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  • 601.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    What students do schools allocate to a cognitive-behavioural intervention?: Characteristics of adolescent participants in Northern Sweden2015Inngår i: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 2242-3982, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 74, s. 29805-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Adolescents are a vulnerable group when it comes to the risk of developing depression. Preventing the onset of depressive episodes in this group is therefore a major public health priority. In the last decades, school-based cognitive-behavioural interventions have been a common primary prevention approach. However, evidence on what girls actually are allocated to such interventions when no researchers are involved is scarce.

    Objective. To explore how a selective cognitive-behavioural program (Depression In Swedish Adolescents) developed to prevent depression in adolescents, was implemented in a naturalistic setting in schools in northern part of Sweden. The focus was on characteristics of participants allocated to the intervention.

    Design. Cross-sectional baseline data on depressive symptoms, school environment and socio-economic factors were collected in 2011 by means of questionnaires in schools in a municipality in the northern part of Sweden. Intervention participants were identified in a follow-up questionnaire in 2012. Students (n=288) included in the analyses were in the ages of 14–15.

    Results. Sixty-six girls and no boys were identified as intervention participants. They reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower personal relative affluence, more sexual harassment victimization and less peer support compared to female non-participants (n=222). Intervention participants were more likely to attend schools with a higher proportion of low parental education levels and a lower proportion of students graduating with a diploma.

    Conclusions. The developers of the intervention originally intended the program to be universal or selective, but it was implemented as targeted in these schools. It is important for school administrations to adhere to program fidelity when it comes to what students it is aimed for. Implications for effectivenss trials of cognitive-behavioural interventions in the school setting is discussed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 602.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Young, Robert
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Causal pathways of sexual harassment and depressive symptoms in adolescence2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 603.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Young, Robert
    MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Dimensions of Peer Sexual Harassment Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Cross-Lagged Study in a Swedish Sample2016Inngår i: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 45, nr 5, s. 858-873Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual harassment is commonly considered unwanted sexual attention and a form of gender-based violence that can take physical, verbal and visual forms and it is assumed to cause later depression in adolescents. There is a dearth of research explicitly testing this assumption and the directional pathway remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to use a feminist theoretical framework to test competing models in respect of the direction of the relationships between dimensions of peer sexual harassment victimization and dimensions of depressive symptoms from ages 14 to 16 in adolescents. The study also aimed to investigate gender differences in these pathways. Cross-lagged models were conducted using a three-wave (2010, 2011 and 2012) longitudinal study of 2330 students (51 % females) from Sweden, adjusted for social background. Girls subjected to sexual harassment in grade seven continued to experience sexual harassment the following 2 years. There was weaker evidence of repeated experience of sexual harassment among boys. Depressive symptoms were stable over time in both genders. Sexual name-calling was the dimension that had the strongest associations to all dimensions of depressive symptoms irrespective of gender. In girls, name-calling was associated with later somatic symptoms and negative affect, while anhedonia (reduced ability to experience pleasure) preceded later name-calling. Physical sexual harassment had a reciprocal relationship to somatic symptoms in girls. In boys, name-calling was preceded by all dimensions of depressive symptoms. It is an urgent matter to prevent sexual harassment victimization, as it is most likely to both cause depressive symptoms or a reciprocal cycle of victimization and depression symptoms in girls as well as boys.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 604.
    Zhang, Linjie
    et al.
    Federal University of Rio Grande, Faculty of Medicine, Rio Grande, RS, Brazil.
    Prietsch, Silvio O. M.
    Federal University of Rio Grande, Faculty of Medicine, Rio Grande, RS, Brazil.
    Axelsson, Inge
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för omvårdnad.
    Halperin, Scott A.
    Halifax Dalhousie University, IWK Health Centre, Canadian Center for Vaccinology, Halifax, NS, Canada.
    Acellular vaccines for preventing whooping cough in children2014Inngår i: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ISSN 1469-493X, E-ISSN 1469-493X, nr 9, artikkel-id CD001478Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Routine use of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines was suspended in some countries in the 1970s and 1980s because of concerns about adverse effects. Following this action, there was a resurgence of whooping cough. Acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines, containing purified or recombinant Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) antigens, were developed in the hope that they would be as effective, but less reactogenic than the whole-cell vaccines. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1999, and previously updated in 2012. In this update, we included no new studies. Objectives To assess the efficacy and safety of acellular pertussis vaccines in children and to compare them with the whole-cell vaccines. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2013, Issue 12), MEDLINE (1950 to January week 2, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to January 2014), Biosis Previews (2009 to January 2014) and CINAHL (2009 to January 2014). Selection criteria We selected double-blind randomised efficacy and safety trials of aP vaccines in children up to six years old, with active follow-up of participants and laboratory verification of pertussis cases. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in the studies. Differences in trial design precluded a meta-analysis of the efficacy data. We pooled the safety data from individual trials using a random-effects meta-analysis model. Main results We included six efficacy trials with a total of 46,283 participants and 52 safety trials with a total of 136,541 participants. Most of the safety trials did not report the methods for random sequence generation, allocation concealment and blinding, which made it difficult to assess the risk of bias in the studies. The efficacy of multi-component (>= three) vaccines varied from 84% to 85% in preventing typical whooping cough (characterised by 21 or more consecutive days of paroxysmal cough with confirmation of B. pertussis infection by culture, appropriate serology or contact with a household member who has culture-confirmed pertussis), and from 71% to 78% in preventing mild pertussis disease (characterised by seven or more consecutive days of cough with confirmation of B. pertussis infection by culture or appropriate serology). In contrast, the efficacy of one-and two-component vaccines varied from 59% to 78% against typical whooping cough and from 41% to 58% against mild pertussis disease. Multi-component acellular vaccines are more effective than low-efficacy whole-cell vaccines, but may be less effective than the highest-efficacy whole-cell vaccines. Most systemic and local adverse events were significantly less common with aP vaccines than with wP vaccines for the primary series as well as for the booster dose. Authors' conclusions Multi-component (>= three) aP vaccines are effective in preventing whooping cough in children. Multi-component aP vaccines have higher efficacy than low-efficacy wP vaccines, but they may be less efficacious than the highest-efficacy wP vaccines. Acellular vaccines have fewer adverse effects than whole-cell vaccines for the primary series as well as for booster doses.

  • 605.
    Ziaei, Reza
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Prevalence and Correlates of Health Risk Behaviors among High School Adolescents in Iran: With focus on Water-pipe Smoking, Suicide Ideation, Physical Activity and Nutrition2018Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adolescence is a transitional stage from childhood into adulthood and many habits, with long-term implications for health, from this period of life can continue into adulthood. Identifying risk factors related to health risk behaviors is therefore an important part of health promotion. The main aim of this thesis was to analyze the prevalence and correlates of health risk behaviors among 15-17 year old high school adolescents in Iran. The risk behaviors explored in Papers I–IV include waterpipe smoking, suicide ideation, physical inactivity and sedentary behavior, and nutritional habits.

    Methods: Two-stage cluster sampling was used to select representative high schools and classes in the Iranian city of Tabriz. At the first stage, high schools were selected with a probability proportional to the enrollment size. At the second stage, classes were randomly selected, and all students in these selected classes were eligible to participate in the study. Overall, thirty high schools, including sixteen girls’ and fourteen boys’ high schools, ninety classes (grades 9 to 11) and 1,517 students, including 727 boys (47.9%) and 790 (52.1 %) girls participated in the study. The participants’ (students’) response rate was 84.27 %. A reliable, valid and anonymous self-administered Persian Version of the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) questionnaire was used for data collection. Statistical methods used were Chi- square test, Fisher exact and multivariate logistic regression analyses.

    Results:

    Water pipe smoking: Overall, 21.6 % of students were classified as ever WP smokers and 9.7% as current smokers. Ten percent of students had started WP smoking when younger than 12. Ninety-one percent of current WP smokers smoked one session per day, 49% smoked at a café (Ghahvekhaneh). Ninety- five percent of students reported that their age did not prevent them from being served a WP. Ninety-one students out of 147 reported that they did not notice any health warning on the WP tobacco packages. Seven percent of students out of 1,517 participants reported that they would accept a WP if offered by their friends. Being in the third grade of high school, having experienced cigarette smoking, even one or two puffs, and accepting a WP offered by close friends showed significant odds ratios for ‘ever WP smokers’. Accepting a WP offered by close friends and gender (female) showed significant odds ratios for current WP smokers.

    Suicide ideation: Four percent of students had seriously considered attempting suicide in the past 12 months. Thirteen point two percent of students reported that they wanted to use alcohol or other drugs when they were worried. The results also revealed that 8.8% of students had been sexually abused. Also, 20.6% declared that they had been bullied in the past 30 days.

    Being worried, being a current cigarette smoker, consuming alcohol or other drugs and being sexually abused were significantly associated with suicide ideation.

    Physical activity/inactivity and sedentary behavior: The prevalence of physical inactivity (<5 days/Weeks) was 72.2% and sedentary behavior (sitting ≥3 h or more) 71.4%. Being female, having a higher BMI (being overweight or obese), walking/cycling to or from school on 1-4 days, sedentary behavior, low vegetable intake, being the victim of bullying, lack of parental support, peer support, and parental connectivity (protective factors) were directly associated with physical inactivity. Walking/cycling to or from school on 5-7 days was negatively associated with physical inactivity.

    Walking/cycling to or from school on 1-4 days, being physically inactive, inadequate fruit intake, and being bullied were positively associated with sedentary behavior.

    Fruit and vegetable intake: The prevalence of fruit intake was 76.1% (≥ 2 times/daily) and vegetable intake 23% (≥ 3 times /d). Low fruit consumption was associated with being an 11th grade student, sedentary behavior (sitting ≥3h/d), low intake of vegetables (intake < 3 daily), low or lack of parental support, low or lack of peer support, and the lack of enough food (hunger) at home. Low vegetable consumption was associated with higher BMI (overweight or obese), low consumption of fruit (< 2 daily), lack of peer support, and physical inactivity.

    Conclusion: Identified correlated factors (risk factors) should be taken into consideration by public health authorities in the development and implementation of interventions aimed at promoting health among students in the related areas.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Doctoral Thesis
  • 606.
    Ziaei, Reza
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Mohammadi, Reza
    Karolinska institutet.
    Dastgiri, Saeed
    Department of Community Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Asl Rahimi, Vahab
    Unit for Adolescence Health, Province Health Center, Tabriz, Iran.
    Jeddi, Abolfazl
    Unit for Adolescence Health, Province Health Center, Tabriz, Iran.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    The Prevalence, Attitudes, and Correlates of Waterpipe Smoking Among High School Students in Iran: a Cross-Sectional Study2016Inngår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. 686-696Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the correlates of waterpipe (WP) smoking among 15–17-year-old high school students in Iran.

    Method

    Data were collected using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a self-administrated questionnaire distributed to a representative sample of high school students aged 15–17 in the city of Tabriz. Current WP smoking was defined as past 30-day use, and ever WP smoking was defined as at least one or two lifetime puffs. Differences in WP use, knowledge, and attitudes were analyzed using chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Binary logistic regression estimated the association between relevant independent variables (e.g., age) and the dependent variables (current/ever WP smoking).

    Results

    Of 1517 students, 21.6 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] = 19.5, 23.8) were ever WP smokers, and 9.7 % (95 % CI = 8.2, 11.2) were current WP smokers. Of current WP smokers, 40.3 % have stated that they want to stop smoking now. Moreover, 14.1 % of non-WP smokers reported that they might enjoy smoking WP. Of current WP smokers, 49.0 % have smoked at cafés. Additionally, 95.3 % of current WP smokers reported that their age did not prevent them from being served a WP. Studying in high school third grade (adjusted odds ratios (AORs) = 1.70; 95 % CI [1.10, 2.63]), experience of cigarette smoking (AORs = 1.57; 95 % CI [1.12, 2.20]), and being prepared to accept a WP offered by close friends (AORs = 3.31; 95 % CI [2.17, 5.04]) were independently associated with ever WP smoking, and accepting a WP offered by close friends (AORs = 4.36; 95 % CI [2.69, 7.07]) and gender (female) (AORs = 0.45; 95 % CI [0.30, 0.70] were independently associated with current WP smoking.

    Conclusion

    Prevalence of current and ever WP smoking is high in Tabriz. There is an urgent need to design interventions in order to increase students’ and their parents’ awareness regarding the harmfulness of WP, and to establish legal measures to restrict adolescents’ access to WPs and tobacco in society.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 607.
    Åberg, Anna
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Arbete för en hälsofrämjande skolmiljö utifrån systemteori2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 608.
    Åhrberg, Yvonne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Landstad, Bodil J
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Bergroth, Alf
    Faculty of Health Science, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Levanger, Norway.
    Ekholm, Jan
    Desire, longing and vanity: Emotions behind successful return to work for women on long-term sick leave2010Inngår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 167-177Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify situations and phenomena that have simplified returning to work for women on long-term sick leave. Participants: Seven women who were exposed to a relatively large number of risk factors that normally are associated with difficulties in returning to work. Methods: In-depth interviews with qualitative content analysis. Results: The analysis indicated four main categories of factors: The Individual, Interactions, Surrounding Resources, and Situations. In each of the main categories structural factors exist and it appears that these have been of significant importance to the women in their return to work. These are presented as Key Factors and they are: clarification of - and the need for - support in the personal process of change; desire, longing, and vanity; respectful interactions between the individual and people in her surroundings; the structure and content of the rehabilitation clinic; the importance of the perceived reality; and the individual's sense of control during the work related rehabilitation process. Conclusions: The results mostly revealed phenomena that have been indicated and described in earlier research studies. However, emotions such as desire, longing and vanity as motivation and driving forces behind a return to work have not been earlier described.

  • 609.
    Åkergren, Cecilia
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Kvinnors möjlighet till återhämtning på fritiden.2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Att ha möjlighet till återhämtning är viktigt för hälsan. I denna studie är det återhämtning från arbetet efter arbetstidens slut som står i fokus, det vill säga den som företrädesvis sker på fritiden. Med fritid avser jag i denna intervjustudie den tid vi inte ägnar åt lönearbete. Fritidsintressen, föreningsliv, olika engagemang är aktiviteter som konkurrerar om vår tid. Det kan ibland vara ren återhämtning men ibland åtaganden som ökar stressen. Om utrymmet för återhämtning är ringa eller inte existerar finns en ökad risk för bland annat stressrelaterade besvär. Faktorer som är avgörande för vår återhämtning och fritid finns på individnivå, i vårt arbete, i vår psykosociala miljö och på samhällsnivå. Dagens folkhälsopolitik fokuserar på bestämningsfaktorer vilket är "faktorer i samhällsorganisationen och människors livsvillkor och levnadsvanor som bidrar till hälsa eller ohälsa". Människor verkar inom olika ramar, har olika resurser och reagerar olika på stressorer vi ställs inför. Enligt Aaron Antonovskys så har individer olika motståndskraft, vissa förblir friska, klarar sig bra trots stora påfrestningar vilket hänger samman hur de hanterar sina motgångar och sin förmåga att göra tillvaron sammanhängande (KASAM, Känsla Av SAMmanhang).

    Syftet har varit att undersöka hur (dubbel)arbetande kvinnor upplever och skapar sina återhämtningsmöjligheter på fritiden. Vidare för att belysa och skapa reflektion kring situationer som, kanske till stor del i det dolda kan ge ohälsosamma effekter. Undersökningen genomfördes med hjälp av intervjuer i semistrukturerad form. Analysen visade att kvinnorna hade en medvetenhet om återhämtningens betydelse. Att kunna göra egna val och prioritera var viktigt för återhämtningen och gav dem en känsla av meningsfullhet och att de hade kontroll. Det som främst konkurrerade om utrymmet för återhämtning var arbetet och familjelivet, även om det sistnämnda också gav återhämtning. Det som upplevdes som återhämtande varierade och kunde vara allt från att vila till fysisk aktivitet.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 610. Åkerstedt, T
    et al.
    Kecklund, G
    Knutsson, Anders
    Manifest sleepiness and the spectral content of the EEG during shift work1991Inngår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 221-225Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty-five three-shift workers in a process industry were subjected to ambulatory polysomnography during one afternoon and one night shift. The electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were analyzed with spectral analysis. Subjective sleepiness increased during the night work but did not reach an extreme level. Five subjects fell asleep during night work and the involuntary naps were preceded by a few minutes of increased alpha (8-11.9 Hz) power density. Alpha and theta activity occurred in very short bursts. The hourly mean EEG alpha power density increased significantly but moderately during the night shift and correlated with subjective ratings of sleepiness. Theta power density (4-7.9 Hz) did not increase during the night shift, nor did it correlate with subjective sleepiness. It was suggested that the shift workers could prevent much of the polysomnographic manifestations of sleepiness by various types of activity (including succumbing to sleep). It was also suggested that averaging power density values across long time periods might not be an optimal strategy for detection of sleepiness, but rather some method of emphasizing the occurrence of alpha or theta bursts.

  • 611. Åkerstedt, T
    et al.
    Kecklund, G
    Knutsson, Anders
    Spectral analysis of sleep electroencephalography in rotation three-shift work1991Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, ISSN 0355-3140, Vol. 17, nr 5, s. 330-336Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fourteen male rotating three-shift workers were subjected to 24-h ambulatory polysomnographic recording in connection with morning, afternoon, and night shift work (at home and at work). Total sleep time, stage 2, rapid-eye-movement sleep, and slow-wave sleep (stages 3 + 4) were significantly reduced during sleep in connection with the night and morning shifts. Other visually scored sleep parameters and slow-wave energy (spectral power density integrated across sleep) were not affected. The content of the sleep cycles did not differ between shifts. The sleep before the morning shift was characterized by subjectively increased difficulties of sleep initiation and sleep termination, as well as by insufficient recuperation. The night shift was characterized by increased subjective difficulties of maintaining sleep, but also by increased ease of sleep initiation. It was concluded that both morning and evening shifts interfered with sleep, although no effects of sleep deprivation were found.

  • 612. Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Cardiovascular disease and shift work1997Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, ISSN 0355-3140, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 241-242Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 613. Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Thorell, Töres
    Shift work and cardiovascular disease1984Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Health & Environment, ISSN 0355-3140, Vol. 10, nr Spec.issue 1, s. 409-414Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews a number of studies which have presented results on the association between shift work and cardiovascular disease. It is suggested that many of the early studies suffer from methodological flaws which render them difficult to interpret. In studies in which incidence of disease has been computed and related to exposure to shift work, the results indicate a higher risk for cardiovascular disease among shift workers as compared to day workers. The evidence cannot yet, however, be considered conclusive.

  • 614.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Narusyte, Jurgita
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Goran
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Behav Sci Inst, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Night work and breast cancer in women: a Swedish cohort study2015Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 5, nr 4, artikkel-id e008127Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Recent research has suggested a moderate link between night work and breast cancer in women, mainly through case-control studies, but nonsignificant studies are also common and cohort studies are few. The purpose of the present study was to provide new information from cohort data through investigating the association between the number of years with night work and breast cancer among women. Design: Cohort study of individuals exposed to night shift work in relation to incidence of breast cancer in women. Setting: Individuals in the Swedish Twin registry, with follow-up in the Swedish Cancer Registry. Participants: 13 656 women from the Swedish Twin Registry, with 3404 exposed to night work. Outcome measures: Breast cancer from the Swedish Cancer Registry (463 cases) during a follow-up time of 12 years. Results: A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis with control for a large number of confounders showed that the HR was HR=1.68 (95% CI 0.98 to 2.88) for the group with >20 years of night work. When the follow-up time was limited to ages below 60 years, those exposed >20 years showed a HR=1.77 (95% CI 1.03 to 3.04). Shorter exposure to night work showed no significant effects. Conclusions: The present results, together with previous work, suggest that night work is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in women, but only after relatively long-term exposure.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 615. Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Westerholm, P
    Theorell, T
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Kecklund, G
    Sleep disturbances, work stress, and work hours.: A cross-sectional study2002Inngår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, Vol. 53, nr 3, s. 741-748Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 616. Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Westerholm, P
    Theorell, T
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Kecklund, G
    Work organisation and unintentional sleep: results from the WOLF study2002Inngår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, Vol. 59, nr 9, s. 595-600Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 617. Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Westerholm, P
    Theorell, Töres
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Kecklund, Göran
    Mental fatigue, work and sleep2004Inngår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, Vol. 57, nr 5, s. 427-433Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The study examined the multivariate relationship between mental fatigue and different work-related (work load, work hours) and background/life style factors, as well as disturbed sleep. METHODS: A total of 5720 healthy employed men and women living in the greater Stockholm area participated in a questionnaire study on cardiovascular risk factors. The data were analysed using a multiple logistic regression analysis with self-rated fatigue as the dependent variable. RESULTS: Fatigue was predicted by disturbed sleep (4.31; 3.50-5.45, high immersion in work (4.17; 2.93-5.94), high work demands (2.39; 1.54-3.69), social support, being a female, being a supervisor and high age. Shift work, work hours (including overtime) and influence at work did not become significant predictors. With control for work demands a high number of work hours was associated with lower fatigue. CONCLUSION: Disturbed sleep is an important predictor of fatigue, apparently stronger than previously well-established predictors such as work load, female gender, lack of exercise, etc.

  • 618. Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Westerholm, Peter
    Theorell, Töres
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Kecklund, Göran
    Att predicera sömnstörning, insomning och mental trötthet - tre delstudier2002Inngår i: Psykosocial belastning och riskfaktorer för hjärt-kärlsjukdom: Minisymposium i WOLF-projektet 8 februari 2001, Sth: Arbetslivsinstitutet , 2002, s. 51-54Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 619.
    Åkerström, Bengt
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Sickness absence and Perceived Health in Parents of Children and Adolescents with Disabilities2005Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 620.
    Åkerström, Bengt
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    The role of social networks as an explanatory factor regarding regional differences in sickness absence, physical and mental health and bodily pain in Sweden2005Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 621.
    Åsberg, Maria
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Enhetschefens upplevelse av hälsofrämjande ledarskap - En kvalitativ studie inom primärvården/Landstinget i Mellansverige.2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 622.
    Öhman, A
    et al.
    Uppsala University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Uppsala University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Unconscious anxiety: Phobic responses to masked stimuli1994Inngår i: Journal of Abnormal Psychology, ISSN 0021-843X, E-ISSN 1939-1846, Vol. 103, nr 2, s. 231-240Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested the hypothesis that an unconscious preattentive perceptual analysis of phobic stimuli is sufficient to elicit human fear responses. Selected snake- and spider-fearful Ss, as well as normal controls, were exposed to pictures of snakes, spiders, flowers, and mushrooms. A separate forced-choice recognition experiment established backward masking conditions that effectively precluded recognition of experimental stimuli both for fearful and nonfearful Ss. In the main experiment, these conditions were used to compare skin conductance responses (SCRs) to masked and nonmasked phobic and control pictures among fearful and nonfearful Ss. In support of the hypotheses, snake- and spider-fearful Ss showed elevated SCRs to snake and spider pictures as compared with neutral pictures and with responses of the nonfearful Ss under both masking conditions. Ratings of valence, arousal, and dominance indicated that the fearful Ss felt more negative, more aroused, and less dominant in relation to both masked and nonmasked phobic stimuli.

  • 623.
    Öhman, Arne
    et al.
    Uppsala University; Karolinska Institutet.
    Esteves, Francisco
    Uppsala University; Lisbon, Portugal.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Uppsala University; Karolinska Institutet.
    Preparedness and preattentive associative learning: electrodermal conditioning to masked stimuli1995Inngår i: Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0269-8803, E-ISSN 2151-2124, Vol. 9, s. 99-108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 624.
    Öhman, Arne
    et al.
    Uppsala University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Uppsala University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Emotional conditioning to masked stimuli: Unconsciously originated expectancies for aversive outcomes following nonrecognized fear-relevant stimuli1998Inngår i: Journal of experimental psychology. General, ISSN 0096-3445, E-ISSN 1939-2222, Vol. 127, nr 1, s. 69-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of conscious awareness in human Pavlovian conditioning was examined in 2 experiments using masked fear-relevant (snakes and spiders; Experiments 1 and 2) and fear-irrelevant (flowers and mushrooms; Experiment 1) pictures as conditioned stimuli, a mild electric shock as the unconditioned stimulus, and skin conductance responses as the primary dependent variable. The conditioned stimuli were presented briefly (30 ms) and were effectively masked by an immediately following masking stimulus. Experiment 1 demonstrated nonconscious conditioning to fear-relevant but not to fear-irrelevant stimuli. Even though the participants could not recognize the stimuli in Experiment 2, they differentiated between masked stimuli predicting and not predicting shocks in expectancy ratings. However, expectancy ratings were not related to the conditioned autonomic response.

  • 625.
    Östergren, Olof
    et al.
    Centre for Health Equity Studies, Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Menvielle, Gwenn
    Inserm CESP Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Villejuif, France.
    Lundberg, Olle
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Adjustment method to ensure comparability between populations reporting mortality data in different formats in the EURO-GBD-SE project: Working document2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In some of the longitudinal data sets within the EURO-GBD-SE project, information on age isonly available at baseline, all person years and deaths are attributed to the baseline age; thismeans that information about age at death is unavailable. This will cause a bias whencomparing mortality between data sets in which age at death is reported and data sets in whichage at baseline is reported. Mortality estimates in populations that have age at baseline will behigher than the estimations obtained where age at death is known; since people are notallowed to move into the next age category as they grow older, the population will, in reality,be older in the former case. The data sets that are formatted with age at baseline only areBrussels, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland.To make results comparable, we developed an adjustment procedure that corrects for this bias.This procedure should be applied to the datasets formatted with the age at baseline and is represented in this document.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 626.
    Östling, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Samverkan inom vård och omsorg för de mest sjuka äldreFöutsättningar för samverkan mellan landsting och kommun i Västmanland2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 627.
    Östling, Carolina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Vägen tillbaka mot innanförskap. Unga vuxnas upplevelser av avbrutna gymnasiestudier och resan tillbaka.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
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