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  • 401.
    Alinia, Minoo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Diasporas in the contemporary world2010In: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 387-388Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 402.
    Alinia, Minoo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Die Grenzen der Diaspora:: Geschlechtsspezifische Einflüsse auf die Bildung nationaler Identität in der kurdischen Diaspora2004In: Gender in Kurdistan und der Diaspora., Berlin ; Münster: Unrast , 2004, p. 345-Chapter in book (Other scientific)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det handlar om diasporas gränser både inåt och utåt. Fokus är dock på förhållandet mellan genus och nationalism och den gräns genus utgör inom den kurdiska diasporan när det gäller identitetsskapande.

  • 403.
    Alinia, Minoo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ett hem i rörelse: diasporisk mobilisering i den svenska gemenskapens periferi2008In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 15, no 3-4, p. 332-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to highlight the impact of discrimination and exclusion on identity and belonging among diaspora communities. It proceeds from the Kurdish diasporic experiences in Sweden and is based on individual interviews. The article discusses how and why respondents face exclusion and discrimination in their daily life, how they experience that, how they react, and why they react in a certain way. The analytical framework is the theory of diaspora which I define as transnational social movement for alternative home and community formations. This definition implies not only experiences of homelessness, loss and marginality but also collective action, and formation of collective identities around the projects of home and community. This transnational perspective goes beyond the discourses about assimilation or integration versus isolation. It rather argues that these identities, networks and communities must be seen as products of an ongoing transformation of society. They must be analysed in relation to stratification and distribution of power in a global perspective, and to globalization and the related processes of deterritorialization and reterritorialization rather than as an expression of imported immigrant cultures. These processes are going on within a context where, on the one hand, people with different colour and origin are excluded and, on the other hand, they get the possibility to build their own ethnic communities within the framework of Swedish multiculturalism. Respondents’ experiences of and relation to Sweden as well as to the Kurdish community are complex, contradictory, and multifaceted. They vary within the group according to many factors such as class, gender, occupation, social background, political and ideological convictions, and age. There is, however, a common general tendency, though very complex and ambivalent, regarding their relation to Swedish society and the Kurdish community. Since they feel that they are not welcomed into the Swedish society accordingly they don’t feel at home in Sweden. Thus they are drawn to the Kurdish community and its network of everyday life and activities where they are welcomed, and where they feel a sense of belonging. They find a home in the Kurdish community even if many people, especially women, continually challenge its boundaries.

  • 404.
    Alinia, Minoo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gender strategies, identities and belonging within the Kurdish diaspora2009In: Women in Diaspora: Negotiating Scandinavian Feminism, NewYork/Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 405.
    Alinia, Minoo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Invandraren, "förorten" och maktens rumsliga förankring: berättelser om vardagsrasism2006In: Den segregerande integrationen: om social sammanhållning och dess hinder, Sth: Fritzes, 2006, p. 63-90Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Det handlar om erfarenheter av vardagsrasism och dess uteslutningspraktiker. Den diskuterar också vardagsrasismens förhållande till olika rumsliga sfärer.

  • 406.
    Alinia, Minoo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kurdish diasporic movement, a social movement in the new global space.2007In: World Congress on Kurdish Studies, 6-9 September 2006. Kurdistan Regional Government, Ministry of High Education & Scientific Research. University of Salahaddin, Iraq, Erbil., 2007Chapter in book (Other scientific)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikel som diskuterar kurdisk diaspora i termer av social rörelse.

  • 407.
    Alinia, Minoo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Spaces of diasporas: Kurdish identities, experiences of otherness and politics of belonging2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är doktorsavhandling. Den diskuterar identitetsprocesser inom the kurdiska diasporan. Det är kvalitativ studie baserad huvudsakligen på intervjumaterial. Boken har nyligen blivit översatt och publicerat i Turkiet.

  • 408.
    Alirani, Gertrud
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Ge uppmärksamhet eller ignorera?: En studie i medias och de etablerade partiernas agerande gentemot sverigedemokraterna2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 409.
    Alirani, Gertrud
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Miljöhänsyn vid offentliga upphandlingar: En fallstudie på tre kommuner i Sverige2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats har varit att ta reda på om skillnader finns i hur stora miljöhänsyn som tas vid offentliga upphandlingar i kommuner där en aktiv miljöstrategi finns integrerad i förvaltningarna än i kommuner där de inte integrerats.

    Jag har utfört en fallstudie på tre kommuner i Sverige där jag kvantitativt samt kvalitativt jämfört förfrågningsunderlag från tre typer av offentliga upphandlingar. Den kvantitativa undersökningen har utgått från Miljöstyrningsrådets och Vägverkets kriteriedokument som ger rekommendationer för hur miljökrav kan ställas vid offentliga upphandlingar.

    Utifrån tidigare teorier om hur institutioner över tid formar normer och värderingar samt påverkar individers handlingar har jag utformat tre hypoteser där slutsatsen kunde dras att en av hypoteserna stämde. Jag kom fram till att oavsett om kommunen hade integrerat en aktiv miljöstrategi eller inte syns inga större skillnader i hur stora miljöhänsyn som tas vid offentliga upphandlingar.

     

  • 410.
    Alirani, Gertrud
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    "Det är inte så lätt och samtidigt, det är inte så svårt": Slutrapport från projektet: Ökade kunskaper om Östersunds kommuns integrationsservice2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien har varit att  skapa kunskap om hur användarna av Östersunds kommuns integrationsinsatser för nyanlända upplevs av användarna själva. Eftersom insatserna från integrationsservice varierar beroende på hur den nyanlända har kommit till kommunen har urvalet av informanter skett utifrån kategorierna: anläggningsboende (ABO), eget boende (EBO), anhöriginvandrad eller kvotflykting. Avsikten med studien är att dess resultat ska kunna användas för att utveckla integrationsservice verksamhet. Östersunds kommun har valt att organisera en del av integrationsarbetet med nyanlända genom integrationsservice.  Det innebär att integrationsservice har ett särskilt ansvar för mottagandet av nyanlända kommunplacerade flyktingar som kommit genom anvisning från Migrationsverkets anläggningsboende (ABO) eller som kvotflykting. 

  • 411.
    Alirani, Gertrud
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Olausson, Pär M.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Different approaches to flood risk management in Sweden: The river groups in Indalsälven/Ljungan and Ljusnan2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Network management has become important in flood risk management in Sweden. Previous studies on flood risk management groups has shown variations in focus among the groups (see Olausson & Nyhlén, 2017; Petridou & Olausson, 2017; Hedelin, & Hjerpe, 2015). Some of the groups has a societal focus while others has a more technical approach which means that different actors are participating depending on focus of the group. More knowledge is needed to understand the implications this has on network cooperation and the networks capacity to meet expected increase in flooding and high flows because of climate change. The study aims at explaining the consequences of the different approaches on cooperation within the network and the multilevel coordination of flood risk management. The theoretical approach of the study depart from theories of policy networks with an emphasis on the interaction between public and private actors. (see Rhodes 1996, 1997; Sörensen & Torfing 2005, 2007; Enander et.al. 2015; Wimmelius & Engberg, 2015) Two case studies are conducted of two river groups, Indalsälven/Ljungan and Ljusnan. While Indalsälven/Ljungan has a societal approach, Ljusnan has a more technical approach.

  • 412.
    Alishah, Rasoul Shalchi
    et al.
    Univ Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Hasani, Mir Yahya
    Islamic Azad Univ Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Hosseini, Seyed Hossein
    Univ Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Babalou, Milad
    Univ Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Analysis and Design of a New Extendable Sepic Converter with High Voltage Gain and Reduced Components for Photovoltaic Applications2019In: 2019 10th International Power Electronics, Drive Systems and Technologies Conference (PEDSTC), IEEE, 2019, p. 492-497, article id 8697249Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a high step-up DC-DC converter which is appropriate for Photovoltaic systems. This topology has been combined from an extended switched-capacitor and a common SEPIC converter. Low components and high-voltage-gain are the main benefits of the introduced topology. Low rate current ripple, easy control and continuous input current are other advantages of the presented structure. Integrating the switched-capacitor with the SEPIC converter leads to increase the output voltage with variable conversion ratio which can be used for a wide range of loads. The switched-capacitor converter provides a constant dc output voltage while the SEPIC converter extracts maximum power of PV panels because it operates under control of duty cycle. Continuous input current is highly suitable for PV applications. The operating principles and steady-state analysis of the suggested topology are discussed in detail. In order to assess the effectiveness of the presented topology, it has been simulated on PSCAD/EMTDC software.

  • 413. Alison, M Lee-Manion
    et al.
    Price, Ruth K
    Strain, J J
    Dimberg, Lena H
    Sunnerheim, Kerstin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Welch, Robert W
    In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and Antigenotoxic Effects of Avenanthramides and Related Compounds2009In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 57, no 22, p. 10619-10624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Avenanthramides are substituted N-cinnamoylanthranilic acids, with hydroxycinnamic acid and anthranilic acid moieties. These alkaloid phenols, which are unique to oats, may confer health benefits via antioxidant or other mechanisms. Synthetic avenanthramides, hydroxycinnamic acids, Tranilast, and ascorbic acid were evaluated for antioxidant activity using two assays, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant potential), and for antigenotoxicity using the Comet assay with stressed human adenocarcinoma colon cells. Of all the compounds tested, N-(3′,4′-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl)-5-hydroxyanthranilic acid (2c), an abundant oat avenanthramide, generally had the highest activity in all three assays. The drug Tranilast showed antigenotoxic effects, but not antioxidant activity, suggesting that antigenotoxicity is not dependent on antioxidant effects. Overall, results show that avenanthramides exert antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities that are comparable to those of ascorbic acid and which have the potential to exert beneficial physiological effects.

     

  • 414.
    Al-joumeyli, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Att bemöta den etniska diskrimineringen – olika former av hanterings – och motståndsstrategier bland ungdomar som har en eller två föräldrar med utländsk bakgrund.2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges befolkningsstruktur består av cirka nio miljoner invånare, varav cirka 1.5 miljoner är människor med utländsk bakgrund. Att människor från olika delar av världen flyttar till Sverige, är inte ett nytt fenomen, då det har varit aktuell sedan 1500-talet. Trots detta betraktas människor med utländsk bakgrund som ett folk för sig, där de behandlas olika på grund av deras ursprung. Orättvisan grundar sig i Sveriges strukturella och institutionella diskriminerande handlingar, där människor fråntas möjligheten att verka i det svenska samhället med samma villkor. Den etniska diskrimineringen påverkar även de utsattas välmående och framtidsplaner. Syftet med denna studie är att lyfta fram röster från ungdomar som har en eller två föräldrar med utländsk bakgrund, och att titta på hur de hanterar den etniska diskrimineringen i Sverige. I hanteringen förekommer olika strategier, motstånd, attityder och förhållningssätt till det svenska samhället som ligger på personlig och grupplig nivå. Studien har ett kvalitativt arbetssätt, där det empiriska underlaget har bestått av tre halvstrukturerade intervjuer. Två av intervjupersonerna kommer ifrån marginaliserade områden, medan en är ifrån ett icke-marginaliserat område i södra Sverige. Studien visar att varken sociala tillgångar, bostadsområden eller positioner i det svenska samhället, minskar på upplevelsen av den etniska diskrimineringen. Den upplevs i en sådan hög grad att de utsatta kan känna ett visst utanförskap och icke-samhörighet med Sverige, som driver de till en dröm att någon dag lämna landet för gott.

  • 415.
    Alkberg, Johanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Samarbete i distribuerade team: En analys av möjligheter och metoder för att arbeta distribuerat inom Sandvik IT med stöd av Kanban2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies face the fact that the work must be adapted to the globalization so competitiveness can be maintained. One way to do it is to work geographically distributed and reach competence personnel and more customers while 24/7-work becomes possible. But to effectively work distributed over space and time, a consciousness about the limitations that this entails and how to overcome them are necessary. Sandvik IT is facing changes and the trend is toward more geographically distributed teams. The purpose of this study was therefore focused on the key factors for distributed work and how Kanban can contribute to effective distributed work. How Sandvik IT's supporting group, Service Development Office (SDO) should support the distributed work has also been evaluated. The basic theory is a compilation of literary works such as books and above all scientific articles. From the theory four key areas of distributed work was identified; working methods and coordination, communication, leadership and team spirit. A fifth point was also added, which was about the teamstart. Based on these five areas the interview - and survey questions was formed. SDO selected three teams with informants, and the team leaders/coordinators were interviewed and other staff received the survey. The results were then compared with the initial theory and via analysis 16 key factors for distributed work (at Sandvik IT) could be found. E.g. leader's consciousness, a well-established work method, shared knowledge and social interaction. The factors were also categorized into: Set-up, teams start and finally maintenance and development. To a large extent the key factors and the needs could be met by Kanban, but the recommendation is that SDO complements with (in particular) an education for team leaders/coordinators. It came to be seen as a prerequisite for the distributed work. The survey's response rate and the interviews outcome were good and the result was coherent. Hence the report can be seen as a report with high validity and reliability in an inter-organizational view.

  • 416. Alkner, B.A
    et al.
    Berg, H.E
    Kozlovskaya, I
    Sayenko, D
    Tesch, P.A
    Effects of strength training, using a gravity-independent exercise system, performed during 110 days of simulated space station confinement2003In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 90, no 1-2, p. 44-49Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 417. Alkner, B.A
    et al.
    Tesch, P.A
    Berg, H.E
    Quadriceps EMG/force relationship in knee extension and leg press2000In: Journal of Gravitational Physiology, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 459-463Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 418. Alkner, Björn A
    et al.
    Tesch, Per A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle size and function following 90 days of bed rest with or without resistance exercise.2004In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, Vol. 93, no 3, p. 294-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skeletal muscle atrophy and strength loss induced by short-term simulated spaceflight are offset or attenuated by resistance exercise (RE). This study compared the effects of plantar flexor and knee extensor RE on muscle size and function in 17 healthy men (aged 26–41years) subjected to 90 days 6 head-down-tilt bed rest with (BRE; n=8) or without (BR; n=9) RE. The RE program consisted of coupled maximal concentric and eccentric actions in the supine squat (4 sets of 7 repetitions) and calf press (4·14) every third day employing a gravity-independent flywheel ergometer (FW). Prior to, and following bed rest, muscle volume was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Similarly, muscle strength and power and surface lectromyographic (EMG) activity were determined during maximal actions using FW or isokinetic dynamometry. In BR, knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle volume decreased (P<0.05) 18% and 29%, respectively. Torque or force and power decreased (P<0.05) 31–60% (knee extension) and 37–56% (plantar flexion) while knee extensor and plantar flexor EMG activity decreased 31–38% and 28–35%, respectively following BR. Muscle atrophy in BRE was prevented (P>0.05; knee extensors) or attenuated ()15%; plantar flexors). BRE maintained task-specific force, power and EMG activity. The decrease in non-task-specific torque was less (P<0.05) than in BR. The present data imply that the triceps surae and quadriceps muscles show different responsiveness to long-term bed rest with or without resistance exercise. The results also suggest that designing in-flight resistance exercise protocols for space travellers is complex and must extend beyond preserving

  • 419. Alkner, Björn
    et al.
    Tesch, Per A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Efficacy of a gravity-independent resistance exercise device as a countermeasure to muscle atrophy during 29-day bed rest.2004In: Acta Physioloogica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, Vol. 181, no 3, p. 345-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study determined changes in knee extensor and plantar flexor muscle volume during 29 days of bed rest with or without resistance exercise using a gravity-independent flywheel ergometer. METHODS: Seventeen men (26-41 years) were subjected to 29 days of bed rest with (n = 8) or without (n = 9) resistance exercise; Supine Squat (SS) and Calf Press (CP) performed every third day. Quadriceps and triceps surae muscle volume was determined before and after bed rest and force and power were measured during training. Prior to these interventions, reproducibility of this device for training and testing was assessed in 23 subjects who performed bilateral maximal concentric, eccentric and isometric (MVC) knee extensions and plantar flexions over repeated sessions with simultaneous measurements of force, power and electromyographic (EMG) activity. RESULTS: Quadriceps and triceps surae muscle volume decreased (P < 0.05) 10 and 16%, respectively, after 29 days bed rest. Exercise maintained quadriceps volume and mitigated triceps surae atrophy. Thus, either muscle showed different response across subject groups (P < 0.05). Force and power output during training were either maintained (P > 0.05) or increased (P < 0.05). EMG amplitude in the training mode was similar (SS; P > 0.05) or greater (CP; P < 0.05) compared with that elicited during MVC. Peak force and power test-retest coefficient of variation (CV) ranged 5-6% and 7-8% for SS and CP, respectively. CONCLUSION: The present data suggest that this resistance exercise paradigm counteracts quadriceps and abates the more substantial triceps surae muscle atrophy in bedridden subjects, and therefore should be an important asset to space travellers.

  • 420.
    Alkrot, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    React vs Angular: Slaget om användarupplevelsen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lately, various programming frameworks has been developed for developing web applications. These frameworks focus on increasing the user experience by performance improvements such as faster render times and response times. One of these frameworks are React, which has introduced a completely new architectural pattern for both managing the state and data flow of an application. React also offers support for native application development and makes server-side rendering possible. Something that is difficult to accomplish with an application developed with Angular 1.5, which is used by the company Dewire today. The aim of this thesis was to compare React with an existing Angular project, in order to determine whether React could be a potential replacement for Angular. To gain knowledge about the subject, a theoretical study of web- based sources has been made. While the practical part has been to rebuild a web application with React together with the architecture Flux, which is based on a view from the Angular project. The implementation process was repeated until the view was completed and a desired data flow, as in the Angular application, was reached. The resulting React application was later compared with the Angular application developed by the company, where the outcome of the comparison showed that the React performed better than Angular in all tests. In conclusion, due to the timeframe of the project, only the most important parts of the Angular project were implemented in order to carry out the measurements that were of interest to the company. By recreating most of the functionality, or the entire Angular application, more interesting comparisons could have been done.

  • 421.
    Allahgholi, A.
    et al.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Becker, J.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Bianco, L.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Bradford, R.
    Adv Photon Source, Chicago, IL USA.
    Delfs, A.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Dinapoli, R.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, OFLB-006, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Goettlicher, P.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Gronewald, M.
    Univ Bonn, D-53115 Bonn, Germany.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Greiffenberg, D.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, OFLB-006, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Henrich, B. H.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, OFLB-006, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Hirsemann, H.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Jack, S.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Klanner, R.
    Univ Hamburg, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany.
    Klyuev, A.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Krueger, H.
    Univ Bonn, D-53115 Bonn, Germany.
    Lange, S.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Marras, A.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Mezza, D.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, OFLB-006, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Mozzanica, A.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, OFLB-006, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Perova, I.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Xia, Q.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Schmitt, B.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, OFLB-006, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Schwandt, J.
    Univ Hamburg, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany.
    Sheviakov, I.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Shi, X.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, OFLB-006, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Trunk, U.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Zhang, J.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    The adaptive gain integrating pixel detector2016In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 11, no 2, article id C02066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adaptive gain integrating pixel detector (AGIPD) is a development of a collaboration between Deustsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), the Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), the University of Hamburg and the University of Bonn. The detector is designed to cope with the demanding challenges of the European XFEL. Therefore it comes along with an adaptive gain stage allowing a high dynamic range, spanning from single photon sensitivity to 10(4) x 12.4 keV photons and 352 analogue memory cells per pixel. The aim of this report is to briefly explain the concepts of the AGIPD electronics and mechanics and then present recent experiments demonstrating the functionality of its key features.

  • 422.
    Allahgholi, A.
    et al.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Becker, J.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany; Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States .
    Bianco, L.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Delfs, A.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Arino-Estrada, G.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Gottlicher, P.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Hirsemann, H.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Jack, S.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Klyuev, A.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Lange, S.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Marras, A.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Poehlsen, J.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Sheviakov, I.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Trunk, U.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Xia, Q.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Zhang, J.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Zimmer, M.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Dinapoli, R.
    PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Greiffenberg, D.
    PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Mezza, D.
    PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Mozzanica, A.
    PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Schmitt, B.
    PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Shi, X.
    PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Klanner, R.
    University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Schwandt, J.
    University of Hamburg, Germany.
    Kruger, H.
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    Rah, S.
    Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang, South Korea.
    The AGIPD 1.0 ASIC: Random access high frame rate, high dynamic range X-ray camera readout for the European XFEL2015In: 2015 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, NSS/MIC 2015, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, article id 7581819Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European XFEL is an extremely brilliant Free Electron Laser Source with a very demanding pulse structure: trains of 2700 X-Ray pulses are repeated at 10 Hz. The pulses inside the train are spaced by 220 ns and each one contains up to 1012 photons of 12.4 keV, while being ≤ 100 fs in length. AGIPD (Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector) is a hybrid 1M-pixel detector developed by DESY, PSI, and the Universities of Bonn and Hamburg to cope with these properties. Thus the readout ASIC has to provide not only single photon sensitivity and a dynamic range ≳ 104 photons/pixel in the same image but also a memory for as many images of a pulse train as possible for delayed readout prior to the next train. The AGIPD 1.0 ASIC uses a 130 nm CMOS technology and radiation tolerant techniques to withstand the radiation damage incurred by the high impinging photon flux. Each ASIC contains 64 × 64 pixels of 200μmχ200μm. The circuit of each pixel contains a charge sensitive preamplifier with threefold switchable gain, a discriminator for an adaptive gain selection, and a correlated double sampling (CDS) stage to remove reset and low-frequency noise components. The output of the CDS, as well as the dynamically selected gain is sampled in a capacitor-based analogue memory for 352 samples, which occupies about 80% of a pixels area. For readout each pixel features a charge sensitive buffer. A control circuit with a command based interface provides random access to the memory and controls the row-wise readout of the data via multiplexers to four differential analogue ports. The AGIPD 1.0 full scale ASIC has been received back from the foundry in fall of 2013. Since then it has been extensively characterised also with a sensor as a single chip and in 2 × 8-chip modules for the AGIPD 1 Mpix detector. We present the design of the AGIPD 1.0 ASIC along with supporting results, also from beam tests at PETRA III and APS, and show changes incorporated in the recently taped out AGIPD 1.1 ASIC upgrade.

  • 423.
    Allahgholi, A.
    et al.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Becker, J.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Bianco, L.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Delfs, A.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Dinapoli, R.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Arino-Estrada, G.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Goettlicher, P.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Greiffenberg, D.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Hirsemann, H.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Jack, S.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Klanner, R.
    Univ Hamburg, Mittelweg 177, D-20148 Hamburg, Germany.
    Klyuev, A.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Krueger, H.
    Univ Bonn, D-53012 Bonn, Germany.
    Lange, S.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Marras, A.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Mezza, D.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Mozzanica, A.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Poehlsen, J.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Rah, S.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Xia, Q.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Schmitt, B.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Schwandt, J.
    Univ Hamburg, Mittelweg 177, D-20148 Hamburg, Germany.
    Sheviakov, I.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Shi, X.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Smoljanin, S.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Trunk, U.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Zhang, J.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Zimmer, M.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Front end ASIC for AGIPD, a high dynamic range fast detector for the European XFEL2016In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 11, no 1, article id C01057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD) is a hybrid pixel X-ray detector for the European-XFEL. One of the detector's important parts is the radiation tolerant front end ASIC fulfilling the European-XFEL requirements: high dynamic range-from sensitivity to single 12.5keV-photons up to 104 photons. It is implemented using the dynamic gain switching technique with three possible gains of the charge sensitive preamplifier. Each pixel can store up to 352 images in memory operated in random-access mode at >= 4.5MHz frame rate. An external vetoing may be applied to overwrite unwanted frames.

  • 424.
    Allahgholi, A.
    et al.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Becker, J.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Bianco, L.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Delfs, A.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Dinapoli, R.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Fretwurst, E.
    University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Göttlicher, P.
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Greiffenberg, D.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Gronewald, M.
    University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Hirsemann, H.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Jack, S.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Klanner, R.
    University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Klyuev, A.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Krüger, H.
    University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Marras, A.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Mezza, D.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Mozzanica, A.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Schmitt, B.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Schwandt, J.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Sheviakov, I.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Shi, X.
    Paul-Scherrer-Institut PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Xia, Q.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Zhang, J.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Zimmer, M.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    AGIPD, the electronics for a high speed X-ray imager at the Eu-XFEL2014In: Proceedings of Science, Proceedings of Science (PoS) , 2014, article id 253Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The AGIPD (Adaptive Gain Integrated Pixel Detector) X-ray imaging camera will be operated at the X-ray Free Electron Laser, Eu-XFEL, under construction in Hamburg, Germany. Key parameters are 1 million 200 μm square pixels, single 12.4 keV photon detection and a dynamic range to 10 000/pixel/image. The developed sensors, ASICs, PCB-electronics and FPGA firmware acquire individual images per bunch at 27 000 bunches/s, packed into 10 bunch-trains/s with a bunch separation of 222 ns. Bunch-trains are handled by 352 analogue storage cells within each pixel of the ASIC and written during the 0.6msec train delivery. Therefore AGIPD can store 3520 images/s from the delivered 27 000 bunches/s. Random addressing provides reusability of each cell after an image has been declared as low-quality, so that good images can be selected. Digitization is performed between trains (99.4 msec). In the paper all functional blocks are introduced. The details concentrate on the DAQ-chain PCB-electronics and the slow control. A dense area of 1024 ADC-channels, each with a pickup-noise filtering and sampling of up to 50 MS/s/ADC and a serial output of 700 Mbit/s/ADC. FPGAs operate the ASICs synchronized to the bunch structure and collect the bit streams from 64 ADCs/FPGA. Pre-sorted data is transmitted on 10 GbE links out of the camera head using the time between trains. The control and monitoring of the camera with 600 A current consumption is based on a micro-controller and I2C bus with an addressing architecture allowing many devices and identical modules. The high currents require planned return paths at the system level. First experimental experience with the constructed components will be presented.

  • 425.
    Allahgholi, A.
    et al.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Becker, J.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Bianco, L.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Delfs, A.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Dinapoli, R.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Goettlicher, P.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.;Mid Sweden Univ, S-85170 Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Greiffenberg, D.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland..
    Hirsemann, H.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Jack, S.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Klanner, R.
    Univ Hamburg, D-20148 Hamburg, Germany..
    Klyuev, A.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Krueger, H.
    Univ Bonn, D-53012 Bonn, Germany..
    Lange, S.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Marras, A.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Mezza, D.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Mozzanica, A.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Rah, S.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Xia, Q.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Schmitt, B.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Schwandt, J.
    Univ Hamburg, D-20148 Hamburg, Germany.
    Sheviakov, I.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Shi, X.
    Paul Scherrer Inst, CH-5232 Villigen, Switzerland.
    Smoljanin, S.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Trunk, U.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Zhang, J.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Zimmer, M.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    AGIPD, a high dynamic range fast detector for the European XFEL2015In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 10, no 1, article id C01023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AGIPD-(Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector) is a hybrid pixel X-ray detector developed by a collaboration between Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), University of Hamburg and the University of Bonn. The detector is designed to comply with the requirements of the European XFEL. The radiation tolerant Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is designed with the following highlights: high dynamic range, spanning from single photon sensitivity up to 10(4) 12.5keV photons, achieved by the use of the dynamic gain switching technique using 3 possible gains of the charge sensitive preamplifier. In order to store the image data, the ASIC incorporates 352 analog memory cells per pixel, allowing also to store 3 voltage levels corresponding to the selected gain. It is operated in random-access mode at 4.5MHz frame rate. The data acquisition is done during the 99.4ms between the bunch trains. The AGIPD has a pixel area of 200 x 200 m m(2) and a 500 m m thick silicon sensor is used. The architecture principles were proven in different experiments and the ASIC characterization was done with a series of development prototypes. The mechanical concept was developed in the close contact with the XFEL beamline scientists and is now being manufactured. A first single module system was successfully tested at APS.

  • 426.
    Allahgholi, A.
    et al.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany .
    Becker, J.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany .
    Bianco, L.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany .
    Delfs, A.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany .
    Gottlicher, P.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany .
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany .
    Hirsemann, H.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany .
    Jack, S.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany .
    Klyuev, A.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany .
    Lange, S.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany .
    Marras, A.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany .
    Sheviakov, I.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany .
    Trunk, U.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany .
    Xia, Q.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany .
    Zhang, J.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany .
    Zimmer, M.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany .
    Dinapoli, R.
    PSI, Villigen, Switzerland .
    Greiffenberg, D.
    PSI, Villigen, Switzerland .
    Mezza, D.
    PSI, Villigen, Switzerland .
    Mozzanica, A.
    PSI, Villigen, Switzerland .
    Schmitt, B.
    PSI, Villigen, Switzerland .
    Shi, X.
    PSI, Villigen, Switzerland .
    Klanner, R.
    University of Hamburg, Germany .
    Schwandt, J.
    University of Hamburg, Germany .
    Gronewald, M.
    University of Bonn, Germany .
    Kruger, H.
    University of Bonn, Germany .
    Rah, S.
    Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang, South Korea .
    AGIPD 1.0: The high-speed high dynamic range readout ASIC for the adaptive gain integrating pixel detector at the European XFEL2016In: 2014 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, NSS/MIC 2014, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, article id 7431038Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AGIPD is a hybrid pixel X-ray detector developed by a collaboration between Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), University of Hamburg and the University of Bonn. The detector is designed to comply with the requirements of the European XFEL. The radiation tolerant Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is designed with the following highlights: high dynamic range, spanning from single photon sensitivity up to 104 × 12.4 keV photons, achieved by the use of dynamic gain switching, auto-selecting one of 3 gains of the charge sensitive pre-amplifier. To cope with the unique features of the European XFEL source, image data is stored in 352 analogue memory cells per pixel. The selected gain is stored in the same way and depth, encoded as one of 3 voltage levels. These memories are operated in random-access mode at 4.5MHz frame rate. Data is read out on a row-by-row basis via multiplexers to the DAQ system for digitisation during the 99.4ms gap between the bunch trains of the European XFEL. The AGIPD 1.0 ASIC features 64×64 pixels with a pixel area of 200×200 μm2. It is bump-bonded to a 500 μm thick silicon sensor. The principles of the chip architecture were proven in different experiments and the ASIC characterization was performed with a series of development prototypes. The mechanical concept of the detector system was developed in close contact with the XFEL beamline scientists to ensure a seamless integration into the beamline setup and is currently being manufactured. The first single module system was successfully tested at APS1 the high dynamic range allows imaging of the direct synchrotron beam along with single photon sensitivity and burst imaging of 352 subsequent frames synchronized to the source.

  • 427.
    Allahgholi, Aschkan
    et al.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Becker, Julian
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Delfs, Annette
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Dinapoli, Roberto
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Goettlicher, Peter
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Greiffenberg, Dominic
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Henrich, Beat
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Hirsemann, Helmut
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Kuhn, Manuela
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Klanner, Robert
    Univ Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Klyuev, Alexander
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Krueger, Hans
    Univ Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Lange, Sabine
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Laurus, Torsten
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Marras, Alessandro
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Mezza, Davide
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Mozzanica, Aldo
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Niemann, Magdalena
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Poehlsen, Jennifer
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Schwandt, Joern
    Univ Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Sheviakov, Igor
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Shi, Xintian
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Smoljanin, Sergej
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Steffen, Lothar
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Sztuk-Dambietz, Jolanta
    European XFEL, Schenefeld, Germany.
    Trunk, Ulrich
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Xia, Qingqing
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Zeribi, Mourad
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Zhang, Jiaguo
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Zimmer, Manfred
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Schmitt, Bernd
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    The Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector at the European XFEL2019In: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, ISSN 0909-0495, E-ISSN 1600-5775, Vol. 26, p. 74-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD) is an X-ray imager, custom designed for the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL). It is a fast, low-noise integrating detector, with an adaptive gain amplifier per pixel. This has an equivalent noise of less than 1keV when detecting single photons and, when switched into another gain state, a dynamic range of more than 10(4)photons of 12keV. In burst mode the system is able to store 352 images while running at up to 6.5MHz, which is compatible with the 4.5MHz frame rate at the European XFEL. The AGIPD system was installed and commissioned in August 2017, and successfully used for the first experiments at the Single Particles, Clusters and Biomolecules (SPB) experimental station at the European XFEL since September 2017. This paper describes the principal components and performance parameters of the system.

  • 428.
    Allahgholi, Aschkan
    et al.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Becker, Julian
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Delfs, Annette
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Dinapoli, Roberto
    Paul Scherrer Institut - PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Göttlicher, Peter
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Greiffenberg, Dominic
    Paul Scherrer Institut - PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Hirsemann, Helmut
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Jack, Stefanie
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Klyuev, Alexander
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Krüger, Hans
    Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Kuhn, Manuela
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Laurus, Torsten
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Marras, Alessandro
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Mezza, Davide
    Paul Scherrer Institut - PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Mozzanica, Aldo
    Paul Scherrer Institut - PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Poehlsen, Jennifer
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Shefer Shalev, Ofir
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Sheviakov, Igor
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Schmitt, Bernd
    Paul Scherrer Institut - PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Schwandt, Jörn
    Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Shi, Xintian
    Paul Scherrer Institut - PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Smoljanin, Sergej
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Trunk, Ulrich
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Zhang, Jiaguo
    Paul Scherrer Institut - PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Zimmer, Manfred
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Megapixels @ Megahertz – The AGIPD high-speed cameras for the European XFEL2019In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 942, article id 162324Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European XFEL is an extremely brilliant Free Electron Laser Source with a very demanding pulse structure: trains of 2700 X-ray pulses are repeated at 10Hz. The pulses inside the train are spaced by 220ns and each one contains up to 1012photons of 12.4keV, while being ≤100fs in length. AGIPD, the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector, is a hybrid pixel detector developed by DESY, PSI, and the Universities of Bonn and Hamburg to cope with these properties. It is a fast, low noise integrating detector, with single photon sensitivity (for Eγ⪆6keV) and a large dynamic range, up to 104 photons at 12.4keV. This is achieved with a charge sensitive amplifier with 3 adaptively selected gains per pixel. 352 images can be recorded at up to 6.5MHz and stored in the in-pixel analogue memory and read out between pulse trains. The core component of this detector is the AGIPD ASIC, which consists of 64 × 64 pixels of 200µm×200µm. Control of the ASIC's image acquisition and analogue readout is via a command based interface. FPGA based electronic boards, controlling ASIC operation, image digitisation and 10GE data transmission interface AGIPD detectors to DAQ and control systems. An AGIPD 1Mpixel detector has been installed at the SPB1 experimental station in August 2017, while a second one is currently commissioned for the MID 2 endstation. A larger (4Mpixel) AGIPD detector and one to employ Hi-Z sensor material to efficiently register photons up to Eγ≈25keV are currently under construction. 

  • 429. Allain, J. P.
    et al.
    Dong, Y.
    Vandamme, A. M.
    Moulton, Vincent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Salemi, M.
    Evolutionary rate and genetic drift of hepatitis C virus are not correlated with the host immune response: Studies of infected donor-recipient clusters2000In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 2541-2549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Six donor-recipient clusters of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals were studied. For five clusters the period of infection of the donor could be estimated, and for all six clusters the time of infection of the recipients from the donor via blood transfusion was also precisely known. Detailed phylogenetic analyses were carried out to investigate the genomic evolution of the viral quasispecies within infected individuals in each cluster. The molecular clock analysis showed that HCV quasispecies within a patient are evolving at the same rate and that donors that have been infected for longer time tend to have a lower evolutionary rate. Phylogenetic analysis based on the split decomposition method revealed different evolutionary patterns in different donor-recipient clusters. Reactivity of antibody against the first hypervariable region (HVR1) of HCV in donor and recipient sera was evaluated and correlated to the calculated evolutionary rate. Results indicate that anti-HVR1 reactivity was related more to the overall level of humoral immune response of the host than to the HVR1 sequence itself, suggesting that the particular sequence of the HVR1 peptides is not the determinant of reactivity. Moreover, no correlation was found between the evolutionary rate or the heterogeneity of the viral quasispecies in the patients and the strength of the immune response to HVR1 epitopes, Rather, the results seem to imply that genetic drift is less dependent on immune pressure than on the rate of evolution and that the genetic drift of HCV is independent of the host immune pressure.

  • 430.
    Allan, Rachel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    At the end of the day… An ELF perspective on lexical chunks in spoken business English.2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since Sinclair (1991) identified “the idiom principle”, lexical chunks, i.e. frequently occurring clusters of words, have been recognized as an important part of language learning. This importance has been highlighted as advances in computer software have made it easier to identify patterns in language use, and most published English teaching materials are now informed by the analysis of large corpora of native speaker language. However, given that the most widespread use of English language throughout the world takes the form of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF), i.e. English used as a common means of communication among speakers from different first-language backgrounds, there is a strong argument for examining the lexical chunks used in this context when considering students’ needs.

     

    This study uses VOICE (the Vienna-Oxford International Corpus of English), a corpus of spoken ELF interactions, to examine the occurrence of language chunks in ELF in the professional domain. A subcorpus of VOICE comprising of occurring in the professional domain (business, organizational and research contexts) was created, representing approximately 830,000 tokens of transcribed oral text. Recurring lexical chunks were identified using Wordsmith Tools (Scott 2012), and categorized according to type and function. The types of lexical chunk occurring most frequently proved to be vague expressions, e.g. “and so on” and discourse markers such as “at the end of the day”. The pedagogical implications of these findings are considered, concerning whether and how published materials might be supplemented to better meet the needs of those students who expect to use English in an ELF context. 

  • 431.
    Allan, Rachel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities. Mittuniversitetet.
    Concordances versus dictionaries: Evaluating approaches to word learning in ESOL2010In: Insights into non-native vocabulary teaching and learning / [ed] R. Chacón-Beltrán, C. Abello-Contesse, M. Mar Torreblanca-López & M. Dolores López-Jiménez, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 2010, p. 112-126Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 432.
    Allan, Rachel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    From Do You Know to I Don’t Know: An Analysis of the Frequency and Usefulness of Lexical Bundles in Five English Language Self-Study Books2017In: Corpus Pragmatics, ISSN 2509-9507, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 351-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowing which phrases to use in everyday situations is a key part of communicating effectively in English, and increasingly language learning materials are expected to reflect this. This paper presents a corpus analysis of five contemporary self-study books for English language learners, to identify common phrases taught, assess their form and function, and evaluate them against a baseline of lexical bundles (i.e. recurring sequences of words) used in social situations by users of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF). Self-study textbooks aim to equip the learner with enough English to function appropriately in a range of different contexts; they usually present language in the form of dialogues in common everyday situations, often supplemented with exercises, grammar explanations and glossaries. While they may differ in pedagogical approach, it could be anticipated that the lexical bundles found would be broadly similar. However, analysis of this corpus showed a lack of consistency both in the form and number of bundles found in the different publications. Furthermore, comparison with a corpus of ELF conversations extracted from the Vienna-Oxford International Corpus of English (VOICE, version 2.0 XML) (2013) highlighted the underrepresentation of lexical bundles with certain pragmatic functions, such as hedges/stance expressions (I don’t know, I think) and vague language (a little bit).

  • 433.
    Allan, Rachel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities. Mittuniversitetet.
    Lexical bundles from one century to the next: An analysis of language input in English teaching texts2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 434.
    Allan, Rachel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    Lexical bundles from one century to the next: An analysis of language input in English teaching texts2018In: Journal of Historical Pragmatics, ISSN 1566-5852, E-ISSN 1569-9854, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 167-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This corpus study compares lexical bundles found in the language input of a selection of historical and current English language teaching materials to see what insights they can give into changes in spoken language use. English teaching texts published between 1905 and 1917 were used to construct a historical corpus, and a collection of English language self-study texts published between 2004 and 2014 were used for comparison. Both groups of texts focused on spoken language. The most frequent three-word lexical bundles extracted from each corpus varied considerably. The contemporary texts showed both a greater use of formulaic language and more syntactic complexity within it, while the historical texts relied on simpler structures. An exploratory analysis of the lexical bundles in the historical texts suggests, however, that viewed in conjunction with other historical sources, they can assist in building a picture of spoken language use of the period.

  • 435.
    Allan, Rachel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    Lexical Bundles in ELF Business Meetings2016In: The Linguistics Journal, ISSN 1718-2301, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 141-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely accepted that lexical bundles can provide useful insights into the characteristics of different types of discourse. However, studies have tended to focus on native speaker or language learner use, and English as a Lingua Franca (ELF), English used as a common means of communication among speakers from different first-language backgrounds, has received limited attention in this respect. Given that ELF is widely used in a business context, the research reported in this paper is an initial attempt to characterize ELF used in one business community of practice by identifying the frequency and function of lexical bundles in a small corpus of ELF business meetings. It draws on a subcorpus of business meeting transcripts from the Vienna-Oxford Corpus of English (VOICE) to identify the most frequent two-, three- and four-word bundles used, and compares these to lexical bundles used in ELF in other domains and in ENL business meetings (Handford, 2010). Results showed similar levels of use of frequent bundles in ELF business meetings to the comparative data, and a high degree of overlap. Many of the bundles used in ELF business meetings were the same as those used in general contexts, suggesting that there are there are stable core features in spoken ELF, although key bundles indicated certain differences. Furthermore, a number of the ELF business bundles corresponded to frequent ENL bundles. Many of the bundles used in ELF business meetings were associated with developing relationships, such as providing verbal feedback (yeah yeah yeah, mhm mhm mhm) hedging (I don’t know, I think that), and making interpersonal references (you know, you can see), and vague expressions (more or less, and so on) were also common. Idiomatic expressions tended to be avoided, with the exception of at the end of (the day) which had a high frequency in ELF, as in ENL business meetings.

  • 436.
    Allan, Rachel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    Lexical bundles in English language teaching texts: A century of change?2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 437.
    Allan, Rachel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities. Mittuniversitetet.
    Lexical bundles in graded readers: To what extent does language restriction affect lexical patterning?2016In: System An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0346-251X, Vol. 59, p. 61-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how far the lexical bundles that occur in graded readers are influenced by simplified language, comparing them quantitatively and qualitatively with those occurring in a corpus of authentic prose fiction. Phrasal language found in the graded readers is also evaluated using Martinez and Schmitt’s (2012) PHRASE list. The results are largely encouraging, showing that lexical bundles occur with greater density in graded readers than authentic fiction, that they largely reflect authentic language use, and that most of the phrases deemed to be important and useful are represented. However, differences between B1 and B2 level readers indicate that a higher degree of simplification affects both the range and grammatical type of lexical bundles. Non-transparent lexical bundles, despite being composed of very frequent words, were under-represented in the readers, particularly at B1 level. It is concluded that while graded readers are a valuable source of exposure to lexical bundles, the under-representation of frequently-used opaque phrases points to the need for a more systematic approach to their inclusion.

  • 438.
    Allan, Rachel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    Lexical Chunks in Business English as a Lingua Franca2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 439.
    Allan, Rachel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities. Mittuniversitetet.
    Recycling the data: Building and using a learner business English writing corpus2018In: Call Your Data: Proceedings of the XIXth CALL Conference / [ed] Josef Colpaert, Ann Aerts & Frederik Cornillie, Antwerp, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the construction and use of a small corpus of business English writing by Swedish university students to form the basis of a "learning driven data" (Seidlhofer, 2002) approach to their studies in business writing. Course assignments were used to construct a small corpus which was analysed from a lexical perspective in relation to the Business Service List (BSL) (Browne & Culligan, 2016) and an online Business Letter Corpus (BLC) to identify errors and gaps in knowledge. The findings were then used to inform course content and form the basis for tasks using the learner corpus, which will be integrated into the course structure to provide opportunities for data-driven learning. This study contributes to the growing number of pedagogic applications of learner corpora, demonstrating an approach that could be adapted to a range of other learning contexts.

  • 440.
    Allan, Rachel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities. Mittuniversitetet.
    The ELT Archive Textbook Corpus: How much has language teaching changed?2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation describes and demonstrates some potential uses of a historical English Language Teaching (ELT) corpus, using a small pilot corpus of intermediate level ELT textbooks from the 1960s. There have been few systematic and objective historical accounts of language teaching methods and materials (Smith 2015: 84), and the history of ELT has typically been presented as a rather simplified ‘procession of methods’, with an emphasis on their difference than any similarities (Howatt and Smith 2014: 76). Here I will explore some ways in which a corpus-based approach can contribute to our knowledge in this area. The 1960s have been identified as a starting point for the corpus as a range of methodological influences were present in ELT in this decade. The books in the pilot have been selected to reflect this, including courses which situate themselves within structural, audiolingual and situational teaching paradigms. From the corpus, we can identify task-types, examine instructions and target language, and use this data to gain insights into the pedagogical approaches in use. The 1960s corpus is a pilot for a larger project that aims to investigate twentieth century English Language Teaching (ELT) materials diachronically. With the co-operation of the ELT Archive at Warwick University (see https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/al/research/collections/elt_archive/), we aim to digitize a range of representative ELT textbooks from several decades of the last century, and build a corpus through which language teaching methods and language taught can be explored and compared.

     

    Howatt, A.P.R. and R. Smith. 2014. “The History of Teaching English as a Foreign Language, from a British and European Perspective.” Language and History 57 (1): 75-95.

    Smith, Richard. 2015. “Building ‘Applied Linguistic Historiography’: Rationale, Scope, and Methods.” Applied Linguistics 37 (1): 71–87. doi:10.1093/applin/amv056.

  • 441.
    Allansson, Rebecka
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Malmrot, Annica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Åtgärder för att förebygga undernäring hos äldre personer med demensdiagnos2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 442.
    Allard, Hannah
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pedagogers syn på lekens betydelse för barns sociala utveckling2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka pedagogers syn på lekens betydelse för barns sociala utveckling samt hur de beskriver sin roll i detta. Det empiriska materialet samlades in genom kvalitativa intervjuer vilka genomfördes på två olika förskolor inom samma kommun med sex förskollärare. Tidigare forskning visar på lekens betydelse för barns sociala utveckling och att den sociala kompetensen utvecklas genom att barn samspelar och leker. Förskollärarna har en viktig roll i barns lek vilket även styrks genom den tidigare forskningen.I resultatet framkommer det att pedagogerna upplever leken som en betydande faktor för barns sociala utveckling. Resultatet visar även på att pedagogerna ser sin roll och sitt förhållningssätt av stor betydelse gällande barns sociala utveckling.

  • 443.
    Allergren, H
    et al.
    Högskolan i Sundsvall/Härnösand.
    Andersson, I
    Grensjö, B
    Olofsson, Anders
    Något om källor i pedagoghistorisk forskning1980Report (Other academic)
  • 444.
    Allerhed, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Johansson, Marie-Louise
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    "Min hjärna säger att jag inte ska men min kropp gör inte som min hjärna vill": En intervjustudie med åtta pedagogers uppfattningar och upplevelser av elevers motorik, fysisk aktivitet och koncentration.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den svenska skolan är elevernas kunskapsinhämtning ofta knutna till klassrumssituationer som kräver elevernas fulla koncentration. Vilka faktorer kan det finnas som påverkar koncentrationen. Vi valde att fokusera på om motorik och fysisk aktivitet kan påverka koncentrationen. Syftet med vårt arbete var att undersöka åtta pedagogers uppfattningar om motorik och fysisk aktivitet har betydelse för eleverna och deras koncentration. Vi valde att göra semistrukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer med åtta pedagoger på tre skolor. Resultatet visade att pedagogernas uppfattningar var att det gjorde skillnad för koncentrationen om eleverna hade rört på sig under dagen och om de hade motoriska svårigheter gav motorisk träning bra resultat.

  • 445.
    Allgren, Erika
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Runa, Johanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pedagogiska överväganden i utformandet av lekmiljöer: -en kvalitativ studie med sju förskollärare2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 12 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att studera, beskriva samt problematisera de motiv som ligger till grund för pedagogers val av material och utformning av lekmiljöer. Detta har vi undersökt genom en kvalitativ studie med semistrukturerade intervjuer. Totalt intervjuade vi sju stycken verksamma förskollärare. I analysen av empirin har tre motiv framkommit: Skapa frihet, Skapa ordning samt Möjliggöra delaktighet. Motiven har vi använt som teman i resultatet. Resultatet visade en varierad syn bland pedagogerna på huruvida miljöerna bör byggas upp för att vara tydliga i vad som förväntas av barnen eller öppna för fantasi och kreativitet. Det framkommer hur miljöerna utformas med ett syfte att skapa frihet för bar-nens lek och hur miljöer byggs upp för att inspirera och locka barnen till fantasi och kreativitet. Re-sultatet visade även en vilja att skapa ordning och tydlighet i verksamheten för att tillmötesgå samtliga barns behov. Det framträder en variation på vilket sätt barnen blir delaktiga i utformningen men bar-nens intresse och behov är alltid i pedagogernas fokus.

  • 446.
    Allgren, Frida
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Institution of education.
    Bronell, Gina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Institution of education.
    ”Då sätter jag stopp!”: Pedagogers styrning av den fria leken2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien var att undersöka vilka uppfattningar pedagoger hade av styrning av den fria leken. Vi ville undersöka om pedagogerna uppfattade att den fysiska miljön kunde styra barns lek och lärande. Vi valde att undersöka uppfattningar eftersom det finns olika sätt att se på barns fria lek. En del forskare belyser allt lärande som leken kan ge medan andra menar att leken är viktig som den är och att lärandet inte ska vara i fokus. För att få en bild av pedagogers uppfattningar har vi använt oss av semistrukturerade, kvalitativa intervjuer. Genom att intervjua åtta pedagoger har vi fått större förståelse för varför de uppfattade att styrning ibland kunde behövas. Enligt pedagogerna kunde rutiner, personal, tidsbrist, brist på lärande, miljö och säkerhet bidra till att den fria leken ibland behövde styras. Detta gjordes för att verksamheten skulle bli så bra som möjligt för alla. Enligt pedagogerna i undersökningen ville de vara mer tillåtande men det visade sig att det kan vara svårt, med tanke på att det var många barn att ta hänsyn till. De uppfattade att lekar ibland kunde styras mot ett lugnare innehåll, när leken sker inomhus. Det kan bero på att de inte kan garantera säkerheten hos barnen om lekar blir för livliga. Detta har vi sedan diskuterat i relation till vad tidigare forskning kommit fram till i vår diskussion. Ämnet var för oss relevant då lek är en viktig del i barns liv och fri lek ofta utgör en stor del av barns dagar på förskolan. Området var för oss intressant att studera för att det utgör en möjlighet att synliggöra något vi och andra kan lära oss mycket av. Utifrån andra pedagogers uppfattningar kunde vi få möjligheten att se hur andra tänker och uppfattar styrningen som sker och varför det ibland kan vara nödvändigt.

  • 447.
    Allgulander, Stina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Bilfeldt, Elinor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Konjunkturnedgång och kapitalstruktur: En studie av SMF inom svenska byggnadsbranschen under åren 2008-20152019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The capital structure of a company is a composition of its equity and liabilities used to finance the company. A company's capital structure differs between companies as each company chooses its own capital structure. Today, 99% of companies in Sweden consists of SME:s. Capital structure also differs from larger companies as SME:s are relatively more dependent on external funding. Generally speaking, SMEs are dependent to external capital to finance the business, in case of a recession, the possibility to gain access from external capital reduces. The capital structure and its company-specific factors may be affected by a crisis where this paper aims to study as how a specific industry's capital structure was affected by the financial crisis in 2008. There are earlier studies on the subject, but it is considered a relatively unexplored research area.The study comprises a sample of 763 SMEs active in the construction industry in Sweden during and after the financial crisis in 2008. The study period is between 2008 and 2015. In order to answer if the financial crisis affected the capital structure of the selected companies, descriptive, correlation and regression analyzes were used to see the relationship between the dependent and independent variables in the study. The dependent variables of the studyconsisted of long-term, short-term and supplier debt and the independence consisted of size, age, profitability, growth and a dummy variable that accounted for the financial crisis. The regression analyzes were conducted to see if the capital structure had been affected by the financial crisis. The results of the analyzes indicate that there is a difference between the periods of time that the capital structure of the companies had been influenced to a certain extent by the economic downturn. The results indicates that debt decreased among companies when the financial crisis continued.

  • 448.
    Allison, Robert S.
    et al.
    York University, Centre for Vision Research, Toronto, Canada.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. RISE AB (Acreo).
    Chandler, Damon M.
    Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan.
    Colett, Hannah R.
    Intel Corp., Santa Clara, California, United States.
    Corriveau, Philip J.
    Intel Corp., Santa Clara, California, United States.
    Daly, Scott
    Dolby Laboratories Inc., Sunnyvale, California, United States.
    Goel, James
    Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., Display Video Processing Group, Markham, Canada.
    Long, Juliana Y.
    Intel Corp., Santa Clara, California, United States.
    Wilcox, Laurie M.
    York University, Centre for Vision Research, Toronto, Canada.
    Yaacob, Yusizwan M.
    Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, Japan.
    Yang, Shun-nan
    Pacific University, Forest Grove, Oregon, United States.
    Zhang, Yi
    Xi’an Jiaotong University, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi’an, China.
    Perspectives on the definition of visually lossless quality for mobile and large format displays2018In: Journal of Electronic Imaging (JEI), ISSN 1017-9909, E-ISSN 1560-229X, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1-23, article id 053035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in imaging and display engineering have given rise to new and improved image and videoapplications that aim to maximize visual quality under given resource constraints (e.g., power, bandwidth).Because the human visual system is an imperfect sensor, the images/videos can be represented in a mathematicallylossy fashion but with enough fidelity that the losses are visually imperceptible—commonly termed“visually lossless.” Although a great deal of research has focused on gaining a better understanding ofthe limits of human vision when viewing natural images/video, a universally or even largely accepted definitionof visually lossless remains elusive. Differences in testing methodologies, research objectives, and targetapplications have led to multiple ad-hoc definitions that are often difficult to compare to or otherwise employ inother settings. We present a compendium of technical experiments relating to both vision science and visualquality testing that together explore the research and business perspectives of visually lossless image quality,as well as review recent scientific advances. Together, the studies presented in this paper suggest that a singledefinition of visually lossless quality might not be appropriate; rather, a better goal would be to establish varyinglevels of visually lossless quality that can be quantified in terms of the testing paradigm.

  • 449.
    Allmungs, Lina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Noréus Magnéli, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Det balanserade styrkortets utbredning bland jämtländska företag2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Magisteruppsats i företagsekonomi, Mittuniversitetet, Östersund

    Författare: Lina Allmungs och Sara Noréus Magnéli

    Handledare: Jan Hemlin

    Titel: Det balanserade styrkortets utbredning bland jämtländska företag

    Bakgrund och problemdiskussion: De senaste två decennierna har den traditionella ekonomistyrningen fått allt mer kritik. Anledningen är att det idag råder andra förhållanden än när den traditionella ekonomistyrningen utvecklades. Kritiken mot den traditionella ekonomistyrningen ledde till att de båda Harvardprofessorerna Robert S Kaplan och David P Norton i början på 1990-talet utvecklade ett nytt koncept under namnet Balanced Scorecard (balanserat styrkort). De traditionella redovisningsmässiga mätningarna fungerade bra under industrialiseringen men i dagens läge är de i otakt med den skicklighet och kompetens som företag försöker att uppnå. Företagen måste därmed eftersträva en balanserad prestation av de finansiella och operationella mätningarna för att få en snabb och överskådlig bild av verksamheten.

    Ovanstående diskussion leder fram till följande frågeställningar:

    •Hur utbrett är det balanserade styrkortet bland Jämtländska företag?

    •Vilka perspektiv och nyckeltal tillämpas?

    Syfte: Studiens syfte var att beskriva och förklara i vilken utsträckning företag i Jämtland använder sig av det balanserade styrkortet. Vi ville undersöka om bransch, antal anställda, omsättning samt årets resultat efter finansnetto har inverkan på valet av att implementera det balanserade styrkortet i verksamheten. Syftet var även att beskriva vilka perspektiv och nyckeltal företagen använder sig av.

    Metod: Ett deduktivt (beskrivande) tillvägagångssätt användes, där vi utgick från kända teorier i ett försök att finna en förståelse för att kunna testa fenomenet empiriskt. Vi ansåg att kvantitativ metod lämpade sig bäst för vår undersökning då vi ville nå ut till en stor del av företagen. Kvalitativa inslag förekom då den kvantitativa forskningen genom en enkät hade inslag av verbala analysmodeller.

    Resultat och slutsats: Användarna av det balanserade styrkortet runt om i världen inkluderar alla typer av företag. Studier visar även att det balanserade styrkortet är utbrett bland företag i Sverige. Styrkort använder vissa generella nyckeltal som speglar mål som är gemensamma för många strategier och oberoende av bransch och företag. Utifrån vår studies resultat anser vi oss kunna hävda att det balanserade styrkortet inte används i någon större utsträckning bland företag i Jämtlands län. Däremot anser vi oss inte kunna dra några generella slutsatser om vilka perspektiv och nyckeltal som är mest frekvent använda hos företagen.

  • 450.
    Alm, Hanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Science Education and Mathematics.
    En studie som visar i vilket syfte fyra lärare använder utomhusmatematik i förskoleklass-åk32016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utomhuspedagogik har under de senaste åren ökat inom skolans värld. Jag har upplevt att lärare har börjat prata mer om utomhuspedagogik och använder det mer och mer i undervisningen. Mitt självständiga arbete handlar om hur lärare i grundskolan förskoleklass-åk3 använder sig av utomhusmatematik och i vilket syfte lärarna har när de undervisar inom utomhusmatematik. Studiens syfte är att undersöka i vilket syfte lärare använder utomhusmatematik, vilka positiva respektive negativa sidor de ser/upplever när de undervisar med undervisningsformen samt ett ungefärligt snittvärde på hur många timmar i veckan lärarna använder det. Metoden som tillämpas till denna studie är kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer med fyra verksamma lärare på olika skolor i samma kommun. Resultatet visar att alla lärare jag intervjuade jobbade med utomhusmatematik varje vecka och var positiv till att jobba med det. Lärarna såg också att fler elever fångades upp när de valde att ta ut klassrummet och jobba mer praktiskt. Genom att jobba på detta sätt har alla elever en större chans att jobba mot sina mål samt att eleverna får använda sin lärstil eftersom många olika lärstilar blir möjliga att använda utomhus.

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