivt samband mellan antalet sålda objekt ochbostadspriserna. Även variablerna konfidensindikatorn, hushållets ekonomi om 12 mån samtMFI total inlåning visar på ett signifikant samband med bostadspriset.

  • 767.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Björkroth, Elisabeth
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    En studie om arbetsmotivation bland personal inom dagligvaruhandeln2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilka faktorer som personalen inom dagligvaruhandeln upplevde som viktiga för arbetsmotivationen utifrån Herzberg`s tvåfaktorteori. Studien undersökte även om det fanns samband mellan inre faktorer, yttre faktorer och personlighetsegenskaper. En enkätstudie genomfördes där 74 medarbetare inom dagligvaruhandeln i Mellansverige deltog. Ett t-test visade att skillnaden mellan inre och yttre faktorer inte var signifikant. En korrelationsanalys visade på samband mellan inre faktorer, yttre faktorer och personlighetsegenskaper. Regressionsanalyser visade på att 18 procent av variationen i inre och yttre faktorer kan förklaras av personlighetsegenskaper. Den visade även på signifikanta samband mellan inre faktorer och personlighetsegenskaperna öppenhet och målmedvetenhet. Ytterligare ett signifikant samband fanns mellan yttre faktorer och personlighetsegenskaperna vänlighet och känslomässig instabilitet. Författarna drar slutsatsen att studiens resultat kan fungera som ett underlag för dagligvaruhandeln i deras beslut gällande motivationshöjande investeringar.

  • 768. Andersson, J
    et al.
    Biasoletto-Tjellström, G
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Reduced pulmonary oxygen uptake during apnea in resting humans: European Underwater and Baromedical Society (EUBS) meeting Copenhagen2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 769.
    Andersson, J
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTHB.
    Ageing of Flexographic Printed Model Cellulose Surfaces and Determination of the Mechanisms Behind Ageing2009In: Pulp & paper Canada, ISSN 0316-4004, Vol. 110, no 7-8, p. 34-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of storage conditions on the ink detachment efficiency of

    water-based flexographic ink printed onto model cellulose surfaces and

    handsheets was investigated. It was shown that UV light, elevated

    temperatures, longer storage time, increasing surface roughness, and

    increasing surface hydrophobicity all had a negative effect on ink

    detachment. It was also shown that the ink's chemical and structural

    characteristics changed when stored at elevated temperatures. No

    chemical or structural changes could be observed for the ink when

    stored under UV light.

     

  • 770.
    Andersson Jakobsson, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Vestman, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Medias skildring av terrorism i jämförelse med dådet mot Utøya och dådet mot Charlie Hebdos redaktion: En kritisk diskursanalys2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fokus i detta arbete låg på att undersöka medias framställning av terrorism gällande dådet i Utøya 2011 av Anders Behring Breivik och dådet i Paris 2015 mot Charlie Hebdos redaktion av Cherif och Said Kouachi. Detta gjordes genom ett strategiskt urval av artiklar i tidningarna Aftonbladet och Dagens Nyheter, totalt samlades 48 artiklar in. För att analysera det insamlade materialet användes en kritisk diskursanalys. Konklusionen var att märkbara skillnader framkom i huruvida media framställde respektive dåd och gärningsmannen/gärningsmännen. Slutsatsen som kan dras från detta arbete är att terrorism-diskursen kopplas oftare till gärningsmännens etniska bakgrund i Charlie Hebdos fall än i dådet på Utøya. Det behövs fortsatt forskning om medias framställning av terrorism behövs för att belysa ytterligare sociala problem och motverka den negativa effekt media kan ha på dagens samhälle.

  • 771.
    Andersson, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Barndom som präglar vuxenlivet: Samband mellan traumatiska barndomsupplevelser och psykosocial hälsa/ohälsa i vuxen ålder2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING:

    Flera internationella undersökningar om samband mellan vissa traumatiska barndomsupplevelser och psykosocial hälsa/ohälsa som vuxen, har tidigare genomförts. De flesta studier har dock utförts inom kliniska populationer med begränsat antal studerade faktorer. Då det endast finns ett fåtal svenska studier inom detta ämnesområde, har syftet med denna studie varit att undersöka om det finns samband mellan å ena sidan barndomsupplevelser av känslomässiga, fysiska och sexuella övergrepp, känslomässig och fysisk försummelse samt idealisering av familj och psykosociala hälso/ohälsoindikatorer i vuxen ålder å andra sidan. De senare är tillgången till nätverk respektive anknytning, olika indikationer på alkoholproblem såsom konsumtionsnivå, tecken på beroende och skadligt drickande, psykisk ohälsa i form av ångest respektive depression samt social misstro. Då upplevelser från barndomen är retrospektiva konstruktioner, togs som ett undersyfte upp om det finns systematiska validitetsproblem såsom minimering och benägenhet att svara på ett socialt önskvärt sätt. Undersökningen är kvantitativ och baseras på gruppenkäter som besvarats av studenter vid Mittuniversitetet. Resultaten visar att det fanns klara samband mellan olika traumatiska barndomsupplevelser och olika former av hälso/ohälsotillstånd i vuxen ålder. Multivariata analyser visar att sexuella och fysiska övergrepp är relaterade till ökade tecken på alkoholproblem, känslomässiga övergrepp och ångest, medan känslomässig försummelse är relaterat till depression, mindre socialt nätverk och till mindre grad av anknytning. Förhoppningen är att studien skall bidra till teoriutvecklingen om hur barndomsproblem påverkar problemen i vuxen ålder.

  • 772.
    Andersson, Jannice
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Stadin, Therese
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Ungdomars uppfattningar om kriminella beteenden: Finns det några könsskillnader?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Ungdomar är den mest brottsaktiva gruppen i samhället och forskning har redogjort för att män generellt är mer brottsaktiva i jämförelse med kvinnor. Mäns förhöjda brottsbenägenhet väckte en tanke huruvida det föreligger könsskillnader i ungdomars uppfattningar om kriminalitet, även om eventuella könsskillnader i sådana uppfattningar kan förklaras utifrån Situationell handlingsteori och Social rollteori. Syftet med denna studie var att studera könsskillnader gällande de uppfattningar vilka gymnasieelever i Sundsvalls kommun har angående kriminella beteenden. Mer specifikt avsågs att besvara följande frågeställning: Vilka könsskillnader finns angående gymnasieelevers uppfattningar om kriminella beteenden gällande brottsavsnitten skadegörelsebrott, trafikbrott, tillgreppsbrott, misshandelsbrott samt narkotikabrott? Metod: Studien utgjordes av en tvärsnittstudie vilken innefattade en enkätundersökning som 200 gymnasieelever (107 kvinnor och 93 män) mellan 18-20 år besvarade under mars och april månad år 2014. Data analyserades genom t-test och Mann-Whitney U test med signifikansnivån p ≤ 0.05. Resultat: Vad som påträffades var att kvinnor, med undantag för frågan angående dödshot, i signifikant högre utsträckning uppfattade att det var mindre okej för deras kamrater att begå trafikbrott, tillgreppsbrott, misshandelsbrott och narkotikabrott. Det förelåg ingen signifikant skillnad i kvinnors och mäns uppfattningar angående skadegörelsebrott. Diskussion:Studiens resultat diskuterades utifrån huruvida moral, normer, könsroller och kamrater haft en påverkan på elevernas uppfattningar om kriminella beteenden. Vidare lyftes metodologiska aspekter och studiens styrkor och begränsningar. Slutsats: Studier likt denna kan urskilja ungdomar vilka utgör en förhöjd risk att begå kriminella handlingar vilket skapar goda förutsättningar för lämpliga brottsförebyggande åtgärder.

  • 773.
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Högskolan i Sundsvall/Härnösand.
    Gunnarsson, K.
    Svedlindh, P.
    Nordblad, P.
    Lundgren, L.
    Aruga Katori, H.
    Ito, A.
    Dynamic Scaling in the Ising Reentrant Spin Glass Fe_{0.62}Mn_{0.38}TiO_31990In: Physica B, ISSN 0921-4526, Vol. 165-166, p. 183-184Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 774.
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    Mattsson, Johan
    Monte Carlo studies of the dynamics of reentrant Ising spin glasses1996In: Physical Review B (Condensed Matter and Materials Physics), ISSN 0163-1829, Vol. 54, p. 9912-9919Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 775.
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Mattsson, J.
    Svedlindh, P.
    Monte Carlo evidence for the existence of an overlap length in Ising spin glass systems1994In: Physica B: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0921-4526, Vol. 194-196, p. 307-308Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 776.
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Mattsson, J.
    Svedlindh, P.
    Monte Carlo studies of Ising spin-glass systems: aging behavior and crossover between equilibrium and nonequilibrium dynamics1992In: Physical Review B (Condensed Matter), ISSN 0163-1829, Vol. 46, no 13, p. 8297-8304Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 777.
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Mattsson, J.
    Svedlindh, P.
    Monte Carlo studies of Ising spin-glass systems: Investigations of the overlap length in spin-glasses.1994In: Physical Review B (Condensed Matter), ISSN 0163-1829, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 1120-1126Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 778.
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Mattsson, J.
    Svedlindh, P.
    Overlap length in a Cu-Mn spin glass probed by ac susceptibility.1993In: Physical Review B (Condensed Matter), ISSN 0163-1829, Vol. 48, no 18, p. 13977-13980Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 779.
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sibani, Paolo
    Domain growth and thermal relaxation in spin glasses1996In: Physica A, ISSN 0378-4371, Vol. 229, no 3-4, p. 259-272Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 780.
    Andersson, Jeanette
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Löf, Helene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Högläsning i förskolan: En intervjustudie om sex pedagogers syn på högläsningens syfte och förändring2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 781.
    Andersson, Jeanette
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Löf, Helene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Högläsning i förskolan: En intervjustudie om sex pedagogers syn på högläsningens syfte och förändring2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 782.
    Andersson, Jens
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Granfors, Jonny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Maktutövning mellan onlinespel: En kvalitativ studie som jämför två olika onlinespel2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 783.
    Andersson, Jessica
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Azri, Manuella
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Livet efter en organtransplantationEn litteraturöversikt om organtransplanterade personers upplevelser2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 784.
    Andersson, Jessica
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Larsson, Josefin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Förskollärares beskrivningar av konflikter utifrån ett genus - och jämställdhetsperspektiv.2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien har varit att, utifrån ett genus och jämställdhetsperspektiv, beskriva hur förskollärare uttrycker att de vill agera vid olika konfliktsituationer. Vilket inte är samma som hur förskollärare verkligen agerar vid konflikter i förskoleverksamheten. Tidigare forskning visar att förskollärare omedvetet behandlar barnen olika utifrån deras kön. Vi använde oss av kvalitativa enkäter, för att komma fram till resultatet i vår studie där femton förskollärare medverkade. Enkäterna var uppbyggda med hjälp av två olika konfliktsituationer. Genom enkätsvaren kunde vi få en uppfattning om förskollärarna gjorde skillnad på barnen utifrån deras kön. I resultat framkom det att förskollärarna beskrev att kommunikation var viktig när det gällde konflikter och att barnen skulle få en chans till att lösa konflikterna själva genom att prata med varandra. Förskollärarna påtalar att de vill vara i närheten av barnen, för att känna att de har ett öga på hur konflikten fortlöper. Något som även framkom utifrån förskollärarnas beskrivningar i enkätsvaren var att de uttryckte mer uppmuntran till flickorna än vad de uttryckte mot pojkarna.

  • 785.
    Andersson, Jessica
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindholm, Helene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hinder och stöd för modersmålsundervisning i svenska nationella minoritetsspråk: En kvalitativ intervjustudie.2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 786.
    Andersson, Jessica
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Molander, Marielle
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Ökad fysisk aktivitet hos vuxna patienter med övervikt och fetma: En sjuksköterskas åtgärder2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 787.
    Andersson, J-O
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Djurberg, C.
    Jonsson, T.
    Svedlindh, P.
    Nordblad, P.
    Monte Carlo studies of the dynamics of an interacting monodispersive magnetic-particle system1997In: Physical Review B (Condensed Matter and Materials Physics), ISSN 1098-0121, Vol. 56, no 21, p. 13983-13988Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 788.
    Andersson, J-O
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Svedlindh, P.
    Aging behaviour in two- and three-dimensional ising spin glasses studied by Monte Carlo simulations.1992In: Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, ISSN 0304-8853, Vol. 104-107, p. 1609-1610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nonequilibrium character of the spin glass dynamics has been studied in Monte Carlo simulations of two- and three-dimensional short-range Ising spin glass systems. The spin system was quenched in zero field to a temperature T. After equilibrating for a waiting time tw a weak magnetic field was applied and the time dependence of the magnetization M(t) was studied. Our results show that the relaxation rate, S(t) = ∂M(t)/∂log t, exhibits a maximum at a time t ≈ tw, which is consistent with results from experiments. If the temperature is increased or decreased prior to the field application, the apparent age ta of the system, as defined by the maximum in relaxation rate, is changed. The results are qualitatively in agreement with experiments as well as with theoretical models for the nonequilibrium spin glass dynamics

  • 789.
    Andersson, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Affärsmodellsutveckling: Hur företag hanterar utmaningar på en förändrad marknad2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A market change comes with challenges for the organisations which operate on that market, since they must adjust to the new market conditions, a new competitive situation and such. The purpose of this study was to examine which challenges organisations experience when they develop their business models. This was performed by doing a literature review as well as interviews with representatives from the electric market in Sweden. The result from the literature review showed that multiple concepts can be connected to form an encompassing view with the change as the catalyst. Four aspects regarding challenges could be developed based on previous research: (1) he organisation is not used to change management; (2) the organisation is used to change management; (3) management does not know how to start working with BMI; and (4) management knows how to start working with BMI. The result from the interviews showed that the literature was reflected in reality, since the informants described several concepts from the literature. The informants’ organisations could be placed in the aspects which had been developed and based on previous research suggestions of how to handle these challenges could be developed, some of which the informants had already applied (but not fully, yet).

  • 790.
    Andersson, Joakim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Bizimana, Mike
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Digitalisering och kundnytta: En undersökning om digitaliserings effekt på ett företag och dess kunder2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society, businesses and organizations are facing increasing challenges to change and adapt to a digitizing world. In order to stay relevant in the market, businesses need to work constantly on developing and improving the efficiency of its various processes. This study is designed as a case study at MittSverige Vatten & Avfall which is a municipal corporation in Sundsvall municipality. Its goal is to be a leader in its sector by the year 2021. The study’s objective was to investigate if the digitization of information gathering could bring benefit to a company and its customers. The investigation has focused on the digitization of information gathering from the customer's water meter. The study's objective has been to identify and analyze how digitization impacts business processes and its financial condition with help from value stream mapping and a customer survey. The study was conducted with the support of written and web based literary sources. A survey as well as interviews was conducted. An investment analysis has been conducted to study and evaluate the benefits that the investment brings the customer and MittSverige Vatten & Avfall regarding cost. The study proved that the digitization of water meters would mean an improvement for both MittSverige Vatten & Avfall and its customers.

  • 791.
    Andersson, Joakim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Eriksson, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Konsten att delegera prefix: En jämförelse av automatiserad och statisk konfiguration2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When it became clear that the number of ipv4 addresses would not be enough, ipv6 was developed. With new features that had been adapted to the infrastructure that had been built up around the world, there was now a replacement for ipv4. But the differences are many and the protocols are not alike at all, especially when looking at the built-in functions. One of these new features in ipv6 is called Prefix Delegation, a simple and convenient way to automatically distribute parts of a larger network into smaller networks. Although there are simple and flexible way to implement this, the existing infrastructure of the Internet may not be so simple. The complexity of the infrastructure forces us to use a variety of routes, both static and dynamic. To get an understanding of how this can differ, we looked at an overview of how the infrastructure might look like and then tested how to solve the addressing through an automated process and a static process. The results shows that the automated solution requires a little more preparation and specified equipment, but the work then becomes easy to control, debug, and document. The static process is more straightforward and requires no special equipment, however, it will be difficult to control, debug, and document where the slightest change can require a lot of work where the risk of complications is great.

  • 792.
    Andersson Jobe, Ibou
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Upplevelser av diskriminering och privilegier i Stureplans nattklubbsliv2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har med fokus på klass, etnicitet och genus synat Stureplansområdets nattklubbsliv med syfte att lyfta deras besökares upplevelser av diskriminerande och privilegierande praktiker. Detta gjordes genom den kvalitativa metoden där semistrukturerade intervjuer hölls med sex personer i åldrarna 23-29 år. Intervjumaterialet analyserades sedan med utgångspunkt i perspektiven klass, etnicitet och genus. I studien beskriver deltagarna ett nattklubbsliv med utpräglat diskriminerande och privilegierande praktiker där överklass, ”svenskt” utseende och kvinnor som följer skönhetsidealet ingår i gruppen önskade kunder. Resten av besökarna sorteras utifrån dessa kategorier och de som inte passar in hålls metodiskt borta, och hänvisas därmed till privata fördelaktiga kontakter, eller entrévärdarnas godtyckliga beslut. Slutsatsen är att krogdiskriminering beror på maktstrukturer som underordnar vissa grupper, samtidigt som den upprätthåller andra gruppers sociala status och privilegier. Det är ett system som utan tvivel leder till en mer segregerad grupp unga vuxna.

  • 793.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Runeke, Samuel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Hemligheter i offentlig upphandling: Sekretessen enligt 31 kap. 16 § OSL2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 794.
    Andersson, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Optimering av interna trucktransporter vid Emhart Glass i Sundsvall2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Resurssnål produktion är en teori om hur produktionsplanering i ett företag kan förbättras, vilket syftar till att öka effektiviteten och skapa en bättre arbetssituation för medarbetarna i företaget. Examensarbetets övergripande syfte har varit att med stöd i denna teori ta fram ett optimerat och verklighetstroget truckkörschema för dagens interna transporter vid Emhart Glass i Sundsvall. Målsättningen har varit att jämföra de interna transporterna med de behov som finns i företaget, att identifiera hur ofta transporter av tomma lastpallar sker samt att klar-göra om en dubbelpallshantering innebär tidsmässigt vinst. En kart-läggning av de interna transporterna och arbetsställenas behov av lastpallar har genomförts. Informationen från kartläggningen har implementerats i programmet Matlab, där en algoritm för beräkning av ett körschema har skapats som tar hänsyn till dagens tidshantering av lastpallar och sannolikheten att truckförarna lastar av och på lastpallar vid olika arbetsställen. Jämförelsen av arbetsställenas behov och truck-körningarna visar att behoven vid arbetsställena och dagens truckkör-ning stämmer ganska bra överens. Med stöd av kartläggningen har ett truckschema kunnat konstrueras för enkelpallshantering samt för dubbelpallshantering. Körschemana visar att det finns möjligheter till optimering av de interna transporterna. Den viktigaste slutsatsen har varit att kunna visa att truckförarnas trucktransporter kan både fören-klas och effektiviseras genom ett körschema, och det i sin tur kan leda till att arbetssituationen blir mer effektiv och mindre stressig.

  • 795. Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Linér, Mats
    Fredsted, Anne
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Cardiovascular and respiratory responses to apneas with and without face immersion in exercising humans2004In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 96, no 3, p. 1005-1010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the diving response on alveolar gas exchange was investigated in 15 subjects. During steady-state exercise (80 W) on a cycle ergometer, the subjects performed 40-s apneas in air and 40-s apneas with face immersion in cold (10degreesC) water. Heart rate decreased and blood pressure increased during apneas, and the responses were augmented by face immersion. Oxygen uptake from the lungs decreased during apnea in air (-22% compared with eupneic control) and was further reduced during apnea with face immersion (-25% compared with eupneic control). The plasma lactate concentration increased from control (11%) after apnea in air and even more after apnea with face immersion (20%), suggesting an increased anaerobic metabolism during apneas. The lung oxygen store was depleted more slowly during apnea with face immersion because of the augmented diving response, probably including a decrease in cardiac output. Venous oxygen stores were probably reduced by the cardiovascular responses. The turnover times of these gas stores would have been prolonged, reducing their effect on the oxygen uptake in the lungs. Thus the human diving response has an oxygen-conserving effect.

  • 796. Andersson, Johan P A
    et al.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Repeated apneas do not affect the hypercapnic ventilatory response in the short term2009In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 105, no 4, p. 569-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term training of breath-hold diving reduces the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR), an index of the CO(2) sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether also short-term apnea training (repeating apneas with short intervals) reduces the HCVR, thereby being one contributing factor explaining the progressively increasing breath-holding time (BHT) with repetition of apneas. Fourteen healthy volunteers performed a series of five maximal-duration apneas with face immersion and two measurements of the HCVR, using the Read rebreathing method. The BHT increased by 43% during the series of apneas (P < 0.001). However, the slope of the HCVR test was not affected by the series of apneas, being 2.52 (SD 1.27) and 2.24 (SD 1.14) l min(-1) mmHg(-1) in the control test and in the test performed within 2 min after the last apnea of the series, respectively (NS). Thus, a change in the HCVR cannot explain the observed short-term training effect on BHT.

  • 797.
    Andersson, Johan P.A.
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Biasoletto-Tjellströma, Gustaf
    Schagatay, Erika K.A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Pulmonary gas exchange is reduced by the cardiovascular diving response in resting humans2008In: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, ISSN 1569-9048, E-ISSN 1878-1519, Vol. 160, no 3, p. 320-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diving response reduces the pulmonary O2 uptake in exercising humans, but it has been debated whether this effect is present at rest. Therefore, respiratory and cardiovascular responses were recorded in 16 resting subjects, performing apnea in air and apnea with face immersion in cold water (10 ◦C). Duration of apneas were predetermined to be identical in both conditions (average: 145 s) and based on individual maximal capacity (average: 184 s). Compared to apnea in air, an augmented diving response was elicited by apnea with face immersion. The O2 uptake from the lungs was reduced compared to the resting eupneic control (4.6 ml min−1 kg−1), during apnea in air (3.6 ml min−1 kg−1) and even more so during apnea with face immersion (3.4 ml min−1 kg -1). We conclude that the cardiovascular djustments of the diving response reduces pulmonary gas exchange in resting humans, allowing longer apneas by preserving the lungs’ O2 store for use by vital organs.

  • 798.
    Andersson, Johan P.A.
    et al.
    Department of Animal Physiology, Lund University.
    Linér, Mats H.
    Lund University Hospital.
    Rünow, Elisabeth
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Diving response and arterial oxygen saturation during apnea and exercise in breath-hold divers2002In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 93, no 3, p. 882-886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addressed the effects of apnea in air and apnea with face immersion in cold water (10°C) on the diving response and arterial oxygen saturation during dynamic exercise. Eight trained breath-hold divers performed steady-state exercise on a cycle ergometer at 100 W. During exercise, each subject performed 30-s apneas in air and 30-s apneas with face immersion. The heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation decreased and blood pressure increased during the apneas. Compared with apneas in air, apneas with face immersion augmented the heart rate reduction from 21 to 33% (P < 0.001) and the blood pressure increase from 34 to 42% (P < 0.05). The reduction in arterial oxygen saturation from eupneic control was 6.8% during apneas in air and 5.2% during apneas with face immersion (P < 0.05). The results indicate that augmentation of the diving response slows down the depletion of the lung oxygen store, possibly associated with a larger reduction in peripheral venous oxygen stores and increased anaerobiosis. This mechanism delays the fall in alveolar and arterial Po2 and, thereby, the development of hypoxia in vital organs. Accordingly, we conclude that the human diving response has an oxygen-conserving effect during exercise.

  • 799. Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Arterial oxygen desaturation during apnea in humans.1998In: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine, ISSN 1066-2936, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 21-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the effect of the human diving response, defined as bradycardia and reduced peripheral blood flow, on arterial hemoglobin desaturation. We induced a diving response of different magnitudes by using apnea in air and apnea with face immersion. Each of21 subjects performed five apneas in air and five apneas with face immersion in 10°C water. Periods of apnea in both conditions were of the same duration in any individual subject (average: 126.4 s) and the order of air and water was equally distributed among subjects. Heart rate, skin capillary blood flow, arterial blood pressure, arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation during apneas, and end-tidal fractions of CO2 after apneas were recorded with non-invasive methods. The bradycardia and capillary blood flow reduction during apnea in air (7.8 and 37.7% change from control, respectively) were significantly potentiated by face immersion (13.6 and 55.9%, respectively). Arterial hemoglobin desaturated more during apnea in air (2.7%) compared to during apnea with face immersion (1.4%). We conclude that the potentiation of the human diving response with face immersion in cold water leads to a smaller decrease in arterial hemoglobin saturation, which may reflect an oxygen-conserving effect

  • 800. Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Diving response and apneic time in humans. 1998In: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine, ISSN 1066-2936, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 13-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare apneic time with the human diving response, defined as heart rate (HR) reduction and reduced skin blood flow, in groups with varying degrees of breath-hold diving experience. Apneic time and HR reduction at apneas in air and apneas with face immersion in cold water were thus recorded in nine groups. Skin capillary blood flow was recorded in six of the groups. All subjects received the same information on maximizing apneic duration, and no information about their progress during the apneas. The longest apneas and the most pronounced cardiovascular adjustments were found in the young, trained divers. It was found that apneic time was significantly correlated to HR reduction among the nine groups (r = 0.94, P < 0.001), and to skin capillary blood flow reduction among the six groups where the parameter was measured (r = 0.82, P < 0.05). The correlation between HR reduction and skin capillary blood flow reduction was also significant (r = 0.85, P < 0.05). When the difference in HR reduction and apneic time between apneas in air and apneas with face immersion were compared in the nine groups, it was found that all groups reacted with a more pronounced HR reduction during apneas with face immersion. All groups without prior breath-hold diving experience were found to perform shorter apneas with face immersion than apneas in air, or apneas of the same duration in both conditions, which has been reported in other studies. However, in all groups with diving experience, the apneic time was prolonged during apneas with face immersion. The results of this study suggest an oxygen-conserving effect of the diving response in trained apneic divers

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