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  • 51.
    Hossein-Babaei, Faramarz
    et al.
    K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Akbari-Saatlu, Mehdi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Growing continuous zinc oxide layers with reproducible nanostructures on the seeded alumina substrates using spray pyrolysis2019In: Ceramics International, ISSN 0272-8842, E-ISSN 1873-3956Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of zinc oxide thin films with controlled nanostructures on the heat resistant dielectric substrates is important for the fabrication of gas sensors, transparent electric heating elements, pyroelectric electron emitters, and many other potential electronic and optoelectronic applications. The preferred substrate for many of these applications is alumina, but the production of uniform ZnO layers on alumina is hindered by the large lattice mismatch between ZnO and Al2O3 hexagonal crystal structures. Here, we systematically investigate the growth process of ZnO thin films on alumina substrates using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) of zinc chloride solutions in ethanol and, for the first time, demonstrate the deposition of uniform layers on the alumina substrates appropriately seeded using magnetron sputtering prior to USP. On the pristine substrates, random nucleation of the isolated nanocrystallites results in uneven layers, and extending the growth process leads to the hierarchical growth of facetted ZnO nanorods and pyramids with weak physical attachments to the substrate surface. In similar conditions, USP deposition on the seeded substrates reproducibly results in continuous networks of densely packed ZnO crystallites intimately attached to the substrate surface with adjustable thickness and electrical conductance. These results are compared with those obtained for SnO2 in similar conditions. Regardless of its tetragonal crystal structure, SnO2 reproducibly forms even layers on the pristine alumina substrates. 

  • 52.
    Jiang, Meng
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sound Source Localization Performance Comparison Using Cardioid- and Omni- Directional Microphones: Indoor Enclosed Environment Localization with an AOA method2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The sound source localization technology brings the possibility of mapping the sound source positions. Such researches can be very useful for industrial applications. In this project, angle-of-arrival (AOA) has been chosen as the method for achieving sound source localization in an indoor enclosed environment. However, the dynamic environment and reverberations brings a challenge for AOA-based systems for such applications. By the acknowledgement of microphone directionality, the cardioid-directional microphone systems have been chosen for the localization performance comparison with omni-directional microphone systems, using different array structures. To reduce the hardware complexity, the number of microphones used during the experiment has been limited to 4. An enhancement has been proposed and it consists of cross-correlation optimization and a weighting function. The comparison has been done for both types of microphones with three different array structures. The comparison shows that the cardioid-directional microphone system has an overall higher accuracy.

  • 53.
    Jonsson, Simon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Integrerad dokumentation: Operatör- och servicemanual inbyggd i HMI2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Valmet has received requests from customers to integrate manuals as part of the automation system. This report shows a concept of how that problem could be solved by incorporating manuals with functions and that the texts are available for reading. The goal is to be able to extract more information from HMI by integrating the operator and service manuals in the automation system. The method for this work was to start with a literature study on the topics: alarm, HMI and document integration. After a literature study, a development phase began that used the knowledge from the literature study to build the products. The final phase of the work was to test the functionality and evaluate the result. The result was a new alarm view with enhanced functionality, such as, for example, displaying additional information at clicks, an automatic maintenance system with low performance impact and PDF of the manuals available in HMI. The goals of the work are considered fulfilled since additional alarm information is available, a maintenance system is implemented, and the manual can be read in HMI. Future work could be to make the alarm view more robust by detecting and correcting errors, further integrating the contents of the manuals, possibly how to run the machine.

  • 54.
    Khadoor, Nadim Kvernes
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Audio classification with Neural Networks for IoT implementation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is based upon two previous projects handed to the author by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in co-operation with Disruptive Technologies.

     

    The report discusses sound sensing and Neural Networks, and their application in IoT. The goal was to determine what type of Neural Networks or classification methods was most suited for audio classification. This was done by applying various classification methods and Neural Networks on a data set consisting of 8732 sound samples. These methods where logistic regression, Feed-Forward Neural Network, Convolutional Neural Network, Gated Recurrent Unit, and Long Short-term Memory network. To compare the Neural Networks the accuracy of the training data set and the validation data set were evaluated. Out of these methods the feed-forward network yielded the highest validation accuracy and is the preferable classification method. However, with more work and refinement the Long Short-term memory may prove to be the better solution.

     

    Future work with a Vesper V1010 piezoelectric microphone and IoT implementation is discussed, as well as the social and ethical difficulties proposed by what is essentially a data gathering system.

  • 55.
    Kronander, Kristoffer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bortom melodi och harmoni: det beväpnande ljudet: Om ljud som vapen och sonisk krigsföring2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete undersöker hur soniska vågor kan användas som vapen. Särskild vikt läggs vid att

    förstå hur ljudet avtäcktes från att vara en osynlig och hämningslös energi till att bli en fysiskt

    producerande våldsam kraft under den megafoniska eran och efter. Uppsatsen argumenterar för

    att soniska vapen måste föregås av avancerad teknologisk utveckling samt ett intresse för att föra

    ett annat typ av krig, utan dödsfall och skjutvapen. Flera exempel ges som visar att ljudvapen

    också ofta används för att kontrollera en population. Sonisk krigsföring fastställs till att innefatta

    användandet av psykologisk, våldsam och fysisk akustisk kraft för att alternera eller påverka

    psykiska och fysiska aspekter hos en population, kropp eller folkmassa.

  • 56.
    Krug, Silvia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bader, Sebastian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Suitability of Communication Technologies for Harvester-Powered IoT-Nodes2019In: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019, article id 8758042Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things introduces Internet connectivity to things and objects in the physical world and thus enables them to communicate with other nodes via the Internet directly. This enables new applications that for example allow seamless process monitoring and control in industrial environments. One core requirement is that the nodes involved in the network have a long system lifetime, despite limited access to the power grid and potentially difficult propagation conditions. Energy harvesting can provide the required energy for this long lifetime if the node is able to send the data based on the available energy budget. In this paper, we therefore analyze and evaluate which common IoT communication technologies are suitable for nodes powered by energy harvesters. The comparison includes three different constraints from different energy sources and harvesting technologies besides several communication technologies. Besides identifying possible technologies in general, we evaluate the impact of duty-cycling and different data sizes. The results in this paper give a road map for combining energy harvesting technology with IoT communication technology to design industrial sensor nodes. 

  • 57.
    Krug, Silvia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Modeling and Comparison of Delay and Energy Cost of IoT Data Transfers2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 58654-58675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication is often considered as the most costly component of a wireless sensor node. As a result, a variety of technologies and protocols aim to reduce the energy consumption for the communication especially in the Internet of Things context. In order to select the best suitable technology for a given use case, a tool that allows the comparison of these options is needed. The goal of this paper is to introduce a new modular modeling framework that enables a comparison of various technologies based on analytical calculations. We chose to model the cost for a single data transfer of arbitrary application data amounts in order to provide flexibility regarding the data amount and traffic patterns. The modeling approach covers the stack traversal of application data and thus in comparison to other approaches includes the required protocol overhead directly. By applying our models to different data amounts, we are able to show tradeoffs between various technologies and enable comparisons for different scenarios. In addition, our results reveal the impact of design decisions that can help to identify future development challenges.

  • 58.
    Krug, Silvia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Shallari, Irida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    A Case Study on Energy Overhead of Different IoT Network Stacks2019In: 2019 IEEE 5th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT), IEEE, 2019, p. 528-529Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the limited energy budget for sensor nodes in the Internet of Things (IoT), it is crucial to develop energy efficient communications amongst others. This need leads to the development of various energy-efficient protocols that consider different aspects of the energy status of a node. However, a single protocol covers only one part of the whole stack and savings on one level might not be as efficient for the overall system, if other levels are considered as well. In this paper, we analyze the energy required for an end device to maintain connectivity to the network as well as perform application specific tasks. By integrating the complete stack perspective, we build a more holistic view on the energy consumption and overhead for a wireless sensor node. For better understanding, we compare three different stack variants in a base scenario and add an extended study to evaluate the impact of retransmissions as a robustness mechanism. Our results show, that the overhead introduced by the complete stack has an significant impact on the nodes energy consumption especially if retransmissions are required.

  • 59.
    Langø, Pål Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Characterization of the spectral properties of a reflective fiber optic LSPR sensor probe42019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    LSPR is an optical phenomenon which is used for a number of applications such as bio-sensing and medical diagnostics.  These methods have the potential to detect early indications of disease and has over the last few years been proven promising due to its high sensitivity and the small amount of reagents being

    used.

    This thesis presents a setup using spectrometer and light source focused primarily within visible light, and is coupled with multimode fibers attached to  an  index  matching  gel  and  a  sensor  segment  using  a  2x2  coupler.   The sensor is comprised of a hydrogel representing a Fabry-perot cavity with gold nanorods immobilized within.  Light is propagated through optical fibers into

    the hydrogel and the light scattering back is measured with the spectrometer. LSPR measurements were performed on multiple pre-gel solutions with differing polymer density and the spectral data gathered were analyzed.  Results showed an  increase  in  FWHM  and  a  slight  red  shift  when  increasing  the  polymer

    hydrogel density from 5 to 10 wt%.  A further increase in polymer density led to periodic signals dominating the spectra.  It is argued that this may be caused by interference on the signal originating from a gap in fiber-gel interface.  Or that it is caused by reflections from gel-liquid interface mixing with reflections from fiber-gel interface due to the increased reflectivity higher polymer densities

    provide.

  • 60.
    Lechuga Aranda, Jesus Javier
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Interfaces In Hydraulic Pressure Energy Harvesters2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The fourth industrial revolution is here and with it a tidal wave of challenges for its prosperous implementation. One of the greatest challenges frustrating the development of the internet of things, and hence the next industrial revolution, is the powering of wireless sensors, as these depend on batteries with a limited lifetime. Recent advances have shown that energy harvesting technologies can be employed to extend the lifetime of batteries and ultimately replace them, thus facilitating the deployment of autonomous self-powered sensors, key components of the internet of things.

    Energy harvesting is the process of capturing ambient energy and convertingit into electric power. For energy harvesting devices it is crucial that the transduction of energy is as efficient as possible, meaning that the methods for capturing, interfacing and converting the ambient energy should be understood and characterized for every application. This thesis investigates the harvesting of the energy found in pressure fluctuations in hydraulic systems, a widely used power transmission system used in the industry and consumer applications; the focus is on the fluid interface and energy focusing methods.

    In summary, the contributions in this thesis show that the methods for converting pressure fluctuations in hydraulic systems to electrical power depend on the hydraulic system environment, in essence, the static pressure and the frequency of the pressure fluctuations. The results can serve as a starting point in the research, design, and development of hydraulic pressure energy harvesters.

  • 61. Li, J.
    et al.
    Wang, W.
    Li, Y.
    Zhou, N.
    Wang, G.
    Kong, Z.
    Fu, J.
    Yin, X.
    Li, C.
    Wang, X.
    Yang, H.
    Ma, X.
    Han, J.
    Zhang, J.
    Wei, Y.
    Hu, T.
    Yang, T.
    Yin, H.
    Zhu, H.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Study of selective isotropic etching Si1−xGex in process of nanowire transistors2020In: Journal of materials science. Materials in electronics, ISSN 0957-4522, E-ISSN 1573-482X, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 134-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On approach towards the end of technology roadmap, a revolutionary approach towards the nanowire transistors is favorable due to the full control of carrier transport. The transistor design moves toward vertically or laterally stacked Gate-All-Around (GAA) where Si or SiGe can be used as channel material. This study presents a novel isotropic inductively coupled plasma (ICP) dry etching of Si1−xGex (0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.28) in SiGe/Si multilayer structures (MLSs) with high selectivity to Si, SiO2, Si3N4 and SiON which can be applied in advanced 3D transistors and Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) in future. The profile of SiGe etching for different thicknesses, compositions and locations in MLSs using dry or wet etch have been studied. A special care has been spent for layer quality of Si, strain relaxation of SiGe layers as well as residual contamination during the etching. In difference with dry etching methods (downstream remote plasma), the conventional ICP source in situ is used where CF4/O2/He gas mixture was used as the etching gas to obtain higher selectivity. Based on the reliability of ICP technique a range of etching rate 25–50 nm/min can be obtained for accurate isotropic etching of Si1−xGex, to form cavity in advanced 3D transistor processes in future.

  • 62.
    Li, Xiaotian
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    RISE research institutes of Sweden.
    Öhman, Robert
    Skultuna Induflex AB.
    Eriksson, Jeanette
    Skultuna Induflex AB.
    Genchel, Tove
    Skultuna Induflex AB.
    Enabling paper-based flexible circuits with aluminium and copper conductors2019In: IOP Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 4, article id 045007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implementing electronics systems on paper is an important area of flexible circuit technologies. One of the approaches is to print conductive inks onto paper substrates, on which silicon-based surface mount device components are mounted. However, one of the problems is that the printed conductors have unneglectable resistivity. In this paper, we present paper-based flexible circuits, using copper and aluminium conductors that are laminated onto paper substrates using a high-speed roll-to-roll method. Edge roughness inspections and repeated two-point bending tests are carried out to evaluate the manufactured flexible circuits. Three surface mount techniques are used to assemble standard surface mount device components onto the flexible circuits, including an isotropic conductive adhesive, an anisotropic conductive adhesive, and a low-temperature solder paste. Several characterizations are performed to the surface mount techniques, including contact resistance measurements, component bonding strength tests, assembled circuit bending tests, and scanning electron microscopy. The results of the characterizations suggest that flexible circuits made from Cu with paper substrate achieve satisfactory results for mechanical reliability, all surface mount techniques, and have the potential to be used on automatic component assembly lines. In order to test whether such flexible circuits and surface mount techniques can be used in implementing electronics systems, passive NFC tags with relative humidity sensing functionality are made, which are interrogated by an NFC equipped mobile phone.

  • 63.
    Lindholm, Viktor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    High voltage transient protection for automotive2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electronics for automotive needs to be able to handle different situations that can occur on the power line, such as high voltage transients. ISO16750 and ISO-7637 describes different pulses and tests a system needs to be able to handle. This report compares three different protection circuits that can output +5V and +12V built for low power devices. The circuits use different techniques for protection, one that uses TVS diodes, another that uses a voltage regulator IC with built in protection. The last protection uses P-channel MOSFET’s for protection. The circuits are compared against protection, price and leakage current. The most relevant transients to test a system against are decided to be pulse1, pulse 2a and load dump. A pulse generator consisting of a pulse shaping network and a common drain amplifier is used to create the test pulses. The result shows that all the circuits could protect against pulse 2a and load dump. However, all the circuits did fail against pulse 1 due to an undersized diode for negative voltage protection. The leakage current did not exceed 4µA for two of the circuits in the temperature interval of -40°C to +100°C. All the circuits started to have high leakage current when the temperature got up to +150°C. The price for the circuits didn’t differ that much, all the circuits cost below 3 US-dollar per circuit when making 10 000 circuits. The conclusions that could be made of the results are that all the circuits could protect against pulse 1, pulse 2a and load dump if correct diode is used for negative voltage protection. The protection that builds on Pchannel MOSFET’s should be the best choice for low power devices due to its low leakage current and potential for low cost. The disadvantage is the complexity and number of components needed for the circuit. The TVS diodes should be used if low complexity and low number of components is preferred. The disadvantage is that TVS diodes gets hot if a load dump is applied and the interval between stand-off voltage and maximum clamping voltage is quite high. The study also shows that there are cheaper solutions than using TVS diodes.

  • 64.
    Liu, Jinbiao
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Guilei
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Junfeng
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Kong, Zhenzhen
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Study of n-type doping in germanium by temperature based PF+ implantation2020In: Journal of materials science. Materials in electronics, ISSN 0957-4522, E-ISSN 1573-482X, Vol. 31, p. 161-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incorporation of P in germanium was studied by using PF+ molecular implantation in a range from room temperature to 400 °C. The presence of F acted as a barrier for P in-diffusion and resulted in higher activation of P at room temperature. In addition, it is found that when the implantation is performed at 400 °C, the residual defects are stable and the diffusion of P can be blocked during activation annealing. Therefore, the final junction depth could be well controlled by the implantation process itself. This method is meaningful for the shallow junction formation in sub 14-nm Ge-based FinFETs or high-performance photodetectors. 

  • 65.
    Ma, Xi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    One-diode photovoltaic model parameter extraction based on Soft-Computing Approaches2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Thesis explores the question of whether one-diode model can be extracted using soft-computing approaches based on indoor conditions. In thesis, three algorithms were selected using MATLAB for implementation, analysis and comparison. Thesis has proved that under indoor conditions, all three algorithms can accurately extract photovoltaic parameters under most illumination levels, but the extracted photovoltaic parameters cannot satisfy the physical meaning of photovoltaic parameters.

  • 66.
    Ma, Xinyu
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bader, Sebastian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    A Scalable, Data-driven Approach for Power Estimation of Photovoltaic Devices under Indoor Conditions2019In: ENSsys'19 Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Energy Harvesting & Energy-Neutral Sensing Systems, New York, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2019, p. 29-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the output power estimation of photovoltaic devices in indoor applications, models are needed that perform accurately at the low illumination levels encountered. As a robust and scalable solution, we propose a data-driven modeling method, spanning an interpolated surface between two reference I-V curves. The proposed approach is evaluated based on experimental data of two exemplar PV panels at indoor illumination levels. The results are compared to two common parameter extraction methods for the one-diode circuit model. This investigation demonstrates that the proposed surface model has a high performance under all test conditions, whereas the reference models show a performance dependency on the PV panel type. It can be concluded that the surface model is a competitive alternative for output power estimations at indoor illumination levels, removing many of the uncertainties of traditionally used physical parameter extraction and scaling methods.

  • 67.
    Marco Rider, Jaime
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Optical communication with underwater snake robots: Design and implementation of an underwater wireless optical communication system2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eelume AS is a norwegian company that develops autonomous underwater vehicles. Their flagship model is an underwater snake robot that performs inspection, maintenance and repair operations. For the time being, Eelume has been using acoustic communications between their AUV's and the docking station, but it has a big drawback: bandwidth. Eelume is interested in streaming live high-quality video from their AUV's to the docking station, which requires several megabits per second. As underwater radio frequency communications are not possible, wireless optical communications seem to be the best available alternative.

     

    The focus of this Thesis is to design an underwater wireless optical communications system that could be implemented on the Eelume AUV, although it is designed as a standalone embedded system that could be integrated into any other platform. Two prototypes were designed and tested through-air: a low-cost system featuring a PIN photodiode that can stream a 1.5 Mbps video signal over 0.5 meters and a high-sensitivity system featuring an avalanche photodiode that can stream a 2.5 Mbps video signal over 10.5 meters.

     

    Even if further underwater testing is needed and some inherent limitations in the design like the precise calibration or the ambient light noise effects could be mitigated. The results achieved by this high-sensitivity system demonstrates that a high-bandwidth mid-range underwater wireless optical communication system featuring a blue/green LED array as the light source and an avalanche photodiode as the photodetector is a viable solution for streaming live high-quality video over several meters even in very turbid seawaters.

  • 68.
    Margato, L. M. S.
    et al.
    Univ Coimbra, Dept Fis, LIP Coimbra, Rua Larga, P-3004516 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Morozov, A.
    Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Blanco, A.
    Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Fonte, P.
    Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; Coimbra Polytech ISEC, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Fraga, F. A. F.
    Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Guerard, B.
    ILL Inst Laue Langevin, Grenoble, France.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Lund.
    Höglund, C.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Lund; Linköping Univ, Linköping.
    Mangiarotti, A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Robinson, L.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Lund.
    Schmidt, S.
    European Spallat Source ERIC ESS, Lund; IHI Ionbond AG, Olten, Switzerland.
    Zeitelhack, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, Garching, Germany.
    Boron-10 lined RPCs for sub-millimeter resolution thermal neutron detectors: Feasibility study in a thermal neutron beam2019In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 14, no 1, article id P01017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of an experimental feasibility study of a position sensitive thermal neutron detector based on a resistive plate chamber (RPC) are presented. The detector prototype features a thin-gap (0.35 mm) hybrid RPC with an aluminium cathode and a float glass anode. The cathode is lined with a 2 mu m thick (B4C)-B-10 neutron converter enriched in B-10. A detection efficiency of 6.2% is measured at the neutron beam (lambda = 2.5 angstrom) for normal incidence. A spatial resolution better than 0.5 mm FWHM is demonstrated.

  • 69.
    Marras, Alessandro
    et al.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany; Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Hamburg, Germany.
    Wunderer, Cornelia
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany; Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Hamburg, Germany.
    Correa, Jonathan
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany; Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Hamburg, Germany.
    Boitrelle, Benjamin
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany; Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Hamburg, Germany; SOLEIL Synchrotron, Saint Aubin, France.
    Goettlicher, Peter
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Kuhn, Manuela
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany; Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Hamburg, Germany.
    Krivan, Frantisek
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Lange, Sabine
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany; Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Hamburg, Germany.
    Okrent, Frank
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany; Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Hamburg, Germany.
    Shevyakov, Igor
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Supra, Joshua
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Tennert, Maximilian
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Zimmer, Manfred
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany.
    Guerrini, Nicola
    cience & Technology Faculties (STFC), Didcot, U.K; Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Didcot, U.K.
    Marsh, Ben
    cience & Technology Faculties (STFC), Didcot, U.K; Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Didcot, U.K.
    Sedgwick, Iain
    cience & Technology Faculties (STFC), Didcot, U.K; Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Didcot, U.K.
    Cautero, Guiseppe
    ELETTRA Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste, Italy.
    Giuressi, Dario
    ELETTRA Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste, Italy.
    Khromova, Antastasya
    ELETTRA Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste, Italy.
    Menk, Ralf
    ELETTRA Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste, Italy.
    Pinaroli, Giovanni
    ELETTRA Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste, Italy; Udine University, Udine, Italy.
    Stebel, Luigi
    ELETTRA Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste, Italy.
    Greer, Alan
    Diamond Light Source (DLS), Didcot, U.K.
    Nicholls, Tim
    Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Hamburg, Germany.
    Pedersen, Ulrik
    Pohang Accelerator Lab (PAL), Pohang, South Korea.
    Tartoni, Nicola
    Pohang Accelerator Lab (PAL), Pohang, South Korea.
    Hyun, Hyo Jung
    SOLEIL Synchrotron, Saint Aubin, France.
    Kim, Kyung Sook
    SOLEIL Synchrotron, Saint Aubin, France.
    Rah, Seung Yu
    SOLEIL Synchrotron, Saint Aubin, France.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg, Germany; Center for Free Electron Laser Science (CFEL), Hamburg, Germany.
    Percival: A soft x-ray imager for synchrotron rings and free electron lasers2019In: AIP Conference Proceedings, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2019, Vol. 2054, article id 060060Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we are presenting the Percival detector, a monolithic CMOS Imager for detection of soft x-rays in Synchrotron Rings and Free Electron Lasers. The imager consists in a 2D array of many (2M) small (27um pitch) pixels, without dead or blind zones in the imaging area. The imager achieves low noise and high dynamic range by means of an adaptive-gain in-pixel circuitry, that has been validated on prototypes. The imager features on-chip Analogue-to-Digital conversion to 12+1 bits, and has a readout speed which is compatible with most of Free Electron Laser Facilities. For direct detection of low-energy x-rays, the imager is back-illuminated and post-processed to achieve 100% fill factor. 

  • 70.
    Mezza, D.
    et al.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland.
    Allahgholi, A.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Becker, J.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Delfs, A.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Dinapoli, R.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland.
    Goettlicher, P.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Greiffenberg, D.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland.
    Hirsemann, H.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Klyuev, A.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Kuhn, M.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Lange, S.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Laurus, T.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Marras, A.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Mozzanica, A.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland.
    Poehlsen, J.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Ruder, C.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland.
    Schmitt, B.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland.
    Schwandt, J.
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Sheviakov, I.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Shi, X.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland.
    Trunk, U.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Zhang, J.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland.
    Zimmer, M.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Characterization of the AGIPD1.1 readout chip and improvements with respect to AGIPD1.02019In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 945, article id 162606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AGIPD, the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector, is a hybrid detector with a frame rate of 4.5 MHz, a dynamic range up to 104⋅ 12.4 keV photons, as well as single photon resolution, developed for the European XFEL (Eu.XFEL). The final 1 Mpixel detector system consists of 16 tiled modules each one with 16 readout chips. The single ASIC is 64 x 64 pixels, each with a size of 200 x 200 μm2. Each pixel can store up to 352 images. This work is focused on the characterization of AGIPD1.1, the second version of the full scale ASIC, and the improvements with respect to AGIPD1.0. From the measurements presented in this paper we show that the flaws observed in AGIPD1.0 (i.e. ghosting, crosstalk, slow readout speed) have been fixed in AGIPD1.1. In addition the main performance parameters such as noise, dynamic range and so on were measured for the new version of the ASIC and will be summarized. 

  • 71.
    Michailidis, Konstantinos
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Dataöverföring mellan PLC och trådlös enhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study has been to analyze production-related tech-nology to develop a cost-effective solution for data transmission be-tween the machine's control systems and wireless devices.

    The reason why wireless methods were chosen for the work was to be able to repair the various donors' faults and to intervene in the sensors in real time.

    When using a portable device, the fault must be repaired and tested on the machine.

    The survey also involves developing a suitable method for wirelessly transmitting collected measurement data to the server's environment where measurement data is to be stored in order to present later charts, tables and use measurement data for statistical calculations.

    The recommended methods to be examined should then be applied in a production environment with high quality safety requirements.

    The reason for this is to minimize production stoppages in connection with qualified repair.

    Many SMEs cannot afford to invest in expensive technology, which in turn needs to be regularly updated to accommodate new equipment, platforms and training maintenance staff

    For them, it may be good to install a cheap system that can be easily installed and implemented in its existing financial control system with minimum costs using independent branded goods.

    The results of a system survey have shown that data transmission with certain methods that require less security requirements and high energy consumption becomes more unstable and more susceptible in the future.

  • 72.
    Mooshtak, Benjamin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Inverkan av laddstolpar för elfordon i Jönköpings Energi elnät2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to Global EV forecasts, a sharp increase in electric cars is ex-pected by 2030, both of which will increase in Sweden and the rest of the world. In Sweden, the number of electric vehicles are expected to increase to 2.5 million, which means that 50% of the vehicles in traffic will be elec-tricall vechiles. According to our calculations and taking into account the population growth, the city Jonkoping will have 36,000 electric cars by 2030. This means that approximately 50% of motorists in 2030 will need to access to electrical charging outlets.

    This predicted increase in electric vehicles implies that more car owners will need to charge their vehicles and this need implies an increased strain on the electricity grid. Load instability can result in poor electrical quality in the form of overtones, flickering, voltage changes, interruptions, tran-sients and unsymmetrical voltage.

    This study analyzes Jonkoping Energi's electricity network and how the electricity grid is affected by an increase in electric vehicles. The survey focuses on multi-dwelling buildings, rural areas and residential areas in Jönköping and in so far as to be able to compare the electricity grid ca-pacity in these areas. The study assumes that the electricity grid is ex-pected to be affected when the charging power reaches 3.7 KW.

    In order to find a solution to the problem, simulations have been made using NIS-oriented software dpPower. Then, using calculation method that is suitable in the different stations is selected. This is done by study-ing load calculations, voltage levels and the load on transformers and the line currents in that area, to see how a 50% usage of electrically powered vehicles affects the power grid.

    The results from the measurements and simulations of the charging sta-tions in all four areas show that Jönköpings Energi should take into ac-count the charging of electric cars when redimensioning their electricity networks. It is also necessary that the phases be distributed among cus-tomers during charging in order to reduce overload in 2030.

    Alternative methods for examining the charging of electric vehicles are as follows:

    • By monitoring how electric car charging behavior looks at different times in order to reduce it by using different solution methods, like the pricing methods used in California and Norway.

  • 73.
    Nie, Yali
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sommella, Paolo
    University of Salerno, Italy.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Liguori, Consolatina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. University of Salerno, Italy.
    Lundgren, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Automatic Detection of Melanoma with Yolo Deep Convolutional Neural Networks2019In: 2019 E-Health and Bioengineering Conference (EHB), IEEE, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past three years, deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) have achieved promising performance in detecting skin cancer. However, improving the accuracy and efficiency of the automatic detection of melanoma is still urgent due to the visual similarity of benign and malignant dermoscopy. There is also a need for fast and computationally effective systems for mobile applications targeting caregivers and homes. This paper presents the You Only Look Once (Yolo) algorithms, which are based on DCNNs applied to the detection of melanoma. The Yolo algorithms comprise YoloV1, YoloV2, and YoloV3, whose methodology first resets the input image size and then divides the image into several cells. According to the position of the detected object in the cell, the network will try to predict the bounding box of the object and the class confidence score. Our test results indicate that the mean average precision (mAP) of Yolo can exceed 0.82 with a training set of only 200 images, proving that this method has great advantages for detecting melanoma in lightweight system applications.

  • 74. Niskanen, I.
    et al.
    Forsberg, Viviane
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zakrisson, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Engberg, Birgitta A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Heikkilä, R.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Determination of relative solids concentration in homogeneous dual component pulp-filler suspension by multi-spectrophotometer2020In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentration of fibers and fillers in the pulp suspension is an important parameter in the monitoring process. This paper proposes a versatile optical measurement system to estimate the concentration of a solids mixture in water. The geometry used in a multi-spectrophotometer (MSM) enables the controlled observation of transmission, and forward scattering light from the suspension in the UV-visible spectral range. We have developed the new fibers mixing system which gives a homogenous distribution of the fines and fillers making it possible to increase the reproducibility and accuracy of the measurement. The data analysis is based on the Beer-Lambert law and CIELAB color space equations. The results show that the proposed method is accurate for measuring the fines and filler concentrations in multicomponent suspensions. 

  • 75.
    Niskanen, Ilpo
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Forsberg, Viviane
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. KTH.
    Zakrisson, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Reza, Salim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Fedorov, Igor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Suopajärvi, Terhi
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Liimatainen, Henrikki
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Determination of nanoparticle size using Rayleigh approximation and Mie theory2019In: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405, Vol. 201, no 29, p. 222-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate determination of the size of nanoparticles has an important role in many different scientific and industrial purposes, such as in material, medical and environment sciences, colloidal chemistry and astrophysics. We describe an effective optical method to determine the size of nanoparticles by analysis of transmission and scattering of visible spectral range data from a designed UV-Vis multi-spectrophotometer. The size of the nanoparticles was calculated from the extinction cross section of the particles using Rayleigh approximation and Mie theory. We validated the method using polystyrene nanospheres, cellulose nanofibrils, and cellulose nanocrystals. A good agreement was achieved through graphical analysis between measured extinction cross section values and theoretical Rayleigh approximation and Mie theory predictions for the sizes of polystyrene nanospheres at wavelength range 450 - 750 nm. Provided that Rayleigh approximation's forward scattering (FS)/back scattering (BS) ratio was smaller than 1.3 and Mie theory's FS/BS ratio was smaller than 1.8. A good fit for the hydrodynamic diameter of nanocellulose was achieved using the Mie theory and Rayleigh approximation. However, due to the high aspect ratio of nanocellulose, the obtained results do not directly reflect the actual cross-sectional diameters of the nanocellulose. Overall, the method is a fast, relatively easy, and simple technique to determine the size of a particle by a spectrophotometer. Consequently, the method can be utilized for example in production and quality control purposes as well as for research and development applications.

  • 76.
    Niskanen, Ilpo
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Suopajärvi, Terhi
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Liimatainen, Henrikki
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Fabritius, Tapio
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Heikkilä, Rauno
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Determining the complex refractive index of cellulose nanocrystals by combination of Beer-Lambert and immersion matching methods2019In: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, ISSN 0022-4073, E-ISSN 1879-1352, Vol. 235, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocelluloses have received significant interest due to their unique structural, mechanical, and optical properties. Nanocellulose refractive indices can be used to indicate many crucial characteristics, such as crystallinity, transparency, and purity. Thus, accurate measurement is important. This study describes a new method to determine the wavelength dependent complex refractive index of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) by the measurement of light transmittance with a spectrophotometer. The data analysis is based on a combination of the Beer-Lambert and immersion liquid matching equations. The immersion liquid method's main advantage is that it is independent of particle shape and size. Moreover, the measurement is easy and relatively quick to perform. The present procedure is not restricted to the nanocellulose and could potentially be applied to other nanomaterials, such as hyphenate nanoparticle-based, lignin nanoparticles, nanopigments, biological entities, structural elements of dielectric metamaterials, and nanoparticle-based composites. 

  • 77.
    Olsen, Martin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Yang, Ya
    CAS Center for excellence in Nanoscience, Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Science.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Frequency and voltage response of a wind-driven fluttering triboelectric nanogenerator2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 5543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG:s) are used as efficient energy transducers in energy harvesting converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. Wind is an abundant source of mechanical energy but how should a good triboelectric wind harvester be designed? We have built and studied a TENG driven by air flow in a table-top sized wind tunnel. Our TENG constitutes of a plastic film of size10 cm × 2 cm which is fluttering between two copper electrodes generating enough power to light up a battery of LED:s. We measured the voltage and frequency of fluttering at different wind speeds from zero up to 8 m/s for three electrode distances 6 mm, 10 mm and 14 mm. We found that the frequency increases linearly with the wind speed with a cutoff at some low speed. Power was generated already at 1.6 m/s. We seem to be able to explain the observed frequency dependence on wind speed by assuming excitation of the film into different harmonics in response to von Kármán vortices. We also find that the voltage increase linearly with frequency. We anticipate that TENG:s of this design could be useful both as generators and speed sensors because they work at low air speeds.

  • 78.
    Olsson, Carl
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Att arbeta med ”Synchronization management”2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay revolves around Synchronization management & Synchronization licensing, or in short sync. The development of sync as a career choice and profession has been fast and is still ongoing. It is not until later years that sync has become a proper profession, whereas before it was just part of a publisher or sales person’s regular work.

    In short, sync deals with the commercial use of copyright protected music. A synchronization manager negotiates fees and licensing agreements while handling the dialogue between commercial businesses, publishers and in some cases song writers. Once a deal has been made a Synchronization license is granted by the owner of the copyrighted music, allowing the licensee (the person wanting to use the material) to use the music according to the agreement. A Synchronization license is most commonly used when a company wants to use music in either commercial, television or any kind of visual media.

    To get a better understand of Synchronization management a series of interviews were conducted to get three different perspectives. The first interview helped establish what a synchronization manager actually does, and was held with a person who works with the profession in question. To better grasp the song writing point of view when it comes to sync an interview with a person who was writing for sync briefs was conducted. Lastly, a publisher was interviewed to help understand synchronization licensing from a publishing point of view.

    The result generated by the interviews in combination with already written articles about Synchronization management helped get a better understanding of the profession and how different individuals are using it in their daily life in music. The main question of this essay was to establish if sync is a reliable source of income for “up-and-coming” song writers and music producers.

  • 79.
    Pasha, Shahab
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Lundgren, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Multi-Channel Compression and Coding of Reverberant Ad-Hoc Recordings Through Spatial Autoregressive Modelling2019In: 2019 30th Irish Signals and Systems Conference (ISSC), IEEE, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autoregressive modelling techniques such as multi-channel linear prediction are widely used for applications such as coding, dereverberation and compression of the speech signals. State of the art multi-channel linear prediction methods do not take into account the locations of the microphones and assume single distance compact microphone arrays. In this paper a spatially modified multichannel autoregressive compression and coding method is proposed and successfully tested in order to adapt the standard multi-channel method to the virtual reality and immersive video conferencing applications where the microphones can be meters away from each other. The proposed method estimates the spatial distances between each microphone and the source to optimise the joint compression of the signals recorded within a wide area. The results suggest that the proposed method outperforms the standard multi-channel compression and coding when applied to the ad-hoc scenarios.

  • 80.
    Qin, C.
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yin, H.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, G.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Y.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, J.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Q.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhu, H.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhao, C.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    A novel method for source/drain ion implantation for 20 nm FinFETs and beyond2020In: Journal of materials science. Materials in electronics, ISSN 0957-4522, E-ISSN 1573-482X, Vol. 31, p. 98-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method to improve source/drain extension (SDE) ion implantation (I/I) process for sub-20 nm node FinFETs with no extra step in transistor process. Traditionally, SDE I/I process needs a large implant tilt angle and a high dose to obtain a heavy and conformal doping. However, this process leads to implantation shadow effects and Si-fin amorphization. These drawbacks can be removed in our new approach when SDE I/I is modified and moved after S/D epitaxy process (SDE I/I-last). Because of the facet planes of the SiGe layer, the ions are allowed to be implanted with small tilt. This is helpful to avoid shadow effects of implantation and to keep the low defect density in the S/D. As a result, the external resistance (R EXTRNL ) is not high and the strain relaxation is minor in S/D epitaxy layer. Finally, p-type FinFETs with 25 nm gate length with SDE I/I-last are fabricated. These new FinFETs demonstrate ~ 50% on-state current (I ON ) improvement compared to those transistors fabricated by traditional method.

  • 81.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    He, Xiaobin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Qingzhu
    Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China; Gen Res Inst Nonferrous Met, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Jonbiao
    Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Cui, Hushan
    Beihang Univ, BDBC, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Xiang, Jinjuan
    Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Kong, Zhenzhen
    Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Xiong, Wenjuan
    Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Li, Junjie
    Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Jianfeng
    Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Hong
    Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Gu, Shihai
    Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Xuewei
    Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China; Univ Sci & Technol China, Hefei, Anhui, Peoples R China.
    Du, Yong
    Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Yu, Jiahan
    Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Guilei
    Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Miniaturization of CMOS2019In: Micromachines, ISSN 2072-666X, E-ISSN 2072-666X, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When the international technology roadmap of semiconductors (ITRS) started almost five decades ago, the metal oxide effect transistor (MOSFET) as units in integrated circuits (IC) continuously miniaturized. The transistor structure has radically changed from its original planar 2D architecture to today's 3D Fin field-effect transistors (FinFETs) along with new designs for gate and source/drain regions and applying strain engineering. This article presents how the MOSFET structure and process have been changed (or modified) to follow the More Moore strategy. A focus has been on methodologies, challenges, and difficulties when ITRS approaches the end. The discussions extend to new channel materials beyond the Moore era.

  • 82.
    Rahman, Hafizur
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    An, Siwen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Persson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Engstrand, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Maximized wood chip impregnation efficiency validated by new miniaturized X-ray fluorescence techniques2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing of chemi-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP) is increasing due to increased demand for packaging materials such as cardboard as well as tissue and other hygiene products. Today high yield pulp (HYP) is produced from different wood species. It is well-known that chip-refining is normally responsible for more than 60% of the electric energy consumption in most high yield pulping process. There are opportunities to improve energy efficiency and quality stability in defibration processes by means of optimizing impregnation. Impregnation is a key unit operation in CTMP production as well as in all chemical pulping and biorefinery systems. The efficiency of the impregnation is known to be crucial (Ferritsius et al. 1985; Gorski et al. 2010). Early research showed difficulties to achieve even distribution of sulphite and sodium ions in wood chips resulting in inhomogeneous fibre properties (Bengtsson et al. 1988). Increased and homogenous sulphonation leads to reduced shive content, which is a key factor in all end product applications. To address this issue developing a new type miniaturized X-ray based technique (XRF) to measure local concentration of sulphur and sodium across wood chips and in individual fibres could become a key tool.

     

    The presence of elements as sulphur and sodium can be detected by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) or spectral absorption. At the XRF, images the surface of the sample using specific energies from K-shell or L-shell fluorescence. This method is investigated at the X-ray laboratory in Mid Sweden University research centre STC (Sensitive Things that Communicate) (Norlin et al. 2018). At the spectral absorption, images specific K-shell absorption energies in transmission X-ray images of the sample, a method widely used in medical diagnosis. This transmission method might also be further investigated for this application in the future (Frojdh et al. 2013; Reza et al. 2013). Both methods can be validated by using monoenergetic radiation from synchrotron facilities.

     

    An XRF imaging system uses a collimated X-ray source and a spectroscopic detector. The sample is scanned to make an image of the content of the substances of interest. A specific challenge in this case is that the low energy fluorescence photons from sulphur (S) and sodium (Na) are easily absorbed in air, which makes imaging in a different atmosphere necessary.

     

    The measurement setup has been simulated using MCNP (C. J. Werner, 2017) to validate the system setup and to select the correct, geometry, shielding, filtering and atmosphere for the measurement. The solution was to use a titanium box flooded with helium to minimise the absorption of fluorescence photons and to shield from scattered photons that might disturb the measurement, fig 1. A filter has been added to the X-ray source to make it nearly monoenergetic and to avoid emission of photons with energies close to the expected fluorescence. The system has been used to estimate sodium and sulphur content in low grammage handsheet (CTMP) or single wood chip samples. It is possible to build a laboratory instrument similar to the prototype setup to obtain the distribution of sodium and sulphur in XRF imaging.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Figure 1: Photograph of XRF measurement setup with of moveable Helium atmosphere Ti box

    However, the technique we are developing can become useful in mills to improve and control process efficiency, product properties and to find solutions to process problems in future. In addition, a more even distribution of the sulphonation can reduce specific energy demand in chip refining at certain shive content.

     

    References

     

    1.      Bengtsson, G., Simonson, R., Heitner, C., Beatson, R., and Ferguson, C. (1988): Chemimechanical pulping of birch wood chips, Part 2: Studies on impregnation of wood blocks using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis, Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 3 (3), 132-138.

    2.      C. J. Werner, (2017): MCNP User's manual, Code Version 6.2, Los Alamos National Laboratory report, LA-UR-17-29981.

    3.      Ferritsius, O., and Moldenius, S. (1985): The effect of impregnation method on CTMP properties. In International Mechanical Pulping Conference Proceedings, SPCI, Stockholm (p. 91).

    4.      Frojdh, C., Norlin, B. and Frojdh, E. (2013): Spectral X-ray imaging with single photon processing detectors, Journal of Instrumentaion, Volume 8, Article number C02010.  

    5.      Gorski, D., Hill, J., Engstrand, P., and Johansson, L. (2010): Reduction of energy consumption in TMP refining through mechanical pre-treatment of wood chips, Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J, 25(2), 156-161.

    6.      Norlin, B., Reza, S., Fröjdh, C. and Nordin, T. (2018): Precision scan-imaging for paperboard quality inspection utilizing X-ray fluorescence, Journal of Instrumentation, Volume: 13, Article number C01021.

    7.      Reza, S., Norlin, B. and Thim, J. (2013): Non-destructive method to resolve the core and the coating on paperboard by spectroscopic x-ray imaging, Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 28 (3), 439-442.

     

  • 83.
    Rexhaj, Kastriot
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Machine visual feedback through CNN detectors: Mobile object detection for industrial application2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns itself with object detection as a possible solution to Valmet’s quest for a visual-feedback system that can help operators and other personnel to more easily interact with their machines and equipment. New advancements in deep learning, specifically CNN models, have been exploring neural networks with detection-capabilities. Object detection has historically been mostly inaccessible to the industry due the complex solutions involving various tricky image processing algorithms. In that regard, deep learning offers a more easily accessible way to create scalable object detection solutions. This study has therefore chosen to review recent literature detailing detection models with a selective focus on factors making them realizable on ARM hardware and in turn mobile devices like phones. An attempt was made to single out the most lightweight and hardware efficient model and implement it as a prototype in order to help Valmet in their decision process around future object detection products. The survey led to the choice of a SSD-MobileNetsV2 detection architecture due to promising characteristics making it suitable for performance-constrained smartphones. This CNN model was implemented on Valmet’s phone of choice, Samsung Galaxy S8, and it successfully achieved object detection functionality. Evaluation shows a mean average precision of 60 % in detecting objects and a 4.7 FPS performance on the chosen phone model. TensorFlow was used for developing, training and evaluating the model. The report concludes with recommending Valmet to pursue solutions built on-top of these kinds of models and further wishes to express an optimistic outlook on this type of technology for the future. Realizing performance of this magnitude on a mid-tier phone using deep learning (which historically is very computationally intensive) sets us up for great strides with this type of technology in the future; and along with better smartphones, great benefits are expected to both industry and consumers.

  • 84.
    Reza, Salim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Stressed in a small group or university? Think Big!2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 85.
    Riabichev, Maxim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Modelling a Scalable, Reusable and Realistic Digital Twin for Virtual Commissioning: Investigating possibilities with custom SmartComponents in ABB RobotStudio2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Advanced Manufacturing section at ÅF Pöyry AB is exploring the possibilities of virtual commissioning and digital twins. As part of this exploration, this thesis sets out to demonstrate a method of developing scalable, reusable and realistic digital mechatronic models – the heart of a digital twin – for the virtual environment in RobotStudio. Research has shown that one of the major obstacles to implementing virtual commissioning as a standard in industry today is the lack of scalable and reusable digital twins. This is also the experience of ÅF Pöyry AB. After reviewing existing and proposed methods for developing digital twins, this thesis explains the necessary steps for developing a SmartComponent in RobotStudio, using the programming language C#. The results show that the SmartComponent developed is scalable and thus reusable. It works with grippers with any number of fingers and allows gripping by applying pressure to the target object from both the outside and the inside. It is also realistic in the sense that the interaction between the grippers and the objects to be picked in the virtual environment behaves and looks like it does in reality. The implementation of the SmartComponent developed is much faster and less complex than the method used today at ÅF Pöyry AB. The downsides of the developed method are the added competence required of the automation engineer and the risk that the digital twin may not be future-proof.

  • 86.
    Rofors, E.
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Lund.
    Perrey, H.
    Lund Univ, Lund; European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Al Jebali, R.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund; Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Armand, J. R. M.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Boyd, L.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Clemens, U.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany.
    Desert, S.
    Univ Paris Saclay, Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Engels, R.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany.
    Fissum, K. G.
    Lund Univ, Lund; European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Frielinghaus, H.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany.
    Gheorghe, C.
    Integrated Detector Elect AS, Oslo, Norway.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Jaksch, S.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany.
    Jalgen, A.
    Lund Univ, Lund.
    Kanaki, K.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Kemmerling, G.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany.
    Maulerova, V
    Lund Univ, Div Nucl Phys, Lund.
    Mauritzson, N.
    Lund Univ, Lund.
    Montgomery, R.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Scherzinger, J.
    Lund Univ, Lund; European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund; Univ Pisa, Pisa, Italy; INFN, Pisa, Italy.
    Seitz, B.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Response of a Li-glass/multi-anode photomultiplier detector to alpha-particles from Am-2412019In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 929, p. 90-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The response of a position-sensitive Li-glass scintillator detector to alpha-particles from a collimated Am-241 source scanned across the face of the detector has been measured. Scintillation light was read out by an 8 x 8 pixel multi-anode photomultiplier and the signal amplitude for each pixel has been recorded for every position on a scan. The pixel signal is strongly dependent on position and in general several pixels will register a signal (a hit) above a given threshold. The effect of this threshold on hit multiplicity is studied, with a view to optimize the single-hit efficiency of the detector.

  • 87.
    Rusu, C.
    et al.
    RISE, Sensor Systems department, Acreo.
    Bader, Sebastian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Alvandpour, A.
    Linköping University.
    Enoksson, P.
    Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg.
    Braun, T.
    Fraunhofer-IZM, Berlin, Germany.
    Tiedke, S.
    aixACCT Systems GmbH, Aachen, Germany.
    Molin, R. Dal
    Cairdac, Clamart, France.
    Férin, G.
    Vermon SA, Tours, France.
    Torvinen, P.
    Spinverse Innovation Management Oy, Espoo, Finland.
    Liljeholm, J.
    Silex Microsystems AB, Järfälla.
    Challenges for Miniaturised Energy Harvesting Sensor Systems2018In: 2018 10th International Conference on Advanced Infocomm Technology (ICAIT), 2018, p. 214-217Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Rydblom, Staffan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thörnberg, Benny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Olsson, Esbjörn
    Swedish Meteorol & Hydrol Inst (SMHI), Sundsvall.
    Field Study of LWC and MVD Using the Droplet Imaging Instrument2019In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 614-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The droplet imaging instrument (DII) is a new instrument for cost-effective in situ measurements of the size and concentration of water droplets. The droplet size distribution and the concentration of atmospheric liquid water are important for the prediction of icing on structures, such as wind turbines. To improve the predictions of icing, there is a need to explore cost-effective working solutions. Through imaging, a wide range of droplet sizes can be measured. This paper describes a study of the atmospheric liquid water content and the median volume diameter using the DII and a commercial reference instrument--the cloud droplet probe 2 from Droplet Measurement Technologies Inc. The measurement is done at a weather measurement station in mid-Sweden. For a second validation, the result is compared with predictions using a numerical weather prediction model. The size measurement of the DII is verified using polymer microspheres of four known size distributions. The study shows that the DII measurement is precise, but there is a systematic difference between the two compared instruments. It also shows that droplets larger than 50 μm in diameter are occasionally measured, which we believe is important for the prediction of icing.

  • 89.
    Rydblom, Stefani Alita Leona
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Development and Test of an Imaging Instrument for Measurement of Water Droplets in Icing Conditions2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural icing is a persistent challenge for the production of renewable energy from wind. It is mainly caused by supercooled atmospheric droplets of water, which are very common in cold climates. In the most exposed wind parks in Sweden, more than 10 per cent of annual energy production can be lost. Some properties of liquid water are included in current \gls{nwp} models and are used as input parameters for the estimation of icing, but they are rarely measured in-situ for verification or validation.

    To address this problem, a new instrument was developed. This compilation thesis is a collection of five articles describing the development, testing and verification of this instrument. Finally, icing and ice loads are measured and compared with a standard model and a model using \gls{ai} and empirical data.

    The new instrument, called \gls{dii}, is based on shadowgraph imaging using \gls{led} light as background illumination and digital image processing. The components were selected with the possibility of low-cost volume production in mind. The applications of a commercial instrument based on this technique include, for example, real-time in-situ icing condition measurements and assimilation and verification of data in \gls{nwp} models. The instrument, alongside a reference instrument, was tested in two locations with different icing conditions. Shadowgraph imaging and its limitations as a measurement method for droplet size and concentration were investigated.

    The work presented shows that measurements of the size and concentration of water droplets using shadowgraph images can be used for the comparison and validation of \gls{nwp} models and other instruments. The \gls{cv} for a given value of the concentration is lower than \SI{1.6}{\percent} for droplets \SI{25}{\micro\meter} in diameter, based on uncertainty in the size measurement only. The accuracy of the sampling volume can be improved by measuring the background light intensity in the position of the measured droplet.

    A fog chamber was used for initial tests. However, to evaluate models of ice accumulation, in-situ measurements are necessary. These measurements should use a temporal resolution of at least one sample per minute, preferably higher. With a limited amount of data, multivariate data analysis can be used to estimate the level of ice accretion. Together with a heuristic model of erosion/ablation, the resulting figures can be used to simulate the ice load.

    All of the instruments, as well as many other components used during the described field measurements, did at some point break due to the difficult weather conditions. An instrument for measurement of icing conditions needs to be designed with high environmental protection and endurance. The results in the attached papers may help and motivate further technical development of instruments that can measure atmospheric liquid water in icing conditions.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-07-28 12:05
  • 90.
    Rydblom, Stefani Alita Leona
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thörnberg, Benny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Measurement of Atmospheric Icing and Droplets2020In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Icing conditions including atmospheric Liquid Water Content (LWC) and size distribution of droplets were recorded close to the top of Mt. Åreskutan, 1260 m a.s.l., Sweden, a place known for frequent severe icing. The findings are comparatively analysed. Combitech IceMonitor was used to measure the ice load, and HoloOptics T41 was used to measure the atmospheric icing rate. A method to translate the digital output from HoloOptics T41 to a value between 0 and 100 is described and used. Two instruments were used for measuring LWC and the Median Volume Diameter (MVD). We created a model of icing intensity based on the K-Nearest neighbour (KNN) using wind speed, LWC, and MVD as input. The result indicates that more learning data decreases the error. An heuristic model of erosion/ablation was added to simulate the ice load and the result was compared with the standard Makkonen ice load model. The Makkonen model is suitable for estimating the ice load using a 1-hour temporal resolution. With a 1-minute temporal resolution, the erosion/ablation needs to be modelled and included. Our observations show that conditions can alternate between icing and erosion/ablation within one minute during an icing event.

  • 91.
    Saeedian, Meysam
    et al.
    Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Pouresmaeil, Edris
    Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Samadaei, Emad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Godinho Rodrigues, Eduardo Manuel
    Management and Production Technologies of Northern Aveiro—ESAN, Oliveira de Azeméis, Portugal.
    Godina, Radu
    New University of Lisbon, Caparica, Portugal.
    Marzband, Mousa
    Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    An innovative dual-boost nine-level inverter with low-voltage rating switches2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an innovative switched-capacitor based nine-level inverter employing single DC input for renewable and sustainable energy applications. The proposed configuration generates a step-up bipolar output voltage without end-side H-bridge, and the employed capacitors are charged in a self-balancing form. Applying low-voltage rated switches is another merit of the proposed inverter, which leads to extensive reduction in total standing voltage. Thereby, switching losses as well as inverter cost are reduced proportionally. Furthermore, the comparative analysis against other state-of-the-art inverters depicts that the number of required power electronic devices and implementation cost is reduced in the proposed structure. The working principle of the proposed circuit along with its efficiency calculations and thermal modeling are elaborated in detail. In the end, simulations and experimental tests are conducted to validate the flawless performance of the proposed nine-level topology in power systems.

  • 92.
    Samadaei, Emad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Kaviani, Mohammad
    Mazandaran University of Science and Technology University.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    A 13-levels Module (K-Type) with two DC sources for Multilevel Inverters2019In: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 66, no 7, p. 5186-5196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new reconfiguration module for asymmetrical multilevel inverters in which the capacitors are used as the DC links to creates the levels for staircase waveforms. This configuration of multilevel converter makes a reduction in DC sources. On the other hand, it is possible to generate 13 levels with lower DC sources. The proposed module of multilevel inverter generates 13 levels with two unequal DC sources (2VDC and 1VDC). It also involves two chargeable capacitors and 14 semiconductor switches. The capacitors are self-charging without any extra circuit. The lower number of components makes it desirable to use in wide range of applications. The module is schematized as two back-to-back T-type inverters and some other switches around it. Also, it can be connected as cascade modular which lead to a modular topology with more voltage levels at higher voltages. The proposed module makes the inherent creation of the negative voltage levels without any additional circuit (such as H-bridge circuit). Nearest level control switching modulation (NLC) scheme is applied to achieve high quality sinusoidal output voltage. Simulations are executed in MATLAB/Simulink and a prototype is implemented in the power electronics laboratory which the simulation and experimental results show a good performance.

  • 93.
    Sandberg, Sebastian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Musikens inverkan på lyssnaren.: En litteraturstudie kompletterad med en implementering av strukturerad lyssnande.2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Ohälsa har de senaste åren ökat bland befolkningen nationellt. Det finns ett större

    behov för alternativa behandlingar för att kunna ge lindring. En av dessa alternativa metoder är

    implementering av musik. Det talas om ’’musikmedicin’’ - ett sätt att främja, förstärka och berika

    patienters status.

    Bakgrund: Det finns omfattande studier om musikens påverkan på människan. Studier på

    fysiologisk och psykologisk respons vid musiklyssnande har fått ett större intresse de senaste tjugo

    åren. Tidigare så har musikerns roll varit frikopplad från studierna då dessa mestadels

    implementerat inspelade medier.

    Syfte: Att identifiera hur musiken påverkar lyssnaren.

    Metod: Litteratursökning har innefattat litteratur på ämnet musik och hälsa, avhandlingar på nätet

    och även strömmande videos. En enkätmetod med implementerande lyssningsmoment har

    upprättats med en testgrupp. Testgruppen bestod av nio deltagare, 5 kvinnor och fyra män, som fått

    lyssna på ett eget utvalt verk 2 gånger om dagen i 3 veckors tid.

    Resultat: Musik fungerar som ett medie som kan påverka kroppen och sinnet i ett hälsofrämjande

    syfte. Resultat talar för att musiklyssnande kan främja individens hälsa genom fysiologiska

    reaktioner, som exempelvis dopaminfrisättning. Det faktorer som spelar in för att få önskvärda

    resultat är bland andra musiksmak, social - och kulturell koppling och emotionell koppling till

    musiken. Det finns mallar som går att förhålla sig till för att förstå sambandet mellan musik, hälsa

    och individen för implementering. Resultaten från enkätmetoden talar för att majoriteten av

    deltagarna har upplevt förbättrade resultat med sänkta stressnivåer än innan utfört moment.

    Diskussion: Diskussionen jämför resultatet i enkätstudien med tidigare försök från litteraturstudien.

    Metodens för och nackdelar diskuteras. Musikerns och kompositörens roll i ämnet diskuteras och

    framställs med alternativa positioner för framtida bruk. Detta för att skapa förståelse hos musikern/

    kompositören mot resultaten i denna studie och även. Metoddiskussionen fördjupar sig i för och

    nackdelar med studiens metoder.

  • 94.
    Sanden, Erlend
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    RF Energy Harversting: Design and implementation of an RF energy harvesting system for SoC2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This assignment was given by Nordic Semiconductor. In this project a radio frequency energy harvesting system able to harvest ambient power at 900 MHz (GSM) was simulated and designed. A Villard voltage multiplier, boost converter and power management circuit was implemented for the harvesting system. The intention was to implement a system which would give sufficient output power and voltage to supply a load (nRF52810) at all times. The nRF52810 is a power efficient multi protocol SoC made by Nordic Semiconductor. Since the power harvested by the antenna is of AC power, a recti er was needed. A Villard voltage multiplier was proposed as the most suitable application. It not only recti es the voltage, but the voltage doubles for every stage. A 2-stage Villard voltage multiplier was proposed with the advantage that in theory the output voltage should be four times higher in magnitude than the input voltage. There exists several other ways to boost a voltage, a voltage boost converter was combined with the Villard Voltage multiplier. According to calculations the boost converter should boost the voltage up to 2.3 V.

    Since the assumed power from the harvesting system may be lower than the power consumed by the load, a power managing circuit was also needed, which would avoid the load to drain the current from the storage element before the voltage level was sufficient. Different solutions for a power management circuit was proposed using different variations of MOSFETs. A real-life design was implemented, but the Villard voltage multiplier gave out a much lower e efficiency than expected from simulations. The output power of the VVM was too low to supply the load (nRF52810).

  • 95.
    Shallari, Irida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Intelligence Partitioning for IoT: Communication and Processing Inter-Effects for Smart Camera Implementation2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming a tangible reality, with a variety of sensors, devices and data centres interconnected to support scenarios such as Smart City with information about traffic, city administration, health-care services and entertainment. Decomposing these systems into smaller components, results in a variety of requirements for processing and communication resources for each subsystem. Wireless Vision Sensor Network (WVSN) is one of the subsystems, relying on visual sensors that produce several megabytes of data every second, unlike temperature or pressure sensors producing several bytes of data every hour. In addition, to facilitate the deployment of the nodes for different environments, we consider themas battery-operated devices. The high data rates from the imaging sensor have extensive computational and communication requirements, which in the meantime should meet the constraints regarding the energy efficiency of the device, to ensure a satisfactory battery lifetime.

    In this thesis we analyse the energy efficiency of the smart camera, including the smart camera architecture, the distribution of the image processing tasks between several processing elements, and the inter-effects of processing and communication. Sensor selection and algorithmic implementation of the image processing tasks affects the processing energy consumption of the node, alongside to the hardware and software implementation of the tasks.

    Furthermore, considerations of different intelligence partitioning configurations are included in the analysis of communication related elements, such as communication delays and channel utilisation. The inter-effects resulting from the variety of configurations in image processing allocation and communication technologies with different characteristics provide an insight into the overall variations of the smart camera node energy consumption. The aim of thesis is to facilitate the design of energy efficient smart cameras, while providing an understanding of energy consumption variations related to processing and communication configurations.

  • 96.
    Shallari, Irida
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Krug, Silvia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Communication and Computation Inter-Effects in People Counting Using Intelligence Partitioning2020In: Journal of Real-Time Image Processing, ISSN 1861-8200, E-ISSN 1861-8219Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of the Internet of Things is affecting the requirements towards wireless vision sensor networks (WVSN). Future smart camera architectures require battery-operated devices to facilitate deployment for scenarios such as industrial monitoring, environmental monitoring and smart city, consequently imposing constraints on the node energy consumption. This paper provides an analysis of the inter-effects between computation and communication energy for a smart camera node. Based on a people counting scenario, we evaluate the trade-off for the node energy consumption with different processing configurations of the image processing tasks, and several communication technologies. The results indicate that the optimal partition between the smart camera node and remote processing is with background modelling, segmentation, morphology and binary compression implemented in the smart camera, supported by Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) version 5 technologies. The comparative assessment of these results with other implementation scenarios underlines the energy efficiency of this approach. This work changes pre-conceptions regarding design space exploration in WVSN, motivating further investigation regarding the inclusion of intermediate processing layers between the node and the cloud to interlace low-power configurations of communication and processing architectures.

  • 97.
    Shallari, Irida
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    From the Sensor to the Cloud: Intelligence Partitioning for Smart Camera Applications2019In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 23, article id 5162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things has grown quickly in the last few years, with a variety of sensing, processing and storage devices interconnected, resulting in high data traffic. While some sensors such as temperature, or humidity sensors produce a few bits of data periodically, imaging sensors output data in the range of megabytes every second. This raises a complexity for battery operated smart cameras, as they would be required to perform intensive image processing operations on large volumes of data, within energy consumption constraints. By using intelligence partitioning we analyse the effects of different partitioning scenarios for the processing tasks between the smart camera node, the fog computing layer and cloud computing, in the node energy consumption as well as the real time performance of the WVSN (Wireless Vision Sensor Node). The results obtained show that traditional design space exploration approaches are inefficient for WVSN, while intelligence partitioning enhances the energy consumption performance of the smart camera node and meets the timing constraints.

  • 98.
    Sigvardsson, Samuel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Optimering av kompressorstyrning: För kostnadseffektivare styrning av multipla kompressorer i ett tryckluftssystem2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to create competitiveness, optimization towards more energy and cost efficiency is always required, of several different processes. The plant used in this project, a cogeneration plant that was built as late as 2015, has been drawn with what appeared to be a non-optimal operation of the compressed air system with three identical air compressors whom are controlled by frequency converters. The objective of this project was to produce proposals for a more optimal control of the plant's three air compressors and to implement it to carry out an analysis of the result. An analysis of the origin operation showed that there was room for improvement of the control and that some controller parameters would need to be optimized. Two regulatory proposals were developed, which to a large extent are quite similar but with the great difference that the first proposal make use of the compressors' pressure controllers and the other proposal controlled the speed of the compressors directly from the PLC. At the end of this project, when the new regulatory proposals were to be implemented, the facility was in a three-week downtime for maintenance. This affected the optimization because the consumption of compressed air was low. This would mean that a parameter optimization would not be completely optimal. Moreover, since the compressor manufacturer did not choose to cooperate, there was no possibility of performing a parameter optimization on all controllers. Despite these circumstances, some optimization has probably occurred with the new regulatory proposal.

  • 99.
    Skyllerstedt, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Övertoner i motordrivsystem: Metod för att beräkna förluster2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingen av kraftelektronik har möjliggjort tämjandet av vår tids arbetshäst, asynkronmotorn.

    Att driva motorn med en frekvensomriktare gör motorn mer effektiv, och den mjukare driften minskar på slitaget. Två faktorer som spar både pengar och miljö, och är av betydelse för att bygga ett hållbart samhälle.

    Baksidan är att frekvensomriktaren orsakar elektro­magnetiska stör­ningar i sin elektriska omgivning, vilket blir en konsekvens av att installera en frekvensomriktare. I den här rapporten behandlas främst de övertoner som orsakas av frekvensomriktarens likriktarsteg, och som beror på att den drar distorderad ström från spänningskällan. Strömövertoner och spänningsövertoner utvecklar en distorderad effekt, som inte tillför något aktivt arbete i belastningen, och kan därför betrak­tas som en förlust i exempelvis ledningar och transfor­matorer, när den flyttas fram och åter mellan spän­ningskälla och belastning.

    Frekvensomriktarens effektfaktor ger en indikation på mängden distorderad effekt, och kan användas i ett beräkningsprogram för att beräkna förluster som beror på frekvensomriktarens övertoner.

    För att minska den distorderade effekten behöver frekvensomriktarens effektfaktor förbättras, vilket kan ske genom reducering av övertonerna. Att använda ett 12-puls­system är en metod att göra detta på, men det finns även andra metoder för att reducera övertonerna. Valet av metod är anläggningsspecifik och det går inte att generellt säga när det lönar sig att välja ett 12-pulssystem.  

  • 100.
    Slavicek, Tomas
    et al.
    Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague.
    Petersson, Sture
    Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague.
    Pospisil, Stanislav
    Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Slaivickova, Marie
    Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague.
    SiC based charged particle strip sensor spectrometer with neutron detection capability2020In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 15, article id C01036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon carbide (SiC) devices have gained much attention owing to their superior characteristics that make them high-temperature and radiation-hard. The advantage of the SiC arises from its unique combination of electronic and physical properties such as a wide band-gap, high breakdown electric field strength, high saturated electron velocity, and high thermal conductivity. The wide band-gap results in a low intrinsic charge carrier concentration and a radiation hardness. The low intrinsic charge carrier concentration leads to low device leakages at high temperature. The high breakdown strength allows SiC devices to operate at much higher voltages. The aim of this publication is to present current status of a charged particle spectrometer based on a SiC strip detector. The sensor is made of a 4H-SiC (-SiC) hexagonal crystalline structure material which manifests good spectroscopic characteristics for charged particle detection similar to a standard silicon diode (20 keV FWHM with 5,4857MeV 241Am alpha particle). To obtain sensors for the charged particle detection out of the SiC bulk material we created Schottky contacts on the top and the Ohmic contact on the bottom. Preparation of the contacts will be discussed alongside the electric characterization of the sensor material. Results of the charged particle and the gamma detection and detection of thermal neutron detection (after a neutron converter deposition) will be presented. There will be also a discussion regarding fast neutron detection. The SiC sensor material was attached to a VATA GP8 based 128 strip readout to form the handheld spectrometer which will be demonstrated.

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