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  • 51.
    Rahman, Hafizur
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    An, Siwen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Persson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Engstrand, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Maximized wood chip impregnation efficiency validated by new miniaturized X-ray fluorescence techniques2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing of chemi-thermomechanical pulp (CTMP) is increasing due to increased demand for packaging materials such as cardboard as well as tissue and other hygiene products. Today high yield pulp (HYP) is produced from different wood species. It is well-known that chip-refining is normally responsible for more than 60% of the electric energy consumption in most high yield pulping process. There are opportunities to improve energy efficiency and quality stability in defibration processes by means of optimizing impregnation. Impregnation is a key unit operation in CTMP production as well as in all chemical pulping and biorefinery systems. The efficiency of the impregnation is known to be crucial (Ferritsius et al. 1985; Gorski et al. 2010). Early research showed difficulties to achieve even distribution of sulphite and sodium ions in wood chips resulting in inhomogeneous fibre properties (Bengtsson et al. 1988). Increased and homogenous sulphonation leads to reduced shive content, which is a key factor in all end product applications. To address this issue developing a new type miniaturized X-ray based technique (XRF) to measure local concentration of sulphur and sodium across wood chips and in individual fibres could become a key tool.

     

    The presence of elements as sulphur and sodium can be detected by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) or spectral absorption. At the XRF, images the surface of the sample using specific energies from K-shell or L-shell fluorescence. This method is investigated at the X-ray laboratory in Mid Sweden University research centre STC (Sensitive Things that Communicate) (Norlin et al. 2018). At the spectral absorption, images specific K-shell absorption energies in transmission X-ray images of the sample, a method widely used in medical diagnosis. This transmission method might also be further investigated for this application in the future (Frojdh et al. 2013; Reza et al. 2013). Both methods can be validated by using monoenergetic radiation from synchrotron facilities.

     

    An XRF imaging system uses a collimated X-ray source and a spectroscopic detector. The sample is scanned to make an image of the content of the substances of interest. A specific challenge in this case is that the low energy fluorescence photons from sulphur (S) and sodium (Na) are easily absorbed in air, which makes imaging in a different atmosphere necessary.

     

    The measurement setup has been simulated using MCNP (C. J. Werner, 2017) to validate the system setup and to select the correct, geometry, shielding, filtering and atmosphere for the measurement. The solution was to use a titanium box flooded with helium to minimise the absorption of fluorescence photons and to shield from scattered photons that might disturb the measurement, fig 1. A filter has been added to the X-ray source to make it nearly monoenergetic and to avoid emission of photons with energies close to the expected fluorescence. The system has been used to estimate sodium and sulphur content in low grammage handsheet (CTMP) or single wood chip samples. It is possible to build a laboratory instrument similar to the prototype setup to obtain the distribution of sodium and sulphur in XRF imaging.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Figure 1: Photograph of XRF measurement setup with of moveable Helium atmosphere Ti box

    However, the technique we are developing can become useful in mills to improve and control process efficiency, product properties and to find solutions to process problems in future. In addition, a more even distribution of the sulphonation can reduce specific energy demand in chip refining at certain shive content.

     

    References

     

    1.      Bengtsson, G., Simonson, R., Heitner, C., Beatson, R., and Ferguson, C. (1988): Chemimechanical pulping of birch wood chips, Part 2: Studies on impregnation of wood blocks using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis, Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 3 (3), 132-138.

    2.      C. J. Werner, (2017): MCNP User's manual, Code Version 6.2, Los Alamos National Laboratory report, LA-UR-17-29981.

    3.      Ferritsius, O., and Moldenius, S. (1985): The effect of impregnation method on CTMP properties. In International Mechanical Pulping Conference Proceedings, SPCI, Stockholm (p. 91).

    4.      Frojdh, C., Norlin, B. and Frojdh, E. (2013): Spectral X-ray imaging with single photon processing detectors, Journal of Instrumentaion, Volume 8, Article number C02010.  

    5.      Gorski, D., Hill, J., Engstrand, P., and Johansson, L. (2010): Reduction of energy consumption in TMP refining through mechanical pre-treatment of wood chips, Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J, 25(2), 156-161.

    6.      Norlin, B., Reza, S., Fröjdh, C. and Nordin, T. (2018): Precision scan-imaging for paperboard quality inspection utilizing X-ray fluorescence, Journal of Instrumentation, Volume: 13, Article number C01021.

    7.      Reza, S., Norlin, B. and Thim, J. (2013): Non-destructive method to resolve the core and the coating on paperboard by spectroscopic x-ray imaging, Nord. Pulp Paper Res. J. 28 (3), 439-442.

     

  • 52.
    Rexhaj, Kastriot
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Machine visual feedback through CNN detectors: Mobile object detection for industrial application2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns itself with object detection as a possible solution to Valmet’s quest for a visual-feedback system that can help operators and other personnel to more easily interact with their machines and equipment. New advancements in deep learning, specifically CNN models, have been exploring neural networks with detection-capabilities. Object detection has historically been mostly inaccessible to the industry due the complex solutions involving various tricky image processing algorithms. In that regard, deep learning offers a more easily accessible way to create scalable object detection solutions. This study has therefore chosen to review recent literature detailing detection models with a selective focus on factors making them realizable on ARM hardware and in turn mobile devices like phones. An attempt was made to single out the most lightweight and hardware efficient model and implement it as a prototype in order to help Valmet in their decision process around future object detection products. The survey led to the choice of a SSD-MobileNetsV2 detection architecture due to promising characteristics making it suitable for performance-constrained smartphones. This CNN model was implemented on Valmet’s phone of choice, Samsung Galaxy S8, and it successfully achieved object detection functionality. Evaluation shows a mean average precision of 60 % in detecting objects and a 4.7 FPS performance on the chosen phone model. TensorFlow was used for developing, training and evaluating the model. The report concludes with recommending Valmet to pursue solutions built on-top of these kinds of models and further wishes to express an optimistic outlook on this type of technology for the future. Realizing performance of this magnitude on a mid-tier phone using deep learning (which historically is very computationally intensive) sets us up for great strides with this type of technology in the future; and along with better smartphones, great benefits are expected to both industry and consumers.

  • 53.
    Reza, Salim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Stressed in a small group or university? Think Big!2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 54.
    Rofors, E.
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Lund.
    Perrey, H.
    Lund Univ, Lund; European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Al Jebali, R.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund; Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Armand, J. R. M.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Boyd, L.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Clemens, U.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany.
    Desert, S.
    Univ Paris Saclay, Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Engels, R.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany.
    Fissum, K. G.
    Lund Univ, Lund; European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Frielinghaus, H.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany.
    Gheorghe, C.
    Integrated Detector Elect AS, Oslo, Norway.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Jaksch, S.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany.
    Jalgen, A.
    Lund Univ, Lund.
    Kanaki, K.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Kemmerling, G.
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany.
    Maulerova, V
    Lund Univ, Div Nucl Phys, Lund.
    Mauritzson, N.
    Lund Univ, Lund.
    Montgomery, R.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Scherzinger, J.
    Lund Univ, Lund; European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund; Univ Pisa, Pisa, Italy; INFN, Pisa, Italy.
    Seitz, B.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Response of a Li-glass/multi-anode photomultiplier detector to alpha-particles from Am-2412019In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 929, p. 90-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The response of a position-sensitive Li-glass scintillator detector to alpha-particles from a collimated Am-241 source scanned across the face of the detector has been measured. Scintillation light was read out by an 8 x 8 pixel multi-anode photomultiplier and the signal amplitude for each pixel has been recorded for every position on a scan. The pixel signal is strongly dependent on position and in general several pixels will register a signal (a hit) above a given threshold. The effect of this threshold on hit multiplicity is studied, with a view to optimize the single-hit efficiency of the detector.

  • 55.
    Rusu, C.
    et al.
    RISE, Sensor Systems department, Acreo.
    Bader, Sebastian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Alvandpour, A.
    Linköping University.
    Enoksson, P.
    Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg.
    Braun, T.
    Fraunhofer-IZM, Berlin, Germany.
    Tiedke, S.
    aixACCT Systems GmbH, Aachen, Germany.
    Molin, R. Dal
    Cairdac, Clamart, France.
    Férin, G.
    Vermon SA, Tours, France.
    Torvinen, P.
    Spinverse Innovation Management Oy, Espoo, Finland.
    Liljeholm, J.
    Silex Microsystems AB, Järfälla.
    Challenges for Miniaturised Energy Harvesting Sensor Systems2018In: 2018 10th International Conference on Advanced Infocomm Technology (ICAIT), 2018, p. 214-217Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Rydblom, Staffan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thörnberg, Benny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Olsson, Esbjörn
    Swedish Meteorol & Hydrol Inst (SMHI), Sundsvall.
    Field Study of LWC and MVD Using the Droplet Imaging Instrument2019In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 614-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The droplet imaging instrument (DII) is a new instrument for cost-effective in situ measurements of the size and concentration of water droplets. The droplet size distribution and the concentration of atmospheric liquid water are important for the prediction of icing on structures, such as wind turbines. To improve the predictions of icing, there is a need to explore cost-effective working solutions. Through imaging, a wide range of droplet sizes can be measured. This paper describes a study of the atmospheric liquid water content and the median volume diameter using the DII and a commercial reference instrument--the cloud droplet probe 2 from Droplet Measurement Technologies Inc. The measurement is done at a weather measurement station in mid-Sweden. For a second validation, the result is compared with predictions using a numerical weather prediction model. The size measurement of the DII is verified using polymer microspheres of four known size distributions. The study shows that the DII measurement is precise, but there is a systematic difference between the two compared instruments. It also shows that droplets larger than 50 μm in diameter are occasionally measured, which we believe is important for the prediction of icing.

  • 57.
    Saeedian, Meysam
    et al.
    Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Pouresmaeil, Edris
    Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Samadaei, Emad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Godinho Rodrigues, Eduardo Manuel
    Management and Production Technologies of Northern Aveiro—ESAN, Oliveira de Azeméis, Portugal.
    Godina, Radu
    New University of Lisbon, Caparica, Portugal.
    Marzband, Mousa
    Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    An innovative dual-boost nine-level inverter with low-voltage rating switches2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an innovative switched-capacitor based nine-level inverter employing single DC input for renewable and sustainable energy applications. The proposed configuration generates a step-up bipolar output voltage without end-side H-bridge, and the employed capacitors are charged in a self-balancing form. Applying low-voltage rated switches is another merit of the proposed inverter, which leads to extensive reduction in total standing voltage. Thereby, switching losses as well as inverter cost are reduced proportionally. Furthermore, the comparative analysis against other state-of-the-art inverters depicts that the number of required power electronic devices and implementation cost is reduced in the proposed structure. The working principle of the proposed circuit along with its efficiency calculations and thermal modeling are elaborated in detail. In the end, simulations and experimental tests are conducted to validate the flawless performance of the proposed nine-level topology in power systems.

  • 58.
    Samadaei, Emad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Kaviani, Mohammad
    Mazandaran University of Science and Technology University.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    A 13-levels Module (K-Type) with two DC sources for Multilevel Inverters2019In: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 66, no 7, p. 5186-5196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new reconfiguration module for asymmetrical multilevel inverters in which the capacitors are used as the DC links to creates the levels for staircase waveforms. This configuration of multilevel converter makes a reduction in DC sources. On the other hand, it is possible to generate 13 levels with lower DC sources. The proposed module of multilevel inverter generates 13 levels with two unequal DC sources (2VDC and 1VDC). It also involves two chargeable capacitors and 14 semiconductor switches. The capacitors are self-charging without any extra circuit. The lower number of components makes it desirable to use in wide range of applications. The module is schematized as two back-to-back T-type inverters and some other switches around it. Also, it can be connected as cascade modular which lead to a modular topology with more voltage levels at higher voltages. The proposed module makes the inherent creation of the negative voltage levels without any additional circuit (such as H-bridge circuit). Nearest level control switching modulation (NLC) scheme is applied to achieve high quality sinusoidal output voltage. Simulations are executed in MATLAB/Simulink and a prototype is implemented in the power electronics laboratory which the simulation and experimental results show a good performance.

  • 59.
    Sandberg, Sebastian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Musikens inverkan på lyssnaren.: En litteraturstudie kompletterad med en implementering av strukturerad lyssnande.2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Ohälsa har de senaste åren ökat bland befolkningen nationellt. Det finns ett större

    behov för alternativa behandlingar för att kunna ge lindring. En av dessa alternativa metoder är

    implementering av musik. Det talas om ’’musikmedicin’’ - ett sätt att främja, förstärka och berika

    patienters status.

    Bakgrund: Det finns omfattande studier om musikens påverkan på människan. Studier på

    fysiologisk och psykologisk respons vid musiklyssnande har fått ett större intresse de senaste tjugo

    åren. Tidigare så har musikerns roll varit frikopplad från studierna då dessa mestadels

    implementerat inspelade medier.

    Syfte: Att identifiera hur musiken påverkar lyssnaren.

    Metod: Litteratursökning har innefattat litteratur på ämnet musik och hälsa, avhandlingar på nätet

    och även strömmande videos. En enkätmetod med implementerande lyssningsmoment har

    upprättats med en testgrupp. Testgruppen bestod av nio deltagare, 5 kvinnor och fyra män, som fått

    lyssna på ett eget utvalt verk 2 gånger om dagen i 3 veckors tid.

    Resultat: Musik fungerar som ett medie som kan påverka kroppen och sinnet i ett hälsofrämjande

    syfte. Resultat talar för att musiklyssnande kan främja individens hälsa genom fysiologiska

    reaktioner, som exempelvis dopaminfrisättning. Det faktorer som spelar in för att få önskvärda

    resultat är bland andra musiksmak, social - och kulturell koppling och emotionell koppling till

    musiken. Det finns mallar som går att förhålla sig till för att förstå sambandet mellan musik, hälsa

    och individen för implementering. Resultaten från enkätmetoden talar för att majoriteten av

    deltagarna har upplevt förbättrade resultat med sänkta stressnivåer än innan utfört moment.

    Diskussion: Diskussionen jämför resultatet i enkätstudien med tidigare försök från litteraturstudien.

    Metodens för och nackdelar diskuteras. Musikerns och kompositörens roll i ämnet diskuteras och

    framställs med alternativa positioner för framtida bruk. Detta för att skapa förståelse hos musikern/

    kompositören mot resultaten i denna studie och även. Metoddiskussionen fördjupar sig i för och

    nackdelar med studiens metoder.

  • 60.
    Shallari, Irida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Intelligence Partitioning for IoT: Communication and Processing Inter-Effects for Smart Camera Implementation2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming a tangible reality, with a variety of sensors, devices and data centres interconnected to support scenarios such as Smart City with information about traffic, city administration, health-care services and entertainment. Decomposing these systems into smaller components, results in a variety of requirements for processing and communication resources for each subsystem. Wireless Vision Sensor Network (WVSN) is one of the subsystems, relying on visual sensors that produce several megabytes of data every second, unlike temperature or pressure sensors producing several bytes of data every hour. In addition, to facilitate the deployment of the nodes for different environments, we consider themas battery-operated devices. The high data rates from the imaging sensor have extensive computational and communication requirements, which in the meantime should meet the constraints regarding the energy efficiency of the device, to ensure a satisfactory battery lifetime.

    In this thesis we analyse the energy efficiency of the smart camera, including the smart camera architecture, the distribution of the image processing tasks between several processing elements, and the inter-effects of processing and communication. Sensor selection and algorithmic implementation of the image processing tasks affects the processing energy consumption of the node, alongside to the hardware and software implementation of the tasks.

    Furthermore, considerations of different intelligence partitioning configurations are included in the analysis of communication related elements, such as communication delays and channel utilisation. The inter-effects resulting from the variety of configurations in image processing allocation and communication technologies with different characteristics provide an insight into the overall variations of the smart camera node energy consumption. The aim of thesis is to facilitate the design of energy efficient smart cameras, while providing an understanding of energy consumption variations related to processing and communication configurations.

  • 61.
    Shallari, Irida
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Krug, Silvia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Communication and Computation Inter-Effects in People Counting Using Intelligence PartitioningManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Sigvardsson, Samuel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Optimering av kompressorstyrning: För kostnadseffektivare styrning av multipla kompressorer i ett tryckluftssystem2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to create competitiveness, optimization towards more energy and cost efficiency is always required, of several different processes. The plant used in this project, a cogeneration plant that was built as late as 2015, has been drawn with what appeared to be a non-optimal operation of the compressed air system with three identical air compressors whom are controlled by frequency converters. The objective of this project was to produce proposals for a more optimal control of the plant's three air compressors and to implement it to carry out an analysis of the result. An analysis of the origin operation showed that there was room for improvement of the control and that some controller parameters would need to be optimized. Two regulatory proposals were developed, which to a large extent are quite similar but with the great difference that the first proposal make use of the compressors' pressure controllers and the other proposal controlled the speed of the compressors directly from the PLC. At the end of this project, when the new regulatory proposals were to be implemented, the facility was in a three-week downtime for maintenance. This affected the optimization because the consumption of compressed air was low. This would mean that a parameter optimization would not be completely optimal. Moreover, since the compressor manufacturer did not choose to cooperate, there was no possibility of performing a parameter optimization on all controllers. Despite these circumstances, some optimization has probably occurred with the new regulatory proposal.

  • 63.
    Skyllerstedt, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Övertoner i motordrivsystem: Metod för att beräkna förluster2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingen av kraftelektronik har möjliggjort tämjandet av vår tids arbetshäst, asynkronmotorn.

    Att driva motorn med en frekvensomriktare gör motorn mer effektiv, och den mjukare driften minskar på slitaget. Två faktorer som spar både pengar och miljö, och är av betydelse för att bygga ett hållbart samhälle.

    Baksidan är att frekvensomriktaren orsakar elektro­magnetiska stör­ningar i sin elektriska omgivning, vilket blir en konsekvens av att installera en frekvensomriktare. I den här rapporten behandlas främst de övertoner som orsakas av frekvensomriktarens likriktarsteg, och som beror på att den drar distorderad ström från spänningskällan. Strömövertoner och spänningsövertoner utvecklar en distorderad effekt, som inte tillför något aktivt arbete i belastningen, och kan därför betrak­tas som en förlust i exempelvis ledningar och transfor­matorer, när den flyttas fram och åter mellan spän­ningskälla och belastning.

    Frekvensomriktarens effektfaktor ger en indikation på mängden distorderad effekt, och kan användas i ett beräkningsprogram för att beräkna förluster som beror på frekvensomriktarens övertoner.

    För att minska den distorderade effekten behöver frekvensomriktarens effektfaktor förbättras, vilket kan ske genom reducering av övertonerna. Att använda ett 12-puls­system är en metod att göra detta på, men det finns även andra metoder för att reducera övertonerna. Valet av metod är anläggningsspecifik och det går inte att generellt säga när det lönar sig att välja ett 12-pulssystem.  

  • 64.
    Taami, Tania
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Krug, Silvia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Experimental Characterization of Latency in Distributed IoT Systems with Cloud Fog Offloading2019In: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019, article id 8757960Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) enables users to gather and analyze data from a large number of devices. Knowledge obtained by these systems is valuable in order to understand, control, and enhance the monitored process. The mass of information to process leads however to new challenges related to required resources for both data processing and data transportation. Two critical metrics are latency and consumed energy to complete a given task. Both metrics might be exceed if all processing is done locally at the sensor device level. Cloud and Fog computing concepts can help to mitigate this effect. However, using such offloading concepts add complexity and overhead to the system. In this paper, we study the latency for processing and communication tasks in a distributed IoT systems with respect to cloud or fog offloading and derive characteristic cost functions for the studied tasks. Our results give valuable insights into the tradeoffs and constraint within our example scenario. The developed characterization methodology can however be applied to any kind of IoT system and thus allowing more general analysis. 

  • 65.
    Vijeh, Mahdi
    et al.
    Mazandaran University of Science and Technology, Babol Iran.
    Rezanejad, Mohammad
    University of Mazandaran, Iran.
    Samadaei, Emad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    A General Review of Multilevel Inverters Based on Main Submodules: Structural Point of View2019In: IEEE transactions on power electronics, ISSN 0885-8993, E-ISSN 1941-0107, Vol. 34, no 10, p. 9479-9502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilevel inverters (MLIs) are being used in wide range of power electronics applications. These converters that are attracted a lot of attentions during recent years have different topologies with similar basic concept. This paper presents five main submodules (SMs) that are used as the basic structures of MLIs. The paper reviews the common multilevel inverter topologies with the structural point of view. The topologies are divided to main SMs to show conventional MLIs configuration and future topologies that can be created from the main SMs. The comparative study on topologies is investigated with details. The MLIs are categorized and investigated with due attention to some indexes such as the number of components, the ability to create inherent negative voltage, working in regeneration mode and using single DC source.

  • 66.
    Viksten, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Säkerhets- och kostnadsjämförelse för maskinskydd kring balningslinje: En jämförelse av förreglingsbrytare2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many work-related accidents occur because safety around the LOTO principle is substandard and that the moving parts of machines are easy to access. When designing a machine, it is important to consider the machine's dangerous origin. To design this, it is important to identify and build these areas already at a design stage with, for example, a fence around machines. Access places must be carefully monitored for safe machine use according to the Machinery Directive 2006/42 / EC. In this report, safety as well as costs have been considered to an existing guard lock on access places for a baling line and examined whether costs can be reduced with the proposed PROFInet based guard lock. The harmonized standard EN ISO 13849-1: 2016 addresses one way of evaluating the safety of a machine's control system, all being evaluated according to the concept of PL, Performance Level. To calculate PL when comparing safety, SiSteMa was used and to calculate the cost of their different alternatives, an interview on costs has been made and presented as a quota. Safety comparison shows that PLd is retained. The cost comparison shows that the proposed solution is more expensive than the existing solution, but that a substandard price estimate may be behind this. One aspect of the new guard lock that was not seen in the report but worth mentioning in the conclusion about safety and cost comparison is that the proposed guard lock with PROFInet is a flexible solution with simple troubleshooting. Future work on safety at baling line would have been to look at remaining access places that are monitored by light curtains and see if costs can be reduced there.

  • 67.
    Vilar, Cristian
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thörnberg, Benny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Krug, Silvia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Evaluation of embedded camera systems for autonomous wheelchairs2019In: VEHITS 2019 - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems, SciTePress , 2019, p. 76-85Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomously driving Power Wheelchairs (PWCs) are valuable tools to enhance the life quality of their users. In order to enable truly autonomous PWCs, camera systems are essential. Image processing enables the development of applications for both autonomous driving and obstacle avoidance. This paper explores the challenges that arise when selecting a suitable embedded camera system for these applications. Our analysis is based on a comparison of two well-known camera principles, Stereo-Cameras (STCs) and Time-of-Flight (ToF) cameras, using the standard deviation of the ground plane at various lighting conditions as a key quality measure. In addition, we also consider other metrics related to both the image processing task and the embedded system constraints. We believe that this assessment is valuable when choosing between using STC or ToF cameras for PWCs.

  • 68.
    Vitucci, G.
    et al.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Minniti, T.
    STFC Rutherford Appleton Lab, Berks, England.
    Angella, G.
    IENI CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Croci, G.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Muraro, A.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Hoglund, C.
    Linköping Univ, Linköping; European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Lai, C. C.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Cippo, E. Perelli
    IFP CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Albani, G.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Robinson, Linda
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Grosso, G.
    IFP CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Tardocchi, M.
    IFP CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Gorini, G.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Measurement of the thickness of B4C layers deposited over metallic grids via multi-angle neutron radiography2019In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 30, no 1, article id 015402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the present time, different kinds of thermal neutron detectors are under development at the European Spallation Source research facility, in order to overcome the well-known problem of the He-3 shortage. One of these new systems relies on the use of a 3D neutron convener cathode that consists of a stack of aluminum grids, covered by a 0.9 mu m B-10 enriched boron carbide layer ((B4C)-B-10). As the conversion efficiency is a function of the boron thickness and the mean free path of the charged particles produced in the neutron induced reaction, the characterization of the boron carbide layer uniformity over the grids becomes crucial. In this work, a non-destructive method to map the thickness distribution of the converter layer over the grids is shown. The measurements exploit the white-beam neutron radiography technique where the specimen is irradiated at different angles. This experiment has been performed at the IMAT beamline operating at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). The results confirm that this non-destructive, wide-ranging technique allows a reliable and fast sample characterization and that it may be exploited in similar analyses where equivalent requirements are requested.

  • 69.
    Wang, Guilei
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Kolahdouz, M.
    University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
    Luo, Jun
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Qin, Changliang
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Gu, Shihai
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Kong, Zhenzhen
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yin, Xiaogen
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Xiong, Wenjuan
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhao, Xuewei
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Jinbiao
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yang, Tao
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Junfeng
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yin, Huaxiang
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhu, Huilong
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Wenwu
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhao, Chao
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Ye, Tianchun
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Growth of SiGe layers in source and drain regions for 10 nm node complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)2019In: Journal of materials science. Materials in electronics, ISSN 0957-4522, E-ISSN 1573-482XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the integration of Si 1−x Ge x (50% ≤ x ≤ 60%) selective epitaxy on source/drain regions in 10 nm node FinFET has been presented. One of the major process issues was the sensitivity of Si-fins’ shape to ex- and in-situ cleaning prior to epitaxy. For example, the sharpness of Si-fins could easily be damaged during the wafer washing. The results showed that a DHF dip before the normal cleaning, was essential to clean the Si-fins while in-situ annealing in range of 780–800 °C was needed to remove the native oxide for high epitaxial quality. Because of smallness of fins, the induced strain by SiGe could not be directly measured by X-ray beam in a typical XRD tool in the lab or even in a Synchrotron facility. Further analysis using nano-beam diffraction technique in high-resolution transmission electron microscope also failed to provide information about strain in the FinFET structure. Therefore, the induced strain by SiGe was simulated by technology computer-aided design program and the Ge content was measured by using energy dispersive spectroscopy. Simulation results showed 0.8, 1 and 1.3 GPa for Ge content of 40%, 50% and 60%, respectively. A kinetic gas model was also introduced to predict the SiGe profile on Si-fins with sharp triangular shape. The input parameters in the model includes growth temperature, partial pressure of the reactant gases and the exposed Si coverage in the chip area.

  • 70.
    Wunderer, C. B.
    et al.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Correa, J.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Marras, A.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Aplin, S.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Boitrelle, B.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany; Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Goettlicher, P.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Krivan, F.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Kuhn, M.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Lange, S.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Niemann, M.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Okrent, F.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Shevyakov, I.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Zimmer, M.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Guerrini, N.
    RAL, STFC, CMOS Sensor Design, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Marsh, B.
    RAL, STFC, CMOS Sensor Design, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Sedgwick, I.
    RAL, STFC, CMOS Sensor Design, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Cautero, G.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy.
    Giuressi, D.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy.
    Gregori, I.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy.
    Pinaroli, G.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy; Univ Udine, Udine, Italy.
    Menk, R.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy.
    Stebel, L.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy.
    Greer, A.
    Diamond Light Source, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Nicholls, T.
    RAL, STFC, CMOS Sensor Design, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Pedersen, U. K.
    Diamond Light Source, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Tartoni, N.
    Diamond Light Source, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Hyun, H.
    Pohang Accelerator Lab, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, South Korea.
    Kim, K.
    Pohang Accelerator Lab, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, South Korea.
    Rah, S.
    Pohang Accelerator Lab, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, South Korea.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    The Percival 2-Megapixel monolithic active pixel imager2019In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 14, no 1, article id C01006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The peak brilliance reached by today's Free-Electron Laser and Synchrotron light sources requires photon detectors matching their output intensity and other characteristics in order to fully realize the sources' potential. The Pixellated Energy Resolving CMOS Imager, Versatile And Large (Percival) is a dedicated soft X-ray imager (0.25-1 keV) developed for this purpose by a collaboration of DESY, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory/STFC, Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Diamond Light Source, and Pohang Accelerator Laboratory. Following several generations of prototypes, the Percival "P2M" 2-Megapixel imager - a 4.5x5 cm monolithic, stitched sensor with an uninterrupted imaging area of 4x4 cm(2) (1408x1484 pixels of 27x27 mu m - was produced and has demonstrated basic functionality with a first-light image using visible light. It is currently being brought to full operation in a front-illuminated configuration. The readout system being commissioned in parallel has been developed specifically for this imager which will produce - at full 300 Hz frame rate - data at 20 Gbit/s. A first wafer with eight Percival P2M chips has undergone backthinning to enable soft X-ray detection. It has been diced and chips are currently being wirebonded. We summarize here the P2M system, the project status, and show the P2M sensor's first response to visible light.

  • 71.
    Xiong, Wenjuan
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Haojie
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Tingting
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Peng
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Xu, Qing
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, People’s Republic of China.
    Zhao, Xuewei
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, People’s Republic of China.
    Wang, Guilei
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, Yaodong
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Luo, Ying
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Zhihua
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Junfeng
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yu, Jinzhong
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Chao, Zhao
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Wenwu
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    SiNx films and membranes for photonic and MEMS applications2019In: Journal of materials science. Materials in electronics, ISSN 0957-4522, E-ISSN 1573-482XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a novel process to form SiN x films and process for membranes with excellent mechanical properties for micro-electro-mechanical systems application as well as integration as IR waveguide for photonic application. The SiN x films were fabricated in SiNgen apparatus which is a single wafer chamber equipment compared to conventional low pressure chemical vapor deposition furnace process. The films showed low stress, good mechanical properties, but the synthesis also eradicates the issues of particle contamination. Through optimizing of the growth parameters and post annealing profile, low stress (40 Mpa) SiN x film could be finally deposited when annealing temperature rose up to 1150 °C. The stress relaxation is a result of more Si nano-crystalline which was formed during annealing, according to the FTIR results. The mechanical properties, Young’s modulus and hardness, were 210 Gpa and 20 Gpa respectively. For the waveguide application, a stack of three layers, SiO 2 /SiN x /SiO 2 was formed where the optimized layer thicknesses were used for minimum optical loss according to simulation feedback. After deposition of the first two layers in the stack, the samples were annealed in range of 900–1150 °C in order to release the stress. Chemical mechanical polish technique was applied to planarize the nitride layer prior to the oxide cladding layer. Such wafers can be used to bond to Si or Ge to manufacture advanced substrates.

  • 72.
    Xu, Ye
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bader, Sebastian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Magno, Michele
    Dept. of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Mayer, Philipp
    Dept. of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, ETH Zurich.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Energy-autonomous On-rotor RPM Sensor Using Variable Reluctance Energy Harvesting2019In: 2019 IEEE 8th International Workshop on Advances in Sensors and Interfaces (IWASI), IEEE, 2019, p. 175-180, article id 08791251Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy-autonomous wireless sensor systems have the potential to enable condition monitoring without the need for a wired electrical infrastructure or capacity-limited batteries. In this paper, a robust and low-cost energy-autonomous wireless rotational speed sensor is presented, which harvests energy from the rotary motion of its host using the variable reluctance principle. A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope is utilized for angular velocity measurements, and a Bluetooth Low Energy System-on-Chip (SoC) transmits the acquired samples wirelessly. An analysis on the individual subsystems is performed, investigating the output of the energy transducer, the required energy by the load, and energy losses in the whole system. The results of simulations and experimental measurements on a prototype implementation show that the system achieves energy-autonomous operation with sample rates between 1 to 50 Hz already at 10 to 40 rotations per minute. Detailed investigations of the system modules identify the power management having the largest potential for further improvements.

  • 73.
    Xu, Ye
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bader, Sebastian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Design, modeling and optimization of an m-shaped variable reluctance energy harvester for rotating applications2019In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 195, p. 1280-1294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The variable reluctance principle can be used to convert rotational kinetic energy into electrical energy, creating a Variable Reluctance Energy Harvester (VREH) based on electromagnetic induction. This can be used to implement self-sustaining wireless sensors in rotating applications. In this paper, we present and investigate a novel design of a VREH with high volumetric power density that targets low-speed rotating applications. The design uses an m-shaped pole-piece and two opposing magnets. We theoretically analyze key design parameters that influence the VREH’s output power, and relate these parameters to geometrical design factors of the proposed structure. Key design factors include the coil height, the permanent magnet height and the tooth height. A method based on numerical simulations is introduced, enabling to determine the optimal geometrical dimensions of the proposed structure under given size-constraints. The results demonstrate that the method leads to optimal structure configurations, which has been evaluated for different cases and is verified experimentally. Good agreement between numerical simulations and experiments are reported with deviations in output power estimation below 3%. The optimized m-shaped VREH, moreover, provides output power levels sufficient for wireless sensor operation, even in low-speed rotating applications.

  • 74.
    Zhang, Renyun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olsen, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Interaction of the human body with triboelectric nanogenerators2019In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 57, p. 279-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) is a new technique for energy harvesting at both small and large scales. Almost all types of mechanical energy can be harvested with TENGs by using four modes of operation that cover almost all mechanical motions. The interactions of the human body with TENGs range from energy harvesting, motion sensing, and biomedical applications to human-computer communications. Different types of TENGs have been developed to directly or indirectly involve the human body. This review will summarize the recent advances in the interaction of the human body with TENGs.

  • 75.
    Zhang, Renyun
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Yang, Ya
    Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, PR China.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Balliu, Enkeleda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Blomquist, Nicklas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Engholm, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Olsen, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Wang, Zhong Lin
    Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, PR China; Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Sensing body motions based on charges generated on the body2019In: Nano Energy, ISSN 2211-2855, E-ISSN 2211-3282, Vol. 63, article id 103842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sensing of body motions is of great importance in areas such as healthcare, rehabilitation, and human-computer interactions. Different methods have been developed based on visual or electrical signals. However, such signals are acquired by external devices and are not intrinsic signals that are created on the body. Here, we report a new universal body motion sensor (UBS) to detect motions based on the intrinsic contact electrification (CE) of the skin or electrical induction (EI) of the body. The CE or EI generates charges on the body, leading to potential differences between the body and ground that can be measured to identify different body motions, such as motions of the head, arms, fingers, waist, legs, feet and toes. Proof-of-concept experiments have demonstrated that the UBS can be used to monitor the conditions of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to quantitatively monitor the recovery of those with a leg injury, suggesting great potential for healthcare applications.

  • 76.
    Zhao, Mingxuan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Paper Printing Circuit Based on Inductively Coupled Wireless Transmission2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is about how to design and fabricated a wireless energy

    transfer system which is printed on flexible photo paper. That is a

    technology used to print conducting tracks on paper, or even entire

    circuit system.

    The circuit of wireless energy transmission is half bridge converter with

    spiral coil as the inductance which are etching in primary side and

    printing in secondary side.The procedure of fabrication will be

    introduced.

    While realizing the feasible simulation circuit, the optimal transmission

    energy system components are mounted according to the requirements.

    While looking for the best efficiency, it’s also neccessary to consider the

    appropriate size of the system. In the end of this report there will be

    some analysis which is aimed to identify where the largest electrical

    losses are located.

    Compared with ordinary PCB circuit board, printed circuit on paper

    makes the whole system very flexible and portable. When the primary

    side as close with secondary side, The efficiency is almost 72% while the

    60Ω as the load. The output power is 10.68w.

    On the other hand, the ink of printed circuit on paper has high resistivity,

    which affects the efficiency of radio power system. However, for different

    paper substrates, the efficiency of wireless charging system will not be

    affected.

  • 77.
    Zhao, Xuewei
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Moeen, M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Toprak, M. S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Wang, G.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Luo, J.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Ke, X.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, Z.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Liu, D.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Wang, W.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhao, C.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Design impact on the performance of Ge PIN photodetectors2019In: Journal of materials science. Materials in electronics, ISSN 0957-4522, E-ISSN 1573-482XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the impact of epitaxial quality, contact resistance and profile of Ge PIN photodetectors (PDs) on dark current and responsivity. The PD structures were processed with either selectively grown Ge with integrated waveguides on SOI wafer or globally grown Ge on the entire wafer. The contact resistance was lowered by introducing NiGe layer prior to the metallization. The n-type doped Ge PIN structure was formed by ion implantation and the contact resistivity was estimated to 2.6 × 10 −4  Ω cm 2 . This value is rather high and it is believed to be due to fomation of defects during implantation. The results show a minor difference in dark currents for selectively and globally grown PDs but in both types, it depends on detector area and the epitaxial quality of Ge. For example, the threading dislocation density (TDD) in non-selectively grown PDs with thickness of 1 µm was estimated to be 10 6  cm −2 yielding relatively low dark currents while it dramatically changes for PDs with thinner Ge layers where TDD increases to 10 8  cm −2 and the dark current levels increase almost by 1.5 magnitude. Surprisingly, for selectively grown PDs with Ge thickness of 500 nm, TDD was still low resulting in low dark currents. The dark current densities at − 1 V bias of non-selectively and selectively grown PDs with optimized profile were measured to be 5 mA/cm 2 and 47 mA/cm 2 , respectively, while the responsivity of these detectors were 0.17 A/W and 0.46 A/W at λ ~ 1.55 µm, respectively. Excellent performance for selectively grown PD shows an appropriate choice for detection of 1.55 µm wavelength. 

  • 78.
    Åkerlind, Marcus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Elnätsplanering i framtida bostadsområden: Med påverkan från solceller och elbilsladdare2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal with this work was to study how micro-production with solar cells and charging of electric cars in our households will look like in the future and whether the electricity quality, the capacity of the distribution network, the release conditions and the electricity grid dimensioning in new residential areas are affected by this. Two different scenarios have been developed, where what distinguishes them is how many percent of households have electric car chargers and solar cell production. The two scenarios are then compared with how it currently looks to get an idea of what is needed in future electricity grid dimensioning. Two extreme cases are used where maximum production and minimal consumption in summer are compared with maximum consumption and no production in winter.

    The work shows that the total power consumption increases with the percentage increase of electric car chargers and solar cell installations, which means that new residential areas must be dimensioned for higher load currents. This results in larger transformers and that cables with larger conductor areas must be used to cope with the increased power. The voltage variations increase, which means that the acceptance limits in some cases cannot be kept. During simulation and calculations, it was found that the triggering conditions for all inter-connection points and connection points against housing were within the limit value of five seconds and that the selectivity was good in the sub-sections that were tested.

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