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  • 701.
    Andersson, Emelie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Att arbeta med barn med svenska som andraspråk i förskolan2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 702.
    Andersson, Emelie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Bylund, Lina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Föräldrars erfarenheter av babypottningEtt samspel med barnet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 703.
    Andersson, Emelie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Engkvist, Johanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    En litteraturöversikt om riskfaktorer för suicid2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 704.
    Andersson, Emelie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Selander, Viktoria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Relationen mellan styrelsens kunskap, integration av CSR och CSR-rapportkvalitet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of CSR reporting has increased over the past two decades and is an important tool when it comes to informing stakeholders of the corporate social responsibility work accomplished. Currently there are no mandatory standards for how CSR reports should be designed. This has led to scientist’s disagreement about the reliability and quality of the reports. Many of them agree that higher quality provides better conditions for taking advantage of the benefits that CSR reporting provides such as capital market benefits, competitiveness and legitimacy among stakeholders.This study analyzes how the board's knowledge and integration of CSR into the business effected the quality of CSR- reports. The selection was based on European and American companies with a market capitalization of 5 billion USD or more and CSR reports in English. 314 North American and 323 European companies from different industries met these requirements. Regression analyzes, a path analysis and a model of a series of regressions were used in order to analyze collected data. The result of the regression analyzes shows thatintegration of CSR has a positive impact on report quality and general knowledge of the board has a positive impact on the integration of CSR. The path analysis showed that integration of CSR acts as a partial mediator and that general knowledge of the board have a stronger direct effect on report quality.

  • 705.
    Andersson, Emilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    När ett barn får cancer: Ur föräldrarnas perspektiv2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion:

    Att få ett besked om att sitt barn har drabbats av cancer är ett förödande besked för hela familjen. Därför behöver sjukvården se till hela familjens behov och ge dem stöd och hjälp för att kunna hantera situationen. Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva föräldrarnas upplevelse och reaktion när deras barn får en cancerdiagnos samt vilka strategier de använder sig av för att hantera det. Metod: I denna litteraturstudie ingår 14 stycken artiklar varav 12 stycken är kvalitativa och 2 stycken är kvantitativa som granskades och sammanställdes. Resultat: Föräldrarna reagerade på diagnosen med stor sorg, rädsla och ångest. De beskrev en stor känslomässig stress och förnekelse. Stöd var viktigt för föräldrarna och det kunde vara från familj, vänner, sjukvårdspersonal och föräldrar som är i samma situation. Föräldrarna beskrev också olika strategier som de använde sig av för att hantera situationen, det kunde vara allt från att hålla en positiv attityd till att ta en mycket aktiv roll i barnets vård och tillstånd. Diskussion: Den rädsla, oro och sorg som uppstår hos föräldrarna ger upphov till lidande för dem. Detta lidande är ingenting som kan elimineras utan är något som sjukvården bör försöka lindra och hjälpa föräldrarna igenom. Genom att finnas till hands och tillgodose deras behov på bästa sätt så kan sjukvården underlätta för föräldrarna i en svår situation. Slutsats: Med denna litteraturöversikt kan sjukvården lättare sätta sig in i föräldrarnas tankar och känslor utifrån deras perspektiv när deras barn drabbas utav cancer. Därför kan sjukvården möta föräldrarnas behov och därmed lättare hjälpa dem hantera situationen.

  • 706.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Broström, Elin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    ”Det går liksom inte att vara för fyrkantig, man får vara lite flexibel” - om kontaktpersoners erfarenheter och upplevelser av övervakat umgänge 2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien avsåg att behandla insatsen övervakat umgänge tillsammans med kontaktperson. Syftet var att undersöka kontaktpersonernas erfarenheter och upplevelser genom att intervjua kontaktpersoner som arbetade vid övervakade umgängen. Tidigare forskning visade att kontaktpersonernas uppdrag är komplext då de ofta ställs inför olika svårigheter och dilemman. Resultatet analyserades genom perspektivet om det professionella mötet. Kvalitativ metod användes i form av halvstrukturerade intervjuer bland tre kontaktpersoner för att få djupgående beskrivningar kring detta fenomen. Studien visade att kontaktpersonernas uppdrag innehöll en rad olika roller de behöver förhålla sig till och hantera. Vidare visade resultatet att det i kontaktpersonernas uppdrag ingick stora delar kontroll och övervakning, vilket inte stämde överens med insatsens avsikt. Av resultatet kunde slutsatsen dras att kontaktpersonernas professionella förhållningssätt och bemötande gentemot barn och föräldrar innebar stora utmaningar.

  • 707.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Buzuku, Kosovare
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Jönsson, Hanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
      Midlanda Flygplats intranät - ett hjälpverktyg eller ett informationsöverflöd?Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 708.
    Andersson, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Institution of education.
    Söderkvist, Irene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Institution of education.
    Utomhusmatematik i Förskolan-Hur och Varför2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 709.
    Andersson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    d-GPS analys av tävlingsprestation i en sprintprolog på längdskidor i fri stil2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 710.
    Andersson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Effektiv lagerstyrning med AHP och tvådimensionell artikelklassificering: En fallstudie på Permobil AB, Timrå2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Costs related to inventory are usually a significant amount of the company’s total assets. Despite this, companies in general don’t pay a lot of interest in it, even if the benefits from effective inventory are obvious when it comes to less tied up capital, increased customer satisfaction and better working environment.

    Permobil AB, Timrå is in an intense period when it comes to revenue and growth. The production unit is aiming for an increased output of 30 % in the next two years. To make this possible the company has to improve their way to distribute and handle material,The purpose of the study is to provide useful information and concrete proposals for action, so that the company can build a strategy for an effective and sustainable solution when it comes to inventory management.

    Alternative methods for making forecasts are suggested, in order to reach a more nuanced perception of different articles, and how they should be managed. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used in order to give specially selected persons the chance to decide criteria for how the article should be valued. The criteria they agreed about were annual volume value, lead time, frequency rate and purchase price. The other method that was proposed was a two-dimensional model where annual volume value and frequency was the criteria that specified in which class an article should be placed. Both methods resulted in significant changes in comparison to the current solution.

    For the spare part inventory different forecast methods were tested and compared with the current solution. It turned out that the current forecast method performed worse than both moving average and exponential smoothing with trend. The small sample of ten random articles is not big enough to reject the current solution, but still the result is a reason enough, for the company to control the quality of the forecasts.

  • 711.
    Andersson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOMECHANICAL FACTORS DETERMINING CROSS-COUNTRY SKIING PERFORMANCE2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-country (c.c.) skiing is a complex sport discipline from both physiological and biomechanical perspectives, with varying course topographies that require different proportions of the involved sub-techniques to be utilised. A relatively new event in c.c. skiing is the sprint race, involving four separate heats, each lasting 2-4 min, with diverse demands from distance races associated with longer durations. Therefore, the overall aim of the current thesis has been to examine the biomechanical and physiological factors associated with sprint c.c. skiing performance through novel measurements conducted both in the field (Studies I-III) and the laboratory (Studies IV and V).

    In Study I sprint skiing velocities and sub-techniques were analysed with a differential global navigation satellite system in combination with video recording. In Studies II and III the effects of an increasing velocity (moderate, high and maximal) on the biomechanics of uphill classical skiing with the diagonal stride (DS) (Study II) and herringbone (HB) (Study III) sub-techniques were examined.

    In Study I the skiers completed the 1,425 m (2 x 712 m) sprint time trial (STT) in 207 s, at an average velocity of 24.8 km/h, with multiple technique transitions (range: 21-34) between skiing techniques (i.e., the different gears [G2-7]). A pacing strategy involving a fast start followed by a gradual slowing down (i.e., positive pacing) was employed as indicated by the 2.9% faster first than second lap. The slower second lap was primarily related to a slower (12.9%) uphill velocity with a shift from G3 towards a greater use of G2. The maximal oxygen uptake ( O2max) was related to the ability to maintain uphill skiing velocity and the fastest skiers used G3 to a greater extent than G2. In addition, maximal speed over short distances (50 and 20 m) with the G3 and double poling (DP) sub-techniques exerted an important impact on STT performance.

    Study II demonstrated that during uphill skiing (7.5°) with DS, skiers increased cycle rate and cycle length from moderate to high velocity, while cycle rate increased and cycle length decreased at maximal velocity. Absolute poling, gliding and kick times became gradually shorter with an elevated velocity. The rate of pole and leg force development increased with elevated velocity and the development of leg force in the normal direction was substantially faster during skiing on snow than previous findings for roller skiing, although the peak force was similar in both cases. The fastest skiers applied greater peak leg forces over shorter durations.

    Study III revealed that when employing the HB technique on a steep uphill slope (15°), the skiers positioned their skis laterally (“V” between 25 to 30°) and planted their poles at a slight lateral angle (8 to 12°), with most of the propulsive force being exerted on the inside forefoot. Of the total propulsive force, 77% was generated by the legs. The cycle rate increased across all three velocities (from 1.20 to 1.60 Hz), while cycle length only increased from moderate to high velocity (from 2.0 to 2.3 m). Finally, the magnitude and rate of leg force generation are important determinants of both DS and HB skiing performance, although the rate is more important in connection with DS, since this sub-technique involves gliding.

    In Studies IV and V skiers performed pre-tests for determination of gross efficiency (GE), O2max, and Vmax on a treadmill. The main performance test involved four self-paced STTs on a treadmill over a 1,300-m simulated course including three flat (1°) DP sections interspersed with two uphill (7°) DS sections.

    The modified GE method for estimating anaerobic energy production during skiing on varying terrain employed in Study IV revealed that the relative aerobic and anaerobic energy contributions were 82% and 18%, respectively, during the 232 s of skiing, with an accumulated oxygen (O2) deficit of 45 mL/kg. The STT performance time was largely explained by the GE (53%), followed by O2 (30%) and O2 deficit (15%). Therefore, training strategies designed to reduce energetic cost and improve GE should be examined in greater detail.

    In Study V metabolic responses and pacing strategies during the four successive STTs were investigated. The first and the last trials were the fastest (both 228 s) and were associated with both a substantially larger and a more rapid anaerobic energy supply, while the average O2 during all four STTs was similar. The individual variation in STT performance was explained primarily (69%) by the variation in O2 deficit. Furthermore, positive pacing was employed throughout all the STTs, but the pacing strategy became more even after the first trial. In addition, considerably higher (~ 30%) metabolic rates were generated on the uphill than on the flat sections of the course, reflecting an irregular production of anaerobic energy. Altogether, a fast start appears important for STT performance and high work rates during uphill skiing may exert a more pronounced impact on skiing performance outdoors, due to the reduction in velocity fluctuations and thereby overall air-drag.

  • 712.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Björklund, Glenn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Swedish Olympic Committee, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ørtenblad, Niels
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, SDU Muscle Research Cluster, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Energy system contributions and determinants of performance in sprint cross-country skiing2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 385-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve current understanding of energy contributions and determinants of sprint-skiing performance, 11 well-trained male cross-country skiers were tested in the laboratory for VO2max , submaximal gross efficiency (GE), maximal roller skiing velocity, and sprint time-trial (STT) performance. The STT was repeated four times on a 1300-m simulated sprint course including three flat (1°) double poling (DP) sections interspersed with two uphill (7°) diagonal stride (DS) sections. Treadmill velocity and VO2 were monitored continuously during the four STTs and data were averaged. Supramaximal GE during the STT was predicted from the submaximal relationships for GE against velocity and incline, allowing computation of metabolic rate and O2 deficit. The skiers completed the STT in 232 ± 10 s (distributed as 55 ± 3% DP and 45 ± 3% DS) with a mean power output of 324 ± 26 W. The anaerobic energy contribution was 18 ± 5%, with an accumulated O2 deficit of 45 ± 13 mL/kg. Block-wise multiple regression revealed that VO2 , O2 deficit, and GE explained 30%, 15%, and 53% of the variance in STT time, respectively (all P < 0.05). This novel GE-based method of estimating the O2 deficit in simulated sprint-skiing has demonstrated an anaerobic energy contribution of 18%, with GE being the strongest predictor of performance.

  • 713.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Govus, Andrew
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Shannon, Oliver Michael
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    McGawley, Kerry
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sex differences in performance and pacing strategies during sprint skiing2019In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare performance and pacing strategies between elite male and female cross-country skiers during a sprint competition on snow using the skating technique.

    Methods: Twenty male and 14 female skiers completed an individual time-trial prolog (TT) and three head-to-head races (quarter, semi, and final) on the same 1,572-m course, which was divided into flat, uphill and downhill sections. Section-specific speeds, choice of sub-technique (i.e., gear), cycle characteristics, heart rate and post-race blood lactate concentration were monitored. Power output was estimated for the different sections during the TT, while metabolic demand was estimated for two uphill camera sections and the final 50-m flat camera section.

    Results: Average speed during the four races was ∼12.5% faster for males than females (P < 0.001), while speeds on the flat, uphill and downhill sections were ∼11, 18, and 9% faster for the males than females (all P< 0.001 for terrain, sex, and interaction). Differences in uphill TT speed between the sexes were associated with different sub-technique preferences, with males using a higher gear more frequently than females (P < 0.05). The estimated metabolic demand relative to maximal oxygen uptake (V&#x2D9;" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V˙V˙O2max) was similar for both sexes during the two uphill camera sections (∼129% of V&#x2D9;" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V˙V˙O2max) and for the final 50-m flat section (∼153% of V&#x2D9;" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V˙V˙O2max). Relative power output during the TT was 18% higher for males compared to females (P < 0.001) and was highly variable along the course for both sexes (coefficient of variation [CV] between sections 4–9 was 53%), while the same variation in heart rate was low (CV was ∼3%). The head-to-head races were ∼2.4% faster than the TT for both sexes and most race winners (61%) were positioned first already after 30 m of the race. No sex differences were observed during any of the races for heart rate or blood lactate concentration.

    Conclusion: The average sex difference in sprint skiing performance was ∼12.5%, with varying differences for terrain-specific speeds. Moreover, females skied relatively slower uphill (at a lower gear) and thereby elicited more variation in their speed profiles compared to the males.

  • 714.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ørtenblad, Niels
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Björklund, Glenn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Energy contributions and pacing strategies of elite XC skiers during sprint skiing2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: At present, knowledge regarding energy contributions and pacing strategies during successive sprint time-trials (STTs) in cross-country (XC) skiing is limited and, therefore, the current study was designed to examine these parameters. The results shown have recently been published elsewhere (Andersson et al., 2016).METHODS: Ten well-trained male XC skiers performed four self-paced 1300-m STTs on a treadmill, separated by 45 min of recovery. The simulated STT course was divided into three flat (1°) sections (S1, S3 and S5) involving the double poling (DP) sub-technique interspersed with two uphill (7°) sections (S2 and S4) involving the diagonal stride (DS) sub-technique. Treadmill velocity and VO2 were monitored continuously and technique-specific gross efficiency (based on submaximal pre-tests) was used to estimate anaerobic energy production.RESULTS & DISCUSSION: The average STT performance time was 229 ± 9 s and the aerobic energy contribution was 82 ± 5%. A positive pacing strategy was used during all STTs, with 3-9% more time spent on the second half of the course (P < 0.05). In addition, the pacing strategy was regulated to the terrain, with substantially higher (~30%) metabolic rates, due to primarily higher anaerobic energy production, for uphill compared with flat skiing (P < 0.05). The individually fastest STT was more aggressively paced compared to the slowest STT (P < 0.05), which resulted in a higher O2 deficit rate (13 ± 4 versus 11 ± 4 mL/kg/min, P < 0.05), while the VO2 was similar (both 52 ± 3 mL/kg/min). These findings emphasise the importance of a fast start. The within-athlete coefficient of variation (CV) in performance time, VO2 and O2 deficit were 1.3 ± 0.4%, 1.4 ± 0.9% and 11.2 ± 4.9%, respectively, with the CV in O2 deficit explaining 69% of the CV in performance. The pacing strategies were highly consistent, with an average CV in speed of 3.4%.CONCLUSION: The fastest STT was characterized by more aggressive pacing and a greater anaerobic energy production. Although the individual performance time during the four STTs was highly consistent, the small within-athlete variability in performance was related to variations in anaerobic energy production.

  • 715.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ørtenblad, Niels
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Björklund, Glenn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Metabolic responses and pacing strategies during successive sprint skiing time trials2016In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 48, no 12, p. 2544-2554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To examine the metabolic responses and pacing strategies during the performance of successive sprint time trials (STTs) in cross-country skiing. METHODS: Ten well-trained male cross-country skiers performed four self-paced 1300-m STTs on a treadmill, each separated by 45 min of recovery. The simulated STT course was divided into three flat (1°) sections (S1, S3 and S5) involving the double poling sub-technique interspersed with two uphill (7°) sections (S2 and S4) involving the diagonal stride sub-technique. Treadmill velocity and V˙O2 were monitored continuously and gross efficiency was used to estimate the anaerobic energy supply. RESULTS: The individual trial-to-trial variability in STT performance time was 1.3%, where variations in O2 deficit and V˙O2 explained 69% (P < 0.05) and 11% (P > 0.05) of the variation in performance. The first and last STTs were equally fast (228 ± 10 s), and ~ 1.3% faster than the second and the third STTs (P < 0.05). These two fastest STTs were associated with a 14% greater O2 deficit (P < 0.05), while the average V˙O2 was similar during all four STTs (86 ± 3% of V˙O2max). Positive pacing was used throughout all STTs, with significantly less time spent on the first than second course half. In addition, metabolic rates were substantially higher (~_30%) for uphill than for flat skiing, indicating that pacing was regulated to the terrain. CONCLUSIONS: The fastest STTs were characterized primarily by a greater anaerobic energy production, which also explained 69% of the individual variation in performance. Moreover, the skiers employed positive pacing and a variable exercise intensity according to the course profile, yielding an irregular distribution of anaerobic energy production.

  • 716.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    McGawley, Kerry
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    A Comparison between Different Methods of Estimating Anaerobic Energy Production2018In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, no FEB, article id 82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The present study aimed to compare four methods of estimating anaerobic energy production during supramaximal exercise.

    Methods: Twenty-one junior cross-country skiers competing at a national and/or international level were tested on a treadmill during uphill (7°) diagonal-stride (DS) roller-skiing. After a 4-minute warm-up, a 4 × 4-min continuous submaximal protocol was performed followed by a 600-m time trial (TT). For the maximal accumulated O2 deficit (MAOD) method the V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2-speed regression relationship was used to estimate the V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demand during the TT, either including (4+Y, method 1) or excluding (4-Y, method 2) a fixed Y-intercept for baseline V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2. The gross efficiency (GE) method (method 3) involved calculating metabolic rate during the TT by dividing power output by submaximal GE, which was then converted to a V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demand. An alternative method based on submaximal energy cost (EC, method 4) was also used to estimate V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demand during the TT.

    Results: The GE/EC remained constant across the submaximal stages and the supramaximal TT was performed in 185 ± 24 s. The GE and EC methods produced identical V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demands and O2 deficits. The V." role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">V.V.O2 demand was ~3% lower for the 4+Y method compared with the 4-Y and GE/EC methods, with corresponding O2 deficits of 56 ± 10, 62 ± 10, and 63 ± 10 mL·kg−1, respectively (P < 0.05 for 4+Y vs. 4-Y and GE/EC). The mean differences between the estimated O2 deficits were −6 ± 5 mL·kg−1 (4+Y vs. 4-Y, P < 0.05), −7 ± 1 mL·kg−1 (4+Y vs. GE/EC, P < 0.05) and −1 ± 5 mL·kg−1 (4-Y vs. GE/EC), with respective typical errors of 5.3, 1.9, and 6.0%. The mean difference between the O2 deficit estimated with GE/EC based on the average of four submaximal stages compared with the last stage was 1 ± 2 mL·kg−1, with a typical error of 3.2%.

    Conclusions: These findings demonstrate a disagreement in the O2 deficits estimated using current methods. In addition, the findings suggest that a valid estimate of the O2 deficit may be possible using data from only one submaximal stage in combination with the GE/EC method.

  • 717.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    McGawley, Kerry
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    A Comparison Between Different Methods Of Estimating Anaerobic Energy Production During Cross-Country Roller-Skiing2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Two frequently used approaches for estimating anaerobic energy production during supramaximal exercise are the maximal accumulated oxygen (O2) deficit (MAOD) method and the gross efficiency (GE) method (Noordhof et al., 2011). Despite clear computational differences between the two methods, only one direct comparison has been performed (Noordhof et al., 2011). In cross-country roller-skiing, both the MAOD and the GE methods have been employed (Andersson et al., 2016). Therefore, this study aimed to compare the O2 deficits attained with these methods.

    Methods

    Eleven male and ten female cross-country skiers were tested on a treadmill employing uphill (7°) diagonal-stride roller-skiing. After collecting a 1-min baseline VO2, participants performed a 4 × 4-min continuous submaximal protocol (~ 60-90% of VO2max) followed by, a self-paced 600-m time-trial (TT). Speed and VO2 were measured continuously during the TT. For the MAOD method, the linear relationship between treadmill velocity and VO2 during the final 30 seconds of each 4 × 4-min submaximal stage was derived with the baseline VO2 as a Y-intercept included (4+Y) in or excluded (4-Y) from the model. The two regression equations were then used to estimate the VO2 demand during the TT. For the GE method, the metabolic rate during the TT was calculated by taking the average power output divided by the GE (an average of the four submaximal stages) and converted to a VO2 demand. 

    Results

    The VO2 demand was significantly higher for the GE (68.9 ± 8.5 mL/kg/min) and 4-Y (68.4 ± 8.7 mL/kg/min) procedures compared with the 4+Y (64.3 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min) procedure (P < 0.05). The corresponding O2 deficits for the GE, 4-Y and, 4+Y procedures were 63.7 ± 9.7, 62.3 ± 10.4 and, 50.2 ± 9.6 mL/kg, respectively (P < 0.05 for GE and 4-Y vs. 4+Y). The mean difference between the O2 deficits estimated from the 4-Y and GE procedure -1.4 ± 3.9 mL/kg, and between the 4+Y and GE procedures was -13.5 ± 2.5 mL/kg.  Corresponding typical errors for the two comparisons were 2.74% and 1.74% while the intra-class correlation coefficients together with linear equations were r = 0.93 (0.99x – 0.8) for [4-Y vs. GE] and r = 0.97 (0.95x - 10.5) for [4+Y vs. GE].

    Discussion

    The main finding of the current study was the high agreement between the 4-Y and GE procedures which is in contrast to previous findings of Noordhof et al. (2011). Moreover, the inclusion of a Y-intercept for baseline VO2 resulted in a 20% lower O2 deficit compared to the 4-Y and GE procedures.  

    References

    Andersson E, Björklund G, Holmberg HC, Ørtenblad N. (2016). Scand J Med Sci Sports. Noordhof DA, Vink AM, de Koning JJ. Foster C. (2011). Int J Sports Med, 32, 422-8

  • 718.
    Andersson, Erik P.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Govus, Andrew
    Department of Rehabilitation, Nutrition and Sport, La Trobe University, Australia.
    Shannon, Oliver M.
    Human Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, United Kingdom.
    McGawley, Kerry
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sex differences in performance and pacing strategies during a sprint time-trial in cross-country skiing2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to compare the pacing strategies, choice of sub-technique (i.e., gear) and overall performance between elite male and female cross-country (XC) skiers during a ski-skating sprint time-trial (TT) on snow.

    METHODS: Thirty-four elite XC skiers (20 males and 14 females: age, 23 ± 4 and 21 ± 3 yr; body mass, 76 ± 8 and 64 ± 5 kg; height, 183 ± 7 and 171 ± 5 cm; sprint FIS points, 86 ± 42 and 90 ± 54) performed a 1.6 km TT, which was 56% flat (or undulating), 21% uphill and 22% downhill. The sprint course was measured with a differential global navigation satellite system and divided into four flat, three uphill and two downhill sections. Race time was measured with the EMIT timing system (Emit AS, Oslo, Norway) and one 25-m uphill (4°) section was filmed continuously with a fixed camcorder (50 Hz). All skiers used a similar stone-grind and all skis were glide-waxed similarly. The air temperature was +1°C (fresh snow at ±0°C), relative humidity was 90% and the friction coefficient between ski and snow was estimated to 0.045 (i.e., very slow).

    RESULTS: Average speed during the TT was 25 ± 1 and 22 ± 1 km/h (TT time: 227 ± 11 and 254 ± 10 s) for males and females, respectively (P < 0.001, Cohen’s d effect size [ES] = 2.6). Average relative power output (PO) was estimated to 3.9 ± 0.3 and 3.3 ± 0.2 W/kg for males and females, respectively (P < 0.001, ES = 2.5). Average heart rate was 95 ± 2% and 96 ± 1% of maximum for males and females (P = 0.51), with a 2-min post-race blood lactate concentration of 10 ± 2 mmol/L for both sexes (P = 0.64). Within-athlete coefficient of variation in speed between sections was 20 ± 2% for males and 24 ± 1% for females (P < 0.001, ES = 2.6). Speeds on the flat, uphill and downhill sections were 26 ± 1, 19 ± 1 and 32 ± 1 km/h for males and 23 ± 1, 16 ± 1 and 30 ± 1 km/h for females (main effects for terrain, sex and interaction, all P < 0.01) corresponding to 9%, 16% and 8% slower speeds on flat, uphill and downhill terrain for females. Speeds relative to the average TT speed were 103 ± 1%, 77 ± 2% and 129 ± 4% for males and 105 ± 1%, 72 ± 2% and 133 ± 2% for females (main effects for terrain, sex and interaction, all P < 0.001). Relative PO on the flat, uphill and downhill sections were estimated to 4.0 ± 0.3, 4.9 ± 0.4 and 1.9 ± 0.2 W/kg for males and 3.5 ± 0.2, 4.0 ± 0.3 and 1.5 ± 0.2 W/kg for females (main effects for terrain, sex and interaction, all P < 0.001). The males were 20% faster than the females on the uphill video section (16 ± 1 versus 13 ± 1 km/h, P < 0.001, ES = 2.6), with 95% of the male skiers and 21% of the female skiers using gear 3 exclusively, and the remaining skiers using gear 2 exclusively or a combination of gears 2 and 3.

    CONCLUSION: The present results indicate an overall sex difference in sprint skiing performance of ~12% and reveal differences in terrain-specific pacing as well as gear choice between sexes with females showing a higher overall variation in speed and considerably slower uphill skiing.

  • 719.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Pellegrini, B
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sandbakk, Ø
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    COMPARISONS BETWEEN HERRINGBONE AND DIAGONAL STRIDE TECHNIQUES IN CROSS-COUNTRY SKIING2012In: / [ed] Meeusen, R., Duchateau, J., Roelands, B., Klass, M., De Geus, B., Baudry, S., Tsolakidis, E., 2012, p. 77-77Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 720.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Pellegrini, Barbara
    CeRiSM, Research Center for Sport, Mountain and Health, Rovereto, Italy.
    Sandbakk, Öyvind
    Centre for Elite Sports Research, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway .
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria .
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Swedish Olympic Committee, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The effects of skiing velocity on mechanical aspects of diagonal cross-country skiing2014In: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, E-ISSN 1752-6116, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 267-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cycle and force characteristics were examined in 11 elite male cross-country skiers using the diagonal stride technique while skiing uphill (7.5 degrees) on snow at moderate (3.5 +/- 0.3m/s), high (4.5 +/- 0.4m/s), and maximal (5.6 +/- 0.6m/s) velocities. Video analysis (50Hz) was combined with plantar (leg) force (100Hz), pole force (1,500Hz), and photocell measurements. Both cycle rate and cycle length increased from moderate to high velocity, while cycle rate increased and cycle length decreased at maximal compared to high velocity. The kick time decreased 26% from moderate to maximal velocity, reaching 0.14s at maximal. The relative kick and gliding times were only altered at maximal velocity, where these were longer and shorter, respectively. The rate of force development increased with higher velocity. At maximal velocity, sprint-specialists were 14% faster than distance-specialists due to greater cycle rate, peak leg force, and rate of leg force development. In conclusion, large peak leg forces were applied rapidly across all velocities and the shorter relative gliding and longer relative kick phases at maximal velocity allow maintenance of kick duration for force generation. These results emphasise the importance of rapid leg force generation in diagonal skiing.

  • 721.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Pellegrini, Barbara
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sandbakk, Øyvind
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    MECHANICS OF VELOCITY ADAPTATION IN DIAGONAL SKIING2012In: / [ed] Anni Hakkarainen, Stefan Lindinger and Vesa Linnamo, 2012, p. 62-62Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 722.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    University of Salzburg.
    Pellegrini, Barbara
    University of Verona.
    Sandbakk, Oyvind
    NTNU, Trondheim, Norge.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Biomechanical comparison of different uphill techniques in the classical style cross-country skiing2010In: Proceedings for the fifth international conference on Science and Skiing / [ed] Erich Mueller, Salzburg, Austria: Meyer & Meyer Sport, 2010, p. 46-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 723.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Pellegrini, Barbara
    CeRiSM Research Center for Sport, Mountain and Health University of Verona Rovereto Italy.
    Sandbakk, Øyvind
    Department of Human Movement Science Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim Norway.
    Ettema, Gertjan
    Department of Human Movement Science Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim Norway.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Biomechanical analysis of the herringbone technique as employed by elite cross-country skiers2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 542-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation was designed to analyse the kinematics and kinetics of cross-country skiing at different velocities with the herringbone technique on a steep incline. Eleven elite male cross-country skiers performed this technique at maximal, high, and moderate velocities on a snow-covered 15° incline. They positioned their skis laterally (25 to 30°) with a slight inside tilt and planted their poles laterally (8 to 12°) with most leg thrust force exerted on the inside forefoot. Although 77% of the total propulsive force was generated by the legs, the ratio between propulsive and total force was approximately fourfold higher for the poles. The cycle rate increased with velocity (1.20 to 1.60 Hz), whereas the cycle length increased from moderate up to high velocity, but then remained the same at maximal velocity (2.0 to 2.3 m). In conclusion, with the herringbone technique, the skis were angled laterally without gliding, with the forces distributed mainly on the inside forefoot to enable grip for propulsion. The skiers utilized high cycle rates with major propulsion by the legs, highlighting the importance of high peak and rapid generation of leg forces.

  • 724.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Supej, Matej
    University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenien.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Analysis of a sprint qualification round in cross-country skiing using a differential global navigation system2009In: Proceedings of the 14th Annual Congress of European College of Sports Science / [ed] Loland, S., Bø, K., Fasting, K., Hallén, J., Ommundsen, Y., Roberts, G., Tsolakidis, E., Oslo: Gamlebyen Grafiske AS , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 725.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Supej, Matej
    Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Sandbakk, Oyvind
    Human Movement Science Programme, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Sperlich, Billy
    Institute of Training Science and Sport Informatics, German Sport University Cologne, Germany .
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Analysis of sprint cross-country skiing using a differential global navigation satellite system2010In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 110, no 3, p. 585-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to examine skiing velocities, gear choice (G2-7) and cycle rates during a skating sprint time trial (STT) and their relationships to performance, as well as to examine relationships between aerobic power, body composition and maximal skiing velocity versus STT performance. Nine male elite cross-country skiers performed three tests on snow: (1) Maximum velocity test (Vmax) performed using G3 skating, (2) Vmax test performed using double poling (DP) technique and (3) a STT over 1,425 m. Additional measurements of VO2max during roller skiing and body composition using iDXA were made. Differential global navigation satellite system data were used for position and velocity and synchronized with video during STT. The STT encompassed a large velocity range (2.9-12.9 m s-1) and multiple transitions (21-34) between skiing gears. Skiing velocity in the uphill sections was related to gear selection between G2 and G3. STT performance was most strongly correlated to uphill time (r = 0.92, P < 0.05), the percentage use of G2 (r = -0.72, P < 0.05), and DP Vmax (r = -0.71, P < 0.05). The velocity decrease in the uphills from lap 1 to lap 2 was correlated with VO2max (r = -0.78, P < 0.05). Vmax in DP and G3 were related to percent of racing time using G3. In conclusion, the sprint skiing performance was mainly related to uphill performance, greater use of the G3 technique, and higher DP and G3 maximum velocities. Additionally, VO2max was related to the ability to maintain racing velocity in the uphills and lean body mass was related to starting velocity and DP maximal speed.

  • 726.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Willis, Sarah J.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ørtenblad, Niels
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Energy System Contributions And Determinants Of Performance In Classical Sprint Cross-Country Skiing2014In: Proceedings for the 19th ECCS in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 727.
    Andersson, Erika
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Falk, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    SJUKSKÖTERSKANS PREVENTIVA ARBETEFÖR ATT FÖREBYGGA TRYCKSÅR: – En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Trycksår är ett vanligt problem inom sjukvården som skapar stort lidande för dedrabbade. Trycksår är skador i huden och/eller underliggande vävnad, vanligtvis där benligger nära huden. Detta uppstår främst som resultat av tryck eller tryck i kombination medskjuvning. Syfte: Syftet var att belysa sjuksköterskans preventiva arbete för att förebyggatrycksår samt sjuksköterskans behov för att kunna förebygga trycksår. Metod: Totaltinkluderades 15 artiklar i litteraturöversiktens resultat. Artiklarna valdes ut systematiskt föratt finna studier som svarade till litteraturöversiktens syfte. Artiklarna som valdes ut varkvalitativa, kvantitativa och av mixad design. Resultat: Sjuksköterskans arbetsuppgifter idet preventiva arbetet mot trycksår inkluderade samarbete med andra professioner,dokumentation, utförande av riskbedömningar samt att tillgodose patienternas behov avnäring och utförande av hudvård. Sjuksköterskan försökte även få patienterna delaktiga i sinvård genom att ge rikligt med information. För att göra detta möjligt hade sjuksköterskan ettbehov av adekvat utrustning som exempelvis tryckreducerande madrasser, glidlakan ochkilkuddar samt utbildning för att bibehålla kunskap inom området.Diskussion: Sjuksköterskor behöver adekvat utbildning och utrustning för att bedriva engod omvårdnad och ett trycksårsförebyggande arbete som främjar patientens förutsättningarför att bli oberoende. Slutsats: Fortbildning samt kvalitetssäkrad utrustning kan ses som enförutsättning för sjuksköterskans preventiva arbete mot trycksår. Framtida forskning börfokusera på mer delaktiga patienter i form av egenvård för ett trycksårsförebyggande arbete.

  • 728.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hagberg, S.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Nilsson, T.
    Sundsvall Hospital.
    Karlsson, B.
    Umeå University.
    Alfredsson, L.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Torén, K.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Incidence of asthma among workers exposed to sulfur dioxide and other irritant gases2006In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 720-725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether repeated peak exposure (gassings) to sulphur dioxide (SO2) and other irritant gases increases the risk of new-onset asthma. A questionnaire was sent to 4,112 sulphite workers, of whom 1,919 completed the questionnaire and 396 completed the short-form questionnaire, which was sent out as a last reminder. A sample of 130 nonrespondents completed a telephone interview using the short-form questionnaire. The incidence of adult-onset, physician-diagnosed asthma during employment duration was analysed in relation to exposure to SO2 and gassings giving rise to respiratory symptoms. Incidence rates, as well as incidence rate ratios with 95% confidence interval (CI), were calculated. Further Cox regression models were used allowing assessment of hazard ratios (HR) stratified for sex and adjusted for atopy, smoking habits and age. The incidence rate for asthma among sulphite mill workers reporting gassings of SO2 was 6.2 out of 1,000 person-yrs, compared with 1.9 out of 1,000 person-yrs among subjects unexposed to SO2 and any gassings (HR (95% CI) 4.0 (2.1-7.7)). Among males reporting gassings to SO2, the HR (95% CI) for asthma was 5.8 (2.6-13) compared with unexposed males. In conclusion, repeated peak exposure to sulphur dioxide increased the incidence of asthma during work in sulphite pulp mills, which supports the hypothesis of irritant-induced asthma.

  • 729.
    Andersson, Eva-Britt
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Karlsson, Angelica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskans upplevelse av att utföra palliativ vård inom hemjukvård2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 730.
    Andersson, Evelina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Lidmark, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Mötet med den våldsutsatta kvinnan: - Sjuksköterskans perspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Våld mot kvinnor är ett universellt och allvarligt folkhälsoproblem som påverkar kvinnors fysiska och psykiska hälsa samt kränker hennes mänskliga rättigheter. Vanligast är att bli utsatt för våld av sin partner och globalt har 38 % av morden på kvinnor begåtts av en partner.

    Syfte:

    Att belysa sjuksköterskans perspektiv på bemötandet av den våldsutsatta kvinnan.

    Metod:

    En allmän litteraturöversikt där elva vetenskapliga artiklar har granskats och sammanställts.

    Resultat:

    Sjuksköterskan upplevde rädsla och osäkerhet i mötet vilket bidrog till att det var svårt att fråga kvinnan om våld. När kvinnovåldet bekräftades framkallades olika känslor hos sjuksköterskan och hon blev känslomässigt involverad. Sjuksköterskan agerade i situationen genom att vidta olika åtgärder.

    Diskussion:

    Ett bra bemötande bygger på att våldsutsatta kvinnor behöver bli behandlade med respekt och bli tagna på allvar. Sjuksköterskans bemötande betraktas som betydelsefullt eftersom ett dåligt bemötande kan leda till att patienter undviker att söka vård och lidandet kan därmed kvarstå.

    Slutsats:

    Ett sätt att minska sjuksköterskornas osäkerhet kan vara att införa simuleringar, handlingsplaner, screening, utbildningsdagar eller införa ämnet i sjuksköterskeutbildningen. Detta kan stärka självsäkerheten hos sjuksköterskor och övrig vårdpersonal att våga bemöta problemet.

  • 731.
    Andersson, Evelyn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Revisorers hållbarhetsrådgivning: - finns möjligheten för revisorer att erbjuda rådgivning inför hållbarhetsarbetet?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 732.
    Andersson, Ewa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Distinctions in cultural production: the case of the Swedish indies2011In: 1st global conference: Urban Popcultures, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 733.
    Andersson, Ewa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Distinctions in Cultural Production: The Case of the Swedish Indies2012In: Hidden Cities: Understanding Urban Popcultures / [ed] Leonard R. Koos, Inter-Disciplinary Press, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 734.
    Andersson, Ewa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Entreprenörskap i musikbranschen: Sveriges Sociologförbunds årsmöteskonferens2007Conference paper (Other scientific)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste åren har musikbranschen genomgått stora förändringar. Skivförsäljningen minskar till följd av, bland annat, nedladdningen av musik. Marknaden domineras i stort av de fyra så kallade majorbolagen; EMI, BMG/Sony, Warner och Universal. Under 2005 hade dessa fyra 83 procent av marknadsandelarna i Sverige. Övriga marknadsandelar står de så kallade oberoende skivbolagen för. Denna studie inriktar sig på dessa oberoende bolag. Fokus ligger på vilken anda som finns i branschen och tar sin utgångspunkt i motsättningen mellan den romantiska och den kapitalistiska ideologin � eller den intellektuella och kommersiella om man så vill � vilket är ideologier som tidigare lyfts fram av t.ex. Bourdieu och Stratton som närvarande inom såväl musikbranschen som kulturindustrin i stort.

  • 735.
    Andersson, Ewa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Framgångssyn bland svenska oberoende skivbolag2008In: Sociologförbundets årskonferens i Östersund, 31/8-1/2 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 736.
    Andersson, Ewa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Ge mig nåt som känns!: Uppfattningar om framgång bland svenska oberoende skivbolag2008Other (Other academic)
  • 737.
    Andersson, Ewa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Masculine independency2013In: ESA 2013 Torino: Crisis, Critique and Change, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 738.
    Andersson, Ewa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Oberoendets praktik2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Independent Practice

    During the last hundred years, the music industry has evolved with the record labels playing a central role. However, many argue that this situation is about to change as record sales have decreased during the last ten years. This imminent change in the music industry will not only affect the multinational record labels, but also the independent record labels.  As record sales have decreased during the last ten years, the number of members in the Swedish Independent Music Producers Association (SOM) has increased and the association now includes 300 independent record labels which are responsible for around 30 percent of the music being produced in Sweden. However, they can be considered a dominated group within the music industry, since they only have around 10 percent of the total market shares when it comes to selling figures. Considering the changes in record sales, the domination of the major record labels and the somewhat fascinating growth of independent actors during turbulent times, this thesis will study how the Swedish independent actors relate to the practices and ideals relevant in the daily work of running an independent record label. The practices studied in this thesis are the practice of work, the practice of recognition and the practice of content production.

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyse how independence is constructed among the members of SOM. The thesis is based on material collected in a web survey as well as seven interviews with representatives of indie labels. The web survey was distributed to all members of SOM, and the interviewed informants were selected by snowball sampling, using a locator to find informants. The survey material was analysed with cluster and variance analysis, while the interview material was analysed using content analysis – searching for themes connected to the practices. All material is understood through the theoretical frame of the field theory.

    The main results of the study are that there are different ways of relating to practices among the Swedish independent actors, and that these ways of relating are closely connected to their position within the field. There are common ways of relating to practices such as always promoting DIY, the importance of music and the need to resist the dominance of the major labels. However, the independent actors are not consistent in how these commonalities work in practice. For example, DIY is not applied if it is not economically necessary, and the need to resist the major labels is only apparent when the independent actor has a weaker position within the field. The more established an independent actor is within the field, the lesser resistant he is against the dominating structures of the music industry.  As a result of a weakening resistance against the major labels, the independent actors turn to struggle each other.

  • 739.
    Andersson, Ewa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The rationalization of cultural value: a study of independent record labels in Sweden2010In: XVII ISA World Congress of Sociology: Sociology on the move, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 740.
    Andersson, Ewa
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Institutionen för Kvinnor och barns hälsa.
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Div Reprod Hlth, SE-171770 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hildingsson, Ingegerd
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Div Reprod Hlth, SE-171770 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mothers’ satisfaction with group antenatal care versus individual antenatal care: A clinical trial2013In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 113-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare women's satisfaction with group based antenatal care and standard care.

    Design A randomised control trial where midwives were randomized to perform either GBAC or standard care. Women were invited to evaluate the two models of care. Data was collected by two questionnaires, in early pregnancy and six months after birth. Crude and adjusted odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval were calculated by model of care.

    Settings Twelve antenatal clinics in Sweden between September 2008 and December 2010.

    Participants Women in various part of Sweden (n=700).

    Findings In total, 8:16 variables in GBAC versus 9:16 in standard care were reported as deficient. Women in GBAC reported significantly less deficiencies with information about labour/birth OR 0.16 (0.10–0.27), breastfeeding OR 0.58 (0.37–0.90) and time following birth OR 0.61 (0.40–0.94). Engagement from the midwives OR 0.44 (0.25–0.78) and being taken seriously OR 0.55 (0.31–0.98) were also found to be less deficient. Women in GBAC reported the highest level of deficiency with information about pregnancy OR 3.45 (2.03–5.85) but reported less deficiency with time to plan the birth OR 0.61 (0.39–0.96). In addition, women in GBAC more satisfied with care in supporting contact with other parents OR 3.86 (2.30–6.46) and felt more support to initiate breastfeeding OR 1.75 (1.02–2.88).

    Conclusions Women in both models of care considered the care as deficient in more than half of all areas. Variables that differed between the two models favoured group based antenatal care.

  • 741.
    Andersson, Ewa
    et al.
    Inst för Kvinnors och Barns hälsa, Karolinska Institutet.
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Inst för Kvinnors och Barns Hälsa, Karolinska Instituet.
    Hildingsson, Ingegerd
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Parents' experiences and perceptions of group-based antenatal care in four clinics in Sweden2012In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 442-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: group-based antenatal care consists of six to nine two-hour sessions in which information is shared and discussed during the first hour and individual examinations are conducted during the second hour. Groups generally consist of six to eight pregnant women. Parent education is built into the programme, which originated in the United States and was introduced in Sweden at the beginning of the year of 2000. Objective: to investigate parents' experiences of group antenatal care in four different clinics in Sweden. Method: a qualitative study was conducted using content analysis five group interviews and eleven individual interviews with parents who experienced group-based antenatal care. An interview guide was used. Settings: the study was set in four antenatal clinics that had offered group-based antenatal care for at least one year. The clinics were located in three different areas of Sweden. Participants: the participants were women and their partners who had experienced group-based antenatal care during pregnancy. Other criteria for participation were mastery of the Swedish language and having followed the care programme. Findings: three themes emerged, 'The care-combining individual physical needs with preparation for parenthood, refers to the context, organisation, and content of care'. Group antenatal care with inbuilt parent education was appreciated, but respondents reported that they felt unprepared for the first few weeks after birth. Their medical needs (for physical assessment and screening) were, however, fulfilled. The theme, 'The group-a composed recipient of care', showed the participants role and experience. The role could be passive or active in groups or described as sharers. Groups helped parents normalise their symptoms. The theme, 'The midwife-a controlling professional', showed midwives are ignorant of gender issues but, for their medical knowledge, viewed as respectable professionals. Key conclusions: in the four clinics studied, group-based antenatal care appeared to meet parents' needs for physical assessment and screening. Parents identified that the groups helped them prepare for birth but not for parenthood. The group model created a forum for sharing experiences and helped participants to normalise their pregnancy symptoms. Implications for practise: the midwife's role in facilitating group-based antenatal care demands new pedagogical strategies and approaches.

  • 742.
    Andersson, Ewa
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Institutionen för Kvinnor och barns hälsa.
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hildingsson, Ingegerd
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Swedish midwives' perspectives on group based antenatal care.2014In: International Journal of Childbirth, ISSN 2156-5287, E-ISSN 2156-5295, Vol. 4, p. 240-249Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 743.
    Andersson, Ewa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Every indie in its place2012In: 2nd global conference: Urban Popcultures, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 744.
    Andersson, Ewa
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Hildingsson, Ingegerd
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences. Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Mother's postnatal stress: an investigation of links to various factors during pregnancy and post-partum2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 782-789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Higher levels of parental stress have long-term effects on children's health and could lead to dysfunction in the parent–child interaction. Different background factors can be predictors of high parental stress. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine parental stress among Swedish women and identify different factors linked to women's parental stress. Method: About 702 women were recruited to a clinical study and followed up six months after birth. Data were collected by two questionnaires, and 279 women completed the Swedish Parental Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ). Findings: Less than very good mental health and depressive symptoms after birth were strongly associated with parental stress, and the strongest association was found between post-partum depressive symptoms and high levels of stress in the subscale Incompetence. Multiparity was associated with high stress in two subscales, and lower level of education was a protective factor for stress in nearly all subscales. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms and perceived poor mental health post-partum are the most important factors related to high parental stress. The results point to the importance of identifying and supporting mothers with depressive symptoms, since these women have both mental illness and increased stress.

  • 745.
    Andersson F, Nathalie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sundén, Angelica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nätmobbning: Skolpersonalens syn på nätmobbning2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 746.
    Andersson, Felicia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Jordahl, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pedagogisk dokumentation i förskolan: – för vem och varför?En kvalitativ intervjustudie om pedagogisk dokumentation2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 747.
    Andersson, Felicia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Kibe, Linnea
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Kommentarers påverkan på journalisterna: En studie om hur publikens interaktion via webben påverkar journalisterna och  hur det i sin tur påverkar journalistiken.2014Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Efter digitaliseringens framfart är det numera enkelt att som mediekonsument kommunicera med journalister och dess mediehus. Den här undersökningen fokuserar på hur publiken påverkar journalister i interaktionen via webben och hur det i sin tur påverkar journalistiken. Vi kom fram till att journalistiken inte påverkas av publiken i stor utsträckning. Men den ändras ibland på grund av rädsla för arga kommentarer eller påhopp. Interaktionen påverkar också journalistiken genom att nyheter skapas genom tips, råd och användarskapat innehåll. På så sätt har mediekonsumenter till viss del en inverkan på journalistiken.

  • 748.
    Andersson, Felicia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Nedlund, Evelina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Invandringen till Sverige och hur medier gestaltar den: En uppsats om fyra svenska rikstäckande tidningars rapportering om invandring och deras överensstämmelse till verkligheten2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka hur invandring gestaltas i de fyra tidningarna Aftonbladet, Expressen, Dagens Nyheter och Svenska Dagbladet under tidsperioden januari 2010 till juni 2015. Den teori som uppsatsen har sin utgångspunkt i är gestaltningsteorin. Det uppstår ett problem om medierna gestaltar verkligheten på ett sätt som inte stämmer överens med den faktiska verkligheten. Eftersom nyheterna har en inverkan på människors attityder kan mediernas gestaltning av verkligheten också påverka deras bild av den faktiska verkligheten, vilket i sin tur kan påverka opinionen och demokratin. Resultaten visar att medierna rapporterat mer om flyktinginvandring än om någon annan typ av invandring. Tidningarna gestaltar även invandring som ett problem mer än dubbelt så ofta som den gestaltas som en tillgång. Det syns särskilt tydligt genom att den vanligaste gestaltningen är att invandring bidrar till att försvaga den sociala sammanhållningen i Sverige. En del av resultaten jämförs med statistik från Migrationsverket, vilket visar att den verklighet medierna förmedlar till stor del inte överensstämmer med den faktiska verkligheten.

  • 749.
    Andersson Forsberg, Andrea
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Johansson, Annie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Könad evenemangsmarknadsföring: En fallstudie om hur genus framställs i Storsjöyrans marknadsföring2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 750. Andersson, Fredrik
    1. Asymmetric aldol and alkylation reactions using pyrrolidine-based chiral auxiliaries 2. Syntheses of pine sawfly pheromone precursors and structurally related compounds2002Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
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