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  • 51.
    Dalborg, Cecilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    GAMLA VILLFARELSER och NYA VERKLIGHETER?: En studie om föreställningar och förutsättningar för entreprenörskap2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In most countries around the world, women owned businesses form an important and significant part of the overall entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship is fundamental for the prosperity of a country and for that reason there are constant efforts in order to create a favourable and equal business condition. The knowledge about entrepreneurship is continuously increasing and has, among other things, resulted in perceptions of who is an entrepreneur, what constitutes growth, and strategies for how gender equality in entrepreneurship should be promoted. The increased knowledge, and the specific strategies and targeted measures designed to increase women's share in the business world seem, however, not to have resulted in a more equal entrepreneurship. The purpose of the present study is to identify and analyze factors that are considered to affect start-up and growth decisions of women and men, and, to propose a conceptual model that shows how gender-linked beliefs (i.e. fallacies) about entrepreneurship growth and support systems can be obstacles for gender equality in entrepreneurship. Respondents in the thesis are entrepreneurs, women and men, in the county of Jämtland. The results from the five papers in the thesis show that women and men have a high passion and a strong self-efficacy to start businesses but that women's passion is negatively affected because of a higher risk perception. Another important result is that growth can be considered from a qualitative perspective where growth involves both a quest for survival and personal development. Women entrepreneurs do want employment growth but the condition for that is that they need access to a fair support system already in the previous lifecycle phases. The results further show that the current support system comprises a narrow definition of growth and that gender questions do not seem to have had an impact when allocating government funds. Together, the above results help to dispel some of the existing conceptions of reality. The thesis concludes: Women, as well as men, possess the passion and the self-efficacy to start and growth a business, but women are not perceived as potential growth entrepreneurs, and therefore they only receive a fraction of the total business support. This leads to a higher risk perception which cancels out the influence of passion on women’s start-up decision. Previous strategies for business equality in Sweden do not seem to have been successful. Instead strategies must be reshaped and based on a conception of reality where both women and men are considered growth entrepreneurs.

    Keywords: entrepreneurship, women entrepreneurs, risk, passion, self-efficacy, gender equality, business life cycle, business support system.

  • 52.
    Danielski, Itai
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Energy performance of residential buildings: projecting, monitoring and evaluating2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy security and climate change mitigation have been discussed in Sweden since the oil crisis in the 1970s. Sweden has since then increased its share of renewable energy resources to reach the highest level among the EU member states, but is still among the countries with the highest primary energy use per capita. Not least because of that, increasing energy efficiency is important and it is part of the Swedish long term environmental objectives. Large potential for improving energy efficiency can be found in the building sector, mainly in the existing building stock but also in new constructions.

    Buildings hold high costs for construction, service and maintenance. Still, their energy efficiency and thermal performance are rarely validated after construction or renovation. As energy efficiency become an important aspects in building design there is a need for accurate tools for assessing the energy performance both before and after building construction. In this thesis criteria for energy efficiency in new residential buildings are studied. Several building design aspects are discussed with regards to final energy efficiency, energy supply-demand interactions and social aspects. The results of this thesis are based on energy modelling, energy measurements and one questionnaire survey. Several existing residential buildings were used as case studies.

    The results show that pre-occupancy calculations of specific final energy demand in residential buildings is too rough an indicator to explicitly steer towards lower final energy use in the building sector. Even post occupancy monitoring of specific final energy demand does not always provide a representative image of the energy efficiency of buildings and may result with large variation among buildings with similar thermal efficiency. A post occupancy method of assessing thermal efficiency of building fabrics using thermography is presented. The thermal efficiency of buildings can be increased by design with low shape factor. The shape factor was found to have a significant effect on the final energy demand of buildings and on the use of primary energy. In Nordic climates, atria in multi-storey apartment buildings is a design that have a potential to increase both energy efficiency (by lower shape factor) and enhance social interactions among the occupants.

  • 53.
    Danielsson, Ulrika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Relationships between information communication technology and psychosocial life environment: Students and young urban knowledge workers in the ICT-era2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dramatic changes have been taking place in our ways of working and spending leisure time. This relates to the increasing use of ICT (Information Communication Technology) in our lives and is of crucial importance to our future. Today, being physically away from the workplace doesn�t mean that we are necessarily leaving our work tasks behind in psychological terms. The aim of the thesis is to attain a deeper understanding of the relationships between individuals� psychosocial life environment and their use of ICT in order to contribute to the discussion about how everyday use of ICT can affect us. The research is based on two case studies that are presented in research articles. A theoretical framework concerning psychosocial life environment and use of ICT was built upon a review of the literature on environment/role, their relationship to ICT and the boundaries within different roles and environments. The first results in this thesis show that the blurred boundaries between work and leisure begin in school and then continue on into working life. The second result present the different barriers to young women seeking professional roles in the IT-business and the sometimes overlooked fact that every individual has a need to feel needed regardless of whether it is the private or professional role. The third results show that the daily use of ICT creates both needs and activities, but it appears that a sense of lack of control leaves the user feeling negatively stressed. Finally, one example of further research could focus on determining what is the responsibility of the leader of an organization who requires an employee to be reachable any time anywhere?

  • 54. Darbo, Safiatou
    et al.
    Pearly, Timna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Omvårdnadsåtgärder hos barn med förstoppning2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 55.
    Ding, Xiaosong
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Bilinear optimization in computational decision analysis2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In real-life decision analysis, significant recognition has been given to theunrealistic expectation of numerically precise information. Many modernapproaches attempting to handle imprecision have focused more on representationand less on evaluation. The DELTA method, as one of the fewleading approaches, challenges this issue by its evaluation framework thatcan accommodate both precision and imprecision. However, computationally,DELTA and similar approaches may incur time-consuming calculationsdue to the introduction of imprecise information concerning probability andutility. In general, those problems are bounded non-convex bilinear optimizationprograms with disjoint linear constraints, which cannot be solvedeffectively by any existing general-purpose global optimization technique.This thesis presents two enhanced cutting plane algorithms for solvingbounded disjoint bilinear programs arising in computational decision analysis.Each algorithm consists of a local phase designed to determine a localoptimizer from an approximate solution, and a global phase designed to systematicallyexplore the feasible region, subset by subset. These two phasesare switched automatically during the global search procedure. The basicframework builds upon previously developed efficient cutting plane methods.By embedding the lower bounding technique in a branch and bound procedure,the improvement of their performances seems encouraging in the lightof computational experience. Even though the motivation to develop thesealgorithms stems from computational decision analysis, the idea can also beextended to the development of optimization approaches for handling generalbounded disjoint bilinear programs, especially for larger sized ones.

  • 56.
    Dobslaw, Felix
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    End-to-End Quality of Service Guarantees for Wireless Sensor Networks2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor networks have been a key driver of innovation and societal progressover the last three decades. They allow for simplicity because they eliminate ca-bling complexity while increasing the flexibility of extending or adjusting networksto changing demands. Wireless sensor networks are a powerful means of fillingthe technological gap for ever-larger industrial sites of growing interconnection andbroader integration. Nonetheless, the management of wireless networks is difficultin situations wherein communication requires application-specific, network-widequality of service guarantees. A minimum end-to-end reliability for packet arrivalclose to 100% in combination with latency bounds in the millisecond range must befulfilled in many mission-critical applications.The problem addressed in this thesis is the demand for algorithmic support forend-to-end quality of service guarantees in mission-critical wireless sensor networks.Wireless sensors have traditionally been used to collect non-critical periodic read-ings; however, the intriguing advantages of wireless technologies in terms of theirflexibility and cost effectiveness justify the exploration of their potential for controland mission-critical applications, subject to the requirements of ultra-reliable com-munication, in harsh and dynamically changing environments such as manufactur-ing factories, oil rigs, and power plants.This thesis provides three main contributions in the scope of wireless sensor net-works. First, it presents a scalable algorithm that guarantees end-to-end reliabilitythrough scheduling. Second, it presents a cross-layer optimization/configurationframework that can be customized to meet multiple end-to-end quality of servicecriteria simultaneously. Third, it proposes an extension of the framework used toenable service differentiation and priority handling. Adaptive, scalable, and fast al-gorithms are proposed. The cross-layer framework is based on a genetic algorithmthat assesses the quality of service of the network as a whole and integrates the phys-ical layer, medium access control layer, network layer, and transport layer.Algorithm performance and scalability are verified through numerous simula-tions on hundreds of convergecast topologies by comparing the proposed algorithmswith other recently proposed algorithms for ensuring reliable packet delivery. Theresults show that the proposed SchedEx scheduling algorithm is both significantlymore scalable and better performing than are the competing slot-based schedulingalgorithms. The integrated solving of routing and scheduling using a genetic al-vvigorithm further improves on the original results by more than 30% in terms of la-tency. The proposed framework provides live graphical feedback about potentialbottlenecks and may be used for analysis and debugging as well as the planning ofgreen-field networks.SchedEx is found to be an adaptive, scalable, and fast algorithm that is capa-ble of ensuring the end-to-end reliability of packet arrival throughout the network.SchedEx-GA successfully identifies network configurations, thus integrating the rout-ing and scheduling decisions for networks with diverse traffic priority levels. Fur-ther, directions for future research are presented, including the extension of simula-tions to experimental work and the consideration of alternative network topologies.

  • 57.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Life cycle primary energy use and carbon emission of residential buildings2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the primary energy use and carbon emissions of residential buildings are studied using a system analysis methodology with a life cycle perspective. The analysis includes production, operation, retrofitting and end-of-life phases and encompasses the entire natural resource chain. The analysis  focuses, in particular, on to the choice of building frame material; the energy savings potential of building thermal mass; the choice of energy supply systems and their interactions with different energy-efficiency measures, including ventilation heat recovery systems; and the effectiveness of current energy-efficiency standards to reduce energy use in buildings. The results show that a wood-frame building has a lower primary energy balance than a concrete-frame alternative. This result is primarily due to the lower production primary energy use and greater bioenergy recovery benefits of wood-frame buildings. Hour-by-hour dynamic modeling of building mass configuration shows that the energy savings due to the benefit of thermal mass are minimal within the Nordic climate but varies with climatic location and the energy efficiency of the building. A concrete-frame building has slightly lower space heating demand than a wood-frame alternative, because of the benefit of thermal mass. However, the production and end-of-life advantages of using wood framing materials outweigh the energy saving benefits of thermal mass with concrete framing materials.

    A system-wide analysis of the implications of different building energy-efficiency standards indicates that improved standards greatly reduce final energy use for heating. Nevertheless, a passive house standard building with electric heating may not perform better than a conventional building with district heating, from a primary energy perspective. Wood-frame passive house buildings with energy-efficient heat supply systems reduce life cycle primary energy use.

    An important complementary strategy to reduce primary energy use in the building sector is energy efficiency improvement of existing buildings, as the rate of addition of new buildings to the building stock is low. Different energy efficiency retrofit measures for buildings are studied, focusing on the energy demand and supply sides, as well as their interactions. The results show that significantly greater life cycle primary energy reduction is achieved when an electric resistance heated building is retrofitted than when a district heated building is retrofitted. For district heated buildings, the primary energy savings of energy efficiency measures depend on the characteristics of the heat production system and the type of energy efficiency measures. Ventilation heat recovery (VHR) systems provide low primary energy savings where district heating is based largely on combined heat and power (CHP) production. VHR systems can produce substantial final energy reduction, but the primary energy benefit largely depends on the type of heat supply system, the amount of electricity used for VHR and the airtightness of buildings.

    Wood-framed buildings have substantially lower life cycle carbon emissions than concrete-framed buildings, even if the carbon benefit of post-use concrete management is included. The carbon sequestered by crushed concrete leads to a significant decrease in CO2 emission. However, CO2 emissions from fossil fuels used to crush the concrete significantly reduce the carbon benefits obtained from the increased carbonation due to crushing. Overall, the effect of carbonation of post-use concrete is small. The post-use energy recovery of wood and the recycling of reinforcing steel both provide higher carbon benefits than post-use carbonation.

    In summary, wood buildings with CHP-based district heating are an effective means of reducing primary energy use and carbon emission in the built environment.

  • 58.
    Edström, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Mathematical modeling and numerical tools for simulation and design of light scattering in paper and print2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work starts with a real industrial problem - the perceived need for a moredetailed and more accurate model for light scattering in paper and print than theKubelka‐Munk model of today. A careful analysis transfers this problem into aphysical description of the phenomena involved. This is then given a mathematicalformulation, and a detailed analysis leads to numerical solution procedures forspecific sub problems. Methods from scientific computing make it possible to meetindustrial demands made on speed and stability, and implementation in computercode is then followed by analysis of accuracy and stability.A problem formulation and a solution method are outlined for the forwardradiative transfer problem. First, all necessary steps to arrive at a numericallystable solution procedure are treated, and then methods are introduced to increasethe speed by a factor of several thousands or millions compared to a naiveapproach. The method is shown to be unconditionally stable, though the problemwas previously considered numerically intractable, and systematic studies ofnumerical performance are presented.The inverse radiative transfer problem is given a least‐squares formulation, anddifferent solution methods are analyzed and compared. Specifically, a two‐phasemethod for estimation of the scattering and absorption coefficients and theasymmetry factor (σs, σa and g) is presented. A sensitivity analysis is given, and it isshown how it can be used for designing measurements with minimal impact frommeasurement noise.It is shown how the standardized use of Kubelka‐Munk and the d/0°instrument leads to errors, and that the errors arising from an over‐idealized viewof the instrument - due to the fact that instrument readings are incorrectlyinterpreted - can be larger than any errors inherent in the Kubelka‐Munk modelitself. It is argued that the measurement device and the simulation model cannot beviewed as separate instances, which is a widespread implicit practice in appliedreflectance measurements. Rather, given a measurement device, measurement datashould be interpreted through a model that takes into consideration the actualgeometry, function and calibration of the instrument.The resulting tool, DORT2002, is in all aspects the Next Generation Kubelka‐Munk, and provides a greater range of applicability, higher accuracy and increasedunderstanding. It offers better interpretation of measurement data, and facilitatesthe exchange of data between the paper and graphical arts industries. It opens forunderstanding of anisotropic reflectance and for the utilization of the asymmetryfactor to design anisotropy, and thereby for the design of different visualappearance or optical performance in new printed or paper products.

  • 59.
    Eivazihollagh, Alireza
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Metal-Chelate Complexes in Alkaline Solution: On Recovery Techniques and Cellulose-based Hybrid Material Synthesis2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For decades, aminopolycarboxylate chelating agents have been extensively used in various industrial applications. The ability of chelating agents to form stable metal-chelate complexes is the main reason for using them to manage metal ions within water-based industrial processes. Considerable quantities of industrial effluent containing chelating agents and heavy metals are produced and often discharged into the environment. The toxicity of heavy metals and the non-biodegradability of the chelating agents, as well as their accumulation in the environment, has become cause for concern. The main purpose of this thesis was to evaluate and develop processes for recovery of chelated metal complexes from aqueous solution. In this regard, the membrane electrolysis technique was evaluated for recovery of copper and aminopolycarboxylic chelating ligands such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and a surface-active derivative of DTPA, 2-dodecyldiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (C12-DTPA) from aqueous solution. By using this method, it was possible to simultaneously recover the chelating ligand for further reuse and collect the metals by electrodeposition, making the process more cost-effective and hindering the discharge of copper ions and chelating ligands as pollutants into the environment. In addition, the ion flotation technique with the chelating surfactant C12-DTPA could be employed to separate metal ions, especially from their dilute solutions, and concentrate them in a foam phase. This is because C12-DTPA has a purpose-built functionality; besides forming strong coordination complexes with metal ions, it is also surface-active and will readily adsorb at air-water interfaces. In this study, C12-DTPA was effectively used in combination with foaming agents for the removal of toxic metal ions such as Cd2+, Zn2+, and Sr2+ from aqueous solution using ion flotation. From an economical perspective, this method could be combined with the membrane electrolysis technique to recover metal and regenerate chelating surfactant so that it can be reused.

    The present work also shows the synthesis of metal and metal oxide(s) nanoparticles (NPs) in alkaline aqueous solution containing chelated metal ions, in order to fabricate metal NPs–cellulose hybrid materials. Cellulose is the most abundant renewable material, with good mechanical performance and chemical resistivity in a wide range of solvents, which makes it a promising material to support metal NPs. In this respect, we developed a rapid and inexpensive one-pot synthesis of spherical copper NPs in a cellulose matrix. The hybrid material displayed antibacterial properties for both the gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The synthesis was further developed by studying the influence of various chelating ligands and surfactants on the NPs’ morphology and chemical composition. According to the results, DDAO, a zwitterionic surfactant, was found to mediate the formation of pure octahedral Cu2O NPs. In addition, a hybrid material film composed of regenerated cellulose and synthesized Cu2O nano-octahedrons was fabricated by spin-coating.

  • 60.
    Eliassi, Barzoo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    A stranger in my homeland: The politics of belonging among young people with Kurdish backgrounds in Sweden2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines how young people with Kurdish backgrounds form their identity in Sweden with regards to processes of inclusion and exclusion. It also sheds light on the ways these young people deal with ethnic discrimination and racism. Further, the study outlines the importance of these social processes for the discipline of social work and the ways social workers can work with disadvantaged and marginalized groups and endorse their struggle for social justice and full equal citizenship beyond racist and discriminatory practices. The empirical analysis is built on interviews with 28 young men and women with Kurdish backgrounds in Sweden. Postcolonial theory, belonging and identity formation constitute the central conceptual framework of this study.

    The young people referred to different sites in which they experienced ethnic discrimination and stigmatization. These experiences involved the labor market, mass media, housing segregation, legal system and school system. The interviewees also referred to the roles of ‘ordinary’ Swedes in obstructing their participation in the Swedish society through exclusionary discourses relating to Swedish identity. The interviewees’ life situation in Sweden, sense of ethnic discrimination as well as disputes over identity making with other young people with Middle-Eastern background are among the most important reasons for fostering strong Kurdish nationalist sentiments, issues that are related to the ways they can exercise their citizenship rights in Sweden and how they deal with exclusionary practices in their everyday life. The study shows that the interviewees respond to and resist ethnic discrimination in a variety of ways including interpersonal debates and discussions, changing their names to Swedish names, strengthening differences between the self and the other, violence, silence and deliberately ignoring racism. They also challenged and spoke out against the gendered racism that they were subjected to in their daily lives due to the paternalist discourse of ”honor-killing”.

    The research participants had been denied an equal place within the boundary of Swedishness partly due to a racist postcolonial discourse that valued whiteness highly. Paradoxically, some interviewees reproduced the same discourse through choosing to use it against black people, Africans, newly-arrived Kurdish immigrants (”imports”), ”Gypsies” and Islam in order to claim a modern Kurdish identity as near to whiteness as possible. This indicates the multiple dimensions of racism. Those who are subjected to racism and ethnic discrimination can be discriminatory and reproduce the racist discourse. Despite unequal power relations, both dominant and minoritized subjects are all marked by the postcolonial condition in structuring subjectivities, belonging and identification.

  • 61.
    Eliasson, Nina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Science Education and Mathematics.
    Att kommunicera skolans naturvetenskap: ett genusperspektiv på elevers deltagande i gemensam och enskild kommunikation2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Both individual and whole class communication of students are described in this thesis, which is based on a clear gender perspective. Two articles describe the participation of boys and girls in communication with the whole class, the empirical data collected consisting of videotaped lessons. The extent to which boys and girls participate in the communication is reported in the first study, and in the second the extent to which boys and girls respond to the teacher's closed or open questions about science is presented. The third study reports boys' and girls' individual communication when responding to written science questions. The summary chapter ties the results together from the perspective of Positioning Theory, making the thesis a result of Mixed Methods Research.

    Results show that boys participate in whole class communication more often than girls, with approximately the same level of dominance as shown in research from the early 80s. Boys also answer more questions than girls, the differences becoming apparent when teachers ask closed questions that can be answered in one or two words. In isolation, girls answer written questions to the same extent as boys, but give longer responses containing a more developed scientific language.

    Results showing that boys position themselves as knowledgeable more often than girls when teachers ask closed questions, are explained from the perspective of Positioning Theory. Girls more often position themselves as knowledgeable when teachers ask open questions that require reflection. In test situations, with time for reflection, the boys and girls position themselves as knowledgeable students to the same extent.

    Teachers need to be aware of the positioning attempts created by teaching, and consequently take into account that different approaches in teaching provide boys and girls with different access to the communication space.

  • 62.
    Enberg, Sofia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering. Norske Skog Saugbrugs.
    Storage of Hydrogen Peroxide Bleached Mechanical Pulp: Reduction in Reflectance over the Visible Spectrum2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis is to determine possible causes of the darkening of hydrogen peroxide bleached mechanical pulp over the visible spectrum and their relative contributions. It focuses on both process conditions and the composition of the pulp and the dilution water, including additions or losses of material along the process line from the bleach tower to the paper machine.

    A mapping of the optical properties of the pulp along the process showed that the fine fraction of the pulp darkened more than the long fibre fraction. Simulation of retention times of different fractions showed that the main part of the fine material is retained in the paper within a few hours, a small part might circulate for considerably longer time and may therefore be strongly coloured.

    Storage trials were mainly performed using a hydrogen peroxide bleached mechanical pulp intended for SC paper made of Norway spruce (Picea abies), sampled on one occasion and stored in a freezer. Unwashed or well-washed pulp was stored in distilled water or in different process waters. Some complementary trials were included, e.g. unbleached pulp.

    Time and temperature were the process variables that gave the strongest darkening of the pulp, as expected, both in a clean and a more process-like system, whereas pH only had an effect in the presence of process waters; the highest brightness stability was seen at a pH around 5.5–6.0.

    The darkening was due to an increase in the light absorption coefficient (k) beginning at short wavelengths, but after longer storage times the increase in kλ also became noticeable at longer wavelengths. The colour (CIE L*, a*, b*) of the pulp changed towards red and yellow, initially more towards red and then more towards yellow. These changes were clearly visible.

    Washing of the bleached pulp made it less sensitive to storage; possibly due to the removal of extractives, lignin-like substances, metals and pulp fines. This washing had little effect before storage and the amount of material removed was small.

    The pulp darkened more when stored in process waters compared to distilled water. Apart from fibres, most of the colour was associated with pulp fines or filler but some colour was also found in the dissolved and colloidal fractions. At an increased pulp consistency, the increase in k460 was smaller.

    Storage in white water from the paper machine gave extensive discolouration with a shoulder in the absorption spectrum around 550–650 nm, which increased with time. The addition of ferric ions increased the light absorption coefficient during storage, but could not explain the increased absorption at 550–650 nm nor could it be the only cause of the darkening in the mill system. A cationic basic violet dye gave a shoulder in the absorption spectrum similar to that of the mill system, but the absorption of the dye did not increase during storage. Model calculations indicate, but do not prove, that ferric ions together with violet and red dyes could have played a major, but not exclusive role in the colour observed in the mill system after storage. The darkening not accounted for, at longer wavelengths and around 550–650 nm, is suggested to be related to fines and fillers including dissolved and colloidal substances associated with these particles.

    A method to produce representative sheets for determination of optical properties of mechanical pulps was developed. The new method makes it possible to follow changes in light absorption and light scattering coefficients over the visible range of wavelengths. It is approximately six times faster than standard methods, reduces the risk of additional darkening of the sample and can be used with small pulp quantities.

    The deviation from the expected linear behaviour of the light scattering coefficient, s, at wavelengths corresponding to strong light absorption has been studied using the Kubelka-Munk model and the angular resolved DORT2002 radiative transfer solution method. The decrease in s could not be explained by errors introduced in the Kubelka-Munk modelling by anisotropic scattering.

  • 63.
    Engan, Harald K.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Cardiovascular, hematological and dietary means to cope with environmentally induced hypoxia in humans2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Engholm, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Materials optimization for optical fiber amplifiers and fiber lasers2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 65.
    Eriksson, Ann-Kristin Mimmi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vid utmattningens gräns. Utmattningssyndrom som existentiellt tillstånd: Vårdtagares och vårdgivares erfarenheter av utmattningssyndrom och rehabilitering med en existentiell ansats i svensk vårdkontext2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: Stress-related illness is a growing public health problem in Sweden and it is the most common reason for sick leave today. Stress-related illness causes suffering on a number of levels and affects the patient’s health and life in the long term. The stress-related ill health also leads to consequences for society, causing high costs for sick leave and health care as well as lost workforce since people partially or entirely lose their capacity to work. Research on stress-related ill health and rehabilitation often underline work-related conditions as crucial in dealing with the problem. There is also research that points out psychosocial factors in understanding stress-related ill health. What we know little about is the existential perspective of clinical burn-out. Therefore, it is of importance to investigate people’s existential experiences of clinical burn-out and the significance of an existential perspective in rehabilitation.

    Aim: The overall aim of this thesis is to gain insight into the existential experience of clinical burn-out as well as to highlight the significance of an existential perspective in rehabilitation. In addition, the thesis aims to reach a deeper understanding of clinical burn-out from an existential point of view and contribute to the field with knowledge of the existential dimension of health.

    Methods: The study, conducted in 2011, is based on qualitative interviews made with an inductive hermeneutic approach. Five patients and seven care givers were interviewed, focusing their existential experiences of clinical burn-out as well as their experiences of rehabilitation with an existential approach. A strategic selection was made of informants in the context of a rehabilitation program with an existential approach for people diagnosed with clinical burn-out. The data was analysed in two steps. In the first step the data was interpreted with an inductive hermeneutic approach. In step two of the analysis, the data was interpreted with a deductive hermeneutic approach, using Karl Jasper’s concept of limit situation as a way of interpreting the existential experience. Aaron Antonovsky’s concept sense of coherence was used as a tool for understanding components that can contribute to restoring health.

    Results: In this study, the patients describe clinical burn-out as a comprehensive existential experience that can be perceived as being in between life and death, in a shadow world, trapped in a dead end. It’s a situation characterized by being powerless. It creates a need to comprehend one’s situation in order to be able to regain control and manage it. It’s a struggle to make sense of the life situation. When not being met with understanding, the patients lose hope. Existential issues in terms of meaning, existence and life choices become urgent. Working with the existential perspective requires trust, openness from both caregiver and patient, distinctness, a way to communicate it and courage to take on the challenge of dealing with existential issues. The perspective also requires that the existential suffering can be contained. Dealing with existential questions leads to self-knowledge and insights that enables a possibility to make different choices and leave negative behavioural patterns. Also, it can lead to a discovery of spirituality and religion as a resource in life. Besides their personal struggle for meaning, the patients see an existential void in society, leaving people without tools to handle existential needs. This is understood as something that affects people’s ability to handle stressful times in life.

    The care providers understand burn-out as a manifestation of a way of living that is not sustainable. It is an existential experience embodied in body and mind that can be experienced as being drained of life. It’s an existential challenge, causing grief when realizing one’s limitations as a human being. Also, loss of meaning and sense of existential vulnerability due to an experience of being annihilated is crucial for understanding the deep existential crisis that clinical burn-out can induce. This situation makes the patient ask existential questions about identity, meaning, values and direction. In the burnout-process the patients have distanced themselves from their own self and therefore need to reconnect with themselves. This makes the existential questions central in the rehabilitation as a way to reconnect to inner strength and resources, which are prerequisites for starting a health promoting, sustainable process which is empowering, making it possible to see oneself as a human being who experience meaning, not only as a patient with a diagnosis. Instead of finding meaning in the diagnosis, the patient’s existential questions and the existential experience is a key to moving forward, out of the situation. Meaning-making is therefore important in the rehabilitation.

    A holistic-existential approach and view of man makes it possible to work with the complexity of the situation. The holistic-existential approach creates synergies and offers an extra tool both for the caregiver and the patient. Focusing on the patient’s resources and competence makes it possible to see the crisis as a way to learn from it.

    The existential perspective in health care and rehabilitation is enabled by competence, openness, reliance, empathy and respect when meeting the patient. It also requires courage to take on the challenge of dealing with existential issues. It can be hard for both the patient and the care giver to confront existential suffering. It is the responsibility of the care giver to enable the existential perspective by acknowledging and making the existential perspective possible to communicate and work it through.

    The care providers understands values in modern society as contributing to people’s experience of feeling alone with existential needs, which intensifies their existential aloneness.

    The care providers’ experience is that the biomedical paradigm aggravates an existential perspective. The perspective is not associated with the care situation. There is a lack of knowledge about and understanding of the value of the existential perspective, all the way from the decision-making level to the clinical meeting with the patient. In addition, the paradigm affects how the patients express their illness. Also, the perspective requires time. Existential perspectives, therefore, tend to be concealed in the health care context.

    Applying Karl Jasper’s concept of limit situation, clinical burn-out can be interpreted as a defining existential experience. It can be understood as a limit situation when humans realize their limitations and at the same time get insights that are crucial for their lives. It’s an experience they wish they had not gone through, but on the other hand, it has led to insights they do not want to be without. The meaning-making process is health promoting by recreating meaning, the fundamental part of sense of coherence, which is crucial for a salutogenic direction.

    Conclusion: The existential state that the clinical burnout patients go through can, using Karl Jasper’s concept, be understood as a limit situation. According to Jasper’s reasoning, the limit situation can be perceived as facing an abyss, making it clear one has limitations as a human being. At the same time, the experience can be perceived as reaching a limit where humans can get insights about human life that can enhance life. Clinical burn-out, using Aaron Antonovsky’s concept, can be understood as a loss of the components that create sense of coherence. Loss of meaning is particularly central for understanding burn-out.

    Consequently, it is crucial to acknowledge the existential challenge that the patient is facing, as well as the importance of the meaning-making process for facilitating a movement in a health promoting manner. It gives a deeper understanding of the challenges and needs of patients suffering from clinical burn-out.

    The existential dimension of health has been highlighted in health promotion, but gets little attention in practice. This is especially significant in the health care context. This points out the need for a discussion about how the existential health dimension can be used as a resource in health care and rehabilitation and how this resource for health can be applied in a better way in health promotion and public health.

  • 66.
    Eriksson, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Elevinflytande i gränslandet mellan didaktik och makt – en studie av undervisningspraktiken i tre grundskolor2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on student influence in the borderland between didactics and power. Student influence is ambiguous and the mission of student influence can be interpreted in different ways in Swedish compulsory schools. In the school reforms of the 1990s, the intentions of student influence, based on both moral and political as well as theoretical positions were stated. Student influence was seen as a right, as being important for education in democracy, and as a prerequisite for learning. Democracy, knowledge and learning are essentially contested concepts. As a didactic practice student influence cannot be understood as general impact through learning, nor as fully-fledged democracy. The question of the limitations of student influence is described and analysed in the thesis. The aim is to describe and critically analyse student influence as didactic practice. The research questions that have directed the study are: How is student influence expressed in three different schools, where there has been a particular ambition to implement student influence? What prerequisites are given for student influence in the way teaching is organised and carried out?What possibilities and constraints (conditions) appear, from the perspective of didactics and power? A fourth question links together the empirical study with the problem of the limits of student influence: Can a didactic model be designed for student influence as didactic practice, and if so, how? The study was conducted using an abductive approach and strategy, and with a point of departure in critical realism as scientific approach. Three primary schools, with the particular ambition of implementing the mission of student influence, were studied through a multiple case study design. The empirical material was produced using ethnographic methods. The a didactic framework is used for description, whilst a sociological concept of power has contributed to the construction of analytical tools. Using ‘order’ and ‘renegotiation’ as analytic tools, the conditions for student influence on how teaching is organised and carried out, are described. Responsibility and transparency are tested as conditions, in order to answer the question of possibilities and constraints from the perspective of didactics and power. The analysis of teaching practice in the three schools shows that student influence is complex, and that it has to be understood as local bound and situationally. This impacts on the possibility of understanding its limitations. The results show that experiences and interests of students can concern motivating them to work, adapting teaching to different learning styles, or that the teachers pay attention to their expressions to fostering more generally. Furthermore, all models of democracy, and of different approaches to learning and knowledge are visible in the schools. The importance of classroom discussion for student influence needs to be illuminated, and the distinction between didactic considerations, and what could be understood as unwarranted power. The results are discussed in relation to issues of learning theory and curriculum theory, as well as to ideals of democratic education, to understand the limits of student influence. A didactic model, with three conceptual tools that enable repeated questioning of the limits of student influence, is proposed.

  • 67.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Customer value in commercial experiences: Expecting the unexpected2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To an ever greater extent, customers desire experiences that are highly emotional, personally designed and memorable. Today’s customer has an increasing need to be entertained and often searches for pleasurable offerings of hedonic value. Many academics also argue that commercial experiences deliver a higher customer value than goods and services. More research regarding the character of the commercial experience is needed to understand the needs of the customer and what creates value to the customer. However the existing tools and methods for measuring customer value and customer satisfaction seldom contain the elements pointed out as important to customers in a commercial experience. Is it enough to focus on values, methods and tools developed within for instance Total Quality Management (TQM) or is there a need for further development to include the offering of a commercial experience?

     The overall purpose of this thesis has been to explore the field of commercial experiences and establish new knowledge on how customer value is created when delivering commercial experiences. Within the overall purpose the research also intended to contribute to the area of quality development. In order to fulfill the overall purpose three research questions were asked and three case studies and one validation study were conducted. In the first case study, focus was on exploring the commercial experience sector and searching for best practices as regards how to create value to the customer. One organization was studied and empirical data was collected by site visit, direct observation, participant observation, open seminars, follow-up interview questions and documentation. In the second case study the aim was on how organizations were working to create customer value in commercial experiences. Empirical data was collected at eight organizations where top managers were interviewed. In the third study the aim was to develop a method or tool to measure customer value in a commercial experience. A validation study and a case study were conducted. In the validation study a questionnaire was developed as a measuring tool for commercial experiences and later tested on customers in the third and last case study.

     The findings in the three case studies presented in this thesis contribute to expanding earlier research concerning commercial experiences and how customer value is created when delivering them. From the findings of research the commercial experience is defined as “a memorable event that the customer is willing to pay for” and identified as a unique business offering providing hedonic customer value. Further the findings describe the commercial experience by three vital factors: strong engagement, highly emotional and being memorable. To additionally describe the characterizing elements of the commercial experience, the research identified these factors as important to customers: having fun, novelty, surprise, learning, a challenge, co-creation, the unexpected, storytelling, being in control, the venue for the experience (or the room of the experience), personal contact with staff and emotions creating strong engagement. Using the theory of attractive quality by Kano is suggested as one way to recognize elements of high customer value and to identify and deliver the unexpected, novelty and surprise the customers.

     Further findings of the research revealed that existing tools and methods developed for measuring customer value and satisfaction do not sufficiently consider or measure the effect of customer emotions or the characterizing elements of the commercial experience. As a consequence, a questionnaire was developed and tested to identify and measure elements of value to customers in a commercial experience. From the results, a new instrument for measuring variables of value in a commercial experience is proposed. One of the conclusions is that a specific tool for measuring customer value in commercial experiences is both required and needed. It was also concluded that there is a shortage of well-known and applied methods for measuring customer value in commercial experiences and that further research of this area is needed.

     The research presented in this thesis also proves that successful organizations delivering commercial experiences have a strong organizational culture built on core values. The conclusion was that working according to the core values of TQM is also a successful approach for these organizations, even though this does not seem to be enough. The characterizing element “co-creating” the experience between the customer and the provider was identified as a vital factor of business success. Giving the customer the power to affect the outcome within certain limitations and an opportunity to enhance the customer value meant that the experience becomes more personal and delivers a higher customer value than other offerings. Further identified ways of working to enhance customer value in the offering were: to recruit and select co-workers not only on competence and skills but also based on the core values; to stimulate creative thinking among co-workers and to further enhance the offering with storytelling and theming. These ways of working were categorized as specific and more unique or necessary in the experience industry and can therefore be vital in the competition between different organizations to deliver superior customer value.

  • 68.
    Eriksson, Monica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Recovery from an Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Longitudinal Study of Couples2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate recovery in the relationshipbetween couples following an acute myocardial infarction [AMI]. An additionalaim was to compare differences over time regarding hope and health‐relatedquality of life [HRQoL] for both patient and partner. The thesis is based on fourempirical studies (I‐IV), and has a longitudinal design employing both qualitativeand quantitative methods. A purposive sample was recruited comprising 15couples in which one partner had been diagnosed with an AMI. Study I wascarried out as individual tape‐recorded interviews aimed at describing thepatient´s and their partner´s experiences after hospital discharge. Study II alsoused individual tape‐recorded interviews, this time with the aim of describing andinterpreting the couple´s thoughts and expectations about their future life after thepatients’ discharge. Study III used the HHI‐S and SF‐36 measures to comparechanges over time in self‐rated hope and health‐related quality of life, anddifferences between patients’ ratings and their partner´s. Study IV used repeatedindividual tape‐recorded interviews with the aim of interpreting the couples´narratives about their relationship and daily life. The data were analysed andinterpreted using a number of qualitative content analysis methods (I, II, IV) anddescriptive and comparative statistics (III).Overall, the couples´ recovery from an AMI in the two years after an AMI consisted of a striving to reach some kind of balance and stability in their currentlife situation. The period after discharge from the hospital involved understandingthe importance of the home as a place in which one feels at home and which bringsa feeling of safety, experiencing the phenomenon of security and being at homewithin oneself, and seeking normalisation in returning to an ordinary life (I). Thecouples´ thoughts about their future lives were either optimistic, taking an activeapproach, or pessimistic, taking a wait‐and‐see approach. The couples could bedivided into four positions in terms of their visions of the future: life companions,who were in concordance regarding their future; tightrope walkers, who had incommon a need to reprioritise what they considered important in their future;pathfinders, who had in common an undefined vision of their future and observers, who saw their future including both physical as well as sociallimitations (II). Self‐rated hope and HRQoL both improved over time, but few ofthese improvements were statistically significant, and I found no statistically groupeffects. Estimation of the MDC index revealed that neither HHI‐S nor SF‐36measures stable traits (III). Finally, the repeated interviews revealed how thecouples viewed their daily life, mutual relationships and roles in their relationshipVIIover time. There was an abundant variation in a number of the couples´ storiesabout their relationship and daily life during the recovery period (IV).In conclusion, it is clear that what happen to one party in a relationship influencesthe other party. The couples in the studies showed improvements in both hope andhealth‐related quality of life over time. The HHI‐S and SF‐36 measures seemed tobe sensitive to and affected by the current situation. Going through an AMI is alife‐changing event that makes it necessary for the couple to make adjustments andadapt to their new situation. Different couples have different approaches tohandling this situation; no two couples are the same, and every couple willperceive and deal with the AMI differently. An AMI starts a process of transition,and over time a couple affected by AMI will undergo external as well as internal changes.

  • 69.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Barns självrapporterade hälsa: Betydelsen av socialt kapital i skolan och närområdet2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Esebamen, Omeime Xerviar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Characterization of interface states & radiation damage effects in duo-lateral PSDs: Using SEM microscopy and UV beam profiling techniques2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been an increase in the use of duo‐lateral position sensitive detectors inpractically every radiation and beam detection application. These devices unlike other light detection system utilize the effect of the lateral division of the generated photocurrent to measure the position of the integral focus of an incoming lightsignal. The performance of a PSD is impaired or strengthened by a number of events caused by parameters such as interface states and recombination introduced during the fabrication of the detector and/or its absorption of ionizing particles. This thesis show the results from the successful implementation of alternative characterization methods of these effects and parameters using scanning electronmicroscopy and UV beam profiling techniques on duo‐lateral position sensitive detectors (LPSDs). To help create the groundwork for the research content of this thesis, different technical reviews of previous studies on interface states, surface recombination velocity and radiation damage due to continuous absorption of ionizing irradiation on detectors are investigated. The thesis also examines published theoretical and measurement techniques used to characterize these surface/interface phenomena. The PSDs used in this research were developed using silicon technology and the various methodologies put into the fabrication of the detectors (n+p and p+n structures) were fashioned after the simulated models. The various steps associated with the clean room fabrication and the prior simulation steps are highlighted in the content of the thesis. Also discussed are the measurement techniques used incharacterizing the fixed oxide charge, surface recombination and the position deviation error of the LPSDs in a high vacuum environment of a scanning electron microscope SEM chamber. Using this method, the effects of interface states and surface recombination velocity on the responsivity of differently doped LPSDs were investigated. By lithographically patterning grid‐like structures used as scaleon n+p doped LPSD and using sweeping electrons from the SEM microscope, a very high linearity over the two‐dimensions of the LPSD total active area was observed. An improved responsivity for low energetic electrons was also achievedby the introduced n+p structure. The lithographically patterned grids helped eliminate further external measurement errors and uncertainties from the use of other typical movable measurement devices such as actuators and two dimensional adjusters which would normally be difficult to install in a remote vacuum chamber. In a similar vein, field plate and field rings were patterned around an array ofthe PSDs used as pixel detector(s). By studying the interpixel resistance and breakdown characteristics, the most effective structural arrangement of the field plate and field rings used to curb induced inversion channel between the n+ doped regions of the pixel‐detector is observed. By using UV beam profiling after the irradiation of UV (193 nm or 253 nm) beam on n+p and p+n doped PSDs, the degree of radiation damage was also investigated. The results obtained help to illustrate how prolonged UV radiation can impact on the linearity and the position deviation/error of UV detectors. The results in this thesis are most relevant in spectroscopic and microscopic applications where low energy electrons and medium UV (MUV) radiation are used.

  • 71.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The Psychosocial Situation of Adults with Congenital Heart Disease in Iran2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives:Adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) are a new group of patients with a prevalence of 4 per 1000. They have evolved as a result of significant improvements in medical management during the past decades. However, adults with CHD experience various medical and social challenges that may influence their psychosocial functioning. Providing appropriate medical, rehabilitation and social care for adults with CHD, and indeed improving their well-being require the evaluation of their current psychosocial situation. This thesis aims to increase the understanding of the mental health, somatic symptoms, social support, style of coping, quality of life and life satisfaction of adults with CHD and to examine the possible contributing factors in the context of a developing country; issues not addressed in the current literature.Methods:This thesis is based on four studies. Study I recruited 347 consecutive CHD patients (18-64 years) from two heart hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The study iscross-sectional and focused on sex differences in socio-economic status, lifestyle and medical characteristics of adults with CHD. Studies II, III and IV havea cross-sectional case-control design comparing the aforementioned CHD patients with 353 non-CHD participants, matched by sex and age. Outcome variables were anxiety, depressive and somatic symptoms (Study II), styles of coping (Study III), and life satisfaction/quality of life (Study IV). The data were analysed with bivariate and multivariate methods. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to scrutinize the association of demographic/socio-economic variables, social support, mental health, and medical variables with the aforementioned outcome variables among adults with CHD (Studies II, III, IV). Results:Study I showed that women with CHD were more often married and had children and were less often employed, but had healthier behaviour compared to men. Even though most of the patients received regular medical viiicare from different typesof medical professionals, half of them had no knowledge about the type of their cardiac defect. Study II showed that CHD patients experienced more anxiety and somatic symptoms than the healthy controls, whereas there were no differences in depressive symptoms. Perceived financial strain, lower social support and low annual income were positively associated with worse outcome in mental health and somatic symptoms. None of the medical variables were related to anxiety, depressive and somatic symptoms. Study III showed that the styles of coping of the CHD patients were comparable to those of the control group and CHD per se was not associated with a certain style of coping, except for palliative reaction pattern. Problem-focused styles of coping were associated with being never married, parenthood, higher level of anxiety and somatic symptoms, lower level of depressive symptoms and higher social support. Emotion-focused styles of coping were associated with annual income and higher level of anxiety. None of theadopted coping strategies were related to the heart disease variables. Study IV showed that adults with CHD had poorer quality of life and lower life satisfaction than the control group. However, CHD was associated only with decreased overall quality of life and its physical health domain, and life and health satisfaction. Among CHD patients, higher quality of life was associated with female sex, younger age, employment status, having less emotional distress and higher social support, while life satisfaction was associated with female sex, being employed, less emotional distress and higher social support. Conclusions:The results support the notion that psychosocial factors contribute to the well-being of adults with CHD.Socio-economic factors, emotional health and social support are significant determinants in nearly all outcomes of interest which need to be considered by health care providers and policy makers in their efforts to improve the health ofadults with CHD. However, longitudinal studies are warranted to establish causal linksand qualitative studies are recommended to deepen the understanding of coping and quality of life.

  • 72.
    Essén, Sofia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hydroxamate Siderophores and Low Molecular Mass Organic Acids in Terrestrial and Aquatic Environments Determined by Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Siderophores are low molecular mass organic compounds with high iron(III) stability constants. They are produced by many microorganisms, often in combination with low molecular mass organic acids (LMMOAs). Both siderophores and LMMOAs accelerate mineral weathering, thereby enhancing mineral nutrient availability. Siderophore concentrations in natural environments, however, are largely unknown. In the present work, analytical methods based on liquid chromatography (LC) electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI‐MS) were developed and used for concentration determination of selected hydroxamate siderophores and LMMOAs. The use of capillary LC with on‐line pre‐concentration via column switching enabled siderophore quantification with detection limits of 0.1 ‐ 5 nM. Through solid phase extraction even lower detection limits were achieved. In Swedish podzol soil solutions concentrations up to 12 nM ferricrocin and 2 nM ferrichrome were found in the upper soil layes. Additionally, in axenic pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedling cultures, the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma crustuliniforme was shown to produce ferricrocin as the main siderophore. Moreover, ferricrocin was found in enriched Baltic Sea cyanobacterial populations at concentrations up to 1 nM, while concentrations up to 0.05 nM ferrioxamine B were determined in Baltic Sea surface waters during cyanobacterial blooms. Siderophores have strong affinities for some actinides and may affect radionuclide mobilization in deep subsurface nuclear wase repositories. Two subsurface bacterial strains were shown to produce siderophores under aerobic conditions, i.e. Pseudomonas stutzeri produced mainly ferrioxamine E and Pseudomonas fluorescens produced one pyoverdin siderophore. Siderophores produced by aerobically grown P. stutzeri were not observed either in anaerobic cultures or in deep subsurface water samples.

  • 73.
    Ewoko, Mathew Ngale
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Municipal Solid Waste Management, Limbe Municipality Cameroon.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    The overview of this paper is about municipal solid waste management in Cameroon and suggested methods for improvement. Garbage bins for sorting has been mentioned in this paper as one of the major infrastructure needed in all the areas, particularly in the low standards areas. The installation of garbage bins for source separation, building of transfer stations next to paved roads have been mentioned as one of the primary solution for both the waste vehicles and households. This will increase the waste collection system and will reduce illegal dumping of waste. Population, urbanisation and industrial growth has also been mentioned in this paper as one of the main causes of increase waste generation that has lead to illegal dumping of waste in unwanted areas. Low level of education, inadequate financial standings or resources, poor enforcement of waste management regulations and governance has often led to major waste management problems in Cameroon. This paper also presents a vital analysis of the distance between garbage bins and households as well as possible solutions. The method used in this paper is both primary and secondary data’s which has been explained below. The three filter theory and the waste hierarchy model have as well been used.

    The case study of Limbe municipality has been used to bring out waste management related problems and recommended possible solutions for improvement.

     

     

     

    Key words: Environment, municipal solid waste management, Limbe municipality, Cameroon, awareness.

  • 74.
    Fagerlund-Edfeldt, Amelie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Naturally occurring phenols with antioxidant, antifungal and anti-browsing activity2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Fahlén, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Aspects of the Effort-reward imbalance model of psychosocial stress in the working life2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Fahlén, G. (2008). Aspects on the Effort-reward Imbalance model of psychosocial stress in the work environments. Sundsvall, Sweden: Mid Sweden University, Department of Health Sciences. ISBN 978-91-85317-94-3.

    Since the late 1970s, work related stress has increasingly been recognized as an important determinant for ill-health and disease. One of the most influential stress models is the Effort-Reward Imbalance model (ERI), which stipulates that an imbalance between the perceived effort spent at work and rewards received results in noxious stress. Those with a coping behaviour called Work-related Overcommitment (WOC), including an inability to withdraw from work obligations are especially vulnerable. The model has shown strong explanatory value for a large numbers of harmful health outcomes.

    The general aim of this thesis was to contribute to the development of the ERI model by exploring the properties of this model in relation to its theoretical assumptions, construct, and application and to improve the knowledge of validity of the ERI-model.

    The study sample that was used in three papers emanated from the WOLF study (Work, Lipids and Fibrinogen). The analyses were confined to the subset of individuals who answered the ERI questions (n=1174) with complete answers. In one paper, data from the SKA study (Sick leave, Culture and Attitudes) were used and they comprised all employees at the Swedish Social Insurance Agency responsible for management and compensation of illness in the working population (n=5700). All data are based on questionnaires.

    The results indicate that ERI and WOC are risk factors for sleep disturbances and fatigue. A palpable threshold effect was seen between quartile three and four. Since these symptoms are strongly stress related, our results support the utility of the ERI and WOC scales in assessing stress in working life.

    Agreement between single questions in the original and an approximate instrument for measuring ERI were low, whereas the agreement between the two ERI scales was reasonable. When approximate instruments are used, questions and scales must be presented thoroughly to facilitate comparisons and the results should be interpreted with caution. Today there are no reasons to use such instruments in the ERI model.

    One statement in the ERI model is that individuals with the coping behaviour characterised as WOC are particularly vulnerable to an imbalance between perceived effort and reward; i.e., that ERI and WOC interact. No such effect was shown in relation to disturbed sleep and fatigue. There is no convincing evidence that ERI and WOC interact in synergy. Analysis demonstrated that WOC was relatively stable in perceived unchanged conditions as measured by the original, more comprehensive instrument as well as by the present, shortened instrument. Positively or negatively perceived changes in ERI correspond to changes in WOC. This result suggests that WOC, at least in part, may act as not only a coping strategy but also as an outcome from ERI. Taken together, these results concerning WOC, suggest that studies to clarify the role of the WOC dimension are needed.

    The ERI model states that, when individuals stay in unfavourable conditions characterised as ERI, because there are few alternatives on the labour market or when the individual is at risk of being laid off or of facing downward mobility, they are in a “locked in position” (LIP). A strong association between LIP and ERI was shown, supporting this statement.

  • 76.
    Falasca, Kajsa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Context matters. Interactions between news media, political actors and citizens in elections and crises2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 77.
    Feng, Tao
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Adaptive finite element methods for parameter estimation problems in partial differential equations2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical and chemical phenomena are often described by a system of partial di®erential equations. These equations usually involve unknown parameters, which cannot be measured directly but which can be adjusted to make the model predictions match the observed data. The process of ¯tting these para- meters to laboratory or plant data is called parameter estimation. In order to recover these parameters, the well-known output least squares formulation is of- ten utilized. To solve the optimization problem governed by partial di®erential equations, the in¯nite-dimensional problem must be approximated by introduc- ing discretizations such as a ¯nite elements or di®erences. It is clear that the e±ciency of the numerical methods dealt with here will be in°uenced by the discretization scheme. The goal of this thesis is to develop e±cient numerical methods for the parameter estimation problems governed by partial di®erential equations, based on adaptive ¯nite element methods. This work was initiated by an investigation into an a posteriori error esti- mator of residual type for parameter estimation problems with a ¯nite number of unknown parameters. It appears that an adaptive ¯nite element algorithm guided by the derived a posteriori error estimator produces a sequence of eco- nomical, locally re¯ned meshes. The methods are then applied to the identi¯ca- tion of elastic constants in paper from measured displacements. Further, some a posteriori error estimators of gradient recovery type are derived for the error in parameters due to the discretization. The main advantages of using error estimators of this type are the simplicity of their implementation and their cost e®ectiveness. Often, the unknown parameters are functions, which also need to be dis- cretized. Adaptive ¯nite element method is developed for the estimation of distributed parameters in elliptic equations with multi-mesh techniques. Finally, a goal-oriented adaptive method, dual weighted residual methods (DWR methods) are employed determining the elastic constants in paper from measured displacements.

  • 78.
    Fjellström, Helena
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Inhibition of light-induced colour reversion of wood-containing papers by means of coating2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this thesis was to find ways to maintain a low level of light‐induceddiscolouration at an increased addition of mechanical and chemimechanical pulps in coated highqualityfine paper and magazine paper grades. Current technology allows the production of highyieldpulps such as thermomechanical and chemimechanical pulps with properties suitable formanufacturing high‐quality paper or paperboard with a low basis weight. Coating of woodcontainingpaper will probably be necessary for photo‐stability reasons if lignin‐containing pulps areto be used as the main fibre furnish in long‐life and high‐value products.In order to find the most suitable pulp for this purpose, light‐induced discolouration of a variety ofpaper samples from unbleached and bleached softwood and hardwood pulps was studied under bothaccelerated and long‐term ambient light‐induced ageing conditions. Hardwood high‐yield pulps,especially aspen pulps, were proven to be more photo‐stable compared to softwood pulps. Hardwoodpulps should therefore be the first choice for applications where a high permanence is desirable.Evaluating ageing characteristics using the CIELAB colour system showed that accelerated ageingconditions tend to mainly increase the b* value and decrease the L* value (i.e. yellow the pulp),whereas long‐term ambient ageing also increases the a* value, which makes the pulp more reddish.A new method for studying the influence of the UV‐screening properties of coating layers on abase paper was developed, and used to investigate the effect of pigment, pigment size distribution,binder and UV‐absorbing additives. The coat weight and pigment type were found to be the mostimportant factors for reducing the transmittance of UV‐radiation. Coating colours containing kaolinpigments had a lower UV‐transmittance than calcium carbonate pigments. Of the calcium carbonates,precipitated calcium carbonates were better than ground calcium carbonates and the difference wasgreater at higher coat weights. The particle size distribution should preferable be narrow. When thebest pigment (bleached kaolin) and the best binder (styrene butadiene latex) were combined withtitanium dioxide, the UV‐transmittance could be reduced by about 90% at a coat weight of ~10 g/m2.At a coat weight close to 20 g/m2, the transmittance was close to zero. This shows that it is possible tomore or less fully protect a double coated base paper from harmful UV‐radiation, when the coatinglayer has an optimum composition for that purpose. A prerequisite to reach so far is that the coatinglayer has an even coat weight.

  • 79.
    Flodén, Liselott
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    G-Convergence and Homogenization of some Sequences of Monotone Differential Operators2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis mainly deals with questions concerning the convergence of some sequences of elliptic and parabolic linear and non-linear operators by means of G-convergence and homogenization. In particular, we study operators with oscillations in several spatial and temporal scales. Our main tools are multiscale techniques, developed from the method of two-scale convergence and adapted to the problems studied. For certain classes of parabolic equations we distinguish different cases of homogenization for different relations between the frequencies of oscillations in space and time by means of different sets of local problems. The features and fundamental character of two-scale convergence are discussed and some of its key properties are investigated. Moreover, results are presented concerning cases when the G-limit can be identified for some linear elliptic and parabolic problems where no periodicity assumptions are made.

  • 80.
    Forsberg, Viviane
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Liquid-Phase Exfoliation of Two-Dimensional Materials: Applications, deposition methods and printed electronics on paper2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    After the unprecedented success of graphene research, other materials that can also be exfoliated into thin layers, like Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), have also become the subjects of extensive studies. As one of the most promising methods for large scale production of such materials, liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) has also been the subject of extensive research and is maturing as a field to the point that devices using additive manufacturing and printed nanosheets are often reported. The stability of the nanosheets in environmentally friendly solvents, particularly in water, with or without stabilizers, is still a focus of great interest for sustainable and commercial production. In this thesis, different methods of LPE in water with and without stabilizers are investigated and discussed. Stabilizers such as surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and modified cellulose2-hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), were employed. Because waterdoes not have surface energy parameters that match those of2D materials, the dispersions in water do not usually have a high yield. Therefore, to circumvent the use of organic solvents that are known to be able to successfully exfoliate and stabilize nanosheets of two-dimensional materials, this thesis focuses on water as the solution-process medium for exfoliation and the assisting stabilizers used to keep the exfoliated nanomaterials in dispersion with a long half-time. Surfactant-assisted dispersions are discussed together with test-printing resultsusing inkjet to deposit the material. Process parameters for the LPE method using HEC as a stabilizer are presented together with thin nanosheets characterized by Raman spectroscopy. Dispersions using HEC presented the longest half-time among the studied methods, higher than previously reported values for methods using mixed low-boiling-point solvents. Devices using exfoliated nanosheets have been fabricated and presented in the present study. The photoconductivity of MoS2 using a device fabricated with LPE MoS2 nanosheets and the cathodoluminescence of LPE MoS2 are discussed. Although fabricated with mechanically exfoliated nanosheets and not LPE ones, another photodetector fabricated with one of the MoS2 grades used in this thesis is presented to highlight the excellent photoresponse of this material. A method of producing thin nanosheets with-out stabilizers by pre-processing the MoS2 grades withs and papers is introduced. With this method, nanosheets with a lateral size of around 200nm and a concentration around 0.14 g L−1 - that is half the concentration at the same processing conditions in solvent n-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) - are discussed. Inkjet printing as a deposition method is discussed together with the requirements for the 2D inks. Printed organic electronics using the conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS are compared to those using commercially-available graphene ink, with a focus on printing on paper substrates. In order to bring the thesis into perspective from materials to device fabrication, I study the suitability of inkjet paper substrates for printed electronics, by extensively characterizing the chemical and physical properties of their ink-receiving layers (IRLs) and their impact on the electronic properties of the conductive printed lines.

  • 81.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Enabling fully distributed global services on the Internet-of Things2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Fransson, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    Landskapet som lärobok: Regionalitet och medborgarfostran i Jämtland kring sekelskiftet 19002010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the relationship between regionality and societal integration at the turn of the 20th century from an historical and pedagogical perspective. The national identity project of the time that made national unity its overarching goal and that imagined the nation as a homogenous entity, also institutionalised regional distinctiveness. How did the agents of the time handle the conflict between the regionally particular and the nationally general? What is analysed here is the publicly constructed and mediated “regionality”, which is to say the production of meanings about a region and the projection onto it of expectations and ideas. A discourse on Jämtland has been demarcated, which is analysed alongside other contemporary discourses, including class and gender. All of these discourses were rooted in the concept of “societal”. The conception showed that the development of the societal whole was primary in relation to other interests. Defined as “societal”, formerly excluded identities could be made participants in the building of the nation. Empirical examination is given to how “Jämtland” and “the Jämtlandic” were defined in the regional press, in the framework of general education, and by the Swedish Tourist Association, regional societies, institutions and so forth. The study shows that at the turn of the 20th century, regionality very much functioned as a means to territorially anchor more general ideas and notions that inheredin the modernisation and democratisation of society. With the objective of attaining a higher degree of national integration, a regional distinctiveness was constructed that was nationally complementary and that served as a metaphorfor subordinated participation in society. From grand, majestic panoramas, historical myths, traditional local handicrafts and provincial flowers a symbolic distinctiveness was created, but with the aim of establishing genuine national unity. Society was to be described and understood from particular and individual viewpoints, so that the individual could develop a sense of the general and so that society’s fundamental values were not undermined by his liberation. Jämtlandic regionality that has been identified in the study can thus be regarded as a supra-ideological institution. What came to be regionalised was something more fundamental than the artefacts of cultural heritage that people and institutions believed themselves to be rescuing from modernisation: it was the nation’s territoriality. The concept of hembygd represented a “spatialisation” of the societally coded concept of citizenship, and helped to tie this concept to the individual’s own lifeworld. More than anything else, regionality indicateda perspective on reality. If it was possible to obtain an overview of a regional context from a local vantage point or an individual locally crafted artefact, it was also possible to conceive of the larger national framework of which this region formed a part. The regional denoted the link between the private and the public, between the individual and his abstract national affiliation.

  • 83.
    Fredriksson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Efficient algorithms for highly automated evaluation of liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry data2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC‐MS) has due to its superiorresolving capabilities become one of the most common analytical instruments fordetermining the constituents in an unknown sample. Each type of sample requires a specificset‐up of the instrument parameters, a procedure referred to as method development.During the requisite experiments, a huge amount of data is acquired which often need to bescrutinised in several different ways. This thesis elucidates data processing methods forhandling this type of data in an automated fashion.The properties of different commonly used digital filters were compared for LC‐MS datade‐noising, of which one was later selected as an essential data processing step during adeveloped peak detection step. Reconstructed data was further discriminated into clusterswith equal retention times into components by an adopted method. This enabled anunsupervised and accurate comparison and matching routine by which components fromthe same sample could be tracked during different chromatographic conditions.The results show that the characteristics of the noise have an impact on the performanceof the tested digital filters. Peak detection with the proposed method was robust to thetested noise and baseline variations but functioned optimally when the analytical peaks hada frequency band different from the uninformative parts of the signal. The algorithm couldeasily be tuned to handle adjacent peaks with lower resolution. It was possible to assignpeaks into components without typical rotational and intensity ambiguities associated tocommon curve resolution methods, which are an alternative approach. The underlyingfunctions for matching components between different experiments yielded satisfactoryresults. The methods have been tested on various experimental data with a high successrate.

  • 84.
    Friberg, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    Demokrati bortom politiken: En begreppshistorisk analys av demokratibegreppet inom Sveriges socialdemokratiska arbetareparti 1919–19392013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation analyzes the concept of democracy as it was used in the official rhetoric of the Swedish SocialDemocratic Party (SAP ) between 1919 and 1939. Theoretically, the dissertation relies on German Begriffsgeschichte, as put forward by Reinhart Koselleck, and Michael Freeden’s theory of ideologies. Together, by supplementing each other, these theories offer a perspective in which concepts are thought of as structures that are under contestation and change due to socio-political circumstances. However, the formulation of this change takes place in relation to the linguistic praxis of each time-period, and renegotiates the relative constraints of established relations between concepts in language.

    The analysis shows that the profound changes in society provided impetus for a continuous renegotiation of meanings, allowing concepts to retain their explanatory power under changing circumstances, at the same time the SAP needed new ways to express what kind of society the party strived to realize. The SAP had been one of the leading forces in the struggle for universal suffrage, and when the bill, giving universal suffrage to men andwomen, was passed in the Parliament 1919 this meant a temporary cessation to a long and intensive political debate. However, the SAP did not consider the introduction of suffrage reform as the end of full societal democratization. Rather than seeing the reform as a terminal point, the SAP saw it as the starting point for the struggle for full democracy. The SAP did not limit itself to only one concept of democracy but instead used a number of composite concepts, such as political democracy and economic democracy. The use of composite concepts can be understood as a changing temporalization of democracy. Since parliamentarism and suffrage were seen as central components in democracy, the realization of these institutions meant that the concept of democracy lost its future dimension. Thus, the usage of composite concepts should be seen as a re-temporalization of democracy. The composite concepts pointed forward in time, toward political goals that the SAP envisaged realizing in the future.

    Concepts should not be thought of as having cores but rather, as suggested by Freeden, ineliminable features. An ineliminable feature is not of logical nature but has a strong cultural adjacency. By analyzing the ineliminable components of the concepts of democracy that the SAP used, it is possible to discuss whether the composite concepts should be understood as subsets of a whole or as separate concepts. The analysis shows that the composite concepts that the SAP used during the first half of the 1920s shared a number of ineliminable features, but that the commonality of these features started to disintegrate during the latter half of the decade, leading to a rather diversive concept of democracy. During the 1930s the disintegration ceased as the party was faced with new circumstances, for example the growing threat of international war and national clashes between different social groups. There has always been a close relation between language and society. However, the relationship does not follow a simple and clear-cut logic but a complex mixture of various factors at different levels, both within language itself and of society. When society develops, language also has to change if the ongoing process is to be understood. As this study shows, new circumstances require new argumentsand thus revised concepts.

  • 85.
    Frisk, Irina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    A Linguistic Analysis of Peer-review Critique in Four Modes of Computer-mediated Communication2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract 

    The present work is a quantitative and qualitative analysis of pragmatic strategies for delivering critique, and types of politeness, used by undergraduate L2 students of English at different stages of peer-review discussion. The material examined consists of four corpora of authentic conversations between students, the main purpose of which was to give feedback on each other’s contributions during an English A-level course, at Mid-Sweden University. The conversations explored were carried out electronically, and represent four different online environments, or modes of computer-mediated communication (CMC). The material from the two asynchronous modes of CMC is comprised of L2 students’ written discussion board messages and spoken posts recorded using online software. The two synchronous environments under investigation are text-based and voice-based chat. Taking Brown and Levinson’s (1987) framework of politeness as a point of departure, the present study uses a combination of corpus and conversation analytical methods. The basic unit of analysis has been defined as the shortest message of peer-review critique that constitutes a thematic unit: these have been examined in terms of their content and politeness features associated with them, and analyzed in terms of the pragmatic strategy and type of politeness adopted. The types of pragmatic strategies or message organization patterns at different stages, i.e. initial versus subsequent feedback, of the peer-review discussion have also been analyzed. The results of the study show that the pragmatic strategies aimed at praise and agreement prevail in the corpus data produced by predominantly native speakers of Swedish. Even though the pragmatic strategies used for disagreement and negative evaluation are rich in propositional content, their occurrences and distribution vary across the four modes of CMC examined. These results seem to have wider implications in the context of online L2 learning activities, providing insights about the language of peer-review critique in a Swedish academic setting.

     

    Keywords: computer-mediated communication (CMC), Conversation Analysis (CA), conversation management, discussion boards, feedback category, mode of CMC, peer-review discussion, politeness theory, pragmatic strategy, speech act of critique, text-based chat, type of politeness, voice-based chat, VoiceThread

  • 86.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hybrid pixel detectors: Characterization and optimization2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 87.
    Gao, Jinlan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Antenna-based passive UHF RFID sensor tags: Design and application2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    RFID, as a low cost technology with a long life time, provides great potential for transmitting sensor data in combination with the ordinary ID number. The sensor can, for example, be integrated either in the chip or in the antenna of an RFID tag.This thesis focuses on the design of antenna-based UHF RFID sensor tags as wireless sensors at the lowest possible cost level compatible with standard communication systems in logistics. The applications of the sensor tags, in this work, mainly target remote humidity sensing. Antenna-based sensory UHF RFID tags utilize the influence that the physical or chemical parameters to be sensed have on the electrical properties of a tag antenna. The variations of the electrical properties of the tag antenna can be measured in many ways. In the thesis, a description is provided as to how these variations are normally measured by an RFID reader without any other assistant equipment. Three structures of antenna-based RFID sensor tags are presented with detailed characterizations. The first one utilizes the sensitivity of the antenna to the surrounding environment to construct RFID sensor tags, where a moisture absorbing layer providing wetness/humidity sensor functionality is placed on the RFID tag antenna to increase the humidity concentration surrounding the tag antenna and the thesis describes how to overcome certain limitations due to disturbances associated with background materials. The second structure directly integrates a small resistive sensor element into an RFID tag antenna and the sensor information can thus modulate the antenna performance by means of galvanic contact. The third structure embeds a small resistive sensor element into a loop which is positioned on top of the tag antenna and the sensor information can thus modulate the performance of the tag antenna by means of electromagnetic coupling. Both theoretical analysis and fullwave simulations are presented for the latter two sensor tag structures in order to characterize the performance of the sensor tags. An ultra-low cost printed humidity sensor with memory functionality is also designed and thoroughly characterized for integration into RFID tag antennas by means of galvanic contact or electromagnetic coupling. The sensor is a 1-bit write-once-read-many (WORM) memory printed using conductive ink. The WORM works as a pure resistive humidity sensor and can provide information about an historical event. The WORM sensor is presented by introducing its geometry, characterizingits behavior in humidity and explaining the principle of the humidity effect. The WORM sensors are also integrated into the RFID tags by means of both galvanic contact and electromagnetic coupling in order to experimentally verify the two concepts. To lower the cost of the RFID tags, the antennas are normally printed, milledor etched on flexible substrates using low-cost high-speed manufacturing methods which in some cases cause a high degree of edge roughness. The edge roughness will affect the behavior of the antenna, however, the characteristics of edge roughness on RFID antennas have previously not received any significant attention. Unforeseen antenna behavior can affect the antenna-based sensor tags, thus the influence of edge roughness is also investigated in the thesis.

  • 88.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Design and Performance of Packet Retransmission Diversity Scheme for Wireless Networks2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High data-rate wireless access systems are currently under discussion since the demand for wireless multimedia communication is rapidly increasing due to strong advances in wireless Internet services. Reliable high-speed data communications is one of the major challenges with regards to harsh conditions. With the necessity for high data rates, linear multi-level modulation schemes are becoming more and more important in wireless communication systems since they are bandwidth efficient. In this thesis protocols are designed and evaluated which improve system performance by combining ARQ-induced retransmissions through multipath channels in order to reduce the latency and improve the system throughput. The starting point is to show that the employment of simple packet combining schemes to wireless LANs such as IEEE 802.11, can achieve a considerable performance gain with the addition of only a small increase in complexity. A low-complexity method for enhancing and exploiting retransmission diversity by varying the bit-to-symbol mapping for each retransmission of a packet is evaluated. The selected mappings are chosen in order to maximize a bit log likelihood ratio (LLR) based metric. An ARQ scheme is also proposed, which combines retransmissions and bandwidth efficient multi-level modulation techniques with a change in the symbol mapping for every retransmission. The main idea behind this proposal is to take advantage of the extra dimension provided by a retransmission diversity scheme in improving the power efficiency if the used modulation without altering the diversity order of the system. Considering the overall scheme as one entity it is possible to obtain a transmission scheme able to perform very well in both additive Gaussian and fading channels without increase in receiver complexity. Finally, multiple antenna systems with ARQ functionality are evaluated. It has been established that using multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver along with intelligent signal design enables us to achieve better reliability as well as increase the transmission rate. In this thesis a space-time block coded hybrid ARQ scheme is considered which exploits both the spatial and time diversity of the MIMO channel. A bit-to-symbol mapping ARQ scheme suitable for multiple antenna systems is also considered.

  • 89.
    Gidlund, Ulrika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Discourses of Including Students with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (EBD) in Swedish Mainstream Schools2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When students’ behaviours cause difficulties for their teachers, themselves, and the rest of the class, teachers often construct inclusion as problematic. The overall aim of this study was to contribute to the understanding of teachers’ discourses regarding inclusion of students with emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) in Swedish mainstream schools. The sample of empirical data collected for articles II–IV was derived from focus group interviews of 5–8 mainstream teachers in grades 4–6 in 6 different schools. Article I is a research synthesis on 15 studies that feature the attitudes of teachers from 15 different countries. It frames the entire thesis by examining how teachers perceive students with EBD from other countries, cultures, and times. In this study, neither inclusion nor EBD are said to be so much objectively “real” as socially produced and can be regarded as social constructs. An approach of discourse theory that takes inspiration from Laclau and Mouffe (1985) is applied in articles II–III and is complemented with constructionist thematic analysis. The results revealed that teachers construct meaning and understanding of students in relation to their everyday professional missions in the classroom. Discourses about successfully including students with EBD face problem fixing their meaning as they require new and other types of resources as well as other time distributions, teachers, curricula, and classrooms. The teachers’ discourses revealed a clear gap between policy and practice in the Swedish education system. Discourses that were pragmatic based on everyday reality of the school overpowered the discourses of ensuring equal opportunities for all students and the celebration of diversity. When the wordings of the Swedish steering documents are arbitrary and interpreted differently among various actors within Swedish schools, the teachers feel insecurity, frustration, and inadequacy. Inclusion of students with EBD is a complex and complicated matter that the teachers do not feel competent enough to fully handle. They revealed their frustration with being expected to do something that cannot be done due to practical and economic reasons. When teachers experience failure and dissatisfaction with specific teaching situations, they construct discourses that justify and legitimize that failure. These discourses inevitably have consequences for how the teachers understand and organize their everyday teacher missions.

  • 90.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    "e" i retorik och praktik.: Elektronisk förvaltning i översättning.2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this study is to contribute to the discussion of eGovernment implementation by making the implicit organisational micro dynamic processes involved in the framing and implementation of eGovernment explicit. I want to highlight the important process trough which eGovernment is framed and translated by organisational members and in what way it effects different divisions of practice. To do so, two different analytical aspects of organisational life, the rhetoric of management and the reality of work practices are used as a theoretical context for analysing some implications of eGovernment implementation. These analytical dimensions of organisational life are used to discuss a case study looking at the implementation of eGovernment in a local Swedish municipality.

     

    The main contribution of this thesis is a theorisation of how to understand the organisational micro dynamic processes involved in the implementation of eGovernment in public administration. New insights could be gained, for researchers and practioners, by analysing the transformation of practice as an ongoing process characterised by micro-political translation processes involving actors as well as actions and meanings in both rhetoric and practice.

  • 91.
    Goine, Hans
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sickness absence: Aspects of measurement, impact of the labour market and effects of intervention2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Gorski, Dmitri
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    ATMP Process: Improved Energy Efficiency in TMP Refining Utilizing Selective Wood Disintegration and Targeted Application of Chemicals2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is focused on the novel wood chip refining process called AdvancedThermomechanical Pulp (ATMP) refining. ATMP consists of mechanical pretreatmentof chips in Impressafiner and Fiberizer prior to first stage refining atincreased intensity. Process chemicals (this study was concentrated on hydrogenperoxide and magnesium hydroxide) are introduced into the first stage refiner.It is known that the use of chemicals in TMP process and first stage refining atelevated intensity can reduce the energy demands of refining. The downside is thatthey also alter the character of the produced pulp. Reductions in fibre length andtear index are usually the consequences of refining at elevated intensity. Additionof chemicals usually leads to reduction of the light scattering coefficient. Usingstatistical methods it was shown that it is possible to maintain the TMP character ofthe pulp using the ATMP process. This is explained by a separation of thedefibration and the fibre development phases in refining. This separation allowsdefibration of chips to fibres and fibre bundles without addition of chemicals orincrease in refining intensity. Chemicals are applied in the fibre developmentphase only (first stage refiner). The energy demand in refining to reach tensileindex of 25 Nm/g was reduced by up to 1.1 MWh/odt (42 %) using the ATMPprocess on Loblolly pine. The energy demand in refining of White spruce, requiredto reach tensile index of 30 Nm/g, was reduced by 0.65 MWh/odt (37%).Characterizations of individual fibre properties, properties of sheets made fromlong fibre fractions and model fibre sheets with different fines fractions werecarried out. It was established that both the process equipment configuration (i.e.the mechanical pre‐treatment and the elevated refining intensity) and the additionof process chemicals in the ATMP process influence fibre properties such as external and internal fibrillation as well as the amount of split fibres. Improvementof these properties translated into improved properties of sheets, made from thelong fibre fractions of the studied pulps. The quality of the fines fraction alsoimproved. However, the mechanisms of improvement in the fines quality seem tobe different for fines, generated using improved process configuration andaddition of process chemicals. The first type of fines contributed to better bondingof model long fibre sheets through the densification of the structure. Fines whichhave been influenced by the addition of the process chemicals seemed in additionto improve bonding between long fibres by enhancing the specific bond strength.The improved fibre and fines properties also translated into better airpermeability and surface roughness of paper sheets, properties which areespecially important for supercalendered (SC) printing paper. The magnitude offibre roughening after moistening was mainly influenced by the processequipment configuration while the addition of process chemicals yielded lowestfinal surface roughness due to the lowest initial surface roughness. There was nodifference in how fines fractions from the studied processes influenced the fibreroughening. However, fines with better bonding yielded model fibre sheets withhigher PPS, probably due to their consolidation around fibre joints. Hence, thedecrease in PPS can probably be attributed to the improvements in the long fibrefraction properties while the improvement of fines quality contributed to thereduction of air permeability.The process chemicals, utilized in the ATMP process (Mg(OH)2 and H2O2) alsoproved to be an effective bleaching system. Comparable increases in brightnesscould be reached using the ATMP process and conventional tower bleaching.Maximum brightness of the pulp was reached after approximately 10 minutes ofhigh‐consistency storage after refining or 40 minutes of conventional bleaching.This study was conducted using a pilot scale refiner system operated as a batchprocess. Most of the experiments were performed using White spruce (Piceaglauca). In Paper I, Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) was used. It is believed that theresults presented in this thesis are valid for other softwood raw materials as well,but this limitation should be considered.

  • 93.
    Granberg, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Care in revolt: Labor conflict, gender, neoliberalism2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis is an exploration of normalization processes and the problem of appropriation in labor conflict. More specifically, it analyses the way contemporary labor conflicts in nursing relate to, and thereby help to illuminate, changes in modes of gender normalization under neoliberalism, and how nurse labor conflict thereby sheds light on wider patterns of labor strife. Analysis shows how a “virtue script” bound up with long-lasting patterns of gender normalization in nursing becomes tangled with forms of abstract labor related to “new public management” reform. Although the restructuring of work threatens public professionals’ autonomy, at the same time, it provides opportunities for resistance through collective action. What is more, this restructuring process facilitates the appropriation by nurses and, by implication, other public workers, of the discourses and ideals that belonged to the ethos of the Keynesian welfare state. However, this is a contradictory process, since the discourses and ideals thus appropriated inhere in modes of labor exploitation and normalization. Analysis indicates that although appropriation risks to reinforce gendered and exploitative ideas about work, the strategy can be a lever of collective mobilization, and one of its possible outcomes is the radical transformation of the entities it takes possession of. This interview study is mainly based on four journal articles, attending to different aspects of an act of collective resignation taken by registered nurses at a Swedish hospital ward. This is an emerging form of collective action and the thesis provides one of the first analyses of this new grassroots and workplace-based phenomenon, which may be considered its particular empirical contribution. On the other hand, the chapters of the cover essay unfold a sustained argument on normalization and appropriation, thereby elaborating theoretical themes broached in the articles. The focal point of this discussion is a certain concept of form, deployed in Marxist and feminist theory, a concept pointing to the identity of thought-forms and practically enacted forms. Further, these forms migrate: they are evoked in practices wherein “the mind is not active as sentient” (Hegel), later to be projected by the mind onto different entities. The results of the discussion thus question common approaches to normalization. In particular, it is untenable to oppose a tacit and internal mode of control where individuals are induced to comply by attaching to identifications (by becoming/being made into subjects) to an overt and external mode reliant on sheer coercion. This matter–form dichotomy should be dissolved, and modes of coercion should be understood to leave subjective imprints—not at the level of identity but at the level of thought’s infrastructure, that is, form.

  • 94.
    Grandien, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Strategic Communication Found in Translation: Practices, Practitioners and Perceptions2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation seeks to explore how institutional, organizational and individual factors influence the development of strategic communication. The dissertationillustrates how new institutional theory can be applied to address the development of strategic communication as a process that is produced on different interrelated institutional levels. It also shows that multiple levels need to be addressed in order to develop a more comprehensive understanding of strategic communication. Further, it describes how the development of strategic communication is restricted and enabled by societal and organizational discourse in processes that are not always controlled by communication professionals. The dissertation also explores howpopular ideas or successful recipes for strategic communication are spread between organizations in the same field, but are adjusted or translated in order to fit organizational preconditions. The results also highlighthow professionalism is understood differently by communication practitioners depending on the organizational sector they work in and how the institutional embeddedness of communication practitioners influences the ways in which practitioners commit to their occupation.Moreover, it suggests that the inhabited and perceived moral taint that is associated with communication practitioners shapes the professional discourse and hampers the development of a shared occupational identity. Finally, it is suggestedthat knowledge about the development of strategic communication can be found in the translations and local adaptions of new ideas and practices. Insights about the institutionalization of strategic communication might not only be found in realized structures and routines, but in micro changes that happen as the result of local circumstances.

  • 95.
    Grav, Siv
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The relationship between social support, personality and depression in the general population: Focusing on older people2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's wide variety of diseases and health problems are

    influenced in part by an aging population and by environmental and

    lifestyle changes. Depression is one of the most quickly growing

    disorders, causing a huge decrease in quality of life. Depression also

    increases with age. The expected increase in the number of older

    people in the years to come might lead to an increasing problem of

    increased case loads for primary health care in the coming years as

    the delivery of healthcare services shifts from clinical settings to the

    home. People who lack social support are more likely to experience

    poorer quality of life, including depression. Personality is a robust

    predictor of behaviour and essential life outcomes. The aim of this

    thesis is to describe the relationship between social support,

    personality and depression in the general population, with a focus on

    older people.

    This thesis used data from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study

    (HUNT), a large census population survey in Norway. Paper I (n=

    40,659), II (n= 35,832), and III (n=35,797) used data from HUNT3

    (2006-2008), and Paper IV (n=25,626) used data from both HUNT2

    (1995-1997) and HUNT3. Paper I, II, and III used cross-sectional

    designs and paper IV used a longitudinal design. The age of the

    sample was 20−89, divided into three age-groups: 20−64 years

    (adults), 65−74 years (old), and 75−89 years (oldest old). Depression

    was measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

    (HADS in the HUNT2 and 3), personality was measured with a short

    version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ in the

    HUNT3), and social support was examined with single questions

    about perceived support from friends (HUNT2 and 3).

    iii

    The main finding in Paper I was that self-rated perceived support

    was significantly associated with depression, even after controlling

    for age and gender, emotional support (OR = 3.14), and tangible

    support (OR = 2.93). The effects of emotional and tangible support

    differ between genders. Interaction effects were found for age groups

    as well as emotional and tangible support. Paper II showed a

    relationship between depression and both neuroticism and

    extraversion in a general population. Older people are more likely to

    score low on extraversion (E) than younger people. Interactions were

    observed between neuroticism and age, neuroticism and gender, and

    extraversion with depression. The interaction terms indicates a high

    score on neuroticism (N) is enhanced by introversion, older age, and

    being a male with depression. Paper III showed a significant

    association between levels of perceived social support, personality,

    sense of community in the neighbourhood, and civic participation.

    Women frequently reported higher levels of social support, and

    higher scores on both extraversion and neuroticism than men, while

    men reported higher sense of community in the neighbourhood and

    levels of civic participation than women. Paper IV showed that risk

    factors had a greater effect on new cases than on recovery from

    depression. The greatest association with new cases of depression

    was found for male sex, the oldest age group, melancholics, those

    who lacked social support, those who never participated in social

    activities, those with decreasing community in the neighbourhood,

    those with poor health, and those who have gotten divorced. The

    greatest association with recovery from depression was found for

    female sex, sanguine temperament, those with social support, those

    who participated in social activities, those with increasing

    iv

    community in the neighbourhood, and those who have obtained

    better health.

    The findings show that both social support and personality are

    risk factors for developing depression. Nurses should put extra effort

    into how they care for patients with low extraversion, high

    neuroticism and, low social support in order to help these patients

    avoid depression. Nurses have to "see the patient" and "care about",

    and respect patient’s values, preferences and expressed needs.

  • 96.
    Gustafsson, Birgit
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Algebrasvårigheter ur elev- och lärarperspektiv: Om hinder i lärandesituationer och utmaningar i undervisningssituationer2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna avhandling är att fördjupa förståelsen för algebrasvårigheter sett ur elevperspektiv och lärarperspektiv. För att studera detta har tre övergripande frågeställningar formulerats;

    - Vilka hinder för eleverna kan identifieras då kända algebrasvårigheter behandlas i lärandesituationer?

    - Hur kan dessa hinder för eleverna överkommas?

    - Vilka utmaningar för lärarna kan identifieras då kända algebrasvårigheter behandlas i undervisningssituationer?

    Fyra delstudier har genomförts och skapat underlag för att besvara dessa frågor.

    För att undersöka hinder för elever i lärandesituationer fick 37 elevgrupper diskutera några problemlösningsuppgifter i delstudie 1 och 2. Diskussionerna analyserades med avseende på övergångar mellan olika representationsformer i uppgifterna.

    I analyserna av övergångarna mellan olika representationsformer kunde flera hinder observeras. Bland annat tolkar eleverna variabler som enheter och har stora problem med det osynliga multiplikationstecknet i uttryck som t.ex. 5x. Eleverna kommer förbi dessa hinder genom att de diskuterar uppgiften med varandra. De ställer undersökande frågor till varandra och överför bland annat den algebraiska symbolskriften till naturligt språk vilket leder dem förbi dessa hinder. Läraren har dock en avgörande roll för att de ska kunna passera dessa hinder.

    För att undersöka utmaningar för lärare i undervisningssituationer analyserades lärares frågor i helklassgenomgångar med avseende på algebrasvårig-heter i delstudie 3 och i delstudie 4 analyserades hur sex grupper av lärarstudenter diskuterade och bedömde algebrasvårigheter i fem elevlösningar. Resultatet visar att lärarna ställer mest slutna frågor på lägre nivå i relation till de flesta algebrasvårigheter. Däremot var ca hälften av frågorna öppna då algebrasvårigheten kring algebraisk problemlösning behandlades.

    Resultatet om bedömning av algebrasvårigheter visar att lärarstudenterna inte diskuterade algebrasvårigheterna i uppgiften i någon större utsträckning.

    Som helhet visar mina studier att ur elevperspektiv så möter eleverna hinder då de löser algebraiska problemlösningsuppgifter. Både högstadie- och gymnasieelever har problem att förstå betydelsen av variabler och det osynliga multiplikationstecknet i t.ex. 5x. Ur lärarperspektiv så visar studierna att lärarna ställer olika typer av frågor beroende på vilken algebrasvårighet som behandlas. I bedömningssituationer diskuteras algebrasvårigheterna endast till en liten del. I avhandlingen diskuteras olika möjliga orsaker till resultatet samt ges didak-tiska implikationer om vad som behöver prioriteras i undervisningen.

  • 97.
    Gustafsson Coppel, Ludovic
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Whiteness and Fluorescence in Layered Paper and Board: Perception and Optical Modelling2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about modelling and predicting the perceived whiteness of plain paper from the paper composition, including fluorescent whitening agents. This involves psychophysical modelling of perceived whiteness from measurable light reflectance properties, and physical modelling of light scattering and fluorescence from the paper composition.

    Existing models are first tested and improvements are suggested and evaluated. A colour appearance model including simultaneous contrast effects (CIECAM02-m2), earlier tested on coloured surfaces, is successfully applied to perceived whiteness. An extension of the Kubelka-Munk light scattering model including fluorescence for turbid media of finite thickness is successfully tested for the first time on real papers. It is extended to layered constructions with different layer optical properties and modified to enable parameter estimation with conventional d/0° spectrophotometers used in the paper industry. Lateral light scattering is studied to enable simulating the spatially resolved radiance factor from layered constructions, and angle-resolved radiance factor simulations are performed to study angular variation of whiteness.

    It is shown that the linear CIE whiteness equation fails to predict the perceived whiteness of highly white papers with distinct bluish tint. This equation is applicable only in a defined region of the colour space, a condition that is shown to be not fulfilled by many commercial office papers, although they appear white to most observers. The proposed non-linear whiteness equations give to these papers a whiteness value that correlates with their perceived whiteness, while application of the CIE whiteness equation outside its region of validity overestimates perceived whiteness.

    It is shown that the fluorescence efficiency of FWA is essentially dependent only on the ability of the FWA to absorb light in its absorption band. Increased FWA concentration leads accordingly to increased whiteness. However, since FWA absorbs light in the violet-blue region of the electromagnetic spectrum, the reflectance factor decreases in that region with increasing FWA amount. This violet-blue absorption tends to give a greener shade to the paper and explains most of the observed greening and whiteness saturation at larger FWA concentrations. A red-ward shift of the quantum efficiency is observed with increasing FWA concentration, but this is shown to have a negligible effect on the whiteness value. The results are directly applicable to industrial applications for better instrumental measurement of whiteness and thereby optimising the use of FWA with the goal to improve the perceived whiteness.

  • 98.
    Gylle, A Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Physiological adaptations in two ecotypes of Fucus vesiculosus and in Fucus radicans with focus on salinity2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The in origin intertidal marine brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. grow permanently sublittoral in the brackish Bothnian Sea, side by side with the recently discovered F. radicans L. Bergström et L. Kautsky. Environmental conditions like salinity, light and temperature are clearly different between F. vesiculosus growth sites in the Bothnian Sea (4-5 practical salinity units, psu; part of the Baltic Sea) and the tidal Norwegian Sea (34-35 psu; part of the Atlantic Ocean). The general aims of this thesis were to compare physiological aspects between the marine ecotype and the brackish ecotype of F. vesiculosus as well as between the two Bothnian Sea species F. vesiculosus and F. radicans.

    The result in the study indicates a higher number of water soluble organic compounds in the marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus compared to the brackish ecotype. These compounds are suggested to be compatible solutes and be due to an intertidal and sublittoral adaptation, respectively; where the intertidal ecotype needs the compounds as a protection from oxygen radicals produced during high irradiation at low tide. The sublittoral ecotype might have lost the ability to synthesize these compound/compounds due to its habitat adaptation. The mannitol content is also higher in the marine ecotype compared to the brackish ecotype of F. vesiculosus and this is suggested to be due to both higher level of irradiance and higher salinity at the growth site.

    77 K fluorescence emission spectra and immunoblotting of D1 and PsaA proteins indicate that both ecotypes of F. vesiculosus as well as F. radicans have an uneven ratio of photosystem II/photosystem I (PSII/PSI) with an overweight of PSI. The fluorescence emission spectrum of the Bothnian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus however, indicates a larger light-harvesting antenna of PSII compared to the marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus and F. radicans. Distinct differences in 77 K fluorescence emission spectra between the Bothnian Sea ecotype of F. vesiculosus and F. radicans confirm that this is a reliable method to use to separate these species.

    The marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus has a higher photosynthetic maximum (Pmax) compared to the brackish ecotype of F. vesiculosus and F. radicans whereas both the brackish species have similar Pmax. A reason for higher Pmax in the marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus compared to F. radicans is the greater relative amount of ribulose-1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). The reason for higher Pmax in marine ecotype of F. vesiculosus compare to the brackish ecotype however is not due to the relative amount of Rubisco and further studies of the rate of CO2 fixation by Rubisco is recommended. Treatments of the brackish ecotype of F. vesiculosus in higher salinity than the Bothnian Sea natural water indicate that the most favourable salinity for high Pmax is 10 psu, followed by 20 psu. One part of the explanation to a high Pmax in 10 psu is a greater relative amount of PsaA protein in algae treated in 10 psu. The reason for greater amount of PsaA might be that the algae need to produce more ATP, and are able to have a higher flow of cyclic electron transport around PSI to serve a higher rate of CO2 fixation by Rubisco. However, studies of the rate of CO2 fixation by Rubisco in algae treated in similar salinities as in present study are recommended to confirm this theory.

     

  • 99.
    Göransson, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Internal Tar/CH4 Reforming in Biomass Dual Fluidised Bed Gasifiers towards Fuel Synthesis2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of high-quality syngas from biomass gasification in a dual fluidised bed gasifier (DFBG) has made a significant progress in R&D and Technology demonstration. An S&M scale bio-automotive fuel plant close to the feedstock resources is preferable as biomass feedstock is widely sparse and has relatively low density, low heating value and high moisture content. This requires simple, reliable and cost-effective production of clean and good syngas. Indirect DFBGs, with steam as the gasification agent, produce a syngas of high content H2 and CO with 12-20 MJ/mn3 heating value. The Mid Sweden University (MIUN) gasifier, built for research on synthetic fuel production, is a dual fluidised bed gasifier. Reforming of tars and CH4 (except for methanation application) in the syngas is a major challenge for commercialization of biomass fluidised-bed gasification technology towards automotive fuel production. A good syngas from DFBGs can be obtained by optimised design and operation of the gasifier, by the use of active catalytic bed material and internal reforming. This thesis presents a series of experimental tests with different operation parameters, reforming of tar and CH4 with catalytic bed material and reforming of tar and CH4 with catalytic internal reformer.

     

    The first test was carried out to evaluate the optimal operation and performance of the MIUN gasifier. The test provides basic information for temperature control in the combustor and the gasifier by the bed material circulation rate.

     

     After proven operation and performance of the MIUN gasifier, an experimental study on in-bed material catalytic reforming of tar/CH4 is performed to evaluate the catalytic effects of the olivine and Fe-impregnated olivine (10%wtFe/olivine Catalyst) bed materials, with reference to non-catalytic silica sand operated in the mode of dual fluidised beds (DFB). A comparative experimental test is then carried out with the same operation condition and bed-materials but when the gasifier was operated in the mode of single bubbling fluidised bed (BFB). The behaviour of catalytic and non-catalytic bed materials differs when they are used in the DFB and the BFB. Fe/olivine and olivine in the BFB mode give lower tar and CH4 content together with higher H2+CO concentration, and higher H2/CO ratio, compared to DFB mode. It is hard to show a clear advantage of Fe/olivine over olivine regarding tar/CH4 catalytic reforming. 

     

    In order to significantly reduce the tar/CH4 contents, an internal reformer, referred to as the FreeRef reformer, is developed for in-situ catalytic reforming of tar and CH4 using Ni-catalyst in an environment of good gas-solids contact at high temperature.  A study on the internal reformer filled with and without Ni-catalytic pellets was carried out by evaluation of the syngas composition and tar/CH4 content. It can be concluded that the reformer with Ni-catalytic pellets clearly gives a higher H2 content together with lower CH4 and tar contents in the syngas than the reformer without Ni-catalytic pellets. The gravimetric tar content decreases from 25 g/m3 down to 5 g/m3 and the CH4 content from 11% down below 6% in the syngas.

     

    The MIUN gasifier has a unique design suitable for in-bed tar/CH4 catalytic reforming and continuously internal regeneration of the reactive bed material. The novel design in the MIUN gasifier increases the gasification efficiency, suppresses the tar generation and upgrades the syngas composition. 

     

  • 100.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The juggle and struggle of everyday life. Gender, division of work, work-family perceptions and well-being in different policy contexts.2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background This thesis explores the division of work, work-family perceptions and well-being in different policy contexts. Work (both paid and unpaid) is an arena where gender order is emphasised. Work task specialisation is often based on our ideas of femininity and masculinity. A gender order results in different chances and possibilities in life for men and women, influencing for example access to paid work. Genders are constructed differently across contexts, and countries policies and norms seem to play an important role in for instance the possibilities to combine work and children. Also, gender is important for the understanding and for the experiences of health and well-being. Two main research question are investigated in this thesis. First, how do gendered work division and work-family perceptions relate to well-being? Second, what are the contextual differences (policies and norms) with regard to gendered time use, gender attitude, work-family perceptions and well-being? Methods The thesis is based on data from three sources: the European Social Survey (ESS), the International Social Survey programme (ISSP) and Multinational Time Use Data (MTUS). With these sources, the aim is to capture patterns of behaviours, attitudes and perceptions on both individual level and national level. The methods used are logistic regression (Study I), OLS regression (Study III) and two different types of multilevel analyses (Studies II and IV). Results The results indicate that work-family perceptions are more important for individuals' well-being than actual time spent on paid and unpaid work. Further, the relationship between experiences of imbalance between work and family and low well-being differs by country. In countries where labour markets are more gender-equal the experience of imbalance to a higher degree relate to lower well-being, indicating that those who do experience imbalance in these gender-equal countries report lower levels of well-being than in countries which are less gender-equal. There have been changes in division of work and attitudes towards women's employment over the last few decades. Institutions and policies play a role for the division of work, and to some extent for changes in work task specialisation, as well as attitudes towards women's employment. Conclusion Central findings in this thesis show that it seems as if the experience of balance in life is more important for individuals' well-being than time use. The context in which gender is constructed is important for the relationship between paid work and family life imbalance and well-being and should be taken into consideration in cross-country studies. The fact that individuals in more gender-equal countries report lower well-being when experiencing imbalance could be a result of the multiple burden for both men and women in more gender-equal contexts. Also, the role of context and policies for attitudes and behaviours in relation to work is complex, and although this thesis adds to previous knowledge more research is needed. From a gender perspective the conclusion is that there are dual expectations in relation to work. In more gender-equal countries, women are expected to be equal to men by participating in the labour market. Meanwhile women still have the main responsibility for the home. Thus, it seems as if the equality of work is based on a masculine norm where paid work is highly valued.

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