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  • 51.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Quantitative microscopy of coating uniformity2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Print quality demands for coated papers are steadily growing, and achieving coating uniformity is crucial for high image sharpness, colour fidelity, and print uniformity. Coating uniformity may be divided into two scales: coating thickness uniformity and coating microstructure uniformity, the latter of which includes pigment, pore and binder distributions within the coating layer. This thesis concerns the investigation of both types of coating uniformity by using an approach of quantitative microscopy.First, coating thickness uniformity was analysed by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of paper cross sections, and the relationships between local coating thickness variations and the variations of underlying base sheet structures were determined. Special attention was given to the effect of length scales on the coating thickness vs. base sheet structure relationships.The experimental results showed that coating thickness had a strong correlation with surface height (profile) of base sheet at a small length scale. However, at a large length scale, it was mass density of base sheet (formation) that had the strongest correlation with coating thickness. This result explains well the discrepancies found in the literature for the relationship between coating thickness variation and base sheet structure variations. The total variance of coating thickness, however, was dominated by the surface height variation in the small scale, which explained around 50% of the variation. Autocorrelation analyses were further performed for the same data set. The autocorrelation functions showed a close resemblance of the one for a random shot process with a correlation length in the order of fibre width. All these results suggest that coating thickness variations are the result of random deposition of particles with the correlation length determined by the base sheet surface textures, such as fibre width.In order to obtain fundamental understandings of the random deposition processes on a rough surface, such as in paper, a generic particle deposition model was developed, and systematic analyses were performed for the effects of particle size, coat weight (average number of particles), levelling, and system size on coating thickness variation. The results showed that coating thickness variation3grows with coat weight, but beyond a certain coat weight, it reaches a plateau value. A scaling analysis yielded a universal relationship between coating thickness variation and the above mentioned variables. The correlation length of coating thickness was found to be determined by average coat weight and the state of underlying surfaces. For a rough surface at relatively low coat weight, the correlation length was typically in the range of fibre width, as was also observed experimentally.Non-uniformities within the coating layer, such as porosity variations and binder distributions, are investigated by using a newly developed method: field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) in combination with argon ion beam milling technique. The combination of these two techniques produced extremely high quality images with very few artefacts, which are particularly suited for quantitative analyses of coating structures. A new evaluation method was also developed by using marker-controlled watershed segmentation (MCWS) of the secondary electron images (SEI).The high resolution imaging revealed that binder enrichment, a long disputed subject in the area, is present in a thin layer of a 500 nm thickness both at the coating surface and at the base sheet/coating interface. It was also found that the binders almost exclusively fill up the small pores, whereas the larger pores are mainly empty or depleted of binder.

  • 52.
    Dahlström, Helene
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Förutsättningar för elevers textskapande: En studie om digitala resurser, multimodalitet och elevers handlingsmöjligheter2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern society is characterised by change. Humans’ ways of communicating have changed in many ways due to society’s social, linguistic, cultural and textual plurality. The digitalisation of society has contributed considerably to the changed conditions for communication and representation that have emerged. Given these new conditions, it is crucial to increase the body of knowledge about how digital resources shape possibilities for students’ participation in text activities in school. The purpose of this thesis was to increase the understanding about the role of digital resources for middle school students' meaning-making as they create text in school. The theoretical point of departures includes multimodal social semiotics and multiliteracies. The participants included 111 Swedish middle school students. A multiple methods design was used in this thesis and included multimodal text analysis, interviews, a survey and multimodal analysis of video observations. Four studies were conducted. Overall, the results of the thesis indicated that the use of digital resources enabled students to create texts on more equal terms an dactively participate in writing activities. When designing texts with access to multiple modes, students used digital resources and various modes in diverse ways. Some students chose to use only writing, whereas others utilised the whole range of available resources. Students appeared to choose modes based on previous experiences and modal preferences. The availability of multiple modes during the digital text design process could mean that some students’ text design experiences in the home environment were recognised in the school context. For a few students, the allowances offered by digital and modal resources enabled them to actually create stories, which was rather difficult when using the mode of writing alone. An analysis of the content of students’ texts indicated that many students were influenced by the popular culture texts that they engaged with in informal settings. The pedagogical implications for literacy practices include and recognising students’ experiences from engaging with texts in informal settings, whether popular or not, in the classroom environment to connect students’ life and classroom experiences. This form of education is built on plurality and students’ resources.

  • 53.
    Dalborg, Cecilia
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för ekonomivetenskap och juridik.
    GAMLA VILLFARELSER och NYA VERKLIGHETER?: En studie om föreställningar och förutsättningar för entreprenörskap2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I de allra flesta länder runt om i världen utgör kvinnors företagande en viktig och betydande andel av det totala företagandet. Eftersom entreprenörskap och företagande är grundläggande för ett lands välstånd pågår ständigt ett arbete för att skapa ett gynnsamt och jämställt företagsklimat där kvinnor och män har lika rättigheter och förutsättningar. Kunskapen om entreprenörskap och företagande ökar kontinuerligt och har bland annat resulterat i föreställningar kring vem som är entreprenör, vad som avses med utveckling och tillväxt i ett företag, samt strategier för hur ett jämställt företagande ska främjas. Den ökade kunskapen samt de särskilda strategierna som syftar till att öka kvinnors andel i företagsvärlden verkar dock inte ha resulterat i ett mer jämställt företagande. Till exempel startar män, årligen i Sverige, dubbelt så många företag som kvinnor. Avhandlingens syfte är att identifiera och analysera faktorer som anses påverka att kvinnor och män startar och utvecklar företag i olika utsträckning samt att föreslå en förklaringsmodell som visar hur genusbundna föreställningar (läs villfarelser) kring entreprenörskap, tillväxt och stödsystem kan utgöra hinder för ett jämställt företagande. Respondenter i avhandlingen är företagande kvinnor och män i Jämtlands län. Resultaten från avhandlingens delstudier visar bland annat att både kvinnor och män känner en stor passion för och har en stark självtillit att starta företag men att kvinnors passion för att starta företag påverkas negativt på grund av en högre riskuppfattning. Ett annat resultat är att tillväxt kan betraktas ur ett kvalitativt perspektiv där tillväxt kan innefatta såväl en strävan efter överlevnad som personlig utveckling. Företagande kvinnor uttrycker att de vill ha sysselsättningstillväxt i sina företag men det förutsätter att de får ta del av ett rättvist stödsystem redan i tidigare faser i företagets livscykel. Resultaten visar vidare att dagens stödsystem utgår från en snäv definition av tillväxtbegreppet samt att jämställdhetsfrågor inte verkar beaktas när statliga medel fördelas. Ovanstående resultat hjälper tillsammans till med att slå hål på några av de föreställningar om den verklighet som för närvarande råder för företagande. Avhandlingens slutsats är följande: Kvinnor och män känner en stor passion för och har en stark självtillit att starta och utveckla företag men då företagande kvinnor inte uppfattas som potentiella tillväxtföretag får de endast ta del av en bråkdel av det totala företagsstödet. Detta leder till att de uppfattar högre risker med företagande, vilket också neutraliserar den identifierade effekt som passionen annars har för att starta företag. Den förda strategin för ett jämställt företagande i Sverige verkar inte ha varit framgångsrik. Strategier bör därför omformas och baseras på en verklighetsbild där såväl kvinnor som män betraktas som entreprenörer som startar och driver tillväxtföretag.

  • 54.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Energy performance of residential buildings: projecting, monitoring and evaluating2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy security and climate change mitigation have been discussed in Sweden since the oil crisis in the 1970s. Sweden has since then increased its share of renewable energy resources to reach the highest level among the EU member states, but is still among the countries with the highest primary energy use per capita. Not least because of that, increasing energy efficiency is important and it is part of the Swedish long term environmental objectives. Large potential for improving energy efficiency can be found in the building sector, mainly in the existing building stock but also in new constructions.

    Buildings hold high costs for construction, service and maintenance. Still, their energy efficiency and thermal performance are rarely validated after construction or renovation. As energy efficiency become an important aspects in building design there is a need for accurate tools for assessing the energy performance both before and after building construction. In this thesis criteria for energy efficiency in new residential buildings are studied. Several building design aspects are discussed with regards to final energy efficiency, energy supply-demand interactions and social aspects. The results of this thesis are based on energy modelling, energy measurements and one questionnaire survey. Several existing residential buildings were used as case studies.

    The results show that pre-occupancy calculations of specific final energy demand in residential buildings is too rough an indicator to explicitly steer towards lower final energy use in the building sector. Even post occupancy monitoring of specific final energy demand does not always provide a representative image of the energy efficiency of buildings and may result with large variation among buildings with similar thermal efficiency. A post occupancy method of assessing thermal efficiency of building fabrics using thermography is presented. The thermal efficiency of buildings can be increased by design with low shape factor. The shape factor was found to have a significant effect on the final energy demand of buildings and on the use of primary energy. In Nordic climates, atria in multi-storey apartment buildings is a design that have a potential to increase both energy efficiency (by lower shape factor) and enhance social interactions among the occupants.

  • 55.
    Danielsson, Tatiana
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för matematik och ämnesdidaktik.
    Further Investigations of Convergence Results for Homogenization Problems with Various Combinations of Scales2020Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on six papers. We study the homogenization of selected parabolic problems with one or more microscopic scales in space and time, respectively. The approaches are prepared by means of certain methods, like two-scale convergence, multiscale convergence and also the evolution setting of multiscale convergence and very weak multiscale convergence. Paper I treats a linear parabolic homogenization problem with rapid spatial and temporal oscillations in perforated domains. Suitable results of two-scale convergence type are established. Paper II deals with further development of compactness results which can be used in the homogenization procedure engaging a certain limit condition. The homogenization procedure deals with a parabolic problem with a certain matching between a fast spatial and a fast temporal scale and a coefficient passing to zero that the time derivative is multiplied with. Papers III and IV are further generalizations of Paper II and investigate homogenization problems with different types of matching between the microscopic scales. Papers III and IV deal with one and two rapid scales in both space and time respectively. Paper V treats the nonlinearity of monotone parabolic problems with an arbitrary number of spatial and temporal scales by applying the perturbed test functions method together with multiscale convergence and very weak multiscale convergence adapted to the evolution setting. In Paper VI we discuss the relation between two-scale convergence and the unfolding method and potential extensions of existing results. The papers above are summarized in Chapter 4. Chapter 1 gives a brief introduction to the topic and Chapters 2 and 3 are surveys over some important previous results.

  • 56.
    Danielsson, Ulrika
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Relationships between information communication technology and psychosocial life environment: Students and young urban knowledge workers in the ICT-era2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Dramatic changes have been taking place in our ways of working and spending leisure time. This relates to the increasing use of ICT (Information Communication Technology) in our lives and is of crucial importance to our future. Today, being physically away from the workplace doesn�t mean that we are necessarily leaving our work tasks behind in psychological terms. The aim of the thesis is to attain a deeper understanding of the relationships between individuals� psychosocial life environment and their use of ICT in order to contribute to the discussion about how everyday use of ICT can affect us. The research is based on two case studies that are presented in research articles. A theoretical framework concerning psychosocial life environment and use of ICT was built upon a review of the literature on environment/role, their relationship to ICT and the boundaries within different roles and environments. The first results in this thesis show that the blurred boundaries between work and leisure begin in school and then continue on into working life. The second result present the different barriers to young women seeking professional roles in the IT-business and the sometimes overlooked fact that every individual has a need to feel needed regardless of whether it is the private or professional role. The third results show that the daily use of ICT creates both needs and activities, but it appears that a sense of lack of control leaves the user feeling negatively stressed. Finally, one example of further research could focus on determining what is the responsibility of the leader of an organization who requires an employee to be reachable any time anywhere?

  • 57. Darbo, Safiatou
    et al.
    Pearly, Timna
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Omvårdnadsåtgärder hos barn med förstoppning2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 58.
    Ding, Xiaosong
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Bilinear optimization in computational decision analysis2005Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In real-life decision analysis, significant recognition has been given to theunrealistic expectation of numerically precise information. Many modernapproaches attempting to handle imprecision have focused more on representationand less on evaluation. The DELTA method, as one of the fewleading approaches, challenges this issue by its evaluation framework thatcan accommodate both precision and imprecision. However, computationally,DELTA and similar approaches may incur time-consuming calculationsdue to the introduction of imprecise information concerning probability andutility. In general, those problems are bounded non-convex bilinear optimizationprograms with disjoint linear constraints, which cannot be solvedeffectively by any existing general-purpose global optimization technique.This thesis presents two enhanced cutting plane algorithms for solvingbounded disjoint bilinear programs arising in computational decision analysis.Each algorithm consists of a local phase designed to determine a localoptimizer from an approximate solution, and a global phase designed to systematicallyexplore the feasible region, subset by subset. These two phasesare switched automatically during the global search procedure. The basicframework builds upon previously developed efficient cutting plane methods.By embedding the lower bounding technique in a branch and bound procedure,the improvement of their performances seems encouraging in the lightof computational experience. Even though the motivation to develop thesealgorithms stems from computational decision analysis, the idea can also beextended to the development of optimization approaches for handling generalbounded disjoint bilinear programs, especially for larger sized ones.

  • 59.
    Dobslaw, Felix
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    End-to-End Quality of Service Guarantees for Wireless Sensor Networks2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor networks have been a key driver of innovation and societal progressover the last three decades. They allow for simplicity because they eliminate ca-bling complexity while increasing the flexibility of extending or adjusting networksto changing demands. Wireless sensor networks are a powerful means of fillingthe technological gap for ever-larger industrial sites of growing interconnection andbroader integration. Nonetheless, the management of wireless networks is difficultin situations wherein communication requires application-specific, network-widequality of service guarantees. A minimum end-to-end reliability for packet arrivalclose to 100% in combination with latency bounds in the millisecond range must befulfilled in many mission-critical applications.The problem addressed in this thesis is the demand for algorithmic support forend-to-end quality of service guarantees in mission-critical wireless sensor networks.Wireless sensors have traditionally been used to collect non-critical periodic read-ings; however, the intriguing advantages of wireless technologies in terms of theirflexibility and cost effectiveness justify the exploration of their potential for controland mission-critical applications, subject to the requirements of ultra-reliable com-munication, in harsh and dynamically changing environments such as manufactur-ing factories, oil rigs, and power plants.This thesis provides three main contributions in the scope of wireless sensor net-works. First, it presents a scalable algorithm that guarantees end-to-end reliabilitythrough scheduling. Second, it presents a cross-layer optimization/configurationframework that can be customized to meet multiple end-to-end quality of servicecriteria simultaneously. Third, it proposes an extension of the framework used toenable service differentiation and priority handling. Adaptive, scalable, and fast al-gorithms are proposed. The cross-layer framework is based on a genetic algorithmthat assesses the quality of service of the network as a whole and integrates the phys-ical layer, medium access control layer, network layer, and transport layer.Algorithm performance and scalability are verified through numerous simula-tions on hundreds of convergecast topologies by comparing the proposed algorithmswith other recently proposed algorithms for ensuring reliable packet delivery. Theresults show that the proposed SchedEx scheduling algorithm is both significantlymore scalable and better performing than are the competing slot-based schedulingalgorithms. The integrated solving of routing and scheduling using a genetic al-vvigorithm further improves on the original results by more than 30% in terms of la-tency. The proposed framework provides live graphical feedback about potentialbottlenecks and may be used for analysis and debugging as well as the planning ofgreen-field networks.SchedEx is found to be an adaptive, scalable, and fast algorithm that is capa-ble of ensuring the end-to-end reliability of packet arrival throughout the network.SchedEx-GA successfully identifies network configurations, thus integrating the rout-ing and scheduling decisions for networks with diverse traffic priority levels. Fur-ther, directions for future research are presented, including the extension of simula-tions to experimental work and the consideration of alternative network topologies.

  • 60.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Life cycle primary energy use and carbon emission of residential buildings2011Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the primary energy use and carbon emissions of residential buildings are studied using a system analysis methodology with a life cycle perspective. The analysis includes production, operation, retrofitting and end-of-life phases and encompasses the entire natural resource chain. The analysis  focuses, in particular, on to the choice of building frame material; the energy savings potential of building thermal mass; the choice of energy supply systems and their interactions with different energy-efficiency measures, including ventilation heat recovery systems; and the effectiveness of current energy-efficiency standards to reduce energy use in buildings. The results show that a wood-frame building has a lower primary energy balance than a concrete-frame alternative. This result is primarily due to the lower production primary energy use and greater bioenergy recovery benefits of wood-frame buildings. Hour-by-hour dynamic modeling of building mass configuration shows that the energy savings due to the benefit of thermal mass are minimal within the Nordic climate but varies with climatic location and the energy efficiency of the building. A concrete-frame building has slightly lower space heating demand than a wood-frame alternative, because of the benefit of thermal mass. However, the production and end-of-life advantages of using wood framing materials outweigh the energy saving benefits of thermal mass with concrete framing materials.

    A system-wide analysis of the implications of different building energy-efficiency standards indicates that improved standards greatly reduce final energy use for heating. Nevertheless, a passive house standard building with electric heating may not perform better than a conventional building with district heating, from a primary energy perspective. Wood-frame passive house buildings with energy-efficient heat supply systems reduce life cycle primary energy use.

    An important complementary strategy to reduce primary energy use in the building sector is energy efficiency improvement of existing buildings, as the rate of addition of new buildings to the building stock is low. Different energy efficiency retrofit measures for buildings are studied, focusing on the energy demand and supply sides, as well as their interactions. The results show that significantly greater life cycle primary energy reduction is achieved when an electric resistance heated building is retrofitted than when a district heated building is retrofitted. For district heated buildings, the primary energy savings of energy efficiency measures depend on the characteristics of the heat production system and the type of energy efficiency measures. Ventilation heat recovery (VHR) systems provide low primary energy savings where district heating is based largely on combined heat and power (CHP) production. VHR systems can produce substantial final energy reduction, but the primary energy benefit largely depends on the type of heat supply system, the amount of electricity used for VHR and the airtightness of buildings.

    Wood-framed buildings have substantially lower life cycle carbon emissions than concrete-framed buildings, even if the carbon benefit of post-use concrete management is included. The carbon sequestered by crushed concrete leads to a significant decrease in CO2 emission. However, CO2 emissions from fossil fuels used to crush the concrete significantly reduce the carbon benefits obtained from the increased carbonation due to crushing. Overall, the effect of carbonation of post-use concrete is small. The post-use energy recovery of wood and the recycling of reinforcing steel both provide higher carbon benefits than post-use carbonation.

    In summary, wood buildings with CHP-based district heating are an effective means of reducing primary energy use and carbon emission in the built environment.

  • 61.
    Edström, Per
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Mathematical modeling and numerical tools for simulation and design of light scattering in paper and print2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This work starts with a real industrial problem - the perceived need for a moredetailed and more accurate model for light scattering in paper and print than theKubelka‐Munk model of today. A careful analysis transfers this problem into aphysical description of the phenomena involved. This is then given a mathematicalformulation, and a detailed analysis leads to numerical solution procedures forspecific sub problems. Methods from scientific computing make it possible to meetindustrial demands made on speed and stability, and implementation in computercode is then followed by analysis of accuracy and stability.A problem formulation and a solution method are outlined for the forwardradiative transfer problem. First, all necessary steps to arrive at a numericallystable solution procedure are treated, and then methods are introduced to increasethe speed by a factor of several thousands or millions compared to a naiveapproach. The method is shown to be unconditionally stable, though the problemwas previously considered numerically intractable, and systematic studies ofnumerical performance are presented.The inverse radiative transfer problem is given a least‐squares formulation, anddifferent solution methods are analyzed and compared. Specifically, a two‐phasemethod for estimation of the scattering and absorption coefficients and theasymmetry factor (σs, σa and g) is presented. A sensitivity analysis is given, and it isshown how it can be used for designing measurements with minimal impact frommeasurement noise.It is shown how the standardized use of Kubelka‐Munk and the d/0°instrument leads to errors, and that the errors arising from an over‐idealized viewof the instrument - due to the fact that instrument readings are incorrectlyinterpreted - can be larger than any errors inherent in the Kubelka‐Munk modelitself. It is argued that the measurement device and the simulation model cannot beviewed as separate instances, which is a widespread implicit practice in appliedreflectance measurements. Rather, given a measurement device, measurement datashould be interpreted through a model that takes into consideration the actualgeometry, function and calibration of the instrument.The resulting tool, DORT2002, is in all aspects the Next Generation Kubelka‐Munk, and provides a greater range of applicability, higher accuracy and increasedunderstanding. It offers better interpretation of measurement data, and facilitatesthe exchange of data between the paper and graphical arts industries. It opens forunderstanding of anisotropic reflectance and for the utilization of the asymmetryfactor to design anisotropy, and thereby for the design of different visualappearance or optical performance in new printed or paper products.

  • 62.
    Eivazihollagh, Alireza
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Metal-Chelate Complexes in Alkaline Solution: On Recovery Techniques and Cellulose-based Hybrid Material Synthesis2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    For decades, aminopolycarboxylate chelating agents have been extensively used in various industrial applications. The ability of chelating agents to form stable metal-chelate complexes is the main reason for using them to manage metal ions within water-based industrial processes. Considerable quantities of industrial effluent containing chelating agents and heavy metals are produced and often discharged into the environment. The toxicity of heavy metals and the non-biodegradability of the chelating agents, as well as their accumulation in the environment, has become cause for concern. The main purpose of this thesis was to evaluate and develop processes for recovery of chelated metal complexes from aqueous solution. In this regard, the membrane electrolysis technique was evaluated for recovery of copper and aminopolycarboxylic chelating ligands such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and a surface-active derivative of DTPA, 2-dodecyldiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (C12-DTPA) from aqueous solution. By using this method, it was possible to simultaneously recover the chelating ligand for further reuse and collect the metals by electrodeposition, making the process more cost-effective and hindering the discharge of copper ions and chelating ligands as pollutants into the environment. In addition, the ion flotation technique with the chelating surfactant C12-DTPA could be employed to separate metal ions, especially from their dilute solutions, and concentrate them in a foam phase. This is because C12-DTPA has a purpose-built functionality; besides forming strong coordination complexes with metal ions, it is also surface-active and will readily adsorb at air-water interfaces. In this study, C12-DTPA was effectively used in combination with foaming agents for the removal of toxic metal ions such as Cd2+, Zn2+, and Sr2+ from aqueous solution using ion flotation. From an economical perspective, this method could be combined with the membrane electrolysis technique to recover metal and regenerate chelating surfactant so that it can be reused.

    The present work also shows the synthesis of metal and metal oxide(s) nanoparticles (NPs) in alkaline aqueous solution containing chelated metal ions, in order to fabricate metal NPs–cellulose hybrid materials. Cellulose is the most abundant renewable material, with good mechanical performance and chemical resistivity in a wide range of solvents, which makes it a promising material to support metal NPs. In this respect, we developed a rapid and inexpensive one-pot synthesis of spherical copper NPs in a cellulose matrix. The hybrid material displayed antibacterial properties for both the gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The synthesis was further developed by studying the influence of various chelating ligands and surfactants on the NPs’ morphology and chemical composition. According to the results, DDAO, a zwitterionic surfactant, was found to mediate the formation of pure octahedral Cu2O NPs. In addition, a hybrid material film composed of regenerated cellulose and synthesized Cu2O nano-octahedrons was fabricated by spin-coating.

  • 63.
    Eliassi, Barzoo
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    A stranger in my homeland: The politics of belonging among young people with Kurdish backgrounds in Sweden2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines how young people with Kurdish backgrounds form their identity in Sweden with regards to processes of inclusion and exclusion. It also sheds light on the ways these young people deal with ethnic discrimination and racism. Further, the study outlines the importance of these social processes for the discipline of social work and the ways social workers can work with disadvantaged and marginalized groups and endorse their struggle for social justice and full equal citizenship beyond racist and discriminatory practices. The empirical analysis is built on interviews with 28 young men and women with Kurdish backgrounds in Sweden. Postcolonial theory, belonging and identity formation constitute the central conceptual framework of this study.

    The young people referred to different sites in which they experienced ethnic discrimination and stigmatization. These experiences involved the labor market, mass media, housing segregation, legal system and school system. The interviewees also referred to the roles of ‘ordinary’ Swedes in obstructing their participation in the Swedish society through exclusionary discourses relating to Swedish identity. The interviewees’ life situation in Sweden, sense of ethnic discrimination as well as disputes over identity making with other young people with Middle-Eastern background are among the most important reasons for fostering strong Kurdish nationalist sentiments, issues that are related to the ways they can exercise their citizenship rights in Sweden and how they deal with exclusionary practices in their everyday life. The study shows that the interviewees respond to and resist ethnic discrimination in a variety of ways including interpersonal debates and discussions, changing their names to Swedish names, strengthening differences between the self and the other, violence, silence and deliberately ignoring racism. They also challenged and spoke out against the gendered racism that they were subjected to in their daily lives due to the paternalist discourse of ”honor-killing”.

    The research participants had been denied an equal place within the boundary of Swedishness partly due to a racist postcolonial discourse that valued whiteness highly. Paradoxically, some interviewees reproduced the same discourse through choosing to use it against black people, Africans, newly-arrived Kurdish immigrants (”imports”), ”Gypsies” and Islam in order to claim a modern Kurdish identity as near to whiteness as possible. This indicates the multiple dimensions of racism. Those who are subjected to racism and ethnic discrimination can be discriminatory and reproduce the racist discourse. Despite unequal power relations, both dominant and minoritized subjects are all marked by the postcolonial condition in structuring subjectivities, belonging and identification.

  • 64.
    Eliasson, Nina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ämnesdidaktik och matematik.
    Att kommunicera skolans naturvetenskap: ett genusperspektiv på elevers deltagande i gemensam och enskild kommunikation2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Both individual and whole class communication of students are described in this thesis, which is based on a clear gender perspective. Two articles describe the participation of boys and girls in communication with the whole class, the empirical data collected consisting of videotaped lessons. The extent to which boys and girls participate in the communication is reported in the first study, and in the second the extent to which boys and girls respond to the teacher's closed or open questions about science is presented. The third study reports boys' and girls' individual communication when responding to written science questions. The summary chapter ties the results together from the perspective of Positioning Theory, making the thesis a result of Mixed Methods Research.

    Results show that boys participate in whole class communication more often than girls, with approximately the same level of dominance as shown in research from the early 80s. Boys also answer more questions than girls, the differences becoming apparent when teachers ask closed questions that can be answered in one or two words. In isolation, girls answer written questions to the same extent as boys, but give longer responses containing a more developed scientific language.

    Results showing that boys position themselves as knowledgeable more often than girls when teachers ask closed questions, are explained from the perspective of Positioning Theory. Girls more often position themselves as knowledgeable when teachers ask open questions that require reflection. In test situations, with time for reflection, the boys and girls position themselves as knowledgeable students to the same extent.

    Teachers need to be aware of the positioning attempts created by teaching, and consequently take into account that different approaches in teaching provide boys and girls with different access to the communication space.

  • 65.
    Enberg, Sofia
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik. Norske Skog Saugbrugs.
    Storage of Hydrogen Peroxide Bleached Mechanical Pulp: Reduction in Reflectance over the Visible Spectrum2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis is to determine possible causes of the darkening of hydrogen peroxide bleached mechanical pulp over the visible spectrum and their relative contributions. It focuses on both process conditions and the composition of the pulp and the dilution water, including additions or losses of material along the process line from the bleach tower to the paper machine.

    A mapping of the optical properties of the pulp along the process showed that the fine fraction of the pulp darkened more than the long fibre fraction. Simulation of retention times of different fractions showed that the main part of the fine material is retained in the paper within a few hours, a small part might circulate for considerably longer time and may therefore be strongly coloured.

    Storage trials were mainly performed using a hydrogen peroxide bleached mechanical pulp intended for SC paper made of Norway spruce (Picea abies), sampled on one occasion and stored in a freezer. Unwashed or well-washed pulp was stored in distilled water or in different process waters. Some complementary trials were included, e.g. unbleached pulp.

    Time and temperature were the process variables that gave the strongest darkening of the pulp, as expected, both in a clean and a more process-like system, whereas pH only had an effect in the presence of process waters; the highest brightness stability was seen at a pH around 5.5–6.0.

    The darkening was due to an increase in the light absorption coefficient (k) beginning at short wavelengths, but after longer storage times the increase in kλ also became noticeable at longer wavelengths. The colour (CIE L*, a*, b*) of the pulp changed towards red and yellow, initially more towards red and then more towards yellow. These changes were clearly visible.

    Washing of the bleached pulp made it less sensitive to storage; possibly due to the removal of extractives, lignin-like substances, metals and pulp fines. This washing had little effect before storage and the amount of material removed was small.

    The pulp darkened more when stored in process waters compared to distilled water. Apart from fibres, most of the colour was associated with pulp fines or filler but some colour was also found in the dissolved and colloidal fractions. At an increased pulp consistency, the increase in k460 was smaller.

    Storage in white water from the paper machine gave extensive discolouration with a shoulder in the absorption spectrum around 550–650 nm, which increased with time. The addition of ferric ions increased the light absorption coefficient during storage, but could not explain the increased absorption at 550–650 nm nor could it be the only cause of the darkening in the mill system. A cationic basic violet dye gave a shoulder in the absorption spectrum similar to that of the mill system, but the absorption of the dye did not increase during storage. Model calculations indicate, but do not prove, that ferric ions together with violet and red dyes could have played a major, but not exclusive role in the colour observed in the mill system after storage. The darkening not accounted for, at longer wavelengths and around 550–650 nm, is suggested to be related to fines and fillers including dissolved and colloidal substances associated with these particles.

    A method to produce representative sheets for determination of optical properties of mechanical pulps was developed. The new method makes it possible to follow changes in light absorption and light scattering coefficients over the visible range of wavelengths. It is approximately six times faster than standard methods, reduces the risk of additional darkening of the sample and can be used with small pulp quantities.

    The deviation from the expected linear behaviour of the light scattering coefficient, s, at wavelengths corresponding to strong light absorption has been studied using the Kubelka-Munk model and the angular resolved DORT2002 radiative transfer solution method. The decrease in s could not be explained by errors introduced in the Kubelka-Munk modelling by anisotropic scattering.

  • 66.
    Engan, Harald K.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Cardiovascular, hematological and dietary means to cope with environmentally induced hypoxia in humans2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 67.
    Engholm, Magnus
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Materials optimization for optical fiber amplifiers and fiber lasers2008Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 68.
    Eriksson, Ann-Kristin Mimmi
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Vid utmattningens gräns. Utmattningssyndrom som existentiellt tillstånd: Vårdtagares och vårdgivares erfarenheter av utmattningssyndrom och rehabilitering med en existentiell ansats i svensk vårdkontext2016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: Stress-related illness is a growing public health problem in Sweden and it is the most common reason for sick leave today. Stress-related illness causes suffering on a number of levels and affects the patient’s health and life in the long term. The stress-related ill health also leads to consequences for society, causing high costs for sick leave and health care as well as lost workforce since people partially or entirely lose their capacity to work. Research on stress-related ill health and rehabilitation often underline work-related conditions as crucial in dealing with the problem. There is also research that points out psychosocial factors in understanding stress-related ill health. What we know little about is the existential perspective of clinical burn-out. Therefore, it is of importance to investigate people’s existential experiences of clinical burn-out and the significance of an existential perspective in rehabilitation.

    Aim: The overall aim of this thesis is to gain insight into the existential experience of clinical burn-out as well as to highlight the significance of an existential perspective in rehabilitation. In addition, the thesis aims to reach a deeper understanding of clinical burn-out from an existential point of view and contribute to the field with knowledge of the existential dimension of health.

    Methods: The study, conducted in 2011, is based on qualitative interviews made with an inductive hermeneutic approach. Five patients and seven care givers were interviewed, focusing their existential experiences of clinical burn-out as well as their experiences of rehabilitation with an existential approach. A strategic selection was made of informants in the context of a rehabilitation program with an existential approach for people diagnosed with clinical burn-out. The data was analysed in two steps. In the first step the data was interpreted with an inductive hermeneutic approach. In step two of the analysis, the data was interpreted with a deductive hermeneutic approach, using Karl Jasper’s concept of limit situation as a way of interpreting the existential experience. Aaron Antonovsky’s concept sense of coherence was used as a tool for understanding components that can contribute to restoring health.

    Results: In this study, the patients describe clinical burn-out as a comprehensive existential experience that can be perceived as being in between life and death, in a shadow world, trapped in a dead end. It’s a situation characterized by being powerless. It creates a need to comprehend one’s situation in order to be able to regain control and manage it. It’s a struggle to make sense of the life situation. When not being met with understanding, the patients lose hope. Existential issues in terms of meaning, existence and life choices become urgent. Working with the existential perspective requires trust, openness from both caregiver and patient, distinctness, a way to communicate it and courage to take on the challenge of dealing with existential issues. The perspective also requires that the existential suffering can be contained. Dealing with existential questions leads to self-knowledge and insights that enables a possibility to make different choices and leave negative behavioural patterns. Also, it can lead to a discovery of spirituality and religion as a resource in life. Besides their personal struggle for meaning, the patients see an existential void in society, leaving people without tools to handle existential needs. This is understood as something that affects people’s ability to handle stressful times in life.

    The care providers understand burn-out as a manifestation of a way of living that is not sustainable. It is an existential experience embodied in body and mind that can be experienced as being drained of life. It’s an existential challenge, causing grief when realizing one’s limitations as a human being. Also, loss of meaning and sense of existential vulnerability due to an experience of being annihilated is crucial for understanding the deep existential crisis that clinical burn-out can induce. This situation makes the patient ask existential questions about identity, meaning, values and direction. In the burnout-process the patients have distanced themselves from their own self and therefore need to reconnect with themselves. This makes the existential questions central in the rehabilitation as a way to reconnect to inner strength and resources, which are prerequisites for starting a health promoting, sustainable process which is empowering, making it possible to see oneself as a human being who experience meaning, not only as a patient with a diagnosis. Instead of finding meaning in the diagnosis, the patient’s existential questions and the existential experience is a key to moving forward, out of the situation. Meaning-making is therefore important in the rehabilitation.

    A holistic-existential approach and view of man makes it possible to work with the complexity of the situation. The holistic-existential approach creates synergies and offers an extra tool both for the caregiver and the patient. Focusing on the patient’s resources and competence makes it possible to see the crisis as a way to learn from it.

    The existential perspective in health care and rehabilitation is enabled by competence, openness, reliance, empathy and respect when meeting the patient. It also requires courage to take on the challenge of dealing with existential issues. It can be hard for both the patient and the care giver to confront existential suffering. It is the responsibility of the care giver to enable the existential perspective by acknowledging and making the existential perspective possible to communicate and work it through.

    The care providers understands values in modern society as contributing to people’s experience of feeling alone with existential needs, which intensifies their existential aloneness.

    The care providers’ experience is that the biomedical paradigm aggravates an existential perspective. The perspective is not associated with the care situation. There is a lack of knowledge about and understanding of the value of the existential perspective, all the way from the decision-making level to the clinical meeting with the patient. In addition, the paradigm affects how the patients express their illness. Also, the perspective requires time. Existential perspectives, therefore, tend to be concealed in the health care context.

    Applying Karl Jasper’s concept of limit situation, clinical burn-out can be interpreted as a defining existential experience. It can be understood as a limit situation when humans realize their limitations and at the same time get insights that are crucial for their lives. It’s an experience they wish they had not gone through, but on the other hand, it has led to insights they do not want to be without. The meaning-making process is health promoting by recreating meaning, the fundamental part of sense of coherence, which is crucial for a salutogenic direction.

    Conclusion: The existential state that the clinical burnout patients go through can, using Karl Jasper’s concept, be understood as a limit situation. According to Jasper’s reasoning, the limit situation can be perceived as facing an abyss, making it clear one has limitations as a human being. At the same time, the experience can be perceived as reaching a limit where humans can get insights about human life that can enhance life. Clinical burn-out, using Aaron Antonovsky’s concept, can be understood as a loss of the components that create sense of coherence. Loss of meaning is particularly central for understanding burn-out.

    Consequently, it is crucial to acknowledge the existential challenge that the patient is facing, as well as the importance of the meaning-making process for facilitating a movement in a health promoting manner. It gives a deeper understanding of the challenges and needs of patients suffering from clinical burn-out.

    The existential dimension of health has been highlighted in health promotion, but gets little attention in practice. This is especially significant in the health care context. This points out the need for a discussion about how the existential health dimension can be used as a resource in health care and rehabilitation and how this resource for health can be applied in a better way in health promotion and public health.

  • 69.
    Eriksson, Linda
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Elevinflytande i gränslandet mellan didaktik och makt – en studie av undervisningspraktiken i tre grundskolor2019Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on student influence in the borderland between didactics and power. Student influence is ambiguous and the mission of student influence can be interpreted in different ways in Swedish compulsory schools. In the school reforms of the 1990s, the intentions of student influence, based on both moral and political as well as theoretical positions were stated. Student influence was seen as a right, as being important for education in democracy, and as a prerequisite for learning. Democracy, knowledge and learning are essentially contested concepts. As a didactic practice student influence cannot be understood as general impact through learning, nor as fully-fledged democracy. The question of the limitations of student influence is described and analysed in the thesis. The aim is to describe and critically analyse student influence as didactic practice. The research questions that have directed the study are: How is student influence expressed in three different schools, where there has been a particular ambition to implement student influence? What prerequisites are given for student influence in the way teaching is organised and carried out?What possibilities and constraints (conditions) appear, from the perspective of didactics and power? A fourth question links together the empirical study with the problem of the limits of student influence: Can a didactic model be designed for student influence as didactic practice, and if so, how? The study was conducted using an abductive approach and strategy, and with a point of departure in critical realism as scientific approach. Three primary schools, with the particular ambition of implementing the mission of student influence, were studied through a multiple case study design. The empirical material was produced using ethnographic methods. The a didactic framework is used for description, whilst a sociological concept of power has contributed to the construction of analytical tools. Using ‘order’ and ‘renegotiation’ as analytic tools, the conditions for student influence on how teaching is organised and carried out, are described. Responsibility and transparency are tested as conditions, in order to answer the question of possibilities and constraints from the perspective of didactics and power. The analysis of teaching practice in the three schools shows that student influence is complex, and that it has to be understood as local bound and situationally. This impacts on the possibility of understanding its limitations. The results show that experiences and interests of students can concern motivating them to work, adapting teaching to different learning styles, or that the teachers pay attention to their expressions to fostering more generally. Furthermore, all models of democracy, and of different approaches to learning and knowledge are visible in the schools. The importance of classroom discussion for student influence needs to be illuminated, and the distinction between didactic considerations, and what could be understood as unwarranted power. The results are discussed in relation to issues of learning theory and curriculum theory, as well as to ideals of democratic education, to understand the limits of student influence. A didactic model, with three conceptual tools that enable repeated questioning of the limits of student influence, is proposed.

  • 70.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitetsteknik, maskinteknik och matematik.
    Customer value in commercial experiences: Expecting the unexpected2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I en allt större utsträckning letar kunder efter att konsumera upplevelser som berör på ett emotionellt plan, är personligt utformade och minnesvärda. Dagens kunder har ett växande behov av att underhållas och letar allt oftare efter erbjudanden enbart för nöjes skull. Flera forskare är överens om att kommersiella upplevelser handlar om att leverera ett högre kundvärde än för varor och tjänster. Det behövs mer forskning kring vad en kommersiell upplevelse innehåller för viktiga egenskaper som skapar värde för kunden samt att öka förståelsen kring kundens behov. De befintliga metoder och verktyg för att mäta kundvärde och kundnöjdhet innehåller få av de egenskaper som utpekas som vitala för en kommersiell upplevelse. Räcker det att arbeta med de värderingar, metoder och verktyg som utvecklats inom till exempel offensiv kvalitetsutveckling (TQM) eller behövs det ytterligare utveckling för att även inkludera den kommersiella upplevelsen?

     Det övergripande syftet med den här avhandlingen har varit att utforska området av kommersiella upplevelser och öka kunskapen kring hur kundvärde skapas när en kommersiell upplevelse levereras. Inom ramen för det övergripande syftet fanns även ett fokus att forskningen skulle bidra till ämnesområdet kvalitetsutveckling. För att uppfylla det övergripande syftet har tre forskningsfrågor ställts och tre fallstudier och en valideringsstudie genomförts. I den första fallstudien var syftet att utforska området av kommersiella upplevelser, inhämta kunskap och leta efter goda exempel för att skapa förståelse för hur kundvärde skapas inom kommersiella upplevelser. En utvald organisation studerades och besöktes. Empirisk data insamlades genom flera olika datakällor såsom direkt observation, deltagande observation, insamling av dokument, öppna seminarier och uppföljande intervjufrågor. I den andra fallstudien var syftet att studera hur organisationer arbetar med att skapa kundvärde i en kommersiell upplevelse. Den empiriska datainsamlingen insamlades via intervjuer med högsta ledningen i åtta olika organisationer. I den tredje och sista studien var syftet att utveckla ett sätt att mäta kundvärdet i en kommersiell upplevelse. Studien delades in i två delar, en valideringsstudie för att utveckla ett sätt att mäta och en fallstudie där mätverktyget testades bland kunder i en kommersiell upplevelse.

    Resultatet av de tre fallstudierna som presenteras i avhandlingen bidrar till en vidareutveckling av tidigare forskning om kommersiella upplevelser och hur kundvärde skapas när en kommersiell upplevelse levereras. Som ett resultat av forskningen definieras en kommersiell upplevelse som “en minnesvärd händelse som kunden är beredd att betala för” och identifieras som ett unikt erbjudande som innehåller ett hedoniskt kundvärde. Vidare visar forskningsresultaten på att den kommersiella upplevelsen utgörs av tre viktiga faktorer för kunden såsom att vara djupt engagerande, starkt känslomässigt berörande och minnesvärd. För att ytterligare beskriva upplevelsens karaktärsdrag har ett flertal egenskaper identifierats som ett resultat av fallstudie tre. En användning av Kanos teorier om attraktiv kvalitet föreslås som ett sätt att fortsätta arbetet med att identifiera egenskaper som dels kan skapa ett högre kundvärde men också för att kunna överraska, leverera något nytt och ge kunden det oväntade som ofta efterfrågas.

    Forskningsresultaten påvisar en brist bland befintliga mätverktyg och metoder för kundvärde och kundnöjdhet att mäta effekten av ett känslomässigt värde och de övriga egenskaper som utpekas viktiga för kommersiella upplevelser. Som en följd av det utvecklas en enkät för att identifiera och mäta viktiga egenskaper av värde för kunden i en kommersiell upplevelse. Från resultaten föreslås ett nytt mätinstrument för att mäta värdefulla egenskaper i en kommersiell upplevelse. En av slutsatserna är att mätverktyg specifikt utvecklade för att mäta kundvärdet i kommersiella upplevelser behövs. Erkända och tillämpade metoder för att mäta kundvärdet i en kommersiell upplevelse identifieras som en brist och mer forskning behövs inom området.

    Forskningen i avhandlingen visar att framgångsrika organisationer som levererar kommersiella upplevelser har en stark organisationskultur som bygger på värderingar. En av slutsatserna var att arbeta enligt kärnvärderingarna inom offensiv kvalitetsutveckling är en framgångsrik metod, även för organisationer som erbjuder kommersiella upplevelser. Men det verkar inte vara tillräckligt. En annan viktig framgångsfaktor som identifieras är att samskapa (co-create) upplevelsen mellan kund och leverantör. Det ger kunden möjligheten att påverka resultatet av upplevelsen inom vissa begränsningar och därmed en chans att förstärka kundvärdet, bli mer personlig och leverera ett högre kundvärde än andra erbjudanden. Vidare identifierade arbetssätt för att öka kundvärdet i erbjudandet var: rekrytera och välj medarbetare baserat på kompetens, färdigheter och värderingar; stimulera kreativt tänkande bland medarbetare; samt förstärk erbjudandet genom användningen av storytelling och tematisering. Dessa arbetssätt kategoriseras som specifika och mer unika eller nödvändiga inom upplevelseindustrin och kan vara avgörande i konkurrensen mellan olika organisationer för att leverera ett högre kundvärde.

  • 71.
    Eriksson, Monica
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Recovery from an Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Longitudinal Study of Couples2010Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avhandlingens övergripande syfte var att undersöka återhämtning i parrelation efter hjärtinfarkt. Ett ytterligare syfte var att jämföra skillnader avseende hopp och hälsorelaterad livskvalitet över tid men också emellan patienter och deras partners.Avhandlingen baseras på fyra delstudier (I‐IV), och har en longitudinal designmed både kvalitativa och kvantitativa metoder. Ett ändamålsenligt urval av 15 par rekryterades där en i parrelationen diagnostiserats med akut hjärtinfarkt. DelstudieI genomfördes med individuella bandinspelade intervjuer med syfte att beskrivapatienter och deras partners erfarenheter efter utskrivning från sjukhus eftergenomgången hjärtinfarkt. Delstudie II använde också individuella bandinspelade intervjuer, den här gången med syfte att beskriva och tolka parens tankar ochförväntningar kring deras framtid efter att patienten skrivits ut från sjukhus.Delstudie III använde instrumenten HHI‐S och SF‐36 för att jämföra skillnader av självskattat hopp och hälsorelaterad livskvalitet över tid och emellan patienter och deras partners. Delstudie IV använde upprepade bandinspelade intervjuer medsyfte att tolka parens berättelser kring deras relation och det dagliga livet. Data haranalyserats och tolkats med kvalitativ innehållsanalys på olika sätt (I,II,IV) ochmed såväl deskriptiv som jämförande statistik (III).Avhandlingen visar att parens återhämtning efter hjärtinfarkt under en period avtvå år omfattar en strävan efter att uppnå någon form av balans och stabilitet i denrådande livssituationen. Perioden efter utskrivning från sjukhus innebar enförståelse för hur viktigt hemmet är som plats för att känna sig hemma eller för att skapa en känsla av trygghet samt erfarenheter av fenomenet trygghet och attkänna sig hemma i sig själv. Slutligen sökte paren efter normalisering för att återkomma till det vanliga livet (I). Parens tankar kring deras framtid var antingenoptimistisk, en aktiv inställning, eller pessimistisk, en vänta ‐ och ‐ se inställning.Paren kunde också grupperas i fyra positioner som beskrev deras visioner omframtiden. De som kallades livskamrater syntes vara i samklang vad gällde återhämtning, balanskonstnärerna hade gemensamt ett behov av att omprioriter a vad som var viktigt för framtiden, de som var gemensamt för de som kallades stigfinnare var deras odefinierade/oklara bild av framtiden och slutligenobservatörerna såg sin framtid omfatta såväl fysiska som sociala begränsningar(II). Både självrapporterat hopp och hälsorelaterad livskvalitet förbättrades övertid, men få av dem var statistiskt signifikanta och inga statistiska gruppeffekterhittades. Beräkning av MDC index visade att varken HHI‐S eller SF‐36 mäterstabila dimensioner (III). Slutligen visade de upprepade intervjuerna hur paren sågpå dagligt liv, den inbördes relationen och roller i relationen över tid. Det fanns enIXrikedom av variationer i parens berättelser om deras relation och det dagliga livetunder återhämtningsprocessen (IV).Till sist framträder det klart att det som händer den ene i relationen fårkonsekvenser för den andre. Paren i studierna visade på att det skeddeförbättringar vad gäller både hopp och hälsorelaterad livskvalitet över tid. BådeHHI‐S och SF‐36 är instrument som synes vara känsliga för och påverkade av denrådande situationen. Att gå igenom en hjärtinfarkt är en livsavgörande händelsesom fodrar att paren ställer in sig på och gör anpassningar till en ny situation.Paren har dock olika sätt att handskas med den nya situationen och det finns intetvå par som är lika, och inte heller uppfattar och hanterar de hjärtinfarkten i vardagen och i relationen på samma sätt. En hjärtinfarkt startar en transitionsprocess och över tid genomgår paren såväl yttre som inre förändringar.

  • 72.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Barns självrapporterade hälsa: Betydelsen av socialt kapital i skolan och närområdet2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 73.
    Esebamen, Omeime Xerviar
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Characterization of interface states & radiation damage effects in duo-lateral PSDs: Using SEM microscopy and UV beam profiling techniques2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been an increase in the use of duo‐lateral position sensitive detectors inpractically every radiation and beam detection application. These devices unlike other light detection system utilize the effect of the lateral division of the generated photocurrent to measure the position of the integral focus of an incoming lightsignal. The performance of a PSD is impaired or strengthened by a number of events caused by parameters such as interface states and recombination introduced during the fabrication of the detector and/or its absorption of ionizing particles. This thesis show the results from the successful implementation of alternative characterization methods of these effects and parameters using scanning electronmicroscopy and UV beam profiling techniques on duo‐lateral position sensitive detectors (LPSDs). To help create the groundwork for the research content of this thesis, different technical reviews of previous studies on interface states, surface recombination velocity and radiation damage due to continuous absorption of ionizing irradiation on detectors are investigated. The thesis also examines published theoretical and measurement techniques used to characterize these surface/interface phenomena. The PSDs used in this research were developed using silicon technology and the various methodologies put into the fabrication of the detectors (n+p and p+n structures) were fashioned after the simulated models. The various steps associated with the clean room fabrication and the prior simulation steps are highlighted in the content of the thesis. Also discussed are the measurement techniques used incharacterizing the fixed oxide charge, surface recombination and the position deviation error of the LPSDs in a high vacuum environment of a scanning electron microscope SEM chamber. Using this method, the effects of interface states and surface recombination velocity on the responsivity of differently doped LPSDs were investigated. By lithographically patterning grid‐like structures used as scaleon n+p doped LPSD and using sweeping electrons from the SEM microscope, a very high linearity over the two‐dimensions of the LPSD total active area was observed. An improved responsivity for low energetic electrons was also achievedby the introduced n+p structure. The lithographically patterned grids helped eliminate further external measurement errors and uncertainties from the use of other typical movable measurement devices such as actuators and two dimensional adjusters which would normally be difficult to install in a remote vacuum chamber. In a similar vein, field plate and field rings were patterned around an array ofthe PSDs used as pixel detector(s). By studying the interpixel resistance and breakdown characteristics, the most effective structural arrangement of the field plate and field rings used to curb induced inversion channel between the n+ doped regions of the pixel‐detector is observed. By using UV beam profiling after the irradiation of UV (193 nm or 253 nm) beam on n+p and p+n doped PSDs, the degree of radiation damage was also investigated. The results obtained help to illustrate how prolonged UV radiation can impact on the linearity and the position deviation/error of UV detectors. The results in this thesis are most relevant in spectroscopic and microscopic applications where low energy electrons and medium UV (MUV) radiation are used.

  • 74.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    The Psychosocial Situation of Adults with Congenital Heart Disease in Iran2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives:Adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) are a new group of patients with a prevalence of 4 per 1000. They have evolved as a result of significant improvements in medical management during the past decades. However, adults with CHD experience various medical and social challenges that may influence their psychosocial functioning. Providing appropriate medical, rehabilitation and social care for adults with CHD, and indeed improving their well-being require the evaluation of their current psychosocial situation. This thesis aims to increase the understanding of the mental health, somatic symptoms, social support, style of coping, quality of life and life satisfaction of adults with CHD and to examine the possible contributing factors in the context of a developing country; issues not addressed in the current literature.Methods:This thesis is based on four studies. Study I recruited 347 consecutive CHD patients (18-64 years) from two heart hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The study iscross-sectional and focused on sex differences in socio-economic status, lifestyle and medical characteristics of adults with CHD. Studies II, III and IV havea cross-sectional case-control design comparing the aforementioned CHD patients with 353 non-CHD participants, matched by sex and age. Outcome variables were anxiety, depressive and somatic symptoms (Study II), styles of coping (Study III), and life satisfaction/quality of life (Study IV). The data were analysed with bivariate and multivariate methods. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to scrutinize the association of demographic/socio-economic variables, social support, mental health, and medical variables with the aforementioned outcome variables among adults with CHD (Studies II, III, IV). Results:Study I showed that women with CHD were more often married and had children and were less often employed, but had healthier behaviour compared to men. Even though most of the patients received regular medical viiicare from different typesof medical professionals, half of them had no knowledge about the type of their cardiac defect. Study II showed that CHD patients experienced more anxiety and somatic symptoms than the healthy controls, whereas there were no differences in depressive symptoms. Perceived financial strain, lower social support and low annual income were positively associated with worse outcome in mental health and somatic symptoms. None of the medical variables were related to anxiety, depressive and somatic symptoms. Study III showed that the styles of coping of the CHD patients were comparable to those of the control group and CHD per se was not associated with a certain style of coping, except for palliative reaction pattern. Problem-focused styles of coping were associated with being never married, parenthood, higher level of anxiety and somatic symptoms, lower level of depressive symptoms and higher social support. Emotion-focused styles of coping were associated with annual income and higher level of anxiety. None of theadopted coping strategies were related to the heart disease variables. Study IV showed that adults with CHD had poorer quality of life and lower life satisfaction than the control group. However, CHD was associated only with decreased overall quality of life and its physical health domain, and life and health satisfaction. Among CHD patients, higher quality of life was associated with female sex, younger age, employment status, having less emotional distress and higher social support, while life satisfaction was associated with female sex, being employed, less emotional distress and higher social support. Conclusions:The results support the notion that psychosocial factors contribute to the well-being of adults with CHD.Socio-economic factors, emotional health and social support are significant determinants in nearly all outcomes of interest which need to be considered by health care providers and policy makers in their efforts to improve the health ofadults with CHD. However, longitudinal studies are warranted to establish causal linksand qualitative studies are recommended to deepen the understanding of coping and quality of life.

  • 75.
    Essén, Sofia
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Hydroxamate Siderophores and Low Molecular Mass Organic Acids in Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments Determined by Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Siderophores are low molecular mass organic compounds with high iron(III) stability constants. They are produced by many microorganisms, often in combination with low molecular mass organic acids (LMMOAs). Both siderophores and LMMOAs accelerate mineral weathering, thereby enhancing mineral nutrient availability. Siderophore concentrations in natural environments, however, are largely unknown. In the present work, analytical methods based on liquid chromatography (LC) electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI‐MS) were developed and used for concentration determination of selected hydroxamate siderophores and LMMOAs. The use of capillary LC with on‐line pre‐concentration via column switching enabled siderophore quantification with detection limits of 0.1 ‐ 5 nM. Through solid phase extraction even lower detection limits were achieved. In Swedish podzol soil solutions concentrations up to 12 nM ferricrocin and 2 nM ferrichrome were found in the upper soil layes. Additionally, in axenic pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedling cultures, the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma crustuliniforme was shown to produce ferricrocin as the main siderophore. Moreover, ferricrocin was found in enriched Baltic Sea cyanobacterial populations at concentrations up to 1 nM, while concentrations up to 0.05 nM ferrioxamine B were determined in Baltic Sea surface waters during cyanobacterial blooms. Siderophores have strong affinities for some actinides and may affect radionuclide mobilization in deep subsurface nuclear wase repositories. Two subsurface bacterial strains were shown to produce siderophores under aerobic conditions, i.e. Pseudomonas stutzeri produced mainly ferrioxamine E and Pseudomonas fluorescens produced one pyoverdin siderophore. Siderophores produced by aerobically grown P. stutzeri were not observed either in anaerobic cultures or in deep subsurface water samples.

  • 76.
    Ewoko, Mathew Ngale
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande.
    Municipal Solid Waste Management, Limbe Municipality Cameroon.2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The overview of this paper is about municipal solid waste management in Cameroon and suggested methods for improvement. Garbage bins for sorting has been mentioned in this paper as one of the major infrastructure needed in all the areas, particularly in the low standards areas. The installation of garbage bins for source separation, building of transfer stations next to paved roads have been mentioned as one of the primary solution for both the waste vehicles and households. This will increase the waste collection system and will reduce illegal dumping of waste. Population, urbanisation and industrial growth has also been mentioned in this paper as one of the main causes of increase waste generation that has lead to illegal dumping of waste in unwanted areas. Low level of education, inadequate financial standings or resources, poor enforcement of waste management regulations and governance has often led to major waste management problems in Cameroon. This paper also presents a vital analysis of the distance between garbage bins and households as well as possible solutions. The method used in this paper is both primary and secondary data’s which has been explained below. The three filter theory and the waste hierarchy model have as well been used.

    The case study of Limbe municipality has been used to bring out waste management related problems and recommended possible solutions for improvement.

     

     

     

    Key words: Environment, municipal solid waste management, Limbe municipality, Cameroon, awareness.

  • 77.
    Fagerlund-Edfeldt, Amelie
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Naturally occurring phenols with antioxidant, antifungal and anti-browsing activity2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 78.
    Fahlén, Göran
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Aspects of the Effort-reward imbalance model of psychosocial stress in the working life2008Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fahlén, G. (2008). Aspects on the Effort-reward Imbalance model of psychosocial stress in the work environments. Sundsvall, Sweden: Mid Sweden University, Department of Health Sciences. ISBN 978-91-85317-94-3.

    Arbetsrelaterad stress har sedan slutat av sjuttiotalet alltmer blivit uppmärksammat som en viktig bestämningsfaktor för ohälsa. En av de mest inflytelserika stressmodellerna är Ansträngning-belönings modellen (Effort-reward imbalance, ERI) som stipulerar att en obalans mellan ansträngning och belöning i arbetet orsakar en skadlig stress och att de som har ett särskilt coping-beteende som kännetecknas bland annat av oförmåga att dra sig tillbaka från sitt arbete (Work related overcommitment WOC) är särskilt sårbara. Modellen har visat ett starkt förklaringsvärde för många negativa hälsoutfall.

    Det övergripande syftet med avhandlingen var att bidra till utvecklingen av ERI-modellen genom att utforska modellens egenskaper i relation till de teoretiska antagandena, uppbyggnad och tillämpning samt att öka kunskapen om modellens validitet.

    Den epidemiologiska studie som användes i tre artiklar var WOLF-studien (WOrk, Lipids and Fibrinogen) där analyserna genomfördes på den delmängd som hade svarat på ERI-frågorna (n=1174) och som hade kompletta svar. För en artikel användes material från SKA-studien (Sjukskrivning, Kultur och Attityder) och omfattade de som arbetade med ohälsoärenden vid Försäkringskassan (n=5700) i samtliga fall användes data från frågeformulär.

    Resultaten visade att ERI och WOC utgör riskfaktorer för störd sömn och dagtrötthet. En tydlig tröskeleffekt kunde skönjas mellan tredje och fjärde kvartilen. Eftersom dessa symptom är starkt stressrelaterade, gav resultaten stöd för användbarheten av ERI och WOC instrumenten för att skatta stress i arbetslivet.

    Överensstämmelsen mellan enskilda frågor i orginalinstrumentet för ERI och ett approximativt var låg, medan överensstämmelsen mellan de två ERI skalorna bedömdes som rimlig. När approximativa instrument används bör frågor och skalor presenteras utförligt för att jämförelser ska underlättas och resultaten bör tolkas med försiktighet.

    En utgångspunkt i ERI-modellen är att individer som har ett coping-beteende som karakteriseras som WOC är särskilt sårbara för en obalans mellan ansträngning och belöning, d.v.s. att ERI och WOC interagerar i synergi. Ingen sådan effekt kunde styrkas i relation till störd sömn och dagtrötthet. Det saknas också övertygande bevis för att en sådan effekt finns. WOC-måttet är relativt stabilt i oförändrade arbetsförhållanden i såväl orginalinstrumentet som i det nuvarande förkortade. Upplevda positiva eller negativa förändringar i ERI påverkade WOC i samma riktning. Resultaten indikerade att WOC, åtminstone delvis kan utgöra ett utfall av ERI, inte endast en copingstrategi. Dessa resultat gör att studier för att tydliggöra WOC-dimensionens roll i ERI modellen är önskvärda.

    En annan utgångspunkt i modellen är att en av de situationer man stannar i ogynnsamma arbetsförhållanden kännetecknade av ERI, är att man har små möjligheter att byta arbete beroende på att man har få möjligheter på arbetsmarknaden eller är utsatt för risk att bli uppsagd eller att få sämre arbete, man är ”inlåst”. Resultaten visade på en stark association mellan inlåsning och ERI och gav därmed stöd åt antagandet.

  • 79.
    Falasca, Kajsa
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Context matters. Interactions between news media, political actors and citizens in elections and crises2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 80.
    Feng, Tao
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Adaptive finite element methods for parameter estimation problems in partial differential equations2005Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical and chemical phenomena are often described by a system of partial di®erential equations. These equations usually involve unknown parameters, which cannot be measured directly but which can be adjusted to make the model predictions match the observed data. The process of ¯tting these para- meters to laboratory or plant data is called parameter estimation. In order to recover these parameters, the well-known output least squares formulation is of- ten utilized. To solve the optimization problem governed by partial di®erential equations, the in¯nite-dimensional problem must be approximated by introduc- ing discretizations such as a ¯nite elements or di®erences. It is clear that the e±ciency of the numerical methods dealt with here will be in°uenced by the discretization scheme. The goal of this thesis is to develop e±cient numerical methods for the parameter estimation problems governed by partial di®erential equations, based on adaptive ¯nite element methods. This work was initiated by an investigation into an a posteriori error esti- mator of residual type for parameter estimation problems with a ¯nite number of unknown parameters. It appears that an adaptive ¯nite element algorithm guided by the derived a posteriori error estimator produces a sequence of eco- nomical, locally re¯ned meshes. The methods are then applied to the identi¯ca- tion of elastic constants in paper from measured displacements. Further, some a posteriori error estimators of gradient recovery type are derived for the error in parameters due to the discretization. The main advantages of using error estimators of this type are the simplicity of their implementation and their cost e®ectiveness. Often, the unknown parameters are functions, which also need to be dis- cretized. Adaptive ¯nite element method is developed for the estimation of distributed parameters in elliptic equations with multi-mesh techniques. Finally, a goal-oriented adaptive method, dual weighted residual methods (DWR methods) are employed determining the elastic constants in paper from measured displacements.

  • 81.
    Fjellström, Helena
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Inhibition of light-induced colour reversion of wood-containing papers by means of coating2008Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this thesis was to find ways to maintain a low level of light‐induceddiscolouration at an increased addition of mechanical and chemimechanical pulps in coated highqualityfine paper and magazine paper grades. Current technology allows the production of highyieldpulps such as thermomechanical and chemimechanical pulps with properties suitable formanufacturing high‐quality paper or paperboard with a low basis weight. Coating of woodcontainingpaper will probably be necessary for photo‐stability reasons if lignin‐containing pulps areto be used as the main fibre furnish in long‐life and high‐value products.In order to find the most suitable pulp for this purpose, light‐induced discolouration of a variety ofpaper samples from unbleached and bleached softwood and hardwood pulps was studied under bothaccelerated and long‐term ambient light‐induced ageing conditions. Hardwood high‐yield pulps,especially aspen pulps, were proven to be more photo‐stable compared to softwood pulps. Hardwoodpulps should therefore be the first choice for applications where a high permanence is desirable.Evaluating ageing characteristics using the CIELAB colour system showed that accelerated ageingconditions tend to mainly increase the b* value and decrease the L* value (i.e. yellow the pulp),whereas long‐term ambient ageing also increases the a* value, which makes the pulp more reddish.A new method for studying the influence of the UV‐screening properties of coating layers on abase paper was developed, and used to investigate the effect of pigment, pigment size distribution,binder and UV‐absorbing additives. The coat weight and pigment type were found to be the mostimportant factors for reducing the transmittance of UV‐radiation. Coating colours containing kaolinpigments had a lower UV‐transmittance than calcium carbonate pigments. Of the calcium carbonates,precipitated calcium carbonates were better than ground calcium carbonates and the difference wasgreater at higher coat weights. The particle size distribution should preferable be narrow. When thebest pigment (bleached kaolin) and the best binder (styrene butadiene latex) were combined withtitanium dioxide, the UV‐transmittance could be reduced by about 90% at a coat weight of ~10 g/m2.At a coat weight close to 20 g/m2, the transmittance was close to zero. This shows that it is possible tomore or less fully protect a double coated base paper from harmful UV‐radiation, when the coatinglayer has an optimum composition for that purpose. A prerequisite to reach so far is that the coatinglayer has an even coat weight.

  • 82.
    Flodén, Liselott
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    G-Convergence and Homogenization of some Sequences of Monotone Differential Operators2009Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis mainly deals with questions concerning the convergence of some sequences of elliptic and parabolic linear and non-linear operators by means of G-convergence and homogenization. In particular, we study operators with oscillations in several spatial and temporal scales. Our main tools are multiscale techniques, developed from the method of two-scale convergence and adapted to the problems studied. For certain classes of parabolic equations we distinguish different cases of homogenization for different relations between the frequencies of oscillations in space and time by means of different sets of local problems. The features and fundamental character of two-scale convergence are discussed and some of its key properties are investigated. Moreover, results are presented concerning cases when the G-limit can be identified for some linear elliptic and parabolic problems where no periodicity assumptions are made.

  • 83.
    Forsberg, Viviane
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Liquid-Phase Exfoliation of Two-Dimensional Materials: Applications, deposition methods and printed electronics on paper2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    After the unprecedented success of graphene research, other materials that can also be exfoliated into thin layers, like Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), have also become the subjects of extensive studies. As one of the most promising methods for large scale production of such materials, liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) has also been the subject of extensive research and is maturing as a field to the point that devices using additive manufacturing and printed nanosheets are often reported. The stability of the nanosheets in environmentally friendly solvents, particularly in water, with or without stabilizers, is still a focus of great interest for sustainable and commercial production. In this thesis, different methods of LPE in water with and without stabilizers are investigated and discussed. Stabilizers such as surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and modified cellulose2-hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), were employed. Because waterdoes not have surface energy parameters that match those of2D materials, the dispersions in water do not usually have a high yield. Therefore, to circumvent the use of organic solvents that are known to be able to successfully exfoliate and stabilize nanosheets of two-dimensional materials, this thesis focuses on water as the solution-process medium for exfoliation and the assisting stabilizers used to keep the exfoliated nanomaterials in dispersion with a long half-time. Surfactant-assisted dispersions are discussed together with test-printing resultsusing inkjet to deposit the material. Process parameters for the LPE method using HEC as a stabilizer are presented together with thin nanosheets characterized by Raman spectroscopy. Dispersions using HEC presented the longest half-time among the studied methods, higher than previously reported values for methods using mixed low-boiling-point solvents. Devices using exfoliated nanosheets have been fabricated and presented in the present study. The photoconductivity of MoS2 using a device fabricated with LPE MoS2 nanosheets and the cathodoluminescence of LPE MoS2 are discussed. Although fabricated with mechanically exfoliated nanosheets and not LPE ones, another photodetector fabricated with one of the MoS2 grades used in this thesis is presented to highlight the excellent photoresponse of this material. A method of producing thin nanosheets with-out stabilizers by pre-processing the MoS2 grades withs and papers is introduced. With this method, nanosheets with a lateral size of around 200nm and a concentration around 0.14 g L−1 - that is half the concentration at the same processing conditions in solvent n-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) - are discussed. Inkjet printing as a deposition method is discussed together with the requirements for the 2D inks. Printed organic electronics using the conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS are compared to those using commercially-available graphene ink, with a focus on printing on paper substrates. In order to bring the thesis into perspective from materials to device fabrication, I study the suitability of inkjet paper substrates for printed electronics, by extensively characterizing the chemical and physical properties of their ink-receiving layers (IRLs) and their impact on the electronic properties of the conductive printed lines.

  • 84.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för informations- och kommunikationssystem.
    Enabling fully distributed global services on the Internet-of Things2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 85.
    Fransson, Per
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för humaniora.
    Landskapet som lärobok: Regionalitet och medborgarfostran i Jämtland kring sekelskiftet 19002010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the relationship between regionality and societal integration at the turn of the 20th century from an historical and pedagogical perspective. The national identity project of the time that made national unity its overarching goal and that imagined the nation as a homogenous entity, also institutionalised regional distinctiveness. How did the agents of the time handle the conflict between the regionally particular and the nationally general? What is analysed here is the publicly constructed and mediated “regionality”, which is to say the production of meanings about a region and the projection onto it of expectations and ideas. A discourse on Jämtland has been demarcated, which is analysed alongside other contemporary discourses, including class and gender. All of these discourses were rooted in the concept of “societal”. The conception showed that the development of the societal whole was primary in relation to other interests. Defined as “societal”, formerly excluded identities could be made participants in the building of the nation. Empirical examination is given to how “Jämtland” and “the Jämtlandic” were defined in the regional press, in the framework of general education, and by the Swedish Tourist Association, regional societies, institutions and so forth. The study shows that at the turn of the 20th century, regionality very much functioned as a means to territorially anchor more general ideas and notions that inheredin the modernisation and democratisation of society. With the objective of attaining a higher degree of national integration, a regional distinctiveness was constructed that was nationally complementary and that served as a metaphorfor subordinated participation in society. From grand, majestic panoramas, historical myths, traditional local handicrafts and provincial flowers a symbolic distinctiveness was created, but with the aim of establishing genuine national unity. Society was to be described and understood from particular and individual viewpoints, so that the individual could develop a sense of the general and so that society’s fundamental values were not undermined by his liberation. Jämtlandic regionality that has been identified in the study can thus be regarded as a supra-ideological institution. What came to be regionalised was something more fundamental than the artefacts of cultural heritage that people and institutions believed themselves to be rescuing from modernisation: it was the nation’s territoriality. The concept of hembygd represented a “spatialisation” of the societally coded concept of citizenship, and helped to tie this concept to the individual’s own lifeworld. More than anything else, regionality indicateda perspective on reality. If it was possible to obtain an overview of a regional context from a local vantage point or an individual locally crafted artefact, it was also possible to conceive of the larger national framework of which this region formed a part. The regional denoted the link between the private and the public, between the individual and his abstract national affiliation.

  • 86.
    Fredriksson, Mattias
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Efficient algorithms for highly automated evaluation of liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry data2010Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    De analysinstrument som används för att ta reda på vad ett prov innehåller(och till vilken mängd) måste vanligtvis ställas in för det specifika fallet, för attfungera optimalt. Det finns ofta en mängd olika variabler att undersöka som harmer eller mindre inverkan på resultatet och när provet är okänt kan man oftast inteförutspå de optimala inställningarna i förtid.En vätskekromatograf med en masspektrometer som detektor är ett sådantinstrument som är utvecklat för att separera och identifiera organiska ämnen lösta ivätska. Med detta mycket potenta system kan man ofta med rätt inställningar delaupp de ingående ämnena i provet var för sig och samtidigt erhålla mått som kanrelateras till dess massa och mängd. Detta system används flitigt av analytiskalaboratorer inom bl.a. läkemedelsindustrin för att undersöka stabilitet och renhethos potentiella läkemedel. För att optimera instrumentet för det okända provetkrävs dock att en hel del försök utförs där inställningarna varieras. Syftet är attmed en mindre mängd designade försök bygga en modell som klarar av att peka åtvilket håll de optimala inställningarna finns. Data som genereras från instrumentetför denna typ av applikation är i matrisform då instrumentet scannar och spararintensiteten av ett intervall av massor varje tidpunkt en mätning sker. Om enanalyt når detektorn vid aktuell tidpunkt återges det som en eller flera överlagdanormalfördelade toppar som ett specifikt mönster på en annars oregelbundenbakgrundssignal. Förutom att alla topparna i det färdiga datasetet helst ska varavälseparerade och ha den rätta formen, så ska tiden analysen pågår vara så kortsom möjlig. Det är ändå inte ovanligt att ett färdigt dataset består av tiotalsmiljoner uppmätta intensiteter och att det kan krävas runt 10 försök med olikabetingelser för att åstadkomma ett godtagbart resultat.Dataseten kan dock till mycket stor del innehålla brus och andra störandesignaler vilket gör de extra krångligt att tolka och utvärdera. Eftersom man ävenofta får att komponenterna byter plats i ett dataset när betingelserna ändras kan enmanuell utvärdering ta mycket lång tid.Syftet med denna avhandling har varit att hitta metoder som kan vara till nyttaför den som snabbt och automatiskt behöver jämföra dataset analyserade medolika kromatografiska betingelser, men med samma prov. Det slutgiltiga målet harfrämst varit att identifiera hur olika komponenter i provet har rört sig mellan deolika dataseten, men de steg som ingår kan även nyttjas till andra applikationer.

  • 87.
    Friberg, Anna
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för humaniora.
    Demokrati bortom politiken: En begreppshistorisk analys av demokratibegreppet inom Sveriges socialdemokratiska arbetareparti 1919–19392013Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation analyzes the concept of democracy as it was used in the official rhetoric of the Swedish SocialDemocratic Party (SAP ) between 1919 and 1939. Theoretically, the dissertation relies on German Begriffsgeschichte, as put forward by Reinhart Koselleck, and Michael Freeden’s theory of ideologies. Together, by supplementing each other, these theories offer a perspective in which concepts are thought of as structures that are under contestation and change due to socio-political circumstances. However, the formulation of this change takes place in relation to the linguistic praxis of each time-period, and renegotiates the relative constraints of established relations between concepts in language.

    The analysis shows that the profound changes in society provided impetus for a continuous renegotiation of meanings, allowing concepts to retain their explanatory power under changing circumstances, at the same time the SAP needed new ways to express what kind of society the party strived to realize. The SAP had been one of the leading forces in the struggle for universal suffrage, and when the bill, giving universal suffrage to men andwomen, was passed in the Parliament 1919 this meant a temporary cessation to a long and intensive political debate. However, the SAP did not consider the introduction of suffrage reform as the end of full societal democratization. Rather than seeing the reform as a terminal point, the SAP saw it as the starting point for the struggle for full democracy. The SAP did not limit itself to only one concept of democracy but instead used a number of composite concepts, such as political democracy and economic democracy. The use of composite concepts can be understood as a changing temporalization of democracy. Since parliamentarism and suffrage were seen as central components in democracy, the realization of these institutions meant that the concept of democracy lost its future dimension. Thus, the usage of composite concepts should be seen as a re-temporalization of democracy. The composite concepts pointed forward in time, toward political goals that the SAP envisaged realizing in the future.

    Concepts should not be thought of as having cores but rather, as suggested by Freeden, ineliminable features. An ineliminable feature is not of logical nature but has a strong cultural adjacency. By analyzing the ineliminable components of the concepts of democracy that the SAP used, it is possible to discuss whether the composite concepts should be understood as subsets of a whole or as separate concepts. The analysis shows that the composite concepts that the SAP used during the first half of the 1920s shared a number of ineliminable features, but that the commonality of these features started to disintegrate during the latter half of the decade, leading to a rather diversive concept of democracy. During the 1930s the disintegration ceased as the party was faced with new circumstances, for example the growing threat of international war and national clashes between different social groups. There has always been a close relation between language and society. However, the relationship does not follow a simple and clear-cut logic but a complex mixture of various factors at different levels, both within language itself and of society. When society develops, language also has to change if the ongoing process is to be understood. As this study shows, new circumstances require new argumentsand thus revised concepts.

  • 88.
    Frisk, Irina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för humaniora.
    A Linguistic Analysis of Peer-review Critique in Four Modes of Computer-mediated Communication2016Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract 

    The present work is a quantitative and qualitative analysis of pragmatic strategies for delivering critique, and types of politeness, used by undergraduate L2 students of English at different stages of peer-review discussion. The material examined consists of four corpora of authentic conversations between students, the main purpose of which was to give feedback on each other’s contributions during an English A-level course, at Mid-Sweden University. The conversations explored were carried out electronically, and represent four different online environments, or modes of computer-mediated communication (CMC). The material from the two asynchronous modes of CMC is comprised of L2 students’ written discussion board messages and spoken posts recorded using online software. The two synchronous environments under investigation are text-based and voice-based chat. Taking Brown and Levinson’s (1987) framework of politeness as a point of departure, the present study uses a combination of corpus and conversation analytical methods. The basic unit of analysis has been defined as the shortest message of peer-review critique that constitutes a thematic unit: these have been examined in terms of their content and politeness features associated with them, and analyzed in terms of the pragmatic strategy and type of politeness adopted. The types of pragmatic strategies or message organization patterns at different stages, i.e. initial versus subsequent feedback, of the peer-review discussion have also been analyzed. The results of the study show that the pragmatic strategies aimed at praise and agreement prevail in the corpus data produced by predominantly native speakers of Swedish. Even though the pragmatic strategies used for disagreement and negative evaluation are rich in propositional content, their occurrences and distribution vary across the four modes of CMC examined. These results seem to have wider implications in the context of online L2 learning activities, providing insights about the language of peer-review critique in a Swedish academic setting.

     

    Keywords: computer-mediated communication (CMC), Conversation Analysis (CA), conversation management, discussion boards, feedback category, mode of CMC, peer-review discussion, politeness theory, pragmatic strategy, speech act of critique, text-based chat, type of politeness, voice-based chat, VoiceThread

  • 89.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Hybrid pixel detectors: Characterization and optimization2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 90.
    Gao, Jinlan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Antenna-based passive UHF RFID sensor tags: Design and application2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    RFID, as a low cost technology with a long life time, provides great potential for transmitting sensor data in combination with the ordinary ID number. The sensor can, for example, be integrated either in the chip or in the antenna of an RFID tag.This thesis focuses on the design of antenna-based UHF RFID sensor tags as wireless sensors at the lowest possible cost level compatible with standard communication systems in logistics. The applications of the sensor tags, in this work, mainly target remote humidity sensing. Antenna-based sensory UHF RFID tags utilize the influence that the physical or chemical parameters to be sensed have on the electrical properties of a tag antenna. The variations of the electrical properties of the tag antenna can be measured in many ways. In the thesis, a description is provided as to how these variations are normally measured by an RFID reader without any other assistant equipment. Three structures of antenna-based RFID sensor tags are presented with detailed characterizations. The first one utilizes the sensitivity of the antenna to the surrounding environment to construct RFID sensor tags, where a moisture absorbing layer providing wetness/humidity sensor functionality is placed on the RFID tag antenna to increase the humidity concentration surrounding the tag antenna and the thesis describes how to overcome certain limitations due to disturbances associated with background materials. The second structure directly integrates a small resistive sensor element into an RFID tag antenna and the sensor information can thus modulate the antenna performance by means of galvanic contact. The third structure embeds a small resistive sensor element into a loop which is positioned on top of the tag antenna and the sensor information can thus modulate the performance of the tag antenna by means of electromagnetic coupling. Both theoretical analysis and fullwave simulations are presented for the latter two sensor tag structures in order to characterize the performance of the sensor tags. An ultra-low cost printed humidity sensor with memory functionality is also designed and thoroughly characterized for integration into RFID tag antennas by means of galvanic contact or electromagnetic coupling. The sensor is a 1-bit write-once-read-many (WORM) memory printed using conductive ink. The WORM works as a pure resistive humidity sensor and can provide information about an historical event. The WORM sensor is presented by introducing its geometry, characterizingits behavior in humidity and explaining the principle of the humidity effect. The WORM sensors are also integrated into the RFID tags by means of both galvanic contact and electromagnetic coupling in order to experimentally verify the two concepts. To lower the cost of the RFID tags, the antennas are normally printed, milledor etched on flexible substrates using low-cost high-speed manufacturing methods which in some cases cause a high degree of edge roughness. The edge roughness will affect the behavior of the antenna, however, the characteristics of edge roughness on RFID antennas have previously not received any significant attention. Unforeseen antenna behavior can affect the antenna-based sensor tags, thus the influence of edge roughness is also investigated in the thesis.

  • 91.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationsteknologi och medier.
    Design and Performance of Packet Retransmission Diversity Scheme for Wireless Networks2005Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konvergensen mellan internet och mobil teknologi skapar stora möjligheter till nya innovativa internettjänster på marknaden. Dessa nya och i många fall avancerade tjänster kräver höga datahastigheter och mycket bandbredd. För att använda sig av höga datahastigheter över trådlös kommunikation behövs bl.a. felrättande koder samt avancerad modulationsteknik som är robust emot störningar och samtidigt bandbreddseffektiva. I denna avhandling designas och utvärderas olika ARQ-protokoll för att öka systemprestanda såsom ökad genomströmning av datapaket samt minska antalet omsändningar. Vi börjar med att visa att man med hjälp av paketkombinering i trådlösa nätverk som IEEE 802.11 kan uppnå en signifikant prestandaökning utan markant ökning av systemets komplexitet. Vidare så studeras olika omsändningsstrategier där man varierar bit-till-symbolmappningen i varje omsändning och på så sätt erhålla en diversitetsvinst. Denna metod visar sig vara bättre än att sända samma datapaket med likadan bit-till-symbolmappning i varje omsändning. Slutligen utvärderas ARQ-system som använder flera sändar- och mottagarantenner (MIMO-system).

  • 92.
    Gidlund, Ulrika
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Discourses of Including Students with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (EBD) in Swedish Mainstream Schools2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    When students’ behaviours cause difficulties for their teachers, themselves, and the rest of the class, teachers often construct inclusion as problematic. The overall aim of this study was to contribute to the understanding of teachers’ discourses regarding inclusion of students with emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) in Swedish mainstream schools. The sample of empirical data collected for articles II–IV was derived from focus group interviews of 5–8 mainstream teachers in grades 4–6 in 6 different schools. Article I is a research synthesis on 15 studies that feature the attitudes of teachers from 15 different countries. It frames the entire thesis by examining how teachers perceive students with EBD from other countries, cultures, and times. In this study, neither inclusion nor EBD are said to be so much objectively “real” as socially produced and can be regarded as social constructs. An approach of discourse theory that takes inspiration from Laclau and Mouffe (1985) is applied in articles II–III and is complemented with constructionist thematic analysis. The results revealed that teachers construct meaning and understanding of students in relation to their everyday professional missions in the classroom. Discourses about successfully including students with EBD face problem fixing their meaning as they require new and other types of resources as well as other time distributions, teachers, curricula, and classrooms. The teachers’ discourses revealed a clear gap between policy and practice in the Swedish education system. Discourses that were pragmatic based on everyday reality of the school overpowered the discourses of ensuring equal opportunities for all students and the celebration of diversity. When the wordings of the Swedish steering documents are arbitrary and interpreted differently among various actors within Swedish schools, the teachers feel insecurity, frustration, and inadequacy. Inclusion of students with EBD is a complex and complicated matter that the teachers do not feel competent enough to fully handle. They revealed their frustration with being expected to do something that cannot be done due to practical and economic reasons. When teachers experience failure and dissatisfaction with specific teaching situations, they construct discourses that justify and legitimize that failure. These discourses inevitably have consequences for how the teachers understand and organize their everyday teacher missions.

  • 93.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    "e" i retorik och praktik.: Elektronisk förvaltning i översättning.2009Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this study is to contribute to the discussion of eGovernment implementation by making the implicit organisational micro dynamic processes involved in the framing and implementation of eGovernment explicit. I want to highlight the important process trough which eGovernment is framed and translated by organisational members and in what way it effects different divisions of practice. To do so, two different analytical aspects of organisational life, the rhetoric of management and the reality of work practices are used as a theoretical context for analysing some implications of eGovernment implementation. These analytical dimensions of organisational life are used to discuss a case study looking at the implementation of eGovernment in a local Swedish municipality.

     

    The main contribution of this thesis is a theorisation of how to understand the organisational micro dynamic processes involved in the implementation of eGovernment in public administration. New insights could be gained, for researchers and practioners, by analysing the transformation of practice as an ongoing process characterised by micro-political translation processes involving actors as well as actions and meanings in both rhetoric and practice.

  • 94.
    Goine, Hans
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Sickness absence: Aspects of measurement, impact of the labour market and effects of intervention2006Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 95.
    Gorski, Dmitri
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    ATMP Process: Improved Energy Efficiency in TMP Refining Utilizing Selective Wood Disintegration and Targeted Application of Chemicals2011Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is focused on the novel wood chip refining process called AdvancedThermomechanical Pulp (ATMP) refining. ATMP consists of mechanical pretreatmentof chips in Impressafiner and Fiberizer prior to first stage refining atincreased intensity. Process chemicals (this study was concentrated on hydrogenperoxide and magnesium hydroxide) are introduced into the first stage refiner.It is known that the use of chemicals in TMP process and first stage refining atelevated intensity can reduce the energy demands of refining. The downside is thatthey also alter the character of the produced pulp. Reductions in fibre length andtear index are usually the consequences of refining at elevated intensity. Additionof chemicals usually leads to reduction of the light scattering coefficient. Usingstatistical methods it was shown that it is possible to maintain the TMP character ofthe pulp using the ATMP process. This is explained by a separation of thedefibration and the fibre development phases in refining. This separation allowsdefibration of chips to fibres and fibre bundles without addition of chemicals orincrease in refining intensity. Chemicals are applied in the fibre developmentphase only (first stage refiner). The energy demand in refining to reach tensileindex of 25 Nm/g was reduced by up to 1.1 MWh/odt (42 %) using the ATMPprocess on Loblolly pine. The energy demand in refining of White spruce, requiredto reach tensile index of 30 Nm/g, was reduced by 0.65 MWh/odt (37%).Characterizations of individual fibre properties, properties of sheets made fromlong fibre fractions and model fibre sheets with different fines fractions werecarried out. It was established that both the process equipment configuration (i.e.the mechanical pre‐treatment and the elevated refining intensity) and the additionof process chemicals in the ATMP process influence fibre properties such as external and internal fibrillation as well as the amount of split fibres. Improvementof these properties translated into improved properties of sheets, made from thelong fibre fractions of the studied pulps. The quality of the fines fraction alsoimproved. However, the mechanisms of improvement in the fines quality seem tobe different for fines, generated using improved process configuration andaddition of process chemicals. The first type of fines contributed to better bondingof model long fibre sheets through the densification of the structure. Fines whichhave been influenced by the addition of the process chemicals seemed in additionto improve bonding between long fibres by enhancing the specific bond strength.The improved fibre and fines properties also translated into better airpermeability and surface roughness of paper sheets, properties which areespecially important for supercalendered (SC) printing paper. The magnitude offibre roughening after moistening was mainly influenced by the processequipment configuration while the addition of process chemicals yielded lowestfinal surface roughness due to the lowest initial surface roughness. There was nodifference in how fines fractions from the studied processes influenced the fibreroughening. However, fines with better bonding yielded model fibre sheets withhigher PPS, probably due to their consolidation around fibre joints. Hence, thedecrease in PPS can probably be attributed to the improvements in the long fibrefraction properties while the improvement of fines quality contributed to thereduction of air permeability.The process chemicals, utilized in the ATMP process (Mg(OH)2 and H2O2) alsoproved to be an effective bleaching system. Comparable increases in brightnesscould be reached using the ATMP process and conventional tower bleaching.Maximum brightness of the pulp was reached after approximately 10 minutes ofhigh‐consistency storage after refining or 40 minutes of conventional bleaching.This study was conducted using a pilot scale refiner system operated as a batchprocess. Most of the experiments were performed using White spruce (Piceaglauca). In Paper I, Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) was used. It is believed that theresults presented in this thesis are valid for other softwood raw materials as well,but this limitation should be considered.

  • 96.
    Granberg, Magnus
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Care in revolt: Labor conflict, gender, neoliberalism2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande avhandling utforskar normaliseringsprocesser och problem rörande appropriering i samband med arbetskonflikter. Avhandlingen analyserar hur sam-tida arbetskonflikter i sjuksköterskeprofessionen relaterar till och sålunda belyser förändrad genusnormalisering i en nyliberal tid, samt hur dessa konflikter belyser övergripande konfliktmönster i arbetslivet. Analysen påvisar hur en ”dygdighets-norm” kopplad till långlivade modaliteter av genusnormalisering sammanvävs med en form av abstrakt arbete relaterad till sentida NPM-reformer. Men medan denna omstruktureringsprocess urholkar den autonomi som professioner i offentlig sektor länge innehaft medför den också möjligheter till kollektiva motståndshandlingar. Vidare möjliggör denna nyliberala omstrukturering sjuksköterskors—liksom andra offentliga professioners—appropriering av diskurser och ideal som var centrala i den tidigare, keynesianska, välfärdsstaten; men detta är en motsägelsefull process då dessa diskurser och ideal är sprungna ur, och präglade av, historier av utsugning och normalisering. Analysen visar att medan appropriering visserligen riskerar att reproducera former av normalisering underlättar denna strategi mobilisering och kan i förlängningen omvandla övertagna diskurser och ideal. Denna intervjustudie är huvudsakligen baserad på fyra artiklar: de analyserar olika aspekter av en kollektiv uppsägningsaktion bland sjuksköterskor vid en sjukhus-avdelning. Detta är en framväxande typ av aktion i Sverige och avhandlingen är en av de första studierna av denna gräsrots- och arbetsplatsbaserade kampform, vilket kan ses som dess empiriska forskningsbidrag. I kappan förs, å andra sidan, en kon-tinuerlig teoretisk diskussion kring normalisering och appropriering som utvecklar teman som lyfts i de enskilda artiklarna. Diskussionen kretsar kring ett visst form-begrepp, som härrör ur marxistisk och feministisk teori och som påvisar en identitet mellan tankeform och praktiskt artikulerad form. Dessa former migrerar; de uttrycks omedvetet i praktiker där individens fokus är annorstädes och projiceras sedan på andra praktiker. I diskussionen ifrågasätts sålunda vedertagna förståelser av norma-lisering: det är teoretiskt ofruktbart att ställa omedvetna, interna, former av kontroll där lydnad eller konformitet uppnås via internaliseringen av påbjudna identiteter mot medvetna, externa, eller tvingande, former av kontroll. En häri latent dikotomi om materia respektive form bör upplösas i syfte att synliggöra hur ett slags kontroll över arbete lämnar subjektiverande avtryck, inte genom att påbjuda identifikationer utan genom att forma vad som kan beskrivas som tänkandets minsta beståndsdelar.

  • 97.
    Grandien, Christina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Strategic Communication Found in Translation: Practices, Practitioners and Perceptions2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation seeks to explore how institutional, organizational and individual factors influence the development of strategic communication. The dissertationillustrates how new institutional theory can be applied to address the development of strategic communication as a process that is produced on different interrelated institutional levels. It also shows that multiple levels need to be addressed in order to develop a more comprehensive understanding of strategic communication. Further, it describes how the development of strategic communication is restricted and enabled by societal and organizational discourse in processes that are not always controlled by communication professionals. The dissertation also explores howpopular ideas or successful recipes for strategic communication are spread between organizations in the same field, but are adjusted or translated in order to fit organizational preconditions. The results also highlighthow professionalism is understood differently by communication practitioners depending on the organizational sector they work in and how the institutional embeddedness of communication practitioners influences the ways in which practitioners commit to their occupation.Moreover, it suggests that the inhabited and perceived moral taint that is associated with communication practitioners shapes the professional discourse and hampers the development of a shared occupational identity. Finally, it is suggestedthat knowledge about the development of strategic communication can be found in the translations and local adaptions of new ideas and practices. Insights about the institutionalization of strategic communication might not only be found in realized structures and routines, but in micro changes that happen as the result of local circumstances.

  • 98.
    Grav, Siv
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    The relationship between social support, personality and depression in the general population: Focusing on older people2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's wide variety of diseases and health problems are

    influenced in part by an aging population and by environmental and

    lifestyle changes. Depression is one of the most quickly growing

    disorders, causing a huge decrease in quality of life. Depression also

    increases with age. The expected increase in the number of older

    people in the years to come might lead to an increasing problem of

    increased case loads for primary health care in the coming years as

    the delivery of healthcare services shifts from clinical settings to the

    home. People who lack social support are more likely to experience

    poorer quality of life, including depression. Personality is a robust

    predictor of behaviour and essential life outcomes. The aim of this

    thesis is to describe the relationship between social support,

    personality and depression in the general population, with a focus on

    older people.

    This thesis used data from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study

    (HUNT), a large census population survey in Norway. Paper I (n=

    40,659), II (n= 35,832), and III (n=35,797) used data from HUNT3

    (2006-2008), and Paper IV (n=25,626) used data from both HUNT2

    (1995-1997) and HUNT3. Paper I, II, and III used cross-sectional

    designs and paper IV used a longitudinal design. The age of the

    sample was 20−89, divided into three age-groups: 20−64 years

    (adults), 65−74 years (old), and 75−89 years (oldest old). Depression

    was measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

    (HADS in the HUNT2 and 3), personality was measured with a short

    version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ in the

    HUNT3), and social support was examined with single questions

    about perceived support from friends (HUNT2 and 3).

    iii

    The main finding in Paper I was that self-rated perceived support

    was significantly associated with depression, even after controlling

    for age and gender, emotional support (OR = 3.14), and tangible

    support (OR = 2.93). The effects of emotional and tangible support

    differ between genders. Interaction effects were found for age groups

    as well as emotional and tangible support. Paper II showed a

    relationship between depression and both neuroticism and

    extraversion in a general population. Older people are more likely to

    score low on extraversion (E) than younger people. Interactions were

    observed between neuroticism and age, neuroticism and gender, and

    extraversion with depression. The interaction terms indicates a high

    score on neuroticism (N) is enhanced by introversion, older age, and

    being a male with depression. Paper III showed a significant

    association between levels of perceived social support, personality,

    sense of community in the neighbourhood, and civic participation.

    Women frequently reported higher levels of social support, and

    higher scores on both extraversion and neuroticism than men, while

    men reported higher sense of community in the neighbourhood and

    levels of civic participation than women. Paper IV showed that risk

    factors had a greater effect on new cases than on recovery from

    depression. The greatest association with new cases of depression

    was found for male sex, the oldest age group, melancholics, those

    who lacked social support, those who never participated in social

    activities, those with decreasing community in the neighbourhood,

    those with poor health, and those who have gotten divorced. The

    greatest association with recovery from depression was found for

    female sex, sanguine temperament, those with social support, those

    who participated in social activities, those with increasing

    iv

    community in the neighbourhood, and those who have obtained

    better health.

    The findings show that both social support and personality are

    risk factors for developing depression. Nurses should put extra effort

    into how they care for patients with low extraversion, high

    neuroticism and, low social support in order to help these patients

    avoid depression. Nurses have to "see the patient" and "care about",

    and respect patient’s values, preferences and expressed needs.

  • 99.
    Gustafsson, Birgit
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för matematik och ämnesdidaktik.
    Algebrasvårigheter ur elev- och lärarperspektiv: Om hinder i lärandesituationer och utmaningar i undervisningssituationer2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna avhandling är att fördjupa förståelsen för algebrasvårigheter sett ur elevperspektiv och lärarperspektiv. För att studera detta har tre övergripande frågeställningar formulerats;

    - Vilka hinder för eleverna kan identifieras då kända algebrasvårigheter behandlas i lärandesituationer?

    - Hur kan dessa hinder för eleverna överkommas?

    - Vilka utmaningar för lärarna kan identifieras då kända algebrasvårigheter behandlas i undervisningssituationer?

    Fyra delstudier har genomförts och skapat underlag för att besvara dessa frågor.

    För att undersöka hinder för elever i lärandesituationer fick 37 elevgrupper diskutera några problemlösningsuppgifter i delstudie 1 och 2. Diskussionerna analyserades med avseende på övergångar mellan olika representationsformer i uppgifterna.

    I analyserna av övergångarna mellan olika representationsformer kunde flera hinder observeras. Bland annat tolkar eleverna variabler som enheter och har stora problem med det osynliga multiplikationstecknet i uttryck som t.ex. 5x. Eleverna kommer förbi dessa hinder genom att de diskuterar uppgiften med varandra. De ställer undersökande frågor till varandra och överför bland annat den algebraiska symbolskriften till naturligt språk vilket leder dem förbi dessa hinder. Läraren har dock en avgörande roll för att de ska kunna passera dessa hinder.

    För att undersöka utmaningar för lärare i undervisningssituationer analyserades lärares frågor i helklassgenomgångar med avseende på algebrasvårig-heter i delstudie 3 och i delstudie 4 analyserades hur sex grupper av lärarstudenter diskuterade och bedömde algebrasvårigheter i fem elevlösningar. Resultatet visar att lärarna ställer mest slutna frågor på lägre nivå i relation till de flesta algebrasvårigheter. Däremot var ca hälften av frågorna öppna då algebrasvårigheten kring algebraisk problemlösning behandlades.

    Resultatet om bedömning av algebrasvårigheter visar att lärarstudenterna inte diskuterade algebrasvårigheterna i uppgiften i någon större utsträckning.

    Som helhet visar mina studier att ur elevperspektiv så möter eleverna hinder då de löser algebraiska problemlösningsuppgifter. Både högstadie- och gymnasieelever har problem att förstå betydelsen av variabler och det osynliga multiplikationstecknet i t.ex. 5x. Ur lärarperspektiv så visar studierna att lärarna ställer olika typer av frågor beroende på vilken algebrasvårighet som behandlas. I bedömningssituationer diskuteras algebrasvårigheterna endast till en liten del. I avhandlingen diskuteras olika möjliga orsaker till resultatet samt ges didak-tiska implikationer om vad som behöver prioriteras i undervisningen.

  • 100.
    Gustafsson Coppel, Ludovic
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Whiteness and Fluorescence in Layered Paper and Board: Perception and Optical Modelling2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about modelling and predicting the perceived whiteness of plain paper from the paper composition, including fluorescent whitening agents. This involves psychophysical modelling of perceived whiteness from measurable light reflectance properties, and physical modelling of light scattering and fluorescence from the paper composition.

    Existing models are first tested and improvements are suggested and evaluated. A colour appearance model including simultaneous contrast effects (CIECAM02-m2), earlier tested on coloured surfaces, is successfully applied to perceived whiteness. An extension of the Kubelka-Munk light scattering model including fluorescence for turbid media of finite thickness is successfully tested for the first time on real papers. It is extended to layered constructions with different layer optical properties and modified to enable parameter estimation with conventional d/0° spectrophotometers used in the paper industry. Lateral light scattering is studied to enable simulating the spatially resolved radiance factor from layered constructions, and angle-resolved radiance factor simulations are performed to study angular variation of whiteness.

    It is shown that the linear CIE whiteness equation fails to predict the perceived whiteness of highly white papers with distinct bluish tint. This equation is applicable only in a defined region of the colour space, a condition that is shown to be not fulfilled by many commercial office papers, although they appear white to most observers. The proposed non-linear whiteness equations give to these papers a whiteness value that correlates with their perceived whiteness, while application of the CIE whiteness equation outside its region of validity overestimates perceived whiteness.

    It is shown that the fluorescence efficiency of FWA is essentially dependent only on the ability of the FWA to absorb light in its absorption band. Increased FWA concentration leads accordingly to increased whiteness. However, since FWA absorbs light in the violet-blue region of the electromagnetic spectrum, the reflectance factor decreases in that region with increasing FWA amount. This violet-blue absorption tends to give a greener shade to the paper and explains most of the observed greening and whiteness saturation at larger FWA concentrations. A red-ward shift of the quantum efficiency is observed with increasing FWA concentration, but this is shown to have a negligible effect on the whiteness value. The results are directly applicable to industrial applications for better instrumental measurement of whiteness and thereby optimising the use of FWA with the goal to improve the perceived whiteness.

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