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  • 51.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Koptioug, Andrei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    People and Skis2006In: Science-First Hand, ISSN 1810-8520, no 3, p. 110-125Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 52.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Development of a multi-tooth approach to tool condition monitoring in milling1998In: Insight (Northampton), ISSN 1354-2575, E-ISSN 1754-4904, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 548-552Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Integration of real-time quality control and process monitoringManuscript (preprint) (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Integration of real-time quality control and process monitoring2000In: The 33rd CIRP International Seminar on Manufacturing Systems : the manufacturing systems in its human context : a tool to extend the global welfare : 5-7 June, 2000, Stockholm, Sweden : proceedings.: CIRP International Seminar on Manufacturing Systems (33 : 2000 : Stockholm), Sth.: KTH, Inst.för farkost och flyg , 2000, p. 438-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    On the application of quality function deployment in integrated supervisory process control2000In: IMechE conference transactions, 2000, Vol. 2000, no 5, p. 531-540Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    On the use of neural networks and statistical methods in the integrated supervisory process control concept1999Report (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    QFD as a tool to improve quality control in a complex manufacturing environment2004In: The Asian Journal on Quality, ISSN 1598-2688, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 10-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Bäckström, Mikael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    QFD as a Tool to Improve Quality Control in a Complex Manufacturing Environment2003In: Proceedings of The Sixth Quality Management and Organisational Development Conference (QMOD 2003) Paris, France 1-3 october 2003 - Paris, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 59. Böhm, S
    et al.
    Müller, A
    Schippers, S
    Shi, W
    Fogle, M
    Glans, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Schuch, R
    Danared, H
    Experimental NV and NeVIII low-temperature dielectronic recombination rate coefficients2005In: Astronomy & Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, Vol. 437, no 3, p. 1151-1157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dielectronic recombination rate coefficients of Nv and Ne viii ions have been measured at a heavy-ion storage ring. The investigated energy ranges covered all dielectronic recombination resonances attached to 2s -> 2p (delta_n = 0) core excitations. The rate coefficients in a plasma are derived and parameterized by using a convenient fit formula. The experimentally derived rate coefficients are compared with theoretical data by Colgan et al. (2004, A&A, 417, 1183) and Nahar & Pradhan (1997, ApJ, 111, 339) as well as with the recommended rate coefficients by Mazzotta et al. (1998, A&A, 133, 403). The data of Colgan et al. and Nahar & Pradhan reproduce the experiment very well over the temperature ranges where Nv and Ne viii are expected to exist in photoionized as well as in collisionally ionized plasmas. In contrast the recommendation of Mazzotta et al. agrees with the experimental rate coefficient only in the collisionally ionized temperature range. At lower temperatures it deviates from the measured rate coefficient by orders of magnitude. In addition the influence of external electric fields with field strengths up to 1300 V/cm on the dielectronic recombination rate coefficient has been investigated.

  • 60. Böhm, S
    et al.
    Schippers, S
    Shi, W
    Muller, A
    Djuric, N
    Dunn, G.H.
    Zong, W
    Jelencovic, B
    Eklöw, N
    Glans, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Schuch, R
    Danared, H
    Badnell, N.R.
    Influence of electromagnetic fields on the dielectronic recombination of Ne7+ and O5+ ions2001In: Physica Scripta. Topical Issues, ISSN 0281-1847, Vol. T92, p. 395-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within a series of measurements of the dielectronic recombination (DR) of lithium-like ions we have determined the enhancement of the recombination rate in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields for Ne7+ and O5+ ions. In both cases the electron energy range covers a DR resonances attached to 2s --> 2p(1/2) and 2s --> 2p(3/2) Delta_n = 0 core excitations. For increasing field the enhancement factor first increases linearly with the electric field and then saturates. In order to investigate the field effect on high-n Rydberg states the ion energy in the O5+ experiment was changed from 9.4 MeV/u to 5 MeV/u and 3.26 MeV/u. With the variation of the ion energy the field ionization of Rydberg states in the analyzing magnet is influenced. This enabled us to study the field enhancement for a narrow bandwidth of n-states.

  • 61. Böhm, S
    et al.
    Schippers, S
    Shi, W
    Muller, A
    Djuric, N
    Dunn, G.H.
    Zong, W
    Jelenkovic, B
    Danared, H
    Eklöw, N
    Glans, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Schuch, R
    Badnell, N.R.
    Enhancement of dielectronic recombination by external electromagnetic fields2003In: Hyperfine Interactions, ISSN 0304-3843, Vol. 146-147, no 1-4, p. 23-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The enhancement of the dielectronic recombination rate of lithiumlike Ne7+ and O5+ ions by external electromagnetic fields has been measured at the storage ring CRYRING. The energy range covered all 1s(2)2pnl dielectronic recombination resonances attached to the 2s --> 2p core excitation. Electric fields up to 1436 V/cm were applied in the Ne7+ experiment and the saturation of the enhancement with increasing electric field could clearly be seen. In the O5+ experiment the enhancement was studied as a function of the Rydberg quantum number n.

  • 62. Böhm, S
    et al.
    Schippers, S
    Shi, W
    Muller, A
    Djuric, N
    Dunn, G.H.
    Zong, W
    Jelenkovich, B
    Danared, H
    Eklöw, N
    Glans, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Schuch, R
    Influence of electromagnetic fields on the dielectronic recombination of Ne7+ ions2001In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 032707/1-032707/7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of crossed electric and magnetic fields on dielectronic recombination of Ne7+ ions has been measured at the Stockholm heavy-ion storage ring CRYRING. The electron energy range covered all dielectronic recombination resonances attached to 2s-2p1/2 and 2s-2p3/2 core excitations. Two sets of measurements at magnetic fields of 180 mT and 30 mT have been performed. For the measurement at 180 mT we applied 25 different electric fields between 0 and 1400 V/cm. The resonance strength for dielectronic recombination via high Rydberg states initially increases linearly with electric field and later levels out. At a magnetic field of 30 mT we applied 15 different electric fields ranging from 0 to 140 V/cm. Compared to the measurement at 180 mT the initial slope of the rate enhancement was larger by almost a factor of 2. The fraction of resonant strength not measured due to field ionization is estimated by a model calculation of dielectronic recombination cross sections.

  • 63. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Biomass transportation1996In: Renewable energy, energy efficiency and the environment: World Renewable Energy Congress, 15-21 June 1996, Denver, Colorado, USA, 1996, p. 1033-1036Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive utilisation of logging residues, straw, and energy crops will lead to short transportation distances and thus low transportation costs. The average distance of transportation of biomass to a large-scale conversion slant. suitable for electricitv or methanol uroduction using 300 000 drv tonne biomass vearlv, will be about 30 km in Sweden, if the conversion plant is located at the centre of ihe biomass production area. The estimated Swedish biomass potential of 430 PJ/yr is based on production conditions around 2015, assuming that 30% of the available arable land is used for energy crop production. With present production conditions, resulting in a biomass potential of 220 PJ/yr, the transportation distance is about 42 km. The cost of transporting biomass 30-42 km will be equivalent to 20-25% of the total biomass cost. The total energy efficiency of biomass production and transportation will be 9597%, where the energy losses from transportation are about 20%. Biomass transportation will contribute less than 10% to the total NO,, CO, and HC emissions from biomass production, transportation, and conversion

  • 64. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Greenhouse Gas Balances in Building Construction: Wood versus Concrete from Lifecycle and Forest Land-Use Perspectives2000In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 575-588Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 65. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Greenhouse Gas Emission from Building Construction in a Life-Cycle Perspective - Wood or Concrete?1998In: Proceedings of the 1998 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings: ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings ; 10 : 1998., Washington: American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy , 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 66. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Reduction of CO2 emissions from changed land use and substitution of biomass for fossil fuels1997In: International Conference on Technologies for Activities Implemented Jointly <1997, Vancouver, British Columbia>: Technologies for activities implemented jointly ; proceedings of the conference, 26th - 29th May 1997, Vancouver, Canada, Amsterdam: Elsevier , 1997, p. 777-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 67. Börjesson, Pål
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Regional Production and Utilization of Biomass in Sweden1996In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 747-764Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 68. Canadel, Josep G.
    et al.
    Le Quere, Corrine
    Raupach, Michael R
    Field, Christopher B
    Buitenhuis, Erik T
    Ciais, Philippe
    Conway, Thomas J
    Gillett, Nathan P
    Houghton, R. A.
    Marland, Gregg
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks2007In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 104, no 47, p. 18866-18870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), the largest human contributor to human-induced climate change, is increasing rapidly. Three processes contribute to this rapid increase. Two of these processes concern emissions. Recent growth of the world economy combined with an increase in its carbon intensity have led to rapid growth in fossil fuel CO2 emissions since 2000: comparing the 1990s with 2000–2006, the emissions growth rate increased from 1.3% to 3.3% y −1. The third process is indicated by increasing evidence (P = 0.89) for a long-term (50-year) increase in the airborne fraction (AF) of CO2 emissions, implying a decline in the efficiency of CO2 sinks on land and oceans in absorbing anthropogenic emissions. Since 2000, the contributions of these three factors to the increase in the atmospheric CO2 growth rate have been ≈65 ± 16% from increasing global economic activity, 17 ± 6% from the increasing carbon intensity of the global economy, and 18 ± 15% from the increase in AF. An increasing AF is consistent with results of climate–carbon cycle models, but the magnitude of the observed signal appears larger than that estimated by models. All of these changes characterize a carbon cycle that is generating stronger-than-expected and sooner-than-expected climate forcing.

  • 69.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    A Review of Radial Segregation in Crystal Growth during Microgravity2006In: Progress in crystal growth and characterization of materials, ISSN 0960-8974, E-ISSN 1878-4208, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 213-222Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review describes radial segregation results from crystal growth experiments in microgravity, together with their corre-sponding theoretical treatments. The paper is structured in terms of the different factors influencing radial segregation during crystal growth, such as: curved growth interfaces, variations in boundary layer thicknesses, weak convection, facets and magnetic fields. In a number of experiments considerably stronger radial segregation occurs in space than is normally observed on earth. The theoretical treatments lead to a sound understanding of all of the results. Possible ways to avoid the problem, such as the application of magnetic fields, are outlined.

  • 70.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Experimental Study of Radial Segregation Caused by Weak Convection2005In: Microgravity, science and technology, ISSN 0938-0108, E-ISSN 1875-0494, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 35-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under conditions of weak convection in the liquid during metal solidification and crystal growth, large chemical inhomogeneities can occur due to insufficient mixing of the melt. In this project a series of experiments with increasing melt flow, driven by thermo-capillary forces, have been performed in a Get Away Special flight. The level of convection was evaluated quantitatively from analysis of axial segregation profiles. As expected a significantly stronger radial segregation has occurred in the space grown material compared to ground based reference experiments. It was also found that there was a shift of the position of maximum concentration when the flow was increased. Unexpected axial solute maxima were also revealed in the space samples. A comparison was made to numerical simulations, and good correlations were found to first order effects.

  • 71.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Radial Segregation during Microgravity Experiments: Presented at The International Conference on Advances in Solidification Processing, Stockholm, Sweden, June 20052005Conference paper (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Under conditions of weak convection in the liquid during metal solidification and crystal growth, large chemical inhomogeneities can occur due to insuffi-cient mixing of the melt. In this project a series of experiments with increasing melt flow, driven by thermo-capillary forces, have been performed in a Get Away Special flight. The level of convection was evaluated quanti-tatively from analysis of axial segregation profiles. As expected a significantly stronger radial segre-gation has occurred in the space grown mate-rial compared to ground based reference experiments. It was also found that there was a shift of the position of max-imum concentration when the flow was in-creased. Unexpected axial solute maxima were also revealed in the space samples. A comparison was made to numerical simulations, and good correla-tions were found to first order effects.

  • 72.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Jaradeh, Majed
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Kamgou Kamga, H.
    Solidification Studies of Automotive Heat Exchanger Materials2006In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 58, no 11, p. 56-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the aluminium alloy AA 3003 different modifications of that alloy family have been studied to improve and tailor the properties of the material for its applications in automotive heat exchangers. Laboratory techniques have been applied to simulate industrial DC-casting, together with some basic solidification studies. The results are coupled to structures observed in industrial size ingots and discussed in terms of structure property relations.

  • 73.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Winkler, C.
    Amberg, G.
    Weak Convection Influencing Radial Segregation2000In: European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP, 2000, Vol. 454 I, p. 431-436Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of weak convection, caused by surface tension forces, on radial segregation occuring in crystals grown under microgravity conditions is studied in a project involving both numerical simulations and space experiments. The geometry studied is a Bridgman configuration with a partially coated surface. Small slots in the coating give free surface in a controlled way, and the free surface area is the parameter in the investigation. The experiments will be performed in a GAS module, which will be flown in the beginning of year 2001. The paper presents the experimental technique in detail as well as some results obtained during the development phase. Numerical simulations have been performed and results of how the radial segregation varies with the convection level will be presented. The project is the first phase of a research program, which will continue with experiments in the ISS.

  • 74.
    Carlehed, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Comparison of the pluricomplex and the classical Green funcions1998In: The Michigan mathematical journal, ISSN 0026-2285, E-ISSN 1945-2365, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 399-407Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Carlehed, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Comparison of the pluricomplex and the classical Green functions1997Report (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Carlehed, Magnus
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Cegrell, Urban
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Wikström, Frank
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Jensen measures, hyperconvexity and boundary behaviour of the pluricomplex Green function1999In: Annales Polonici Mathematici, ISSN 0066-2216, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 87-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We characterise hyperconvexity in terms of Jensen measures with barycentre at a boundary point. We also give an explicit formula for the pluricomplex Green function in the Hartogs' triangle. Finally we study the behaviour of the pluricomplex Green function $g(z,w)$ as the pole $w$ tends to a boundary point.

  • 77.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Adaptiv miljöplanering nästa2003In: Miljörätten i förändring: en antologi, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2003, p. 328-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Befolkningsfrågan - från överbefolkning till framtida generationer2001In: Fågelperspektiv på rättsordningen: vänbok till Staffan Westerlund, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2001, p. 335-351Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Framtiden i förfädernas händer: Om äganderätt och annan rätt till marken från landskapslagarna till modern tid ur ett miljörättsligt perspektiv2000Book (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    The Resource Management Act 1991 through external eyes2007In: New Zealand Journal of Environmental Law, ISSN 1174-1538, Vol. 11, p. 181-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Resource Management Act 1991 was drafted for sustainability and probably still reflects the state of the art as regards environmental legislation for sustainable development. Modern theory of environmental law methodology has to a high extent focused on implementation deficits based on the significance of law in rule of law countries and consequently on the concept of legal operationalisation of environmental goals (ultimately ecological sustainability). This not only puts, inter alia, balancing in a new light but also calls for systemic thinking and reconsideration of bottom-up approaches. What, then, is to be legally operationalised under the RMA and are there counterproductive functions, explicit or implicit, in it? This is discussed in depth, putting the RMA planning system at the centre and observing the lack of far-reaching substantive standards and obscurities as regards goals and means. The discussion reflects theory of environmental law methodology, systems theory, and the issue of non-linearity of ecosystems, also when the role of courts is elaborated.

  • 81.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    The rule of sustainability and planning adaptivity2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 163-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article confronts present main stream planning approaches against the perspective of ecological sustainability, as relevant for Rule of Law countries and based on a modern environmental law approach. It discusses the setting and implementation of environmental goals against the general experience of massive implementation deficits regarding environmental policies all over the world. In this confrontation, environmental planning, with at least some principles picked up from New Zealand's Resource Management Act, and much more taken from modern environmental law theory on legal operationalisation, is compared to adaptive management approaches which also allow for modifying the environment related goal if implementation fails or seems very difficult. The concept of adaptive environmental planning (AEP) is suggested as a possible road to choose for planning for sustainability, while maximizing development within the framework legally defined by means of environmental limits. This article presents five criteria, all of which must be met by AEP planning. One of these relates to a planning hierarchy which, among other things, leads to the conclusion that coastal planning, if it is intended to aim at sustainability, can not be dealt with in isolation, although such planning might have to meet very complex problems at the regional level.

  • 82. Carlsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Persson, Gerd
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Lindström, Birger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Competition Between Monovalent and Divalent Counterions in a Surfactant / Water System1996In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 180, no 2, p. 598-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Competition between mono- and divalent ions in the association of counterions to the headgroups of amphiphiles was studied in one surfactant system with organic counterions (piperidine+/piperazine2+octanesulfonate) and one with inorganic counterions (Na+/Ca2+octyl sulfate). By conductivity and13C NMR chemical shift measurements the critical micelle concentration (CMC) was found to decrease drastically when small amounts of divalent counterions were present in the system. Self-diffusion coefficients of surfactant ions and organic counterions were measured in the micellar phase by the Fourier transform pulsed-gradient spin-echo (FT-PGSE) NMR method. The degree of counterion binding in the micellar system with piperidine+/piperazine2+counterions was obtained from FT-PGSE NMR measurements. It was observed that the divalent counterions were more strongly bound than the monovalent counterions. The experimental results were compared with theoretical Poisson–Boltzmann calculations. The cell model was used to study the electrostatic effects. Good agreement between electrostatic theory and experiment was observed; however, an attractive force exists between the monovalent piperidine counterions and the micelle, probably because of hydrophobic interactions.

  • 83. Carlsson, Linus
    et al.
    Cegrell, Urban
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Fällström, Anders
    Spectrum of certain Banach algebras and б-problems2007In: Annales Polonici Mathematici, ISSN 0066-2216, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 51-58Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 84.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Distributed optimization with a two-dimensional drying model of a board, built up by sapwood and heartwood2001In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 426-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimization with distributed computing is performed on a two-dimensional orthotropic drying model which allows boards with arbitrary outtake of the log and sapwood/heartwood distribution in the cross section. Drying schedules with an optimized variation of temperature and humidity which yields minimized drying time are created at the same time as moisture, stress and deformation levels are considered. A numerical example with distributed computing of a board with a mixture of sapwood and heartwood is presented. Drying starts from the fibre saturation point.

  • 85.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Irreversibel termodynamik i trätorkningssammanhang1994Report (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Optimization of the Wood Drying Process1997Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 87.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Optimized Wood Manufactoring with Main Focus on Wood Drying2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Promote IT 2005: Proceedings of the fifth Conference for the Promotion of Research in IT at New Universities and University Colleges in Sweden - Borlänge, Sweden 11-13 May, 2005 / editied by Janis Bubenko jr2005In: Promote IT 2005: Proceedings of the fifth Conference for the Promotion of Research in IT at New Universities and University Colleges in Sweden - Borlänge, Sweden 11-13 May, 2005 / editied by Janis Bubenko jr, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2005, , p. 460Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 89.
    Carlsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Arfvidsson, J
    Optimized wood drying1999In: Wood Drying research and technology for sustainable forestry beyond 2000 : , 1999, Stellenbosch, South Africa.: 6th International IUFRO Conference on Wood Drying, 25-28 January, 1999, Matieland, South Africa: Dept. of Wood Science, Faculty of Forestry , 1999, p. 310-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 90.
    Carlsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Arfvidsson, J
    Optimized wood drying2000In: Drying Technology, ISSN 0737-3937, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 1779-1796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonlinear programming methods are used to create effective drying schedules for boards. A two-dimensional. orthotropic drying model is connected to an optimization routine that solves convex sub-problems. The iterative optimi7ation program calculates the drying schedule. i.e. the variation of temperature and humidity with time, that gives the shortest drying time for a board with prescribed upper and lower level of the moisture content. To demonstrate the capability of the technique. numerical results are presented.

  • 91.
    Carlsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Esping, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Optimization of the wood drying process1997In: Structural Optimization, ISSN 0934-4373, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 232-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern optimization methods offer tools to create new, and to modify existing wood drying schedules. The total drying time can be minimized, at the sazne time as both the moisture content and the deformation after completed drying are within acceptable limits. The stress levels during drying are also considered.

  • 92.
    Carlsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Esping, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Dahlblom, O
    Ormarsson, S
    Söderström, O
    Optimization, a tool with which to create an effective drying schedule1998In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 530-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for defining effective schedules for kiln drying of wood is presented. The method is designed in such a way that it proposes an optimized variation of temperature and humidity which yields the minimum total drying time, with the condition that the moisture content and the deformation not exceed specified limits after the drying and that the stress not exceeds a specified level at any time during the drying process in order to avoid crack development. To demonstrate the capability of the optimization method numerical results are presented. It should be noted that ill this first approach, drying starts from moisture content corresponding to the fibre-saturation point, i.e. approximate to 30%).

  • 93.
    Carlsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Esping, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Dahlblom, Ola
    Optimization of the wood-drying process.1996In: Quality Wood Drying Through Process Modelling and Novel Technologies, Quebec Canada, Aug. 13-17, 1996: 5th International IUFRO Conference on Wood Drying, 25-28 January, 1999, Sainte-Foy, Québec: Forintek Canada Corp , 1996, p. 559-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 94.
    Carlsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    A combined laminate and honeycomb wood model for softwood used for numerical optimization of a violin top2002In: Forum Acusticum Sevilla 2002 : 3rd European congress on accoustics, XXXIII Spanish congress on accoustics, TECNIACUSTICA 2002, European and Japanese congress on acoustics, 3rd Iberian congress on acoustics. Sevilla, Spain 16-20 September 2002, Madrid Madrid: Soc. Espanola de Acústica , 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Carlsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    A distributed computing system used for concurrent optimization methods on a violin top2003In: Structural and multidisciplinary optimization (Print), ISSN 1615-147X, E-ISSN 1615-1488, Vol. 25, no 5/6, p. 453-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concurrent optimization is performed with two optimization methods on a violin top. The optimization methods used are SA (Simulated Annealing) and MMA (Method of Moving Asymptotes). All calculations in this study are made in a distributed environment for arbitrary processing. The distributed environment is constructed using extended File Servers running on remote computers and clients on a local computer, which can transfer, start, terminate, and finally remove arbitrary Java RMI Servers from the remote computers. The required processing is performed with the RMI Servers.

  • 96.
    Carlsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Determination of important wood properties for blanks for violin tops by the use of numerical optimization.2003In: Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, August 6-9, 2003 (SMAC 03), Stockholm, Sweden Edited by Roberto Bresin, Sth: KTH , 2003, p. 428-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the strive of understanding how different parameters affects the vibration properties and the characteristics of the sound emanating from a violin, i.e. what makes a good violin good, numerical methods as FEM (finite element method) and BEM (boundary element method) are used. Numerical models of whole violins and/or part of it is created and studied. Crucial for the results from these studies is the correctness of the input data for the numerical analysis. One important group of input data is the wooden material parameters for the part of the violin subjected to analysis. In this study a new method for determining these important material parameters for blanks for violin tops is proposed. In the proposed method a FEM-code is linked together with a stochastic optimization algorithm in order to, in an automatic fashion, determine the material parameters. The method requires the geometrical dimensions, the density, and measured normal modes for the blank and it consider the fact that the Young’s modulus in the axial direction varies with respect to the radial direction.

  • 97.
    Carlsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Geometrical compensation for varying material properties in bows by the use of numerical optimization2007In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 145-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood for violin bows from the pernambuco tree shows large variations in density. For high quality bows, the higher densities are preferred. Since pernambuco is rare and expensive, it is of interest to investigate if it is possible to compensate for variations in density between blanks for bows; particularly in such a way that important qualities of high quality bows are maintained in bows made of wood with a lower density. In this study, numerical optimization is used to replicate some of the static and dynamic properties of a reference bow, using wood with 10% lower density. The structural calculations of the bow are made with a finite element program (ANSYS), which is coupled to an external optimization routine. The automatic optimization process is performed using the Method of Moving Asymptotes. Included are also some remarks on how homogenous scaling of the cross section of a bow of constant length affects some of the static and dynamic properties when used as compensation for density variations.

  • 98.
    Carlsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Numerical optimization of geometrical dimensions and determination of material parameters for violin tops2002In: Forum Acusticum Sevilla 2002 : 3rd European congress on accoustics, XXXIII Spanish congress on accoustics, TECNIACUSTICA 2002, European and Japanese congress on acoustics, 3rd Iberian congress on acoustics. Sevilla, Spain 16-20 September 2002, Madrid: Soc.Espanola de Acústica , 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Carlsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Numerical optimization of violin bows with varying densities of the wood material2003In: Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, August 6-9, 2003 (SMAC 03), Stockholm, Sweden, Stockholm: KTH , 2003, p. 423-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wood material for violin bows from the pernambuco tree (Caesalpina echinata) has large individual variations in the density. For high quality bows, the higher densities are preferred, but since pernambuco is rather rare and expensive, it is of interest to investigate if it is possible to compensate for density variations in the wood material, at the same time as important qualities of the bow are unchanged. In this study, numerical optimization is used to recover the static and dynamic properties of a reference bow, on a bow with 10% lower density. The structural calculations of the bows are made with a umerical model in the finite element program ANSYS, which in its is coupled to an external, gradient based optimiztion routine. The automatic optimization process is performed with a routine called the Method of Moving Asymptotes (MMA).

  • 100.
    Carlsson, Peter
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Optimization of a violin top with a combined laminate and honeycomb model of the wood material2003In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 101-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stochastic optimization with the simulated annealing method (SA) is performed on a violin top made of Norway spruce (Picea Abies). A numerical example is presented which shows that it is possible, through changes in thickness variables, to compensate for changes in vibration properties caused by a variation in the material parameters in the top. A material model is also presented for the blank which considers the influence of density variations in the annual rings, the cellular structure of wood and reinforcement from the wood rays.

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