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  • 401.
    Zasadowski, Dariusz
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Almesåker, Ann
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Removal of dissolved and colloidal substances from mechanical pulping white waters by flotation2011Inngår i: 16th International Symposium on Wood, Fiber and Pulping Chemistry - Proceedings, ISWFPC / [ed] Wang, L. et al., Tianjin: China Light Industry Press , 2011, s. 1238-1242Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Various sorts of process water, foaming agents and a new chelating surfactant have been investigated in the chemical optimization of flotation ofwaters generated at laboratory and white water from mechanical pulping. Turbidity measurements, the Orcinol method for quantitative carbohydrate analysis and total organic carbon (TOC) as well as gas chromatography (GC) of extractives, have been carried out to determine theremoval and characteristics of Dissolved and Colloidal substances (DisCo). The tests have been realized under different conditions, such as using different flotation cells, foaming agents and complexing agents at different temperatures and pH values. It was found that a reduction of thewhite water turbidity of 70% and a 50% removal of the lipophilic substances from the white water can be obtained in a single-stage flotationunit, and that the selection of suitable flotation equipment, foaming agents and solution conditions plays a very important role in the removalcapacity of the unwished substances.

  • 402.
    Zasadowski, Dariusz
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Removal of lipophilic extractives and manganese ions from spruce TMP waters in a customized flotation cell2012Inngår i: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 2376-2392Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of a chelating surfactant, different foaming agents, cationic polyelectrolytes, pH value, and temperature on the purification efficiency of process waters from a mechanical pulp mill has been studied by flotation in a 1 L customized unit. Turbidity measurements and gas chromatography (GC) were carried out to determine the removal and characteristics of dissolved and colloidal substances (DisCo). The manganese ion content in the process waters before flotation and the metal chelate removal capacity by flotation were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) measurements. It was found that a 99% removal of complex bound manganese ions and a 94% decrease in turbidity of the TMP water produced at the laboratory can be achieved in a single-stage flotation with a chelating surfactant and a foaming agent. Furthermore, a 91% decrease in turbidity, the removal of up to 96% of resin and fatty acids, and 93% of triglycerides from TMP water can be obtained after application of a foaming agent.

  • 403.
    Zasadowski, Dariusz
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Use of a Voith flotation cell for removal of lipophilic extractives and Mn ions from spruce thermomechanical pulping process waters2012Inngår i: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 2784-2126Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of a chelating surfactant and different foaming agents on the efficiency of cleaning process waters from a thermomechanical pulp (TMP) mill were studied in a Voith flotation cell. Turbidity measurements and gas chromatography were used to determine the removal extent and characteristics of dissolved and colloidal substances (DisCo). The metal ion content in the process waters before flotation and the metal chelate removal after flotation were determined using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). FiberLab (TM) equipment was used to characterize changes in the size of fibers present in the process waters. The results indicate that a decrease in turbidity of up to 91% and the removal of 80% of lipophilic extractives in the TMP water could be obtained using a single-stage flotation unit. Furthermore, the foam fraction was within 5% of the initial volume, and 100% of the Mn2+/chelating surfactant complex added to the TMP water was removed.

  • 404.
    Zasadowski, Dariusz
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Recovery of water-soluble hemicelluloses from TMP process water after selective flotation.2013Inngår i: The 17th International Symposiumon on Wood, Fiber and Pulping Chemistry, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 405.
    Zasadowski, Dariusz
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Willför, Stefan
    Åbo Akademi, Finland.
    Strand, Anders
    Åbo Akademi, Finland.
    Sundberg, Anna
    Åbo Akademi, Finland.
    Selective froth flotation of pitch components from spruce TMP process water.2013Inngår i: The 17th International Symposiumon on Wood, Fiber and Pulping Chemistry, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 406.
    Zasadowski, Dariusz
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Yang, Jiayi
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Antisolvent precipitation of water-soluble hemicelluloses from TMP process water2014Inngår i: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 113, s. 411-419Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the thermomechanical pulping (TMP) of spruce, hemicelluloses (mainly galactoglucomannans, GGMs) are released into the process water at relatively low concentrations that are currently impossible to efficiently recover. This paper examines the recovery of hemicelluloses precipitated from TMP process water via solubility reduction by adding antisolvents such as methanol, ethanol, and acetone. The phase separation was monitored by turbidity measurements. Gravimetric analysis, FTIR, GC–MS, UV spectroscopy, and ICP-OES were used to determine the yield, purity, and composition of the precipitates. Gel permeation chromatography and pulsed field-gradient self-diffusion NMR were used to measure the molecular mass distribution of the precipitates. Acetone was found to be the most efficient antisolvent, giving the highest yield at the lowest addition. The contents of lipophilic extractives and lignin impurities were below 0.5% and 1.6%, respectively, and the metal content was approximately 2% in the precipitates obtained with acetone.

  • 407.
    Zhang, Jin
    et al.
    McMaster Ctr. for Pulp/Paper Res., Department of Chemical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont. L8S 4L7, Canada.
    Pelton, Robert
    McMaster Ctr. for Pulp/Paper Res., Department of Chemical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont. L8S 4L7, Canada.
    Wågberg, Lars
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap.
    Rundlöf, M.
    SCA Research AB, SE-850 03 Sundsvall.
    The effect of molecular weight on the performance of paper strength-enhancing polymers2001Inngår i: Journal of Pulp and Paper Science (JPPS), ISSN 0826-6220, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 145-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of dextran molecular weight (77 000 to 2 000 000) on the strength of fibre-fibre bonds was investigated. A series of cationic dextrans with different molecular weights, from 77 000 to 2 000 000, was prepared and the adsorption behaviour on fibre was characterized. The maximum amount of adsorbed dextran increased with decreasing molecular weight, while the adsorbed layer thickness on colloidal silica increased with increasing molecular weight. At saturation coverage, the molecular weight of dextran did nor affect the tensile strength of handsheets made from unbeaten bleached kraft pulp. The strength improvement with polymer addition did not correspond to increased optical bonded area (opacity). The external surface of fibre accessible to dextran of molecular weight 2 000 000 was estimated as 35 m(2)/g.

  • 408.
    Zhang, Wennan
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Henschel, Till
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Söderlind, Ulf
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Tran, Khan-Quang
    Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Han, Xu
    Sunshine Kaidi New Energy Group Co., China.
    Thermogravimetric and Online Gas Analysis on various Biomass Fuels2017Inngår i: Energy Procedia, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 105, s. 162-167Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the biomass property is evaluated based on pyrolysis behavior of biomass fuels by means of TGA and online gas analysis. Wood, sawdust, pine bark, peat, straw, black liquor and microalgae are chosen as the biomass feedstocks for the pyrolysis study. The measurement results show high volatile content for algae and black liquor (around 85%) and low volatile content for pine bark and peat (around 69%). Differently from woody biomass, the DTG curve of straw has a single dominant peak at much lower temperature, which suggests a dominant component of hemicellulose in biomass, while algae and peat have a broader temperature specturm of devolatilization but much lower peak temperature. CO2 is released first and H2 later in the pyrolysis process for all biomass feedstocks, whileas the peak of CO formation follows CO2 formation trend for most feedstocks used, except for peat and pine bark which give a peak later at high temperature. This indicates secondary reactions of tar cracking, steam reforming and char gasification.

  • 409.
    Zhang, Zhe
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik. Guilin Univ Technol, Coll Chem & Bioengn, Guangxi Key Lab Electrochem & Magnetochem Funct M, Guilin 541004, Peoples R China.
    Tian, N. C.
    Guilin Univ Technol, Coll Chem & Bioengn, Guangxi Key Lab Electrochem & Magnetochem Funct M, Guilin 541004, Peoples R China.
    Huang, X. D.
    Guilin Univ Technol, Coll Chem & Bioengn, Guangxi Key Lab Electrochem & Magnetochem Funct M, Guilin 541004, Peoples R China.
    Shang, W.
    Guilin Univ Technol, Coll Chem & Bioengn, Guangxi Key Lab Electrochem & Magnetochem Funct M, Guilin 541004, Peoples R China.
    Wu, L.
    Shandong Univ, Sch Chem & Chem Engn, Jinan 250100, Peoples R China.
    Synergistic inhibition of carbon steel corrosion in 0.5 M HCl solution by indigo carmine and some cationic organic compounds: experimental and theoretical studies2016Inngår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 6, nr 27, s. 22250-22268Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The synergistic corrosion inhibition effect of indigo carmine and three kinds of cationic organic compounds on 1045 carbon steel (CS) in 0.5 M HCl solution is reported. Electrochemical measurements showed that these three cationic organic compounds combined with indigo carmine reduce the speed of corrosion on 1045 CS and act as effective inhibitors. The combination of indigo carmine with BAB resulted in the best synergistic corrosion inhibition effect (S = 17.14), and the best inhibition efficiency (95.0%). SEM images and XPS data of the corroded steel surfaces suggested that the indigo disulphonate anion and organic cation could be simultaneously adsorbed on the CS surface to inhibit the corrosion of iron. The synergistic inhibition mechanism was investigated by dynamic simulations using quantum chemistry.

  • 410.
    Zhang, Zhe
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik. Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical and Magneto-chemical Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, China .
    Tian, N.
    Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical and Magneto-chemical Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, China .
    Zhang, Wennan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Huang, X.
    Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical and Magneto-chemical Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, China .
    Ruan, L.
    Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical and Magneto-chemical Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, China .
    Wu, L.
    School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, China .
    Inhibition of carbon steel corrosion in phase-change-materials solution by methionine and proline2016Inngår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 111, s. 675-689Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Inhibition of the 1045 carbon steel corrosion by methionine and proline in PCMs solution have been investigated. Electrochemical measurements show that these inhibitors can protect steel against corrosion, with a maximal protection efficiency up to 95.0% by methionine/proline compound inhibitor at molar ratio equal to 5:3. All inhibitors act as anodic-type inhibitor. FESEM, EDS, XRD characterization indicates that the corrosion of steel starts from pitting corrosion of Cl− ion, and gradually evolves into a general corrosion. The NH4FePO4·nH2O, Fe2O3 are the main corrosion products. XPS study confirms that Met and Pro molecule can adsorb on steel surface and form inhibition films. The inhibition mechanism was further investigated through theoretical modeling studies.

  • 411.
    Zhu, Youjian
    et al.
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
    Hu, Junhao
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
    Yang, Wei
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
    Zhang, Wennan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Zeng, Kuo
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
    Yang, Haiping
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
    Du, Shenglei
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
    Chen, Hanping
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
    Ash Fusion Characteristics and Transformation Behaviors during Bamboo Combustion in Comparison with Straw and Poplar2018Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 5244-5251Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the bamboo ash fusion and sintering characteristics were studied to evaluate its potential application in combustion for the production of heat and power. Poplar and wheat straw were used in the experimental test as the reference fuels for comparison. Standard ash fusion tests and ash sintering tests were carried out at elevated temperatures. The results indicate that bamboo has a low ash melting temperature of 862 °C, much lower than that of poplar. In spite of the high K content in bamboo ash, no severe melting and sintering was observed under the temperature lower than 1000 °C. The ashes after the tests were analyzed using SEM/EDX, XRF, and XRD techniques to illustrate the ash transformation behavior. Standard ash fusion tests indicated that the melting temperatures of bamboo, wheat straw, and poplar ashes are 862 °C, 770 °C, and 1088 °C, respectively. No severe sintering can be observed for poplar due to the large existence of refractory compounds. Ash sintering occurred when the temperature is higher than 800 °C, for wheat straw, due to the formation of the low melting temperature K-rich silicate. Additionally, bamboo ash has a relatively high P content compared to that of wheat straw, which facilitates the formation of high melting temperature compounds of K-Ca/Mg phosphates. Moreover, the ash content in bamboo is low. As a conclusion, bamboo is a good quality biofuel which can be fired in biomass combustion plants without severe sintering at a temperature lower than 1000 °C. 

  • 412.
    Zhu, Youjian
    et al.
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China; Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.
    Si, Yaohui
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.
    Wang, Xianhua
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.
    Zhang, Wennan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Shao, Jingai
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.
    Yang, Haiping
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.
    Chen, Hanping
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.
    Characterization of Hydrochar Pellets from Hydrothermal Carbonization of Agricultural Residues2018Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, nr 11, s. 11538-11546Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the effects of operating conditions of hydrothermal carbonization on the hydrochar pelletization and combustion characteristics were investigated. Corn stalk was carbonized under different conditions and then pelletized to obtain the hydrochar pellets. It was found that hydrothermal temperature and residence time greatly affect the pellet quality. When the temperature was raised up to 240 °C with the residence time longer than 60 min, the heating values of hydrochar were close to or even higher than those of lignite. After hydrothermal treatment, 73.71-94.71% K and 91.81-94.32% Cl contained in the feedstock were removed, indicating a low fouling and slagging tendency when the pellets are used in combustion. The compressive strength and durability increased first with increasing temperature and then decreased with further increasing the temperature from 240 to 300 °C. The influence of residence time showed a similar trend, and the compressive strength and durability reached its maximum value at the temperature of 240 °C and residence time of 60 min. The hydrophobicity of the hydrochar pellets increased with increasing the temperature and residence time. Hydrochar pellets obtained at the temperature of 240 °C with residence time of 60 min gives the best performance, which can meet the requirement of industrial fuel pellets. Finally, the combustion characteristics were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, and the results indicated that hydrochar pellets were combusted in a comparatively mild way with a high thermal efficiency. As a general conclusion, the hydrochar pellets have much better qualities than the raw corn stalk, facilitating the transportation, long-term storage, and combustion application. 

  • 413.
    Zhu, Youjian
    et al.
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China; Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.
    Yang, Wei
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China; Henan Academy of Sciences, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.
    Fan, Jiyuan
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.
    Kan, Tao
    Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
    Zhang, Wennan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kemiteknik.
    Liu, Heng
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.
    Cheng, Wei
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.
    Yang, Haiping
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.
    Wu, Xuehong
    Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.
    Chen, Hanping
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China.
    Effect of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose addition on particulate matter emissions during biomass pellet combustion2018Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 230, s. 925-934Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) can be used as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly binder in the pelletizing process for production of biomass pellets with good quality. However, the effect of its addition on the emission of particulate matters (PM) during the combustion process, are still not clear. In this study, four typical biomass fuels, cotton stalk, cornstalk, camphorwood and rice husk, were used to investigate the effect of the addition of 5 wt% CMC in the biomass pellets on PM emissions during the combustion process. In the case of pure CMC combustion, a large amount of PM mainly with PM2.5 were generated, which was associated to the evaporation and condensation of NaOH and Na2CO3. The PM10 emission from the combustion of the four biomass fuels varied from 9.72 mg/Nm3 to 23.12 mg/Nm3 with mainly PM1. The addition of 5 wt% CMC in cotton stalk, corn stalk and camphorwood significantly increased the PM emissions due to the evaporation and subsequent condensation of Na-containing species, e.g. NaCl, Na2SO4, NaOH and Na2CO3. For rice husk, the addition of CMC hardly affected PM1 emission due to the dominated SiO2 component in rice husk ash, which reacted with the Na-containing species from the combustion of CMC and facilitated the formation of coarse ash particles and the reduction of PM1 emission. Although the addition of CMC in biomass fuels can greatly enhance the pellets qualities, its addition increases the PM emissions to varying degree. Therefore, in the industrial application of CMC to biomass densification, countermeasures such as mixing of high Si-containing rice husk or SiO2-rich minerals with biomass fuels should be taken to alleviate the PM issues resulting from the introduction of CMC. 

  • 414. Öhman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Theliander, Hans
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik.
    Tomani, Per
    Axegård, Peter
    Method for separating lignin from a lignin containing liquid/slurry (Patent application WO2006038863)2011Patent (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
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