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  • 51.
    Afrim, Philip
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Kartläggning och identifiering av flaskhalsar inom arbetsprocesser för bagagehantering: Kartlägga och analysera förutsättningarna för en effektivare bagagehanteringsprocess för avgående bagage på Landvetter flygplats med hjälp av VSM, ABC-Analys och processkartläggningar.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Flygplats logistik

  • 52.
    Agius, Eva
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Bevarande av webbplatser: En kartläggning bland statliga myndigheter i Sverige2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate if Swedish agencies preserve their websites according to the Swedish archival legislations and guidelines. As a theory the OAIS Reference Model (Open Archival Information System, developed by US Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, CCSDS) has been used as a model to show how important it is to develop strategies for public digital information which has to be preserved for long term. The ingest function in the OAIS Reference Model demands that files are prepared for long term preservation and requires that the digital information fulfils established technical requirements.

    In the study the Swedish National Archive and their advices about preserving websites to archivists on the Swedish agencies are being studied. To control if the agencies meet the requirements for their management and preservation of their websites a survey was sent out to investigate if Swedish agencies preserve their websites.

     

    According to the survey result, 84 of 113 agencies preserve their websites in some way. If the technical requirements really was met could not be verified in this thesis, the results was relied on the responses from the authorities. The study showed that agencies requested clearer rules in the field of preservation of websites, but also that some agencies wasn’t aware of the regulations and the significance in this issue.

     

    The conclusion of the study is that the agencies might need to update themselves on important legislation and guidance in this area. The study also shows that the National Archive must be clearer with their information on long term storage of government agencies websites.

  • 53.
    Agius, Eva
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Archives and Computer Science.
    Handläggares praktiska makt över bevarande och gallring: En studie hos svenska statliga myndigheter2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a suspicion of increased destruction of documents when the Administrative Officer manages the records appraisal in Swedish government authorities, which can lead to a problem regarding the transparency and public access to information. The aim of this thesis was to contribute with knowledge about in which extent an Administrative Officer has the power over practical records appraisal in Swedish government authorities and to find out if the practical power depended on activities within the agencies.

     

    Interviews with Archivists and Administrative Officers at two different Swedish government authorities were conducted in order to see if the activities within the authorities affected how Administrative Officers handled the records appraisal. The study involved a small and a large authority to examine whether different activities could affect the practical power over records appraisal.

     

    The activity theory was used to introduce, present and analyze the survey results. Records Continuum Model is another theory model that was highlighted in the thesis to show the importance of planning the records management even before a record is created.

     

    The result of the case studies showed that there were records not handled according to the rules and policies for one of the studied authorities. It was revealed that Administrative Officers had some practical power over appraisal. The result also showed that the activities within the authorities strongly affected the practical power which Administrative Officers was given. It was shown that, in an authority with a large number of employees and greater flow of information, the Archivist did not reach out with information and routines to the employees. Administrative Officers also had less time to evaluate information when the number of e-mail was a problem.

  • 54.
    Agrawal, P.
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Ahlén, Anders
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Olofsson, Tomas
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Long Term Channel Characterization for Energy Efficient Transmission in Industrial Environments2014In: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857, Vol. 62, no 8, p. 3004-3014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the challenges for a successful use of wireless sensor networks in process industries is to design networks with energy efficient transmission, to increase the lifetime of the deployed network while maintaining the required latency and bit-error rate. The design of such transmission schemes depend on the radio channel characteristics of the region. This paper presents an investigation of the statistical properties of the radio channel in a typical process industry, particularly when the network is meant to be deployed for a long time duration, e.g., days, weeks, and even months. Using 17–20-h-long extensive measurement campaigns in a rolling mill and a paper mill, we highlight the non-stationarity in the environment and quantify the ability of various distributions, given in the literature, to describe the variations on the links. Finally, we analyze the design of an optimal received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the deployed nodes and show that improper selection of the distribution for modeling of the variations in the channel can lead to an overuse of energy by a factor of four or even higher.

  • 55.
    Agrawal, Piyush
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Ahlén, Anders
    Uppsala University.
    Olofsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Characterization of Long Term Channel Variations in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2014In: IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC'14), IEEE conference proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Ahlberg, Rasmus
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Boström, Isak
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Lokalt, lojalt och betalt: En kvalitativ studie av Mittmedias lansering av nyhetsapplikationer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problemformulering och syfte: Lokaltidningarnas pappersupplagor minskar i Sverige. De digitala plattformarna blir allt viktigare för mediehusen när människor i allt större utsträckning övergår till att konsumera medier via sina mobiltelefoner. En naturlig del i utvecklingen blir att medierna följer samma väg, för att på det viset också i fortsättningen nå ut till sin publik, och på längre sikt säkra och stärka sin ekonomi. Syftet med vår studie är att undersöka varför svenska lokalmedier väljer att implementera nya tekniker och det gör vi genom att i en fallstudie följa mediekoncernen Mittmedias satsning på mobila och digitala plattformar när koncernen lanserar nyhetsapplikationer och push-notiser under hösten 2015. Vi studerar hur lanseringen förbereds, vilka strategier och drivkrafter som är inblandade och hur lanseringen genomförs på fyra olika redaktioner inom Mittmedia.  Metod och material: Vi inleder med att studera och själva använda test-versionerna av applikationerna och deltar på Mittmedias förberedande möten. Vi genomför sedan kvalitativa och semistrukturerade samtalsintervjuer med digitalchefer på respektive redaktion som ingår i undersökningen, samt den redaktionellt utvecklingsansvarige på Mittmedia. Intervjuerna genomförs dels i samband med att nyhetsapplikationerna släpps ut till allmänheten, dels några veckor senare i uppföljande syfte.  Huvudresultat: Vi kommer fram till tre nyckelord: Lokalt, lojalt och betalt, som tillsammans sammanfattar det breda spektrumet i lanseringen.

  • 57.
    Ahlberg, Rasmus
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Lundberg, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Boström, Isak
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    När journalisten blir supporter: En kvalitativ studie av lokala sportjournalisters förhållande till objektvitet2014Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På journalistutbildningar i Sverige sätts objektivitet i fokus och det är en viktig hörnstenom man vill behålla sin trovärdighet i sin yrkesroll. Angående sportjournalistik finns envanlig uppfattning att objektiviteten sätts åt sidan till förmån för subjektivt tyckande. Desom blir mest ifrågasatta är framförallt lokala tidningar som följer ortens lag. Därför vill viundersöka hur journalisterna ser på sin egen objektivitet och om de är medvetna omproblematiken. Vi har genomfört två djupintervjuer med lokala sportjournalisterhemmahörande i Karlstad och Skellefteå. Till grund för detta har vi gjort en textanalys sombehandlar SM-finalserien i ishockey 2014 mellan Färjestad BK och Skellefteå AIK. De harbåde fått reflektera över sina texter och över objektiviteten i sin yrkesroll. Vi har publiceratderas intervjuer tillsammans en kommentar av problemformuleringen. Resultatet visar påatt journalisterna är medvetna om bristerna men att det finns en subjektivitet som till stordel sker på ett omedvetet plan.

    !" # $%! &'( &%) *& +!" (&% ,--./ +!0Vårt syfte med denna uppsats är att undersöka lokalasportjournalisters förhållning till rapporterandet av det egna laget.1+! 2 30+! 4" +! +50+6 & & !+0& 5

  • 58.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    A generalized view of the nature of Benefit of Information2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seeking out and understanding the benefits of information are essential to an organization. Internal in an organization it is important to understand created benefit in order to communicate, prioritize and increase or decrease prioritization in strategically important business areas. In modern society digitalized information is an area that is on the increase in enterprises, as is the knowledge that information is of importance. Therefore there should be a demand for understanding and measuring the beneficial factors that information gives an organization. In this study, empirical material was collected in a literature study from journals highly ranked in the Information Systems Area and with special focus on the benefit of information. The perspective of the study has been intra organizational. The purpose is to derive found benefit factors and use them as a basis to discuss and problematize on the nature of benefit of information and hereby give organizations help to understand this area.

  • 59.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Approaching the intangible benefits of a boundary object2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today´s information society is constantly increasing the quantity of digital information that organisations have access to and depend on. Despite this dependency, few descriptions exist of the benefits which this digital information can provide the organisation with. Examples of what the organisation can use the information for include business intelligence or in a business process. The absence of such benefit descriptions results in missed opportunities in organisational management and a failure to cultivate the artefact. In terms of a practical operational work role, this means that the artefact just exists and that there are no decisions, communication and discussions connected to it. Earlier research about benefits in the Information Systems field is focused on describing the process of finding benefit factors from different IT investments and how these investments can be measured financially. The result of this was that it was only the measurable benefits that were taken into consideration. Later benefit management research has shown interest in the intangible benefit factors as well and added this as an activity in the evaluation process. Today´s view is that the benefit consists both of tangible and intangible benefit factors. This thesis emphasises benefit factors found by means of qualitative research in organisations producing Technical Information (TI). TI isinformation connected to goods and services and is a part of a product. The intangible benefit factors found which are connected to TI are semantic interoperability and knowledge. Semantic interoperability is beneficial both for the organisation and the individuals – in the first case exemplified by a uniform working process and in the second as efficiency in the internal communication. Knowledge also provides benefit both to the organisation and the individuals – the organisation can operate without depending on certain individuals and information gives the individuals mobility in their profession.The next part in the thesis discusses information management´simpact on benefit factors. In the case of an autocratic approach, it is the organisation that benefits most, whereas a decentralised management style provides the individual co-workers with a greater number of benefit factors. This proves that information management is an important and decisive ingredient, and that it affects benefit factors.One step in the direction of converting the intangible benefit factors into tangible ones is to visualise them. In this work the theoreticallens provided by a boundary object has been used. This lens adds a qualitative view on cross-boundary information and has efficiency approaches. These approaches are the syntactical, semantic andpragmatic. Via interpretations from the thesis´s two empirical cases, those approaches are "measured" by interpretations and visualised by the three leaves of a clover. This gives the opportunity to describewhat information efficiency, in this case connected to a positiveexpectation, can contribute to the organisation or the individuals. By this procedure, different cases or time aspects can be compared,thereby providing a basis for decision-making, communication and discussion. Future research in this area can be made in different directions – one is to investigate whether the intangible benefit factors can be turned into measurable ones. In this way, the internal organisation can be provided with better knowledge of the digital information's impact. Another research direction is to investigate how the passage of time affects the benefit factors that digital information gives the organisation.

  • 60.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Aspekter på nyttometoder för teknikinformation ur ett livscykelperspektiv2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 61.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Design and test of a measurement method for the benefits of technical information2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Measuring the Immeasurable?  The Intangible Benefits of Digital Information2019In: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences  2019, Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences , 2019, p. 6176-6185Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits of digital information are mostly viewed as intangible, meaning that they can be hard to measure. This lack of measurements makes the benefits difficult to compare and communicate, creating problems for e.g. decision-making and the strategic development of specific digital information. Therefore, I conducted a literature review to find out how the combination of intangible benefits and measurements are dealt with in the information systems field. I found that we measure the intangible benefits of information systems or information technology. Here, the measurement method is divided into input, rule, and output. The input consists of predetermined individual benefits, areas of predetermined benefits, or interpreted benefits from respondents. The rule follows an accepted theory or contextual adjusted rules, and the output (benefit) can be seen as either financial or non-financial. The avenue for further research focuses on the digital information as the primary resource, not information systems or information technology.

  • 63.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Open Data and its Benefits2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Rätt teknikinformation är hårdvaluta som går att mäta2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 65.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The emergence of Service Oriented Architecture from a Business Perspective2011In: Challenges for the Future in an ICT Context...for Stig / [ed] Viveca Asproth, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2011, p. 166-176Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Värdeadderande aktiviteter i produktionsprocessen av TI och tillhörande effektivitetsmätningar2013Report (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Ahmad, Awais
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Determining Testbed Requirements for Technology Enhanced Speech Rehabilitation after Stroke -the Informed Co-workers' View Point2019In: GLOBAL HEALTH 2019: The Eighth International Conference on Global Health Challenges / [ed] Hassan Khachfe, International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2019, p. 20-27Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses and discusses the identified requirements for technology enhanced systems for speech rehabilitation after a stroke. To stroke patients, a speech injury can be devastating, impacting their abilities to speak, listen, read, and write. Therefore, speech therapy is recommended as early as possible. To address the challenge with a growing percentage of older adults, therapy should include a variety of Technology Enhanced Systems (TES) to support the idea of independent living. These systems must be adapted to the patients' needs and speech therapy requirements. Based on a design science approach, requirements were determined from an analysis of ten semi-structured interviews with knowledgeable informants. Findings indicate several important requirements, such as: TES should be motivating, joyful, individualised and built on patients' needs and on speech therapists' professional knowledge. Furthermore, TES services must be user-friendly and provide training in each patient's mother tongue. Added to these requirements are ease of including close relatives as supporting persons, as well as accessibility through portable devices.

  • 68.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Löfstedt, Ulrica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Mårtensson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Åslund, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Projekt Kundanpassad teknikinformation – KATI: Slutrapport – med fokus på förslag på arbetssätt och metoder2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 69.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Ingelsson, Pernilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Information management, Lean and efficiency:  are we focusing on the customer?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine what happens with the internal view an organisation has on information management when a holistic view is diminished into a blinkered view and the consequences it conveys for the customer. The customer consequences are divided into two parts – creation of external customers’ values and creation of value for the internal customer explored in terms of efficiency.

    Methodology/approach – Interviews with both outsourced co-workers and project leaders still in the organization.

    Findings – The organisations lack of listening to the external customer affects all three areas lifted in the analysis. The studied organisations have great opportunities for developing their process for producing TI, both regarding their mutual relationship as well as in regards to the external customer with the help of Lean and by applying a more holistic view on the production of Technical Information.

    Keywords – Information management, Lean, Customer value, Technical Information, Efficiency

    Paper type – Case study

  • 70.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Redesign and Evaluation of a Technology Enhanced Learning Environment for Thesis Supervision2017In: ICERI2017 PROCEEDINGS / [ed] L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez and I. Candel Torres, Sevilla, Spain: The International Academy of Technology, Education and Development, 2017, Vol. 10, p. 636-643Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thesis supervision is an important activity in higher education with Bachelor's and Master's theses mandatory parts of university programmes. In traditional education, thesis supervision has been a face-to-face activity, but today, both the student groups and the learning environments are blended. This study describes and discusses the design and implementation of a blended learning environment for a student group at Mid Sweden University.  The research question that the study aims to answer is:  Which are the important factors in the design of a course for undergraduate students, to facilitate supervision of thesis projects in a technology enhanced environment? 

    This study employed a Design science research strategy with three phases for design, implementation and evaluation of a blended learning environment during thesis supervision. For the first phase, design requirements were specified based on document studies and a literature review. In the second phase (first part), the created design requirements were implemented as an instance in the Moodle virtual learning environment. Second phase (second part), the implemented instance was used as the online part of a blended learning course for students writing their Bachelor's thesis. In the third phase an evaluation was carried out with an online questionnaire were students gave their opinions on course design and teaching and learning sessions.

    Findings show that the learning outcomes were good and that the course aim and the learning objectives were clearly stated. Found important factors for a successful supervision were peer collaboration, multimodality, and technology enhanced interaction.  Remaining challenges are to improve course content and to motivate students for research in the field of Informatics. Most surprising positive finding was that peer situation occurred informally, which deepen their knowledge for thesis writing and presentation. 

  • 71.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Persson Slumpi, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    A Communication-model for Intangible Benefits of Digital Information2015In: 2015 Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The communication of the intangible benefits to different stakeholders is important at the development for organizational resource and could be described as a boundary-spanning activity. In this study we build on Ahlin’s model (2014) and illustrates categorization of intangible benefits of digital information by using Carlile’s (2002; 2004) efficient boundary objects, the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic. Qualitative empirical pictures from three cases are illustrated by questions, derived from the efficient boundary objects. The illustrations show that this is an accessible path forward and that the illustrations can be changed to further research with the goal for practical test the communication model.The communication of the intangible benefits to different stakeholders is important at the development for organizational resource and could be described as a boundary-spanning activity. In this study we build on Ahlin’s model (2014) and illustrates categorization of intangible benefits of digital information by using Carlile’s (2002; 2004) efficient boundary objects, the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic. Qualitative empirical pictures from three cases are illustrated by questions, derived from the efficient boundary objects. The illustrations show that this is an accessible path forward and that the illustrations can be changed to further research with the goal for practical test the communication model. 

  • 72.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Persson Slumpi, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Nyttan med CM2013In: Configuration Management i teknikinformationens tjänst: en antologi / [ed] Margaretha Eriksson och Lena-Maria Öberg, Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2013Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 73.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Saarikko, Ted
    Umeå University.
    Exploiting Information: Seeking Long-term Preservation of organisational knowledge2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term preservation of organisational knowledge gives the business opportunities to reuse stored knowledge. This preservation of knowledge is present both in the organisation as such, found explicitly in the organisational stock, and also in the individual workers, implicit in their flow of action. Theoretically have the reuse of knowledge been named organisational memory and also been addressed in knowledge management. In a single case-study of a manufacturing company, the authors study the utilisation of product configuration information (PCI) and its role in meeting requirements on long-time preservation of product-related knowledge. This structured and standardised information is used throughout the organisation, serving as a base for both organisational and individual knowledge for the entire company. Since the information has been used in the same way for decades it is a part of the organisation´s culture and influences structures and procedures connected to the information base. The result of the study implies that usage of PCI grants the individual worker a high degree of task-related freedom as well as intra-organisational mobility. The downside for the individuals is the long time period it takes to get familiar with PCI due to its complexity. For the organisation as such, PCI provides a stable stock of knowledge which is available over extended periods of time, drastically reducing dependence upon individual workers.

  • 74.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Saariko, Ted
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    A semiotic perspective on semantics interoperability2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While information technology enables us to access more material than ever before, we need to come to grips with the disagreeable fact that data is not information. Sharing data without safeguarding comprehension may lead to confusion at best and disaster at worst. The issue at hand is one of ensuring semantic interoperability between actors from disparate contexts. Research into this problem is plentiful, but typically focused around specific subject matters, limiting its appeal to a limited range of scholars and practitioners. Based upon a literary study, we identify two extreme approaches to managing semantic interoperability. These are denoted top-down and bottom-up. We illustrate real world instances of these approaches using the TFI-model based on a case study encompassing two organizations. Our theoretical model is found to be a viable lens through which to generalize and interpret issues pertaining to semantic interoperability between human actors. We therefore see a need for further research into human-based on semantic interoperability.

  • 75.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Åslund, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Utveckling och test av arbetsmetod för identifiering av nytta och värde i produktionsprocessen i framtagande av teknikinformation.2014Report (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Ahlqvist, Theresé
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Hur ett tvärfunktionellt samarbete kan motverka stuprörsstrukturer: Kommunikationens roll i det organisatoriska gränssnittet mellan olika avdelningar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stovepipes, or also called silos, appear in many different organizations and sectors and contribute to problems when employees or managers tend to look more to their own, or the individual departments, objectives rather than to the organizations. The purpose of this study was to identify different communicative factors that promote stovepipes in order to further identify the most critical factor to disarm. A case study has been done at a selected company, with a stovepipe structure, in order to achieve the purpose of the study. The case study has included interviews and observations to identify different problem areas which then have been compared with three communicative factors identified in previous studies. The factor that had the most connections to the problem areas have been considered the most critical factor. The result of the study indicates that “A lack of understanding each other's work” is the most critical factor in stovepipe structures and that it can be prevented by following five recommendations: bring up positive collaboration continually, raise problems with each other instead of with others, identify different communication paths in and between the departments, implement a long-term model for preventing stovepipes and set up workshops between the involved departments. The conclusion of the study is that stovepipes create several undesirable effects in the organization but that the efforts to counter these problems do not have to be complicated. Following five small steps into a better collaboration and communication can be enough to be on your way to a better organizational structure.

  • 77.
    Ahlqvist, Theresé
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    "Är det alltid negativt att vara konservativ?": En problematisering av stämplingen av byggbranschen som konservativ2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When investigating the construction industry's lack of digitization, it is often explained that it is because of a conservative culture. The purpose of this study has been to problematize the labelling as conservative and to study a company in the industry to gain a deeper understanding of what other problems that may exist. Based on this, three research questions were identified which the study had as a goal to answer. These are: how the construction industry can be said to be conservative, how the conservatism is expressed, and what other barriers that exists that cannot be said to be derived from conservatism. The study has been conducted through a case study at Skanska Sverige AB with Region Hus Norr as a delimitation. Furthermore, it has been divided into two phases where semi-structural interviews and a document review have been used as the basis for a description of the current situation. The result shows that it is not a representative state of the construction industry to say that it is conservative, and during the case study no underlying expressions of conservatism was observed. On the other hand, there are several other areas that are considered as the reason for a slow development. The conclusions drawn is that the way the Swedish Public Procurement Act is conducted today is one of the reasons for this. An accelerated change process where some steps in the change management models are skipped is also seen as a reason. Furthermore, there are signs of that the current processes not always support efficient digitization, which indicates that the work in some cases only move from an analog to a digital state. Lastly, an indication of a stove pipe structure in the development area has been observed during the study, which can affect the efficiency and target improvement in a negative way.

  • 78.
    Ahlqvist, Theresé
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    "Är det alltid negativt att vara konservativ?": En problematisering av stämplingen av byggbranschen som konservativ2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When investigating the construction industry's lack of digitization, it is often explained that it is because of a conservative culture. The purpose of this study has been to problematize the labelling as conservative and to study a company in the industry to gain a deeper understanding of what other problems that may exist. Based on this, three research questions were identified which the study had as a goal to answer. These are: how the construction industry can be said to be conservative, how the conservatism is expressed, and what other barriers that exists that cannot be said to be derived from conservatism. The study has been conducted through a case study at Skanska Sverige AB with Region Hus Norr as a delimitation. Furthermore, it has been divided into two phases where semi-structural interviews and a document review have been used as the basis for a description of the current situation. The result shows that it is not a representative state of the construction industry to say that it is conservative, and during the case study no underlying expressions of conservatism was observed. On the other hand, there are several other areas that are considered as the reason for a slow development. The conclusions drawn is that the way the Swedish Public Procurement Act is conducted today is one of the reasons for this. An accelerated change process where some steps in the change management models are skipped is also seen as a reason. Furthermore, there are signs of that the current processes not always support efficient digitization, which indicates that the work in some cases only move from an analog to a digital state. Lastly, an indication of a stove pipe structure in the development area has been observed during the study, which can affect the efficiency and target improvement in a negative way.

  • 79.
    Ahlrén, Caroline
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Sundler, Sofie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Underlag till klimatledningssystem för skolor2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The climate issue is a significant question, and the problem is mainly caused by human activities. Everyone can help to counteract the enhanced Greenhouse effect by reducing the amounts of energy they use and by not consuming more products then they need.

    Schools are some of societies many consumers and therefore contribute to the Greenhouse effect. The School also has an important task; to teach and disseminate knowledge and information about the climate and the environment. According to the Swedish National Agency for Education, Skolverket, must all schools regularly consider the environment and sustainable development throughout the entire education process. Unfortunately, this is not the case for many schools in Sweden today.

    One of many tools that can be used to coordinate environmental work and initiatives, and also to make it more efficient, is environmental management systems. The most well known environmental management systems are developed for companies and consist of, for example, ISO 14001 and EMAS. Schools also have their specific versions of environmental management systems. In Sweden there are two of this kind; Green Flagg (Grön Flagg) and School for Sustainable Development (Skola för hållbar utveckling). There is also a third, called Environmental diploma (Miljödiplomering), though this particular one can be used both in companies, schools and other organizations. The authors regard these management systems as fine but insufficient. They need to be complemented by another management system aimed at climate and energy, which will work both as a startup for School for Sustainable Development and a continuation from Green Flagg.

    This study has had the aim of finding the components that need to make up such a climate management system. The system needs to be; easy to introduce into the school activities, be of good use in the tuition and contribute to lessen the schools impact on the climate. The study is based on literature relevant for the subject as well as two parallel empirical studies, where environmental work and environmental management systems in two schools were evaluated.

    The result of the study showed that most schools integrate environmental issues in their education, although to a varying extent. Environmental work in schools today need more structure and the authors regards environmental management systems adapted to the school activities, as helpful tools. To ensure that such a management system will be used, it needs to be limited to a more specific issue. The authors have, in this study, chosen to work with climate and energy as the main focus. The management system should be built as a conventional environmental management system suited for companies, for example ISO 14001, and contain the following components:

     PDCA

     Physical environmental aspects

     Documentation

     Clearly rooted in governing documents

     Communication

     Tools

     Stairs of knowledge

     Continuous updates and follow-up:s

     Distinction

     

  • 80.
    Ahmad, Awais
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Critical Factors for Human Computer Interaction of eHealth for Older Adult2019In: Proceedings of the 2019 the 5th International Conference on e-Society, e-Learning and e-Technologies, Vienna: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2019, Vol. 5, p. 58-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The percentage of older adults increases globally with an increased need for medical care. To support the idea of successful active aging, e-health seems to be an interesting concept. This study was conducted as a systematic literature study, with the aim to identify and discuss determinant factors in the Human computer interaction of eHealth for older adults. The important main research question to answer was: What are the critical challenges to address for an improved human computer interaction in technology enhanced health care systems for older adults? Findings show that there are several critical factors to consider, with trust, personal integrity, technological acceptance, e-health literacy and accessibility of ICT as the most determinant. If the found challenges are addressed, it might be possible to achieve the identified aim of independent living. The recommendation is a human computer interaction that is elderly centred, and involves the elderly users in the design process. However, no ICT enhanced system will be user-friendly enough to take away the need for social and technological support.

  • 81.
    Ahmad, Awais
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Mozelius, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System Science.
    Testbed requirements for technology enhanced stroke rehabilitation to support independent living2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An identified global phenomenon is that, as the percentage of older adults increases, new challenges arise for medical care and rehabilitation. Several research studies have presented e-health as a promising concept to support the idea of independent living among patients with chronic diseases. The Mid Sweden region has a relatively old population and is a region where people live with long distances to the nearest hospital or health care centres. This study had a focus on defining testbed requirements for a technology enhanced stroke rehabilitation adapted to the specific region. The focal research question to answer in this study was: What are the requirements and their associated benefits and barriers of using technology-enhanced systems instead of traditional techniques for stroke rehabilitation in the Mid Sweden region? With Design Science as the overall research strategy, data was collected by semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in the field of stroke rehabilitation. A deductive thematic analysis was conducted where important themes were grouped into the four main requirement categories of: Technical, Human-computer-interaction, Clinic and Sustainability. Beside the more specific requirements, an interesting finding was the division of stroke rehabilitation into the categories motoric, cognitive and speech rehabilitation; also, how technology enhanced solutions might be used in these categories. Each category has a potential for a successful use of technology enhanced services, but as the standard procedure in traditional stroke rehabilitation each patient needs a personalised treatment.   

  • 82.
    Ahmad, Jawad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Screen Printed Large Area Sensors for Pressure Distribution Monitoring in Wheelchairs2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A sedentary lifestyle can induce health related problems including pressure ulcers. Pro­longed sitting inadequacies constitute a risk for pressure ulcer to many individuals, in particular people with disabilities and re­duced mobility. The measurement of distributed pressure and detection of irregular sitting postures are essential in prevention of the risk of developing pres­sure ulcers.

    In this thesis, a screen-printed pressure sensor for a large area is presented, with the objective of measuring the distributed pressure of a seated per­son in a wheelchair. The conductors and interdigital patterns are printed with silver-based ink. A blend of a non-conductive and a low resis­tive ink is used for customized resistance for an optimal sensing range of the pressure sensor. The effect of moisture and temper­ature are realized in an environment chamber. For characterization, other key performance tests such as repeatability, drift and flexibility are carried out. The surface morphology is carried out for structural analysis of printed samples. The sensor data is acquired and processed using an 8-bit ATmega-2560 micro­controller and wirelessly transmitted to a PC for post-processing, storage and analysis. For real-time data presentation of dis­tributed pressure points, a GUI has been developed to display the values ob­tained from the large area sensor. The detection of four sit­ting pos­tures; forward leaning, backward leaning, left leaning and right leaning along with a normal sitting posture is attained. An analysis for stretchable printed tracks has been conducted to investigate the changes in electrical resistance using elon­ga­tion tests, surface morphology and EDS. The optimal curing time and tem­per­ature were investigated to manufacture stretchable conductive tracks.

    In summary, the contributions in this thesis provides an effective approach regarding pressure distribution measurement and recognizing irregular sitting postures for wheelchair users.

  • 83.
    Ahmad, Jawad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Screen Printed Piezoresistive Sensors for Monitoring Pressure Distribution in Wheelchair2019In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 2055-2063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prolonged sitting inadequacies cause pressure ulcer to many individuals, especially to disadvantaged with reduced mobility. The measurement of distributed pressure and detection of irregular sitting postures is essential for preventing the risk of developing pressure ulcer. In this paper, a pressure sensing system capable of recognizing sitting postures by means of measuring interface pressure through printed pressure sensors is presented. A thin and flexible large area sensor is screen-printed using silver flake and carbon particle inks and comprises 16 sensing elements. For the evaluation of practical usability, the sensor characterization is carried out by conducting stability, repeatability, drift and bending tests. The performance of the sensor is checked under varying environmental conditions. Sitting posture detection accuracy above 80 % is achieved using a classification algorithm for four different sitting postures. Pressure distribution is monitored at a scanning rate of 10 Hz. A low power and small form factor of read-out electronics enables a compact packaging inside the seat cushion. The presented sensor design targets smart wheelchairs, but it is extendable to much larger areas, for example to be used in beds. The proposed sensing system would be of a great assistance for caregivers and health professionals.

  • 84.
    Ahmad, Jawad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sitting Posture Recognition using Screen Printed Large Area Pressure Sensors2017In: Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, IEEE, 2017, p. 232-234Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the biomedical sector, pressure sensors exhibit an important role towards monitoring and recognition of sitting posture for wheelchair users, which is helpful for pressure ulcer prevention and cure.  In this paper, a flexible and inexpensive screen printed large area pressure sensing system is presented. The large area sensor comprise three layers, is able to cancel-out false pressure detection, and achieves a sitting classification accuracy over 80 percent. The sensor matrix contains 16 sensors distributed over an area of 23.5 cm × 21.5 cm and the pressure points are monitored at a scanning rate of 77 Hz. The sensor system provides wireless communication and a Windows based GUI is developed that allows real-time presentation of pressure data by means of a pressure map. The presented sensor design targets smart wheelchairs but is suitable for any low cost and high throughput pressure distribution monitoring systems. 

  • 85.
    Ahmad, Jawad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Li, Xiaotian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    An Analysis of Screen-Printed Stretchable Conductive Tracks on Thermoplastic Polyurethane2019In: FLEPS 2019 - IEEE International Conference on Flexible and Printable Sensors and Systems, Proceedings, 2019, article id 8792266Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Ahmad, Jawad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Li, Xiaotian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    An Analysis of Screen-Printed Stretchable Conductive Tracks on Thermoplastic Polyurethane2019Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The table is a result from cyclic strain test with 25 % and 50 % elongations of screen-printed stretchable conductive tracks on thermoplastic polyurethane.

  • 87.
    Ahmad, Naeem
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Modelling and optimization of sky surveillance visual sensor network2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A Visual Sensor Network (VSN) is a distributed system of a largenumber of camera sensor nodes. The main components of a camera sensornode are image sensor, embedded processor, wireless transceiver and energysupply. The major difference between a VSN and an ordinary sensor networkis that a VSN generates two dimensional data in the form of an image, whichcan be exploited in many useful applications. Some of the potentialapplication examples of VSNs include environment monitoring, surveillance,structural monitoring, traffic monitoring, and industrial automation.However, the VSNs also raise new challenges. They generate large amount ofdata which require higher processing powers, large bandwidth requirementsand more energy resources but the main constraint is that the VSN nodes arelimited in these resources.This research focuses on the development of a VSN model to track thelarge birds such as Golden Eagle in the sky. The model explores a number ofcamera sensors along with optics such as lens of suitable focal length whichensures a minimum required resolution of a bird, flying at the highestaltitude. The combination of a camera sensor and a lens formulate amonitoring node. The camera node model is used to optimize the placementof the nodes for full coverage of a given area above a required lower altitude.The model also presents the solution to minimize the cost (number of sensornodes) to fully cover a given area between the two required extremes, higherand lower altitudes, in terms of camera sensor, lens focal length, camera nodeplacement and actual number of nodes for sky surveillance.The area covered by a VSN can be increased by increasing the highermonitoring altitude and/or decreasing the lower monitoring altitude.However, it also increases the cost of the VSN. The desirable objective is toincrease the covered area but decrease the cost. This objective is achieved byusing optimization techniques to design a heterogeneous VSN. The core ideais to divide a given monitoring range of altitudes into a number of sub-rangesof altitudes. The sub-ranges of monitoring altitudes are covered by individualsub VSNs, the VSN1 covers the lower sub-range of altitudes, the VSN2 coversthe next higher sub-range of altitudes and so on, such that a minimum cost isused to monitor a given area.To verify the concepts, developed to design the VSN model, and theoptimization techniques to decrease the VSN cost, the measurements areperformed with actual cameras and optics. The laptop machines are used withthe camera nodes as data storage and analysis platforms. The area coverage ismeasured at the desired lower altitude limits of homogeneous as well asheterogeneous VSNs and verified for 100% coverage. Similarly, the minimumresolution is measured at the desired higher altitude limits of homogeneous aswell as heterogeneous VSNs to ensure that the models are able to track thebird at these highest altitudes.

  • 88.
    Ahmad, Naeem
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Modelling, optimization and design of visual sensor networks for sky surveillance2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 89.
    Ahmad, Naeem
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Imran, Muhammad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Khursheed, Khursheed
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Lawal, Najeem
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Model, placement optimization and verification of a sky surveillance visual sensor network2013In: International Journal of Space-Based and Situated Computing (IJSSC), ISSN 2044-4893, E-ISSN 2044-4907, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 125-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A visual sensor network (VSN) is a distributed system of a large number of camera nodes, which generates two dimensional data. This paper presents a model of a VSN to track large birds, such as golden eagle, in the sky. The model optimises the placement of camera nodes in VSN. A camera node is modelled as a function of lens focal length and camera sensor. The VSN provides full coverage between two altitude limits. The model can be used to minimise the number of sensor nodes for any given camera sensor, by exploring the focal lengths that fulfils both the full coverage and minimum object size requirement. For the case of large bird surveillance, 100% coverage is achieved for relevant altitudes using 20 camera nodes per km² for the investigated camera sensors. A real VSN is designed and measurements of VSN parameters are performed. The results obtained verify the VSN model.

  • 90.
    Ahmad, Naeem
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Imran, Muhammad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Khursheed, Khursheed
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Lawal, Najeem
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Solution space exploration of volumetric surveillance using a general taxonomy2013In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering / [ed] Daniel J. Henry, 2013, p. Art. no. 871317-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual surveillance systems provide real time monitoring of the events or the environment. The availability of low cost sensors and processors has increased the number of possible applications of these kinds of systems. However, designing an optimized visual surveillance system for a given application is a challenging task, which often becomes a unique design task for each system. Moreover, the choice of components for a given surveillance application out of a wide spectrum of available alternatives is not an easy job. In this paper, we propose to use a general surveillance taxonomy as a base to structure the analysis and development of surveillance systems. We demonstrate the proposed taxonomy for designing a volumetric surveillance system for monitoring the movement of eagles in wind parks aiming to avoid their collision with wind mills. The analysis of the problem is performed based on taxonomy and behavioral and implementation models are identified to formulate the solution space for the problem. Moreover, we show that there is a need for generalized volumetric optimization methods for camera deployment.

  • 91.
    Ahmad, Naeem
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Khursheed, Khursheed
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Imran, Muhammad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lawal, Najeem
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Cost Optimization of a Sky Surveillance Visual Sensor Network2012In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, Belgium: SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2012, p. Art. no. 84370U-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Visual Sensor Network (VSN) is a network of spatially distributed cameras. The primary difference between VSN and other type of sensor network is the nature and volume of information. A VSN generally consists of cameras, communication, storage and central computer, where image data from multiple cameras is processed and fused. In this paper, we use optimization techniques to reduce the cost as derived by a model of a VSN to track large birds, such as Golden Eagle, in the sky. The core idea is to divide a given monitoring range of altitudes into a number of sub-ranges of altitudes. The sub-ranges of altitudes are monitored by individual VSNs, VSN1 monitors lower range, VSN2 monitors next higher and so on, such that a minimum cost is used to monitor a given area. The VSNs may use similar or different types of cameras but different optical components, thus, forming a heterogeneous network.  We have calculated the cost required to cover a given area by considering an altitudes range as single element and also by dividing it into sub-ranges. To cover a given area with given altitudes range, with a single VSN requires 694 camera nodes in comparison to dividing this range into sub-ranges of altitudes, which requires only 96 nodes, which is 86% reduction in the cost.

  • 92.
    Ahmad, Naeem
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Khursheed, Khursheed
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Imran, Muhammad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Lawal, Najeem
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Modeling and Verification of a Heterogeneous Sky Surveillance Visual Sensor Network2013In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, p. Art. id. 490489-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A visual sensor network (VSN) is a distributed system of a large number of camera nodes and has useful applications in many areas. The primary difference between a VSN and an ordinary scalar sensor network is the nature and volume of the information. In contrast to scalar sensor networks, a VSN generates two-dimensional data in the form of images. In this paper, we design a heterogeneous VSN to reduce the implementation cost required for the surveillance of a given area between two altitude limits. The VSN is designed by combining three sub-VSNs, which results in a heterogeneous VSN. Measurements are performed to verify full coverage and minimum achieved object image resolution at the lower and higher altitudes, respectively, for each sub-VSN. Verification of the sub-VSNs also verifies the full coverage of the heterogeneous VSN, between the given altitudes limits. Results show that the heterogeneous VSN is very effective to decrease the implementation cost required for the coverage of a given area. More than 70% decrease in cost is achieved by using a heterogeneous VSN to cover a given area, in comparison to homogeneous VSN. © 2013 Naeem Ahmad et al.

  • 93.
    Ahmad, Naeem
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lawal, Najeem
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Imran, Muhammad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Khursheed, Khursheed
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Model and placement optimization of a sky surveillance visual sensor network2011In: Proceedings - 2011 International Conference on Broadband and Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications, BWCCA 2011, IEEE Computer Society, 2011, p. 357-362Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual Sensor Networks (VSNs) are networks which generate two dimensional data. The major difference between VSN and ordinary sensor network is the large amount of data. In VSN, a large number of camera nodes form a distributed system which can be deployed in many potential applications. In this paper we present a model of the physical parameters of a visual sensor network to track large birds, such as Golden Eagle, in the sky. The developed model is used to optimize the placement of the camera nodes in the VSN. A camera node is modeled as a function of its field of view, which is derived by the combination of the lens focal length and camera sensor. From the field of view and resolution of the sensor, a model for full coverage between two altitude limits has been developed. We show that the model can be used to minimize the number of sensor nodes for any given camera sensor, by exploring the focal lengths that both give full coverage and meet the minimum object size requirement. For the case of large bird surveillance we achieve 100% coverage for relevant altitudes using 20 camera nodes per km2 for the investigated camera sensors.

  • 94.
    Ahmad, Naeem
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Lawal, Najeem
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    A taxonomy of visual surveillance systems2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased security risk in society and the availability of low cost sensors and processors has expedited the research in surveillance systems. Visual surveillance systems provide real time monitoring of the environment. Designing an optimized surveillance system for a given application is a challenging task. Moreover, the choice of components for a given surveillance application out of a wide spectrum of available products is not an easy job.

     

    In this report, we formulate a taxonomy to ease the design and classification of surveillance systems by combining their main features. The taxonomy is based on three main models: behavioral model, implementation model, and actuation model. The behavioral model helps to understand the behavior of a surveillance problem. The model is a set of functions such as detection, positioning, identification, tracking, and content handling. The behavioral model can be used to pinpoint the functions which are necessary for a particular situation. The implementation model structures the decisions which are necessary to implement the surveillance functions, recognized by the behavioral model. It is a set of constructs such as sensor type, node connectivity and node fixture. The actuation model is responsible for taking precautionary measures when a surveillance system detects some abnormal situation.

     

    A number of surveillance systems are investigated and analyzed on the basis of developed taxonomy. The taxonomy is general enough to handle a vast range of surveillance systems. It has organized the core features of surveillance systems at one place. It may be considered an important tool when designing surveillance systems. The designers can use this tool to design surveillance systems with reduced effort, cost, and time.

  • 95.
    Ahmad, Nisar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Design and Implementation of a High Frequency Flyback Converter2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The power supply designers choose flyback topology due to its promising features of design simplicity, cost effectiveness and multiple outputs handling capability. The designed product based on flyback topology should be smaller in size, cost effective and energy efficient. Similarly, designers focus on reducing the circuit losses while operating at high frequencies that affect the converter efficiency and performance. Based on the above circumstances, an energy efficient open loop high frequency flyback converter is designed and operated in MHz frequency region using step down multilayer PCB planar transformer. The maximum efficiency of 84.75% is observed and maximum output power level reached is 22.8W. To overcome the switching losses, quasi-resonant soft switching technique is adopted and a high voltage CoolMOS power transistor is used.

  • 96.
    Ahmad, Shabir
    et al.
    Jeju National University, Jeju, South Korea.
    Hussain, Ishfaq
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Fayaz, Muhammad
    Jeju National University, Jeju, South Korea.
    Kim, Do-Hyeun
    Jeju National University, Jeju, South Korea.
    A Distributed Approach towards Improved Dissemination Protocol for Smooth Handover in MediaSense IoT Platform2018In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 6, no 5, article id 46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the Internet has been utilized by many applications to convey time-sensitive messages. The persistently expanding Internet coverage and its easy accessibility have offered to ascend to a problem which was once regarded as not essential to contemplate. Nowadays, the Internet has been utilized by many applications to convey time-sensitive messages. Wireless access points have widely been used but these access points have limitations regarding area coverage. So for covering a wider space, various access points need to be introduced. Therefore, when the user moves to some other place, the devices expected to switch between access points. Packet loss amid the handovers is a trivial issue. MediaSense is an Internet of Things distributed architecture enabling the development of the IoT application faster. It deals with this trivial handover issue by utilizing a protocol called Distributed Context eXchange Protocol. However, this protocol is centralized in nature and also suffers in a scenario when both sender and receiver address change simultaneously. This paper presents a mechanism to deal with this scenario and presents a distributed solution to deal with this issue within the MediaSense platform. The proposed protocol improves dissemination using retransmission mechanism to diminish packet loss. The proposed protocol has been delineated with a proof of concept chat application and the outcomes have indicated a significant improvement in terms of packet loss.

  • 97.
    Ahmad, Waqas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Computationally Efficient Light Field Image Compression using a Multiview HEVC Framework2019Other (Other academic)
  • 98.
    Ahmad, Waqas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Ghafoor, Mubeen
    COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Tariq, Syed Ali
    COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Hassan, Ali
    COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Computationally Efficient Light Field Image Compression Using a Multiview HEVC Framework2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 143002-143014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acquisition of the spatial and angular information of a scene using light eld (LF) technologies supplement a wide range of post-processing applications, such as scene reconstruction, refocusing, virtual view synthesis, and so forth. The additional angular information possessed by LF data increases the size of the overall data captured while offering the same spatial resolution. The main contributor to the size of captured data (i.e., angular information) contains a high correlation that is exploited by state-of-the-art video encoders by treating the LF as a pseudo video sequence (PVS). The interpretation of LF as a single PVS restricts the encoding scheme to only utilize a single-dimensional angular correlation present in the LF data. In this paper, we present an LF compression framework that efciently exploits the spatial and angular correlation using a multiview extension of high-efciency video coding (MV-HEVC). The input LF views are converted into multiple PVSs and are organized hierarchically. The rate-allocation scheme takes into account the assigned organization of frames and distributes quality/bits among them accordingly. Subsequently, the reference picture selection scheme prioritizes the reference frames based on the assigned quality. The proposed compression scheme is evaluated by following the common test conditions set by JPEG Pleno. The proposed scheme performs 0.75 dB better compared to state-of-the-art compression schemes and 2.5 dB better compared to the x265-based JPEG Pleno anchor scheme. Moreover, an optimized motionsearch scheme is proposed in the framework that reduces the computational complexity (in terms of the sum of absolute difference [SAD] computations) of motion estimation by up to 87% with a negligible loss in visual quality (approximately 0.05 dB).

  • 99.
    Ahmad, Waqas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Interpreting Plenoptic Images as Multi-View Sequences for Improved Compression2017Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is written in the response to ICIP 2017, Grand challenge on plenoptic image compression. The input image format and compression rates set out by the competition are followed to estimate the results.

  • 100.
    Ahmad, Waqas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Interpreting Plenoptic Images as Multi-View Sequences for Improved Compression2017In: ICIP 2017, IEEE, 2017, p. 4557-4561Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, advancements in optical devices have made it possible for new novel image acquisition technologies to appear. Angular information for each spatial point is acquired in addition to the spatial information of the scene that enables 3D scene reconstruction and various post-processing effects. Current generation of plenoptic cameras spatially multiplex the angular information, which implies an increase in image resolution to retain the level of spatial information gathered by conventional cameras. In this work, the resulting plenoptic image is interpreted as a multi-view sequence that is efficiently compressed using the multi-view extension of high efficiency video coding (MV-HEVC). A novel two dimensional weighted prediction and rate allocation scheme is proposed to adopt the HEVC compression structure to the plenoptic image properties. The proposed coding approach is a response to ICIP 2017 Grand Challenge: Light field Image Coding. The proposed scheme outperforms all ICME contestants, and improves on the JPEG-anchor of ICME with an average PSNR gain of 7.5 dB and the HEVC-anchor of ICIP 2017 Grand Challenge with an average PSNR gain of 2.4 dB.

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