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  • 3551.
    Cao, Cao
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A Tool for Low-Power Synthesis of FSMs with Mixed Synchronous/Asynchronous State Memory2004In: 22ND NORCHIP CONFERENCE, PROCEEDINGS, IEEE , 2004, p. 199-202Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient way to obtain Finite-State Machines (FSMs) with low power consumption is to,partition the machine into two or more sub-FSMs and use dynamic power management, where all sub-FSMs not active are shut down, to reduce dynamic power dissipation. In this paper we focus on FSM partitioning algorithms and RT-level power estimation functions that are the key issues in the design of a CAD tool for synthesis of low-power partitioned FSMS. We target an implementation architecture that is based on both synchronous and asynchronous state memory elements that enables larger power reductions than fully synchronous architectures do. Power reductions of up to 77% have been achieved at a cost of an increase in area of 18%.

  • 3552.
    Cao, Cao
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Synthesis tool for low-power finite-state machines with mixed synchronous/asynchronous state memory2006In: IEE Proceedings - Computers and digital Techniques, ISSN 1350-2387, E-ISSN 1359-7027, Vol. 153, no 4, p. 243-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient way to obtain finite-state machines (FSMs) with low-power consumption is to partition the machine into two or more sub-FSMs and then use dynamic power management where all sub-FSMs not active are shut down, with the effect of reducing dynamic power dissipation. Thus, FSM partitioning algorithms and register-transfer-level power estimation functions are the main focus of the paper as these are key issues in the design of a computer-aided design tool for synthesis of low-power partitioned FSMs. An implementation architecture is targeted, which is based on both synchronous and asynchronous state memory elements that enable larger power reductions than fully synchronous architectures do. Power reductions of up to 77 have been achieved at a cost of an 18 increase in area.

  • 3553.
    Cao, Weilan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Level and structure of SNP and indel variation between individuals on large (North America and Sweden) and small (within Sweden) geographic scale of Phlebiopsis gigantea2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3554.
    Capogrosso, Denise
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Jacobsson, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Föräldrar med intellektuella funktionsnedsättningar: Ur olika perspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Allt fler individer med intellektuella funktionsnedsättningar väljer att bli föräldrar, hur de tillgodogör sig sin föräldraroll varierar från förälder till förälder. Syfte: Studiens syfte var att undersöka hur forskningslitteraturen beskriver föräldrar med intellektuell funktionsnedsättning i termer av föräldraförmåga, stöd och risker för barnet. Studien granskar forskningslitteraturen utifrån tre frågeställningar. Metod: Den metod som användes i studien var en litteraturöversikt, 32 primärstudier granskades. Studiens resultat granskades ur en anknytningsteoretisk aspekt samt ett empowerment perspektiv med en socialkonstruktionistisk vetenskaplig positionering. Resultat: Studiens resultat visade att föräldrar med intellektuella funktionsnedsättningar har en bristande föräldraförmåga. Det leder till att deras barn i större utsträckning utsättas för olika risker som kan påverka deras hälsa och utveckling. Vidare visade resultatet att stöd för föräldrar med intellektuella funktionsnedsättningar i dagsläget är bristfälligt och ineffektivt på lång sikt. Däremot visade resultatet att föräldrar med intellektuella funktionsnedsättningar är öppen för att ta emot stödsamt tillgodogöra sig stödet.

  • 3555.
    Cardinale, Daniele A.
    et al.
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Stockholm.
    Larsen, Filip J.
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Stockholm.
    Schiffer, Tomas A.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm.
    Morales-Alamo, David
    Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain; Res Inst Biomed & Hlth Sci IUIBS, Las Palmas De Gran Canad, Gran Canaria, Spain.
    Ekblom, Bjorn
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Stockholm.
    Calbet, Jose A. L.
    Univ Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Las Palmas Gran Canaria, Spain; Res Inst Biomed & Hlth Sci IUIBS, Las Palmas De Gran Canad, Gran Canaria, Spain; Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Boushel, Robert
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Superior Intrinsic Mitochondria Respiration in Women Than in Men2018In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, no AUG, article id 1133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual dimorphism is apparent in humans, however, to date no studies have investigated mitochondria! function focusing on intrinsic mitochondrial respiration (i.e., mitochondrial respiration for a given amount of mitochondrial protein) and mitochondrial oxygen affinity (p50(mito)) in relation to biological sex in human. A skeletal muscle biopsy was donated by nine active women, and ten men matched for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and by nine endurance trained men. Intrinsic mitochondrial respiration, assessed in isolated mitochondria, was higher in women compared to men when activating complex I (Cl-p) and complex I+II(Cl+IIp) (p < 0.05), and was similar to trained men (Cl-p, p = 0.053; Cl+IIp, p = 0.066). Proton leak and p50(mito) to were higher in women compared to men independent of VO2max. In conclusion, significant novel differences in mitochondrial oxidative function, intrinsic mitochondrial respiration and p50(mito) to exist between women and men. These findings may represent an adaptation in the oxygen cascade in women to optimize muscle oxygen uptake to compensate for a lower oxygen delivery during exercise.

  • 3556.
    Carillo, Sandra
    et al.
    Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome, Italy.
    Lo Schiavo, Mauro
    Sapienza Università di Roma, Rome, Italy.
    Porten, Egmont
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego W Kielcach, Kielce, Poland.
    Schiebold, Cornelia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego W Kielcach, Kielce, Poland.
    A novel noncommutative KdV-type equation, its recursion operator, and solitons2018In: Journal of Mathematical Physics, ISSN 0022-2488, E-ISSN 1089-7658, Vol. 59, no 4, article id 043501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A noncommutative KdV-type equation is introduced extending the Bäcklund chart in Carillo et al. [Symmetry Integrability Geom.: Methods Appl. 12, 087 (2016)]. This equation, called meta-mKdV here, is linked by Cole-Hopf transformations to the two noncommutative versions of the mKdV equations listed in Olver and Sokolov [Commun. Math. Phys. 193, 245 (1998), Theorem 3.6]. For this meta-mKdV, and its mirror counterpart, recursion operators, hierarchies, and an explicit solution class are derived. 

  • 3557.
    Carillo, Sandra
    et al.
    Dipartimento “Scienze di Base e Applicate per l’Ingegneria”, Sapienza - Università di Roma, 16, Via A. Scarpa, Rome, Italy; I.N.F.N. - Sez. Roma1, Gr. IV - Mathematical Methods in NonLinear Physics, Rome, Italy .
    Lo Schiavo, Mauro
    Dipartimento “Scienze di Base e Applicate per l’Ingegneria”, Sapienza - Università di Roma, 16, Via A. Scarpa, Rome, Italy.
    Schiebold, Cornelia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Science Education and Mathematics. Instytut Matematyki, Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach, Poland.
    Bäcklund transformations and non-abelian nonlinear evolution equations: A novel bäcklund chart2016In: SIGMA. Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry, ISSN 1815-0659, E-ISSN 1815-0659, Vol. 12, article id 087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Classes of third order non-Abelian evolution equations linked to that of Korteweg-de Vries-type are investigated and their connections represented in a non-commutative Bäcklund chart, generalizing results in [Fuchssteiner B., Carillo S., Phys. A 154 (1989), 467-510]. The recursion operators are shown to be hereditary, thereby allowing the results to be extended to hierarchies. The present study is devoted to operator nonlinear evolution equations: general results are presented. The implied applications referring to finite-dimensional cases will be considered separately.

  • 3558.
    Carillo, Sandra
    et al.
    Dipartimento “Scienze di Base e Applicate per l’Ingegneria”, Sapienza - Universit`a di Roma, 16, Via A. Scarpa, 00161 Rome, Italy.
    Lo Schiavo, Mauro
    Dipartimento “Scienze di Base e Applicate per l’Ingegneria”, Sapienza - Universit`a di Roma, 16, Via A. Scarpa, 00161 Rome, Italy.
    Schiebold, Cornelia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Instytut Matematyki, Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach, Poland.
    Recursion operators admitted by non-Abelian Burgers equations: some remarks2018In: Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, ISSN 0378-4754, E-ISSN 1872-7166, Vol. 147, no SI, p. 40-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recursion operators admitted by different operator Burgers equations, in the framework of the study of nonlinear evolution equations, are here considered. Specifically, evolution equations wherein the unknown is an operator acting on a Banach space are investigated. Here, the mirror   non-Abelian Burgers equation is considered: it can be written as rt=rxx+2rxrrt=rxx+2rxr. The structural properties of the admitted recursion operator are studied; thus, it is proved to be a strong symmetry for the mirror non-Abelian Burgers equation as well as to be the hereditary. These results are proved via direct computations as well as via computer assisted manipulations; ad hoc routines are needed to treat non-Abelian quantities and relations among them. The obtained recursion operator generates the mirror   non-Abelian Burgers hierarchy. The latter, when the unknown operator rr is replaced by a real valued function reduces to the usual (commutative) Burgers hierarchy. Accordingly, also the recursion operator reduces to the usual Burgers one.

  • 3559.
    Carillo, Sandra
    et al.
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Scarpa, Italy; I.N.F.N.-Sez. Roma1, Gr.IV: Mathematical Methods in NonLinear Physics Rome, Italy.
    Schiavo, Mauro Lo
    Università di Roma La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
    Schiebold, Cornelia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach, Poland.
    Abelian versus non-Abelian BÄcklund charts: Some remarks2019In: Evolution Equations and Control Theory, ISSN 2163-2472, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 43-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connections via Bäcklund transformations among different nonlinear evolution equations are investigated aiming to compare corresponding Abelian and non Abelian results. Specifically, links, via Bäcklund transformations, connecting Burgers and KdV-type hierarchies of nonlinear evolution equations are studied. Crucial differences as well as notable similarities between Bäcklund charts in the case of the Burgers-heat equation, on one side, and KdV-type equations, on the other, are considered. The Bäcklund charts constructed in [16] and [17], respectively, to connect Burgers and KdV-type hierarchies of operator nonlinear evolution equations show that the structures, in the non-commutative cases, are richer than the corresponding commutative ones. 

  • 3560.
    Carillo, Sandra
    et al.
    Universita Roma La Sapienza.
    Schiebold, Cornelia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    A non-commutative operator-hierarchy of Burgers equations and Bäcklund transformations2009In: Series on Advances in Mathematics for Applied Sciences, ISSN 1793-0901, Vol. 82Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3561.
    Carillo, Sandra
    et al.
    Universita Roma La Sapienza.
    Schiebold, Cornelia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Matrix KdV and mKdV hierarchies: Noncommutative soliton solutions and explicit formulae2009Report (Other academic)
  • 3562.
    Carillo, Sandra
    et al.
    Univ Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento Sci Base & Applicate Ingn, Sez Matemat, Rome, Italy .
    Schiebold, Cornelia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Matrix Korteweg-de Vries and modified Korteweg-de Vries hierarchies: Noncommutative soliton solutions2011In: Journal of Mathematical Physics, ISSN 0022-2488, E-ISSN 1089-7658, Vol. 52, no 5, p. Art. no. 053507-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work continues work on KdV-type hierarchies presented by S. Carillo and C. Schiebold ["Noncommutative Korteweg-de Vries and modified Korteweg-de Vries hierarchies via recursion methods," J. Math. Phys. 50, 073510 (2009)]. General solution formulas for the KdV and mKdV hierarchies are derived by means of Banach space techniques both in the scalar and matrix case. A detailed analysis is given of solitons, breathers, their countable superpositions as well as of multisoliton solutions for the matrix hierarchies. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3576185]

  • 3563.
    Carillo, Sandra
    et al.
    Universita Roma La Sapienza.
    Schiebold, Cornelia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Noncommutative Korteweg-de Vries and modified Korteweg-de Vries hierarchies via recursion methods2009In: Journal of Mathematical Physics, ISSN 0022-2488, E-ISSN 1089-7658, Vol. 50, no 7, article id 073510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, noncommutative hierarchies of nonlinear equations are studied. They represent a generalization to the operator level of corresponding hierarchies of scalar equations, which can be obtained from the operator ones via a suitable projection. A key tool is the application of Baumlcklund transformations to relate different operator-valued hierarchies. Indeed, in the case when hierarchies in 1+1-dimensions are considered, a "Baumlcklund chart" depicts links relating, in particular, the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) to the modified KdV (mKdV) hierarchy. Notably, analogous links connect the hierarchies of operator equations. The main result is the construction of an operator soliton solution depending on an infinite-dimensional parameter. To start with, the potential KdV hierarchy is considered. Then Baumlcklund transformations are exploited to derive solution formulas in the case of KdV and mKdV hierarchies. It is remarked that hierarchies of matrix equations, of any dimension, are also incorporated in the present framework.

  • 3564.
    Carillo, Sandra
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l'Ingegneria Sez. Matematica, SAPIENZA Università di Roma, Rome, Italy.
    Schiebold, Cornelia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    On the recursion operator for the noncommutative Burgers hierarchy2012In: Journal of Nonlinear Mathematical Physics, ISSN 1402-9251, E-ISSN 1776-0852, Vol. 19, no 1, p. Art. no. 1250003-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The noncommutative Burgers recursion operator is constructed via the ColeHopf transformation, and its structural properties are studied. In particular, a direct proof of its hereditary property is given. © S. Carillo and C. Schiebold.

  • 3565.
    Carillo, Sandra
    et al.
    Universita Roma I La Sapienza.
    Schiebold, Cornelia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Recursion techniques and explicit solutions of integrable noncommutative hierarchies2010In: Proceedings WASCOM 2009 / [ed] A. Greco, S. Rionero, T. Ruggeri, 2010, p. 74-80Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3566.
    Carl, Bernd
    et al.
    Universität Jena.
    Schiebold, Cornelia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Ein direkter Ansatz zur Untersuchung von Solitonengleichungen2000In: Jahresbericht der Deutschen Mathematiker-Vereinigung (Teubner), ISSN 0012-0456, E-ISSN 1869-7135, Vol. 102, no 3, p. 102-148Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3567.
    Carl, Bernd
    et al.
    Universität Jena.
    Schiebold, Cornelia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nonlinear equations in soliton physics and operator ideals1999In: Nonlinearity, ISSN 0951-7715, E-ISSN 1361-6544, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 333-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An operator-theoretic method for the investigation of nonlinear equations in soliton physics is discussed comprehensively. Originating from pioneering work of Marchenko, our operator-method is based on new insights into the theory of traces and determinants on operator ideals. Therefore, we give a systematic and concise approach to some recent developments in this direction which are important in the context of this paper. Our method is widely applicable. We carry out the corresponding arguments in detail for the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation and summarize the results concerning the Korteweg-de Vries and the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation as well as for the sine-Gordon equation. Exactly the same formalism works in the discrete case, as the treatment of the Toda lattice, the Langmuir and the Wadati lattice shows.

  • 3568.
    Carlaum, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Hult, Agneta
    Umeå universitet.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå universitet.
    Novak, Judit
    Uppsala universitet.
    Rönnberg, Linda
    Umeå universitet.
    Segerholm, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Skolinspektion som styrning2014In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 5-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3569.
    Carlberg, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lindberg, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelse av behandling vid anorexia nervosa: En ltteraturöversikt2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Anorexia nervosa ses som allvarligaste och det tredje mest vanliga tillståndet bland ungdomar. Behandlingsalternativen för personer med anorexia nervosa ser olika ut i olika delar i Sverige men det viktigaste i behandlingen är att bryta svälten och hjälpa till att normalisera ätmönstret. Syftet med denna litteraturöversikt var att belysa vilka faktorer som individer med anorexia nervosa upplever ha betydelse för tillfrisknandet. Studien baserades på 11 kvalitativa vetenskapliga artiklar som hittades via sökningar i databaserna Cinahl, Psycinfo och PubMed. Analysförfarandet skedde med hjälp av manifest innehållsanalys. Vård av personer med diagnosen anorexia nervosa bör handla om att balansera det psykiska och det fysiska tillståndet. Det handlar om en inre motivation hos dessa personer att tillfriskna. I resultatet framkom att självförtroendet var den viktigaste faktorn för en framgångsrik behandling. Samtidigt så hade faktorerna insikt som motivator, tillit, sjukvårdens kunskap och fysisk återhämtning stor betydelse.    Betydelsen av att vårdgivaren möter personen med anorexia nervosa på rätt sätt vid rätt tillfälle och med rätt medel är stor. Det är viktigt att upptäcka förändringsvillighet redan i ett tidigt stadium av sjukdomsförloppet. För att god vård skall kunna uppstå bör synen på framgångsfaktorer, för alla inblandade i vården, inklusive vårdtagaren vara överensstämmande.

  • 3570.
    Carlberg, Michael
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Hedendahl, Lena
    Independent Environment and Health Research Luleå, Sweden.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    Institute of Environmental Health and Safety, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Koppel, Tarmo
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries with main focus on Swedish data2016In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 16, article id 426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz-300 GHz was evaluated to be Group 2B, i.e. 'possibly' carcinogenic to humans, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO in May 2011. Among the evaluated devices were mobile and cordless phones, since they emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). In addition to the brain, another organ, the thyroid gland, also receives high exposure. The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing in many countries, especially the papillary type that is the most radiosensitive type.

    METHODS: We used the Swedish Cancer Register to study the incidence of thyroid cancer during 1970-2013 using joinpoint regression analysis.

    RESULTS: In women, the incidence increased statistically significantly during the whole study period; average annual percentage change (AAPC) +1.19 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) +0.56, +1.83 %). Two joinpoints were detected, 1979 and 2001, with a high increase of the incidence during the last period 2001-2013 with an annual percentage change (APC) of +5.34 % (95 % CI +3.93, +6.77 %). AAPC for all men during 1970-2013 was +0.77 % (95 % CI -0.03, +1.58 %). One joinpoint was detected in 2005 with a statistically significant increase in incidence during 2005-2013; APC +7.56 % (95 % CI +3.34, +11.96 %). Based on NORDCAN data, there was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in the Nordic countries during the same time period. In both women and men a joinpoint was detected in 2006. The incidence increased during 2006-2013 in women; APC +6.16 % (95 % CI +3.94, +8.42 %) and in men; APC +6.84 % (95 % CI +3.69, +10.08 %), thus showing similar results as the Swedish Cancer Register. Analyses based on data from the Cancer Register showed that the increasing trend in Sweden was mainly caused by thyroid cancer of the papillary type.

    CONCLUSIONS: We postulate that the whole increase cannot be attributed to better diagnostic procedures. Increasing exposure to ionizing radiation, e.g. medical computed tomography (CT) scans, and to RF-EMF (non-ionizing radiation) should be further studied. The design of our study does not permit conclusions regarding causality.

  • 3571.
    Carlberg, Michael
    et al.
    Örebro Univ, Örebro.
    Koppel, Tarmo
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro Univ, Örebro.
    Case-control study on occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields and glioma risk2017In: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 494-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) was in 2002 classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO.

    Methods

    Life time occupations were assessed in case-control studies during 1997-2003 and 2007-2009. An ELF-EMF Job-Exposure Matrix was used for associating occupations with ELF exposure (T). Cumulative exposure (T-years), average exposure (T), and maximum exposed job (T) were calculated.

    Results

    Cumulative exposure gave for astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme) in the time window 1-14 years odds ratio (OR)=1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.4-2.6, p linear trend <0.001, and in the time window 15+ years OR=0.9, 95%CI=0.6-1.3, p linear trend=0.44 in the highest exposure categories 2.75+ and 6.59+ T years, respectively.

    Conclusion

    An increased risk in late stage (promotion/progression) of astrocytoma grade IV for occupational ELF-EMF exposure was found.

  • 3572.
    Carlberg, Michael
    et al.
    Örebro Univ, Örebro.
    Koppel, Tarmo
    Tallinn Univ Technol, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Örebro Univ, Örebro.
    Case-Control Study on Occupational Exposure to Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and the Association with Meningioma2018In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, article id 5912394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) was in 2002 classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO based on an increased risk for childhood leukemia. In case-control studies on brain tumors during 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 we assessed lifetime occupations in addition to exposure to different agents. The INTEROCC ELF-EMF Job-ExposureMatrix was used for associating occupations with ELF-EMF exposure (mu T) with meningioma. Cumulative exposure (mu T-years), average exposure (mu T), and maximum exposed job (mu T) were calculated. Results. No increased risk for meningioma was found in any category. For cumulative exposure in the highest exposure category 8.52+ mu T years odds ratio (OR) = 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7-1.2, and.. linear trend = 0.45 were calculated. No statistically significant risks were found in different time windows. Conclusion. In conclusion occupational ELF-EMF was not associated with an increased risk for meningioma.

  • 3573.
    Carlberg, Torbjorn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Jarfors, Anders E. W.
    School of Engineering, Jönköping University, 55111 Jönköping, Sweden .
    On Vertical Drag Defects Formation During Direct Chill (DC) Casting of Aluminum Billets2014In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 175-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During air-slip direct chill casting of aluminum billets, one of the major defects occurring includes traces along the billet called vertical drags (VDs). If the VDs are too deep or too many, then they cause scraping of the billets. As in the subsequent extrusion process, the surface quality is known to impair both the productivity and quality of the profiles. In cast-house practice, many theories circulate about the causes of VD defects and how to avoid them, but in the literature, no thorough treatments have been made to explain this phenomenon. In the current study, the outer appearance, structure around, and compositions at the defects are analyzed. A theory for the formation of the defects, their cause, and how their appearance is coupled to different alloy types is presented. The segregation in the vicinity of the defects is discussed based on deformation of semisolid materials and coupled to Reynolds dilatancy in granular materials. The theory can explain differences between 6063 and 6005 alloys.

  • 3574.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    A Review of Radial Segregation in Crystal Growth during Microgravity2006In: Progress in crystal growth and characterization of materials, ISSN 0960-8974, E-ISSN 1878-4208, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 213-222Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review describes radial segregation results from crystal growth experiments in microgravity, together with their corre-sponding theoretical treatments. The paper is structured in terms of the different factors influencing radial segregation during crystal growth, such as: curved growth interfaces, variations in boundary layer thicknesses, weak convection, facets and magnetic fields. In a number of experiments considerably stronger radial segregation occurs in space than is normally observed on earth. The theoretical treatments lead to a sound understanding of all of the results. Possible ways to avoid the problem, such as the application of magnetic fields, are outlined.

  • 3575.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Experimental Study of Radial Segregation Caused by Weak Convection2005In: Microgravity, science and technology, ISSN 0938-0108, E-ISSN 1875-0494, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 35-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under conditions of weak convection in the liquid during metal solidification and crystal growth, large chemical inhomogeneities can occur due to insufficient mixing of the melt. In this project a series of experiments with increasing melt flow, driven by thermo-capillary forces, have been performed in a Get Away Special flight. The level of convection was evaluated quantitatively from analysis of axial segregation profiles. As expected a significantly stronger radial segregation has occurred in the space grown material compared to ground based reference experiments. It was also found that there was a shift of the position of maximum concentration when the flow was increased. Unexpected axial solute maxima were also revealed in the space samples. A comparison was made to numerical simulations, and good correlations were found to first order effects.

  • 3576.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Radial Segregation during Microgravity Experiments: Presented at The International Conference on Advances in Solidification Processing, Stockholm, Sweden, June 20052005Conference paper (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Under conditions of weak convection in the liquid during metal solidification and crystal growth, large chemical inhomogeneities can occur due to insuffi-cient mixing of the melt. In this project a series of experiments with increasing melt flow, driven by thermo-capillary forces, have been performed in a Get Away Special flight. The level of convection was evaluated quanti-tatively from analysis of axial segregation profiles. As expected a significantly stronger radial segre-gation has occurred in the space grown mate-rial compared to ground based reference experiments. It was also found that there was a shift of the position of max-imum concentration when the flow was in-creased. Unexpected axial solute maxima were also revealed in the space samples. A comparison was made to numerical simulations, and good correla-tions were found to first order effects.

  • 3577.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Silicon crystal formation during DC casting of aluminium-silicon alloys2009In: TMS Light Metals 2009, Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2009, p. 837-841Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of polyhedral silicon crystals in aluminium 7-8% silicon alloys has been studied in industrial ingots. It was found that the nucleation temperature and the cooling rate were important factors influencing the amount and size of the polyhedral crystals. To avoid large particles in the as cast material early nucleation have to be suppressed and the phosphorous content should be kept low. Modeling of diffusion-controlled growth of the silicon phase in this type of aluminium-silicon alloys shows how the nucleation temperature influences the morphology of the precipitated silicon.

  • 3578.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Silicon Particle Precipitation during DC Casting of Al-Si Clad Alloys2010In: Materials Science Forum, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2010, p. 307-313Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of polyhedral silicon crystals in aluminium 7-9% silicon alloys has been studied both in industrial ingots and in simulation experiments in a Bridgman furnace. It was found that the nucleation temperature and the cooling rate were important factors influencing the amount and size of the polyhedral crystals. To avoid large particles in the as cast material early nucleation have to be suppressed and the phosphorous content should be kept low. Modelling of diffusion-controlled growth of the silicon phase in this type of aluminium-silicon alloys shows how the nucleation temperature influences the morphology of the precipitated sili¬con.

  • 3579.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bayat, Nazlin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Erdegren, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Surface Segregation and Surface Defect Formation During Aluminum Billet Casting2015In: Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, ISSN 0972-2815, E-ISSN 0975-1645, Vol. 68, no 6, p. 1065-1069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the surface zone formation during direct chill casting of aluminum billets, produced by the air slip technology, is discussed. The shell zone depth and compositions have been quantitatively studied, and the surface microstructures of 6060, 6005 and 6082 alloys are compared and coupled to surface appearances. The understanding of the results is based on the exudation of liquid metal through the mushy zone and the fact that the exudate liquid is contained within a surface oxide skin, and the oxide skin movements are coupled to various surface appearances. The major defects that occur during billet castings are different kinds of vertical drags or horizontal bandings, also called lapping. The structures coupled to these defects and theories for their formation are discussed.

  • 3580.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Jaradeh, Majed
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Kamgou Kamga, H.
    Solidification Studies of Automotive Heat Exchanger Materials2006In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 58, no 11, p. 56-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the aluminium alloy AA 3003 different modifications of that alloy family have been studied to improve and tailor the properties of the material for its applications in automotive heat exchangers. Laboratory techniques have been applied to simulate industrial DC-casting, together with some basic solidification studies. The results are coupled to structures observed in industrial size ingots and discussed in terms of structure property relations.

  • 3581.
    Carlberg, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Winkler, C.
    Amberg, G.
    Weak Convection Influencing Radial Segregation2000In: European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP, 2000, Vol. 454 I, p. 431-436Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of weak convection, caused by surface tension forces, on radial segregation occuring in crystals grown under microgravity conditions is studied in a project involving both numerical simulations and space experiments. The geometry studied is a Bridgman configuration with a partially coated surface. Small slots in the coating give free surface in a controlled way, and the free surface area is the parameter in the investigation. The experiments will be performed in a GAS module, which will be flown in the beginning of year 2001. The paper presents the experimental technique in detail as well as some results obtained during the development phase. Numerical simulations have been performed and results of how the radial segregation varies with the convection level will be presented. The project is the first phase of a research program, which will continue with experiments in the ISS.

  • 3582.
    Carlborg, Jakob
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Spårbarhet och kvalitetssäkring i livsmedelsindustrin: fallstudie av Kungsörnens produktsortiment2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3583. Carlbring, Örjan
    et al.
    Fredman, PeterMid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Konferens och mötesplats för Natur- och kulturturism: Skydd av natur och kultur - död hand eller lönsam upplevelseindustri? Turistföretagande i natur- och kulturmiljöer - en framtidsbransch? 12-13 november 2003, Campus, Mitthögskolan, Östersund2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här publikationen är en dokumentation från en konferens i Östersund om natur- och kulturturism.

    Konferensens hade två huvudteman: Skydd av natur och kultur - död hand eller lönsam upplevelseindustri? Turistföretagande i natur- och kulturmiljöer - en framtidsbransch?

    Här är några av programpunkterna:- Nya naturvårdspolitiken - bevarande genom nyttjande   - Funky history - i Arns fotspår   - Turism - ett sätt att förmedla kulturarvet   - Militära skyddsområden - turistiska råvaror för skärgården?   - Världsarvet Birka - en balansgång mellan bevarande och exploatering   - Betala för rekreation i naturen - förutsättningar och lösningar   - Rovdjursturism - en tillgång!   - Kom och köp samisk kultur!   - Skogsturismen går att utveckla

  • 3584. Carle, Fredrik
    et al.
    Koptioug, Andrei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Portable rescue device and a method for locating such a device2007Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A portable rescue device and a method for locating, by means of a first rescue device set in a search mode, a second rescue device set in a distress mode. In the method, a distress signal carrying a device identification is received from said second rescue device. A first bearing and a second bearing to the second rescue device are obtained. The first and second bearings are taken from a first and a second position, respectively. A distance between these positions is determined. A current distance and a current bearing to the second rescue device are determined on basis of the first and second bearings and the distance. The current bearing and the current distance are communicated to a user of the first rescue device. The portable rescue device is used for performing the method and for that purpose it includes a first communication unit for distress signal transmission and reception; a compass; a processor; a user interface; and a mode switch for switching between a search mode and a distress signal mode. The first communication device has an antenna structure that provides directional capability.

  • 3585.
    Carlehed, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Comparison of the pluricomplex and the classical Green funcions1998In: The Michigan mathematical journal, ISSN 0026-2285, E-ISSN 1945-2365, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 399-407Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3586.
    Carlehed, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Comparison of the pluricomplex and the classical Green functions1997Report (Other academic)
  • 3587.
    Carlehed, Magnus
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Cegrell, Urban
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Wikström, Frank
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Jensen measures, hyperconvexity and boundary behaviour of the pluricomplex Green function1999In: Annales Polonici Mathematici, ISSN 0066-2216, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 87-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We characterise hyperconvexity in terms of Jensen measures with barycentre at a boundary point. We also give an explicit formula for the pluricomplex Green function in the Hartogs' triangle. Finally we study the behaviour of the pluricomplex Green function $g(z,w)$ as the pole $w$ tends to a boundary point.

  • 3588.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Health and Social Determinants Among Boys and Girls in Sweden: Focusing on Parental Background2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of Swedish boys and girls have good psychosomatic health. Despite that the risk of mental health problems such as nervousness, feeling low and sleeping difficulties has increased steadily in recent decades. Moreover, previous surveys on health and well-being indicate that boys and girls of foreign extraction in Sweden are at increased risk of ill health compared to boys and girls of Swedish background.

     

    The main aim of this thesis was to analyse health and social determinants among boys and girls of foreign extraction in Sweden. The factors explored in papers I–IV include parental background, family affluence and gender and their associations with subjective health complaints, psychosomatic problems or health risk behaviours. Other included risk factors for ill health were involvement in bullying, low participation and discrimination at school. This thesis takes an intersectional perspective, with ambitions to be able to emphasize the interplay between different power relations (i.e. gender, social class and parental background).

     

    Two sets of cross-sectional data were used. Three papers were based on the Swedish part of the World Health Organization’s Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children. The sample consisted of 11,972 children (boys n = 6054; girls n = 5918) in grades five, seven and nine from the measurement years 1997/98, 2001/02 and 2005/06. The response rate varied between 85 and 90%. About one fifth of the included children were of foreign extraction. For the fourth paper regional data from Northern Sweden were used. Boys (n = 729) and girls (n = 798) in grades six to nine answered a questionnaire in 2011 and the response rate was 80%. About 14% of the included children were of foreign extraction. Statistical methods used were chi-square test, correlation analyses, logistic regression analyses, cluster analyses and test of mediating factor.

     

    The results showed that girls of foreign background were at increased risk of subjective health complaints (SHC) and boys of mixed background were at increased risk of psychosomatic problems (PSP). Increased risk of allocation to the cluster profile of multiple risk behaviour was shown in boys and girls of mixed background, in girls of foreign background and in girls of low family affluence. Increased risk of allocation to the cluster profile of inadequate tooth brushing was shown in boys and girls of foreign background and in girls of low family affluence. General risk factors for increased risk of ill health for boys and girls in Sweden were: any form of bullying involvement, low family affluence, low participation and discrimination at school, of which the latter also was a mediating factor for ill health. Living with a single parent was a risk factor for ill health among girls.

     

    The results can function as a basis for developing health promotion programmes at schools that focus on social consequences of foreign extraction, family affluence, participation as well as health risk behaviours and gender.

  • 3589.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hur handläggare/specialister inom etableringen definierar hälsofrämjande faktorer i möten med nyanlända: Ett delprojekt i ”Etablering med hälsoperspektiv”2016Report (Other academic)
  • 3590.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Erling, Englund
    Research and Development Centre for the County Council of Västernorrland.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Risk behaviour, parental background, and wealth: a cluster analysis among Swedish boys and girls in the HBSC study2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 368-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To analyse how health risk behaviours (HRB) are clustered and associated with parental background and family wealth among Swedish boys and girls.

    Methods: Data were collected from Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC),a global cross-sectional survey for 1997/98, 2001/02, and 2005/06. A total of 11,972 boys and girls in grades 5, 7, and 9 participated in the study. The pupils were categorised in subgroups according to parental background: Swedish (80.0%), mixed (10.6%), and foreign (9.4%). Cluster analyses were used to identify HRB profiles. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations between cluster allocation, parental background, and family affluence.

    Results: In total 11,232 pupils were identified and allocated to five cluster profiles, half of them in the cluster profile of low-risk behaviour. The most disadvantaged cluster was multiple HRB, which was characterised by high prevalence of smoking, drunkenness, low physical activity, and high soft-drink consumption. The cluster profile of multiple HRB was associated with both mixed background and foreign background in girls and with mixed background in boys.. The cluster profile of inadequate tooth brushing was associated with foreign background in both boys and girls. The cluster profiles of multiple HRB and inadequate tooth brushing were associated with low family affluence in girls.

    Conclusions: The cluster profiles of multiple HRB and inadequate tooth brushing were associated with parental foreign extraction in boys and girls and with low family affluence in girls. Prevention programmes based on identified clusters of HRB, including consideration of impact of socio-demographic indicators, are needed.

  • 3591.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Persson, Mats
    Headquarters, Policy and Plans Department, Swedish Armed Forces.
    Officials Reflections about Health Promoting Factors among Newly Arrivals: An Introductory Analysis2017In: International Journal of Community & Family Medicine, ISSN 2456-3498, Vol. 2, no 1, article id IJCFM-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Resulting from conflicts, millions of peoples have been forced to leave their countries of origin. In Sweden, the Employment Agency is responsible for making decisions of immigrants’ residence in municipalities and in co-operation with these allow the immigrants’ establishment in the society. Preventive interventions among migrants and refugees, and health interventions in heterogeneous populations show that increased participation in society has positive imprints on health development. A new country includes getting acquaintance with non-familiar cultures. For example, other expectations on rules of gender, sickness, and illness. Recent years the low density populated areas in northern Sweden have received a high number of refugees in comparison with their population size. The purpose of this study was to explore how officials the Employment Agency and a selection of municipalities reflect over and define health promoting factors in their meetings with newly arrived.

    Methods: All officials (N 68) in one of the four northern counties were invited to recording their reflections on health promoting factors close to their meetings with newly arrived. The officials recorded how they defined health promoting factors according to the Audit method. The data collection of experiences of importance considering health promotion and social determinants was collected by five focus group interviews with twenty-three officials.

    Results: This study showed that the officials defined access to the health care, participation in the society, and sufficient collaboration between the authorities for not losing valuable time during the establishment period as imported factors for their clients’ opportunities for health. The officials take power among males for given, while they more often reflected over lack of power among women. However, the Swedish ideal of gender as equal quite often a challenge the newly arrivals.

  • 3592.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Svanholm, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Authority officials' views on health promotion and power relations among new arrivals in northern Sweden2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 115-115Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3593.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Svanholm, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    How population density and type of the municipality in Sweden influences health promotion activities for newly arrivals2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 146-146Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3594.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    How Bullying Involvement is Associated with the Distribution of Parental Background and With Subjective Health Complaints Among Swedish Boys and Girls2013In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 111, no 3, p. 775-783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to analyze how bullying involvement is associated with the distribution of parental background and with subjective health complaints (SHC) among Swedish boys and girls. Data were collected from the World Health Organization, Health Behavior in School-aged Children (WHO/HBSC) survey, measurement years 1997/1998, 2001/2002 and 2005/2006. A total of 11,972 boys (50.6 %) and girls (49.4 %) in grades five, seven and nine participated in the study. The adolescents were categorized in subgroups according to parental background: Swedish (80.1 %), mixed (10.5 %) and foreign(9.7 %). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate remaining risk of SHC in the categories of bullying involvement. The frequencies of bullying involvement once or more were: none involved (74.8 %), victims (10.6 %), bullies (10.3 %) and bully/victims (4.4 %). Six out of ten involved in bullying were boys. Boys of foreign background were more involved as bullies compared to boys of mixed or Swedish background. Girls of foreign background were more involved in all three categories of bullying than girls of mixed or Swedish background. Increased risk of SHC was estimated among all adolescents involved in bullying, with highest OR in the category of bully/victims, OR 3.95 (CI 3.13–4.97) for the boys and OR 4.51 (CI 4.51–6.40) for the girls. The multivariate models were stable even after adjustment for socio-demographics. There are some associations between bullying involvement and parental background. Regardless of parental background, family affluence, family structure and gender, all adolescents involved in bullying are at increased risk of SHC.

  • 3595.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    How discrimination and participation are associated with psychosomatic problems among boys and girls in northern Sweden2012In: Health, ISSN 1949-5005, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 866-872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Negative impact on health from school disturbance due to asymmetric power relations such as discrimination and offensive treatment are frequent problems among students. This study sought to analyze associations between occurrence of discrimination at school, participation and psychosomatic problems. Methods: Pupils in grades 6–9 in ten schools in a northern Swedish municipality participated in the study. The frequency of discrimination at school was measured by six items: sex; culture or ethnicity; disability; religion beliefs; sexual preferences; and any other form of discrimination. The Social and Civic Objectives Scale (SCOS) was used for an estimation of the level of participation. The pupils’ health was measured by the PsychoSomatic Problem (PSP) scale. Multivariate logistic regression models were used for estimation of increased risk of PSP. The formula Z=d/s (d)was used to test mediation. Results: Two thirds of the boys and three fourths of the girls reported occurrences of discrimination at schools (p = 0.001). Discrimination was a mediating factor between participation and PSP among boys and girls as the mediating formula Z=d/s (d) was > + 2 SD, –2.59 for boys and –39.27 for girls. Independent of each other, low participation and discrimination were associated with increased risk of PSP. Conclusion: Discrimination was a mediating factor between participation and PSP. The mediating effectwas stronger in girls than in boys. There is a need for school health promotion programsfocusing on participation in terms of democratic processes, communication and cooperation in the classroom.

  • 3596.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Subjective health complaints among boys and girls in the Swedish HBSC study: focussing on parental foreign background2011In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 457-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The general aim of this study was to explore the associations between foreign extraction and subjective health complaints (SHC) among school-aged children in Sweden. Methods: Data were obtained from the global cross-sectional survey Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC), 1997/1998, 2001/2002, and 2005/2006. A total of 11,972 pupils in grades 5, 7 and 9 participated in the survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate remaining risk of SHC among the subgroups of pupils. The analyses were adjusted for socio-demographic indicators, grade and measurement year. Results: Parental background: Swedish n = 9,585, mixed n = 1,263, and foreign n = 1,124. The results showed an increased risk of SHC among girls with a foreign background OR 1.27 (95% CI 1.04-1.55) compared with girls with a Swedish background and among girls in single-adult households OR 1.42 (95% CI 1.20-1.67) compared with girls in two-adult households. No such differences were shown among boys. Conclusions: A significantly increased risk of ill health remained in girls of foreign background after adjustment for socio-demographic indicators, grade and measurement year. © 2011 Swiss School of Public Health.

  • 3597.
    Carlerby, Katharina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Arbetsmiljön för  etableringslotsar: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3598.
    Carlesjö, Lisa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kiruk, Neslihan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Mottagandet av ensakommande flyktingbarn i en tid av ökad migration och nya utmaningar för det svenska mottagningssystemet - En kvalitativ intervjuanalys2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3599.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Adaptiv miljöplanering nästa2003In: Miljörätten i förändring: en antologi, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2003, p. 328-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3600.
    Carlman, Inga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Befolkningsfrågan - från överbefolkning till framtida generationer2001In: Fågelperspektiv på rättsordningen: vänbok till Staffan Westerlund, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2001, p. 335-351Chapter in book (Other academic)
69707172737475 3551 - 3600 of 24443
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