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  • 301.
    Sundberg, Frida
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Viklund, Carina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Cost engineering: Kostnadsidentifiering i en verksamhet: En fallstudie om identifiering av osynliga kostnader2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Before making a decision based on a fair cost estimate, careful consideration should be given to ensure that invisible operational costs have been adequately identified and incorporated into the estimate. We present the results of a case study conducted at the Swedish mining company LKAB in which we investigated to what extent do invisible costs exist, their impact on lost revenue, and whether they can be adequately captured within the framework of a fair cost estimate. Using data obtained from a series of interviews conducted at LKAB, we built a value-flow chart to model costs and used an ABC calculation to determine the linkage between the costs and their activities and resources. We then applied Lean's definition of waste to identify which, and to what extent, these costs and lost revenue should be affected. Specifically, we determined that the costs which should be considered are: Demurrage, transport, and special handling and the sources of lost revenue are: dead freight, freight compensation, discounted prices, production stoppages, and discard a product. Finally, our analysis showed that fair cost estimates including invisible costs and lost revenue are useful in making decisions about the efficiency of a company and that a full ABC calculation is not required to get a useful result.  

  • 302.
    Sundberg, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Enablers for Interoperability in Decentralized e-Government Settings2018In: Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Governance in the Data Age (dgo '18), Delft, Netherlands. / [ed] Anneke Zuiderwijk and Charles C. Hinnant, ACM Digital Library, 2018, article id 29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interoperability is considered a success factor to effectively implement electronic government. Interoperability can conceptually be understood as properties of a system and its context. The properties of democratic systems are often ill-suited for interoperability and, as such, enablers for interoperability might disrupt a country's constitutional design. Hence, there is a need to advance our knowledge on how to achieve 'democratic interoperability'. The purpose of this paper is to identify interoperability enablers that minimally interfere with a country's democratic constitution. Qualitative data has been collected via interviews and documents from a Swedish case study that involves several organizations and systems. The findings include four enablers: open source software, legal interpretations, tailored resource allocation, and a dedicated agency to manage national infrastructure. These enablers managed to balance demands on increased efficiency and effectiveness with respect for privacy and security of the individual and the jurisdiction and autonomy of government agencies. The results contribute to current discussions about governance related to the implementation of technology in the public sector. The paper concludes by suggesting that interoperability in the public sector must be subject to careful multi-disciplinary decision making to ensure balance within the constitutional setting.

  • 303.
    Sundberg, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Public Values and Decision Making in the Swedish e-Government Context2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses topics of public values and decision making in relation to the use of technology in the public sector. The research is conducted in the Swedish government context. A range of values that is specific to the public sector has been defined and classified in prior research. These public values can be defined as normative agreements of how a government should act. The Swedish government spends SEK 46.5 billion on information technology every year. Some of these funds are invested in improvements that are intended to increase efficiency and openness, as well as to make it easier for citizens to use government services. Such ambitions are studied in the e-Government research field. The literature suggests that reasons to question the promised values of implementing technology in the public sector exist and that many initiatives ultimately fail. The public sector has some unique features that may increase complexity, such as the variety of stakeholders and multitude of organizations that are both involved in the development process and affected by the outcomes. The purpose of this thesis is to explore public values and decision making in the Swedish e-Government context by posing three research questions. 1: How can public values be utilized in decision making? 2: Under what conditions are decisions made in the studied context? 3: How can value-based decision making be adopted by e-Government practice? The thesis is based on quantitative and qualitative data gathered from case studies and a survey. Its theoretical contribution is a comparison of theoretical concepts from decision theory and public values, which are then applied to e-Government. Several fragmented concepts from e-Government can be tied together under decision theory. The study’s results show that many decisions are taken under a great deal of uncertainty due to the absence of formal support mechanisms. The Swedish public administration leans toward a variety of project models in its work with e-Government, and these models constitute the arena in which decisions are made and risk analysis is performed. However, many risks as well as opportunities reside beyond the studied projects’ control. Holistic stakeholder inclusion and risk analysis are suggested as practices beneficial for increasing value and reducing uncertainty. The thesis concludes by suggesting that further research should continue to apply concepts from decision theory on e-Government. This includes revealing the motivations and values behind digitalization of the public sector.

  • 304.
    Sundberg, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Shaping up e-Participation Evaluation: A Multi-criteria Analysis2018In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics): 10th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, ePart 2018, Krems, Austria, September 3-5, 2018 / [ed] Edelmann, N., Parycek, P., Misuraca, G., Panagiotopoulos, P., Charalabidis, Y., Virkar, S., Springer, 2018, Vol. 11021, p. 3-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-Participation is the use of internet-based technology to empower and include citizens in government decision making processes. The United Nations has evaluated e-Participation around the globe on a regular basis. This evaluation has been criticized for not corresponding to reality, thus allowing non-democratic regimes to gain high positions simply by offering web services. Against this backdrop, the purpose of this paper was to develop a method for evaluating e-Participation, which takes into account a nation’s democratic system. Multi-criteria decision analysis was utilized to create a new index by combining datasets of democracy and equality with the UN e-Participation Index 2016. In the new index, authoritarian regimes have lower ranks, and it performed better than UN’s index when testing it towards perceived corruption. The paper concludes by suggesting that the proposed method should be accompanied by indicators of the actual use and impact of e-Participation processes. The results of this study contribute to the improvement of e-Participation evaluation practice by introducing normative criteria of good governance.

  • 305.
    Sundberg, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    The Impact of Formal Decision Processes on e-Government Projects2017In: Administrative Sciences, ISSN 2076-3387, E-ISSN 2076-3387, Vol. 7, no 2, article id UNSP 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies associations between the use of formal decision-making processes in e-Government projects and the outcomes of these projects. By doing so, this study contributes to the decision sciences as well as to the fields of e-Government, information systems and public administration. Data were collected using a survey conducted among Swedish national government agencies and municipalities. Variables that have been investigated are the defining and weighting of objectives, resource allocation and assessment of whether objectives are met, as well as to what extent risk analysis was conducted. The results reveal that successful projects distinguish themselves by involving more activities related to formal decision-making procedures, especially with respect to stakeholder inclusion and weighting of objectives. These initiatives also manage more types of risks, including organizational issues. Future research should continue to explore the possible benefits of formal decision-making and risk analysis in e-Government.

  • 306.
    Sundberg, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Lindblad-Gidlund, Katarina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Value-Based Decision Making: Decision Theory Meets e-Government2017In: Electronic Government: Lecture Notes in Computer Science: 16th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2017, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 4-7, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Janssen, M., Axelsson, K., Glassey, O., Klievink, B., Krimmer, R., Lindgren, I., Parycek, P., Scholl, H.J., Trutnev, D., Springer, 2017, p. 351-358Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic government, or e-Government, is the use of information and communication technology in the public sector. As a research field, it is characterized as multi-disciplinary with heritage from both the information systems and public administration fields. This diverse background may be beneficial, but it may also result in a fragmented theoretical base and conceptual vagueness. This paper applies decision theory to e-Government to tie a number of theoretical and practical concepts together. In particular, five concepts from decision theory (i.e. objectives, stakeholder inclusion, weighting and resource allocation, risk analysis, and outcomes assessment) are compared with counterparts in e-Government. The findings have both theoretical and practical implications. First, they add to and unite e-Government theory. Second, practical methods for operationalizing the theoretical concepts are proposed. This operationalization includes using a holistic approach to e-participation throughout decision processes.

  • 307.
    Sundberg, Leif
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Olsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    Mitt - Ditt - Vårt universitet2017In: Mitt, ditt och vårt universitet: Att förstå något gemensamt / [ed] Katarina Giritli Nygren & Katarina L. Gidlund, Sundsvall / Östersund: Mid Sweden University , 2017, p. 17-30Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 308.
    Sundling, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Sakernas Internet och Radiofrekvensidentifiering: En central anpassad lösning för att läsa unika användare med hjälp av populär teknik2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things is a growing market that creates opportunities and chal- lenges for companies. Bergeforsen Obstacle Race is an obstacle race which 2016 attracted 250 people to participate. To investigate new ways of creating a more giving event for competitors and spectators, an independent work has dur- ing its 10 weeks done a theoretical study of Internet of Things with its popular technology Radio Frequency Identification, RESTful web services and Digest authentication to lay the grounds for a RESTful web service which purpose is to enable modules of user interfaces. Impact mapping and user stories was used before construction to build a product backlog. During construction agile meth- ods from Cowboy was followed. The service was developed with modern tech- nology like Node.js and MongoDB. An overview of a scenario of the event has been used to visualize how it could be used where nodes, which are computers with RFID reader modules, can read a competitor and send their identifier with time to a server through RESTful methods. To store sent data, database objects have been created for races, competitors and readings. The security of the sys- tem has been investigated by implementing Digest authentication and database Role Base Access Control. The result is a RESTful web service with 2 routes to modify races and competitors and 2 more routes to give functionality to adding and removing competitors from races and readings. The routes have been con- trolled with functional testing, and their value investigated. At last a comparison have been made with the current used system and the constructed RESTful web service. The independent work was then examined to show that a closer cus- tomer relationship could lay the foundation for a better system and comparison but motivated a RESTful web service as there was only specifications of cus- tomer values. The work has provided ethical aspects regarding licenses, security and sensitive information.

  • 309.
    Sundqvist, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Virtuella kontor i webbläsaren2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of the project is to develop a prototype for a web application that will be able to display office landscapes in VR. The prototype will convey a sense of how the web application will look and feel. The focus will be on the VR experience and the purpose of it is to see what the limitations and benefits are with that technology. VR contains 3D graphics and all browser engines are currently collaborating to create WebGL, which is the standard for creating 3D graphics on the web. WebGL is based on OpenGL, which is one of the largest 3D graphics APIs for desktop applications. A comparison of these techniques will be performed in order to show how much functionality the web is missing compared to desktop applications, regarding 3D development. The goal will be to develop a website that contains an embedded VR experience and then perform user tests on it, to find shortcomings in the implementation. Another goal is to produce a quantitative content analysis that compares WebGL and OpenGL to see which functionality WebGL lacks. To succeed, the framework A-frame has been used, which is used to create VR experience in the browser and has been selected because it is open source and has a simple HTML syntax. The prototype was successfully produced, and the user tests show several shortcomings that were later fixed. The quantitative content analysis shows that WebGL lacks 74% of all functionality that OpenGL has and therefore 3D in the browser has long way to go to reach the same quality as for desktop applications. The conclusion is that A-frame is a nice framework with great potential but has shortcomings since HTML is not an object-oriented programing language.

  • 310.
    Svensson, Wictor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    A comparison between database and Internet of Thing solutions: For remote measuring of radon2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More and more devices around us are connected to the internet and communicate to each other. This includes devices such as radon sensors. Radon is a radio active gas and is the cause of several hundred cases of lung cancer. Smart connected radon sensors can be helpful to reduce the levels of radon as they provide remote access to the user. This study examines the opportunity to connect an already existing radon sensor to the “Internet of Things”. The aim of this study has been to answer the problem “find a better solution for the IoT system and develop it”. The study was performed with a literature study of three Internet of Things platforms. This resulted in one Internet of Thing platform being used throughout the study. A database system and a system with the chosen platform was implemented and a time measurement of the different systems was performed. The study has shown that a less secured system is faster and it is also shown that the Amazon Web Service IoT Core is fast with respect to the many features offered. The study concludes that the choice of system depends on where and how the system is supposed to be implement. If the system just needs to send and store data, a regular MySQL database is enough. If the system in the future is supposed to be able to communicate with other devices, a IoT platform should be used.

  • 311.
    Säfström, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Visitfjällen.se: En migrering och uppdatering2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med detta projekt har varit att migrera och förnya webbplatsen visitfjallen.se. Sidan innehåller ett brett register av olika företag inom områden som upplevelser, boende och restauranger i Sveriges fjällkedjor. Den tidigare webbplatsen var omodern och byggd på ett kostsamt system som saknade flexibilitet. I detta arbete har webbplatsen flyttats till det flexiblare och mer lättskötta systemet WordPress. Sidan har också moderniserats ordentligt och fått en hel del förbättringar och nya funktioner. I stället för en par enkla textrader med information har varje företag nu fått en egen profilsida med plats för stora mängder av information. Bland de helt nya funktionerna finns exempelvis egna kontaktformulär och möjligheten för besökare att lämna recensioner för bolagen. Företagen har också fått en integrering av sociala medier med egna knappar för Facebook och Twitter. Flera företag som finns listade på Tripadvisor har även fått detta integrerat på sin sida. Inloggade besökare kan nu spara sina favoritföretag genom att markera dem som sin favorit. Eller lämna en recension för bolag de har åsikter om. De flesta av de nya funktionerna har erhållits med hjälp av tillägget Geodirectory till WordPress, vilket är ett utmärkt och heltäckande verktyg som specialiserat sig på webbplatser med omfattande företagsregister. En betydande del av arbetet bestod av att flytta den stora mängden bolag med tillhörande information till den nya webbplatsen. Registret var möjligt att överföra via en kalkylfil, men informationen i den den exporterade filen var rörig och innehöll 900 rader med data som behövde sorteras och struktureras upp rad för rad. För att dela upp arbetet gjordes därför filen i episoder om ungefär 200 bolag åt gången. En stor del av webbplatsen har byggts upp med hjälp av sidbyggar-verktyget Beaver Builder. Verktyget har varit användbart och påskyndade processen med att konstruera det stora antalet sidor som var nödvändigt för att bygga upp den nya Visitfjällen.se. Den färdiga webbplatsen uppfyllde de flesta av beställarens önskemål och det nya utseendet för visitfjällen blev i slutändan mycket uppskattat.

  • 312.
    Söderlind, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Prognostisering av inkommande samtal till ett nödsamtalcallcenter: En fallstudie hos SOS Alarm2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Forecasting of incoming calls to emergency call center

  • 313.
    Søgaard, Jacob
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Shahid, Muhammad
    BTH.
    Pokhrel, Jeevan
    Montimage, Paris, France.
    Brunnström, Kjell
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    On subjective quality assessment of adaptive video streaming via crowdsourcing and laboratory based experiments2017In: Multimedia tools and applications, ISSN 1380-7501, E-ISSN 1573-7721, Vol. 76, no 15, p. 16727-16748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Video streaming services are offered over the Internet and since the service providers do not have full control over the network conditions all the way to the end user, streaming technologies have been developed to maintain the quality of service in these varying network conditions i.e. so called adaptive video streaming. In order to cater for users’ Quality of Experience (QoE) requirements,HTTP based adaptive streaming solutions of video services have become popular.However, the keys to ensure the users a good QoE with this technology is still not completely understood. User QoE feedback is therefore instrumental inimproving this understanding. Controlled laboratory based perceptual quality experiments that involve a panel of human viewers are considered to be the most valid method of the assessment of QoE. Besides laboratory based subjective experiments,crowdsourcing based subjective assessment of video quality is gaining popularity as an alternative method. This article presents insights into a study that investigates perceptual preferences of various adaptive video streaming scenarios through crowdsourcing based and laboratory based subjective assessment.The major novel contribution of this study is the application of Paired Comparison based subjective assessment in a crowdsourcing environmen. The obtained results provide some novel indications, besides confirming the earlier published trends, of perceptual preferences for adaptive scenarios of video streaming. Our study suggests that in a network environment with fluctuations in the bandwidth,a medium or low video bitrate which can be kept constant is the best approach. Moreover, if there are only a few drops in bandwidth, one can choose a medium or high bitrate with a single or few buffering events.

  • 314.
    Talantsev, Anton
    et al.
    Inst. för data- och systemvetenskap, Stockholms universitet.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology. Stockholms Universitet.
    Sundgren, David
    Inst. för data- och systemvetenskap, Stockholms universitet.
    A new method for context factors analysis in international development project planning2018In: International Journal of Applied Management Science, ISSN 1755-8913, E-ISSN 1755-8921, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 290-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long-term success or failure of a development project is largely shaped by the external context. Therefore, assessment of factors influencing fulfilment of long-term development outcomes is vital for better project planning. In recent decades, the logical framework (logframe) has de facto become a standard tool for planning and managing development interventions. While the logframe requires identification of assumptions and risks regarding the external context, it does not suggest ways to analyse them in a conventional risk assessment manner. Also, the log-frame has been criticised for ignoring uncertainty in project environment along with neglecting external opportunities. Therefore, in this paper we suggest a method for project context analysis that extends the log-frame with scenarios analysis and address aforementioned shortcomings. We implement and demonstrate the application of the method on an international aid development project, discuss the method's potential use-cases, specific limitations and future development.

  • 315.
    Tang, Yu
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Feature Extraction for the Cardiovascular Disease Diagnosis2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiovascular disease is a serious life-threatening disease. It can occur suddenly and progresses rapidly. Finding the right disease features in the early stage is important to decrease the number of deaths and to make sure that the patient can fully recover. Though there are several methods of examination, describing heart activities in signal form is the most cost-effective way. In this case, ECG is the best choice because it can record heart activity in signal form and it is safer, faster and more convenient than other methods of examination. However, there are still problems involved in the ECG. For example, not all the ECG features are clear and easily understood. In addition, the frequency features are not present in the traditional ECG. To solve these problems, the project uses the optimized CWT algorithm to transform data from the time domain into the time-frequency domain. The result is evaluated by three data mining algorithms with different mechanisms. The evaluation proves that the features in the ECG are successfully extracted and important diagnostic information in the ECG is preserved. A user interface is designed increasing efficiency, which facilitates the implementation.

  • 316.
    Theodoridoy, Anastasia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Om deltagandets villkor: En normstudie i participationens tjänst2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste åren har begreppet participation har blivit ett centralt tema inom arkivprofessionen och den akademiska arkivvetenskapliga litteraturen. Trots detta råder det stor osäkerhet kring vad participation innebär i arkivsammanhang. Tidigare forskning visar att arkivarier till och med kan känna rädsla för att förlora sin auktoritet och bli överflödiga i det annalkande deltagande arkivet. Därför genomför jag en normstudie med avsikten att att öka förståelsen kring deltagandets villkor genom att analysera participationens grundförutsättningar, normerna i världens mest framgångsrika wiki projekt, participationskulturen Wikipedia. Med en normvetenskaplig ansats och med normmodellen som verktyg analyserar jag dels ett urval av Wikipedias normativa dokument och genomför en normanalys på mikronivå av en diskussionssida för att besvara frågorna; Vilka formella normer styr och påverkar samverkan i svenska Wikipedia? och Vad kännetecknar dessa normer? Jag identifierar 6 kategorier som är kännetecknande för de formella normerna i svenska Wikipedia, Mening och innehåll, Mening och identitet, Beteende, Rättslig, Organisation och koordination och Formella processer. Tillsammans bildar de ett genomgripande mönster av värden, förväntningar och krav som blottlägger villkoren för participation i deltagande kulturen Wikipedia. Kraven som ställs handlar inte om att upprätthålla maktstrukturer, utan kraven handlar ytterst om samverkan. De befäster värden för att forma en gemenskap som samverkar mot ett gemensamt mål. Participationens grundval utgörs således av ett normsystem som inte bara styr och påverkar samverkan utan ställer villkoret att deltagarna samverkar. Denna samverkan är beroende av det socioteknologiska normsystemet och av Wikipedias auktoriteter, utvalda administratörer med högre behörigheter och med befogenheter att sanktionera normbrott. Deltagande medger frihet men aldrig förutsättningslöst. Villkoren som ställs handlar ofta om att deltagarna ska sträva efter samförstånd och visa anständighet, artighet och respekt, och värden som upprepas är ordning och kontroll. Jag drar slutsatsen arkivarierna i ett framtida deltagande arkiv aldrig kommer att bli överflödiga. Arkivariernas kunskap, engagemang och auktoritet kommer att vara nödvändig på samma sätt som Wikipedias administratörer är nödvändiga för att beskydda Wikipedia och dess värden. 

  • 317.
    Tärby, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Minska risken för terrorbrott med hjälp av blockchain och geografiska informationssystem2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How do companies, municipalities and authorities protect people from terroist attacks where large vehicles are involved? Considering to the last years terrorist attacks this is something that becomes increasingly relevant to consider. This study investigates how companies, municipalities and authorities solve these problems today, how much they know and apply blockchain and geofence and if there is a need to implement a geoblockchainsystem in the future to reduce the risk of these types of terrorist attacks. To find that out interviews have been conducted with participants all the way from truck manufacturers and carrier companies to municipalities, authorities and IT companies. The interview where constructed in a nonstandard way with the aim of developing more about what they themselves had for ideas about the subject. A survey with answer options was also sent out to obtain information from a larger number of participants. The result of the investigation indicates both the interest and the need of a geoblockchain system to reduce the risk of terrorist attacks of the specified kind (the investigation also indicates a general interest in the geoblockchain technology). The idea is to delineate areas using a geofence system and create a very secure information storage by connect the geofence system with blockchain. The blockchain system decentralizes the information, all transactions made must be approved by a several number of units to be performed, every transaction can always be tracked and nothing can ever be deleted or modified without making a new transaction. It was a very few of the participants that already use blockchain or geoblockchain, it was more common for informants to use geofencing, but that was also relatively unusual.

  • 318.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University.
    Gustavsson, Per
    Combitech.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Lindqwister, Towe
    Combitech.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Wiberg, Christer
    Combitech.
    Challenges for critical infrastructure resilience: cascading effects of payment system disruptions2017In: Proceedings of the International ISCRAM Conference, ISCRAM, 2017, Vol. 2017-May, p. 281-292Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical infrastructures become more and more entangled and rely extensively on information technology. A deeper insight into the relationships between critical infrastructures enables the actors involved to more quickly understand the severity of information technology disruptions and to identify robust cross-functional mitigating actions. This study illustrates how and why disruptions in the payment system in Sweden could create cascading effects in other critical infrastructures with potentially severe consequences for many citizens, government institutions and companies. Data from document studies, interviews and workshops with field experts reveal seven challenges for collective cross-functional critical infrastructure resilience that need to be dealt with: 1)Shortage of food, fuel, cash, medicine; 2) Limited capacity of alternative payment solutions; 3) Cities are more vulnerable than the countryside; 4) Economically vulnerable groups in society are more severely affected; 5)Trust maintenance needs; 6) Crisis communication needs; 7) Fragmentation of responsibility for critical infrastructures across many actors.

  • 319.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Skövde.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Linköping.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University, Kista.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Kallin, Susanne
    Combitech AB, Sundbyberg.
    A simulation-game to explore collective critical infrastructure resilience2018In: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, CRC Press/Balkema , 2018, p. 1305-1312Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience of interdependent infrastructures increasingly depends on collaborative responses from actors with diverse backgrounds that may not be familiar with cascade effects into areas beyond their own sector. A simulation-game can enable societal actors to obtain a deeper understanding of the interdependencies between their infrastructures and their respective crisis responses. Following a design science approach, a simulation-game has been developed that combines role-playing simulation and computer simulation. The simulation-game challenges participants to address the interaction between payment disruptions, food and fuel supply, security problems (riots, robberies) and communication challenges (preventing hoarding). A number of crucial design choices were handled while developing the simulation-game. The main design challenges were: How to validate an unthinkable escalation scenario?; How to give the simulation a sufficient level of detail on all aspects and keep the complexity graspable so it can be played instantly?; and How much time should each playing round take?

  • 320.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Gustavsson, Per
    Combitech AB, Skövde.
    Analyzing the implications of design choices in existing simulation-games for critical infrastructure resilience2018In: Simulation Gaming: Applications For Sustainable Cities And Smart Infrastructures, Springer, 2018, Vol. 10825, p. 15-23Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 321.
    Vigholm, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Wordpress som CMS2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med detta självständiga arbete har varit att ta reda på mera om

    publiceringsverktyget WordPress och i vilka typer av projekt där WordPress

    lämpar sig att använda och i vilka typer av projekt där WordPress inte lämpar

    sig att använda sig utav. För att uppnå målet har jag genomfört en undersökning

    för att ta reda på vad utvecklare och användare anser om WordPress. Vidare har

    jag under arbetets gång varit delaktig i det dagliga arbetet på företaget

    Columbird där jag fått arbetat mycket med WordPress på olika sätt och fått svar

    på många frågor om vad WordPress är kapabelt till. Undersökningen och det

    praktiska arbetet jag genomfört har visat på att WordPress är ett väldigt

    flexibilitet publiceringsverktyg som lämpar sig till många olika typer av

    projekt.

  • 322.
    Viklund, Anton
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Ahlman, Elias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Systemförvaltning med en agil metod: En fallstudie om Scrum inom systemförvaltning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At present, the area of agile management methods is a relatively unexplored area. The purpose of this study has been to investigate how well suited agile methods are for use in IT-maintenance. This has been done by collecting material on the subject, which acted as a base for a case study. In the study, the collected material from the investigated company, external companies and observations performed at the investigated company has been analyzed against existing theory in the field. Furthermore, conclusions have been drawn from information gathered during the course of the study. Based on this survey, it can be noted that in the activities that were investigated, an implemented agile method can add value to the maintenance operation. These added values present themselves in the form of a better and clearer structure, better communication and more effective working methods. One of the biggest challenges of agile agility in management has proved to be cross-functionality in the team. In this case as well as in other theoretical cases, the lack of cross functionality has been something identified. The theoretical cases show that the introduction of an agile method helps maintenance teams to become cross-functional. In the business investigated in this study, there were only indications stating that the business had started a transition to a cross-functional team. The fact that no definitive link between agile methods and transition to cross-functionality was identified in this case is considered to be due to the fact that the agile work was at an earlier stage. In conclusion, this study shows that agile methods are well-suited for use in maintenance, but some modifications to the agile approach need to be implemented.

  • 323.
    Vilenius, Miika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Bevarande av spatial data inom Sveriges kommuner2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Municipalities in Sweden handle and create data which includes GIS/CAD in the form of blueprint and geographic information systems, so-called spatial data. As data is received and established within a municipality, the Data Archiving Act enforces the archival of this information. GIS/CAD files are created in different computer programs and stored according to file format. The Data Archiving act requires data to be available throughout time, which in turn requires both an archivist and technical systems within the archive. Within the industry there are until now no clear guidelines and standards for spatial data. The lack of standardization and the use of proprietary formats is a key issue. The purpose of this research is to find out how municipalities in Sweden handle inbound and spatial data within the municipality. Furthermore, this research aims at finding out how spatial data is preserved in municipalities in Sweden and to reveal any reported problems with the management of spatial data. This research is a case study derived from a survey sent to Sweden's 290 municipalities. These entities are divided into two groups of KLM municipalities (municipal with a land surveyors office) and other townships. The study is limited to investigating only municipalities' work on handling GIS / CAD data. The survey was designed according to the question of open and closed questions, which gave the opportunity to present the results in statistical data, but also to return quotes and to present unique answers from individual municipalities. Thus, the data on which the study results are based are both quantitative and qualitative responses. To interpret the results of this study, the Life-cycle and Records Continuum Model will be employed. The result indicates that municipalities handle spatial data. The results show that there are municipalities that have a functioning strategy for a long term preservation of spatial data. But there are also municipalities experiencing problems in handling spatial data for a long term preservation.

  • 324.
    von Gohren, Armando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Danderyds barnvakter: Barnvakts företag2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med projektet var att använda mina nya kunskaper inom webbutveckling för att skapa en hemsida till det fiktiva företaget ”Danderyds barnvakter”. För att skapa denna hemsida har jag använt mig av ”MEAN-stacken” (MongoDB, AngularJS, Node.jS). För att designa webbplatsens utseende använde jag mig av photoshop och till mina flödesscheman tog jag hjälp av Lucidchart. All kod skapades i ”Visual studio code” och för att provköra mina API:er använde jag ”Advanced Rest Client” (ett tillägg i Google Chrome). För att testa webbplatsens funktionalitet och tillgänglighet hade jag två stycken testpersoner som fick prova på de olika rollerna och de funktioner som följer. Slutligen validerade jag samtlig kod med W3Cs validator för HTML och CSS samt testade webbplatsens tillgänglighet enligt ” European Internet Inclusion Initiative”.

  • 325.
    Våge, William
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Digitala hjälpmedel för aktivitetsbaserat arbetssätt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The activity based workplace model is becoming more and more com- mon and the Swedish Insurance Agency is an authority that has em- braced this model. The new way of working means that more employ- ees work from home or another place than the office. The new working model needs IT solutions that can handle communication and secure document management. This has caused two problems at the Swedish Insurance Agency. The first problem is concerning confusion about how employees should connect correctly to the authority’s conference room equipment. The solution proposal should be able to evaluate if the correct equipment has been connected and present connection status information. The second is for connection to the authority’s Private Network (VPN). The problem is that users often lose or not get proper connection to the network devices when they connect through VPN. A technical solution for each problem were developed. The application for connection against conference room equipment evaluates that the user has a USB dock (with more components connected to it) connected, that the user has network connection and that the USB dock driver has installed correctly. Usability test showed that the application works as intended, except some confusion about the navigation, which was corrected. The application for VPN connection visually shows the user through an icon in the taskbar if the user is properly connected to VPN or not. The application also got the option of calling a connection script if the user loses connection. Evaluation based on Requirements Specifi- cation showed that both applications could meet their requirements and the applications were packaged and distributed to employees at the Swedish Insurance Agency.

  • 326.
    Wang, Biying
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Chang, Zheng
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Ristaniemi, Tapani
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Liu, Guohua
    Donghua University, Shanghai, China.
    3D Matrix-Based Visualization System of Association Rules2017In: IEEE CIT 2017 - 17th IEEE International Conference on Computer and Information Technology, IEEE, 2017, p. 357-362, article id 8031499Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing number of mining datasets, it becomes increasingly difficult to explore interesting rules because of the large number of resultant and its nature complexity. Studies on human perception and intuition show that graphical representation could be a better illustration of how to seek information from the data using the capabilities of human visual system. In this work, we present and implement a 3D matrix-based approach visualization system of association rules. The main visual representation applies the extended matrix-based approach with rule-to-items mapping to general transaction data set. A novel method merging rules and assigning weight is proposed in order to reduce the dimension of the association rules, which will help users to find more important items in the new rule. Furthermore, several interactions such as sorting, filtering, zoom and rotation, facilitate decision-makers to explore the rules which are of interest in various aspects. Finally, extensive evaluations have been conducted to assess the system from a logical reasoning point of view. 

  • 327.
    Wang, Chunpeng
    et al.
    Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan, China; Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.
    Wang, Xingyuan
    Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, China; Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.
    Li, Yongwei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Xia, Zhiqiu
    Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.
    Zhang, Chuan
    Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China.
    Quaternion polar harmonic Fourier moments for color images2018In: Information Sciences, ISSN 0020-0255, E-ISSN 1872-6291, Vol. 450, p. 141-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes quaternion polar harmonic Fourier moments (QPHFM) for color image processing and analyzes the properties of QPHFM. After extending Chebyshev–Fourier moments (CHFM) to quaternion Chebyshev-Fourier moments (QCHFM), comparison experiments, including image reconstruction and color image object recognition, on the performance of QPHFM and quaternion Zernike moments (QZM), quaternion pseudo-Zernike moments (QPZM), quaternion orthogonal Fourier-Mellin moments (QOFMM), QCHFM, and quaternion radial harmonic Fourier moments (QRHFM) are carried out. Experimental results show QPHFM can achieve an ideal performance in image reconstruction and invariant object recognition in noise-free and noisy conditions. In addition, this paper discusses the importance of phase information of quaternion orthogonal moments in image reconstruction. 

  • 328.
    Wang, Han
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Homomorphic Encryption on the IoT2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Security is always a big problem in IoT (internet of things),when it comes to IoT, there must have cloud computing because many devices in IoT are small embedded devices and they don’t always have enough power to finish some complex calculations. Then, they need to take advantage of a third party system especially cloud at present to finish some operations, but the cloud is not safe enough now, in which some important and private information may be leaked, then people introduce homomorphic encryption which can do calculation on encrypted data. To meet the modern needs for random calculations in which the operation can have random times’ addition and multiplication, researchers are trying to make fully homomorphic encryption practical. So in my thesis, I would choose one fully homomorphic encryption scheme to implement a detailed IoT scenario using some IoT devices such as laptop and raspberry pi. Then I would use performance measurements such as response time calculations to do the performance evaluation such as effectiveness and scalability for this technique. Finally, I find some relationship between different parameters and response time, and also effectiveness, scalability in results and conclusion part.

  • 329.
    Wang, Hongchao
    et al.
    Beijing Jiaotong Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Ma, Jian
    Beijing Jiaotong Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Youzhi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Yang, Dong
    Beijing Jiaotong Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Hongke
    Beijing Jiaotong Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    A Bandwidth-Efficient MAC Scheme for Mission-Critical Applications in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2018In: Journal of Internet Technology, ISSN 1607-9264, E-ISSN 2079-4029, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 795-805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) have the potential to contribute significantly to a variety of wireless sensing endpoints, such as cable replacement, mobility, flexibility and cost reduction. However, the harsh and varied industrial environment entails addressing severe challenges, such as dust, heat, electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference from the other heterogeneous networks. One of the important challenges is the link burstiness in industrial wireless environments, which has not been heavily researched. In this paper, we propose a new timeslot scheduling algorithm to address this problem. The algorithm allows transmissions on the same link to be separated at least by a minimum timeslot distance. Moreover, to provide a synergistic complement to the timeslot scheduling, we also propose a timeslot reuse scheme, which facilitates improved efficiency and reliability in the bandwidth utilization and retransmission and decreases the average delay of the packet arrival. We evaluate the proposed algorithm and scheme by a real implementation, targeting a specific industrial application. The experimental results generally indicate that the proposed media access control (MAC) scheme greatly improves the reliability and decreases the packet arrival delay. Compared with the existing popular methods, the execution of our scheme indicates a minimal link burstiness influence and possesses more efficient bandwidth utilization.

  • 330.
    Wang, Xutao
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Chinese Text Classification Based On Deep Learning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Text classification has always been a concern in area of natural language processing, especially nowadays the data are getting massive due to the development of internet. Recurrent neural network (RNN) is one of the most popular method for natural language processing due to its recurrent architecture which give it ability to process serialized information. In the meanwhile, Convolutional neural network (CNN) has shown its ability to extract features from visual imagery. This paper combine the advantages of RNN and CNN and proposed a model called BLSTM-C for Chinese text classification. BLSTM-C begins with a Bidirectional long short-term memory (BLSTM) layer which is an special kind of RNN to get a sequence output based on the past context and the future context. Then it feed this sequence to CNN layer which is utilized to extract features from the previous sequence. We evaluate BLSTM-C model on several tasks such as sentiment classification and category classification and the result shows our model’s remarkable performance on these text tasks.

  • 331.
    Wargentin, Anya
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Utveckling av en modern webbapplikation: En beskrivning av utvecklingsprocessen av en portfolioapplikation för omslags- och serietecknaren Anders Ferm2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten beskriver planering samt konstruktion av en ”modern webbapplikation” för serie- och omslagstecknaren Anders Ferm. Arbetet utfördes i syfte att erbjuda Anders en lättanvänd plattform för sin konst, där han själv kan publicera samt hantera media och information utan kunskap inom webbutveckling.

    Rapporten syftar till att ge inblick i hur några av de mer nya och populära webbutvecklingsramverken på marknaden kan arbetas med, samt besvara frågan om mindre traditionella ramverk och databaser faktiskt kan utföra de inom webben vanligaste typen av uppgifter och, om så är fallet, de faktiskt erbjuder fördelar över sina föregångare.

  • 332.
    Wigström, Simon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    OnBoard: Applikation för personalhantering2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta projekt har, för företaget Gisys räkning, gått ut på att från grunden skapa en applikation som förenklar processen när en nyanställning sker i företaget. Med detta menas ett gränssnitt där man kan lägga upp nya personer, utskick av formulär där den kommande medarbetaren får fylla i uppgifter och önskemål, utskick av övriga mail och checklistor där ansvarig på Gisys kan bocka av vad som är gjort och inte. Resultatet av denna applikation ses nu som en start på något större, efter många avstämningsmöten har kallar vi nu detta ett mindre intranät där nyanställningsprocessen snarare är en modul utav den större applikationen. Efter ett lyckat arbete och god respons från Gisys så finns planer alltså på att vidareutveckla applikationen med fler moduler.

  • 333.
    Willstedt Andersson, Jessica
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Rydén, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Hantering av betalningsstopp i livsmedelsbutiker: En undersökning av hur hanteringen kan förbättras2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A well-functioning infrastructure is the foundation of a stable society, where payment systems are an important part. Grocery stores provide the general public with groceries and rely on customer consumption. Disruptions in the card payment system leads to consequences because 97% of all customers have access to card payment and is the payment method they prefer to use.  The aim of the survey is to find out about food stores' experience of disruptions in the payment system and how they wish a good management for this to look like. Next, a general crisis management model is developed to mitigate the consequences of a disruption in the payment system. A qualitative method is used to sample a result from each individual stores’ experiences and wishes.  Earlier research where decision analysis is used to handle disruptions in the payment system within the food industry has not been found. Through interviews and theories can a crisis management model for payment disruptions be developed, and examine the business continuity of food stores. The results of the survey shows that food stores today do not have any risk management to handle a break in the payment system or how a desirable management of it would look like. They have previously handled this by letting the customer pay with cash. A smaller store let a customer pay at another time. The general crisis management model has three phases: preliminary studies, management and evaluation. The preliminary studies involve that the store evaluates which payment methods they are capable of implementing. The management of a crisis takes place in three iterative steps; offer alternative payment methods, see how the crisis develops and finally remedy it. The evaluation step in the model is important because a positive outcome can not be guaranteed and therefore continued research is encouraged.

  • 334.
    Wiss, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Evaluation of Internet of Things Communication Protocols Adapted for Secure Transmission in Fog Computing Environments2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A current challenge in the Internet of Things is the seeking after conceptual structures to connect the presumably billions of devices of innumerable forms and capabilities. An emerging architectural concept, the fog cloud computing, moves the seemingly unlimited computational power of the distant cloud to the edge of the network, closer to the potentially computationally limited things, effectively diminishing the experienced latency. To allow computationally-constrained devices partaking in the network they have to be relieved from the burden of constant availability and extensive computational execution. Establishing a publish/subscribe communication pattern with the utilization of the popular Internet of Things application layer protocol Constrained Application Protocol is depicted one approach of overcoming this issue. In this project, a Java based library to establish a publish/subscribe communication pattern for the Constrained Application

    Protocol was develop. Furthermore, efforts to build and assess prototypes of several publish/subscribe application layer protocols executed over varying common as well as secured versions of the standard and non-standard transport layer protocols were made to take advantage, evaluate, and compare the developed library. The results indicate that the standard protocol stacks represent solid candidates yet one non-standard protocol stack is the considered prime candidate which still maintains a low response time while not adding a significant amount of communication overhead.

  • 335.
    Wiss, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Feasibility and Performance Evaluation of SCTP for the Industrial Internet of Things2017In: Proceedings IECON 2017 - 43RD ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY, 2017, p. 6101-6106Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to provide a high Quality of Service is a crucial aspect in the acceptance and widespread dispersion of the Industrial Internet of Things and it has a key role to enhance the end user experience. The emerging fog cloud computing architectural concept aims to diminish the experienced latency while simultaneously providing a seemingly unlimited quantity of computational power by moving computations from the cloud and things to the edge. To enhance the reliability, fault-tolerance, and connectivity of the data transmission, the transport layer protocol Stream Control Transport Protocol may be applied. To this end, we analyzed the feasibility of this protocol for an Industrial Internet of Things and fog computing setting by demonstrating and conducting essential network performance measurements. Our results reveal, that the protocol is a valid candidate for industrial scenarios in a fog computing environment and that it outperforms established Internet transport layer protocols in several of the conducted measurements. 

  • 336. Wiss, Thomas
    et al.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Performance Evaluation of Secure CoAP and MQTT Communication on Resource-Constrained Devices2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One important consideration for the Internet of Things is protecting sensitive data communicated from resource-constrained devices. In this paper, we investigate the performance of the Constrained Application Protocol and the Message Queue Telemetry Transport protocol in combination with and without their respective transport layer security. The testbed consisted of Raspberry Pi devices as representatives of resource-constrained devices and the evaluation identified that the processing of certificates and the establishment of a secure connection represents a heavy burden to the devices. Furthermore, the results show varying performances between the protocols when evaluated under lossy network conditions.

  • 337.
    Xiang, Lan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Interesting Association Rules Mining Based on Improved Rarity Algorithm2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the rapid development of science and technology, our society has been in the big data era. In human activities, we produce a lot of data in every second and every minute, what contain much information. Then, how to select the useful information from those complicated data is a significant issue. So the association rules mining, a technique of mining patterns or associations between itemsets, comes into being. And this technique aims to find some important associations in data to get useful knowledge. Nowadays, most scholars at home and abroad focus on the frequent pattern mining. However, it is undeniable that the rare pattern mining also plays an important role in many areas, such as the medical, financial, and scientific field. Comparing with frequent pattern mining, studying rare pattern mining is more valuable, because it tends to find unknown, unexpected, and more interesting rules. But the study of rare pattern mining is little difficult because of the scarcity of data used for verifying rules. In the frequent pattern mining, there are two general algorithms of discovering frequent itemsets, i.e., Apriori, the earliest algorithm which is proposed by R.Agrawal in 1994, and FP-Tree, the improved algorithm which reduced the time complexity. And in rare pattern mining, there are also two algorithms, Arima and Rarity, what are similar to Apriori and FP-Tree algorithms, but they still exist some problems, for example, Arima is time-consuming because of repeatedly scanning the large database, and Rarity is space-consuming because of the establishment of the full-combination tree. Therefore, based on the

    Rarity algorithm, this report presents an improved method to efficiently discover interesting association rules among rare itemsets and aims to get a balance between time and space. It is a top-down strategy which uses the graph structure to indicate all combinations of existing items, defines pattern matrix to record itemsets, and combines the hash table to accelerate calculation process. This method decreases both the time cost and the space cost when comparing with Arima, and reduces the space

    waste to solve the problem of Rarity, but its searching time of mining rare itemsets is more than Rarity, and we verified the feasibility of this algorithm only on abstract and small databases. Thus in the future, on

    the one hand, we will continue improving our method to explore how to decrease the searching time in the process and adjust the hash function to optimize the space utilization. And on the other hand, we will apply our method to actual large databases, such as the clinical database of the diabetic patients to mine association rules in diabetic complications.

  • 338.
    Xu, Ting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Integration and Evaluation of IoT Hardware and Software platforms2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is growing rapidly these years and the influence of IoT on everyday life and behavior are also increasing. It is a network that connects physical devices, vehicles, buildings, and other items and embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity so that these objects can collect and exchange data. It has been utilized in lots of domains, such as transportation and logistics domain, healthcare domain, smart environment domain, personal and social domain. It is estimated that the IoT will consist of almost 50 billion objects by 2020. IoT Gateway is really important in IoT, which can bridge traditional communication networks with sensor networks to make the network communication easier. IoT communication is of vital importance in today’s life. This study has the aim of integrating and evaluating of IoT gateways and IoT communication systems. It proposes a scenario where the IoT gateway connects to an actuator in order to control the actuator and transmit the data via the IoT communication system, creates a demonstrator by setting up the communication between the IoT gateway platform and the IoT communication system, measures and evaluates the performance in terms of latency and throughput using the implemented scenario, and at last draws the conclusion.

  • 339.
    Yang, Dong
    et al.
    Beijing Jiatong University, China.
    Ma, Jian
    Beijing Jiatong Univeristy, China.
    Xu, Youzhi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Safe-WirelessHART: A Novel Framework Enabling Safety-Critical Applications Over Industrial WSNs2018In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 3513-3523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) have mainly been used to monitor applications, but recently an interest in control and safety applications has emerged. Functional safety and communication in open transmission systems have been laid down in the IEC 61784-3-3 standard. The standard is based on a cyclic polling mechanism, which consumes a considerable amount of bandwidth; since existing IWSNs are very resource-constrained, this becomes a major challenge. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel framework that uses an event-triggered failsafe mechanism based on synchronous wired polling and wireless time-slotted time division multiple access. We analytically derive the minimum and maximum bound for the most important metric for safety-critical applications, safety function response time (SFRT). A new metric, normal state interrupt time (NSIT), is proposed in this paper. Furthermore, we also implement the proposed framework by using the WirelessHART standard. The results are compared to the classical time-triggered approach used in the IEC 61784-3-3 standard. The obtained results show that the proposed framework can reduce the bandwidth usage by 90% and support safety-critical applications that require a SFRT less or equal to 150 ms.

  • 340.
    Yang, Qing
    et al.
    School of Computer Science and Technology, Donghua University, China.
    Wang, ShaoYu
    School of Computer Science and Technology, Donghua University, China.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Pruning and Summarizing the Discovered Time Series Association Rules from Mechanical Sensor Data Qing2017In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 3RD ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ELECTRONICS, ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND INFORMATION SCIENCE (EEEIS 2017), Paris: Atlantis Press, 2017, Vol. 131, p. 40-45Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensors are widely used in all aspects of our daily life including factories, hospitals and even our homes. Discovering time series association rules from sensor data can reveal the potential relationship between different sensors which can be used in many applications. However, the time series association rule mining algorithms usually produce rules much more than expected. It's hardly to understand, present or make use of the rules. So we need to prune and summarize the huge amount of rules. In this paper, a two-step pruning method is proposed to reduce both the number and redundancy in the large set of time series rules. Besides, we put forward the BIGBAR summarizing method to summarize the rules and present the results intuitively.

  • 341.
    Yeqiang, Lin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Visualizing large-scale and high-dimensional time series data2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Time series is one of the main research objects in the field of data mining.

    Visualization is an important mechanism to present processed time series for further

    analysis by users. In recent years researchers have designed a number of

    sophisticated visualization techniques for time series. However, most of these

    techniques focus on the static format, trying to encode the maximal amount of

    information through one image or plot. We propose the pixel video technique, a

    visualization technique displaying data in video format. Using pixel video technique,

    a hierarchal dimension cluster tree for generating the similarity order of

    dimensions is first constructed, each frame image is generated according to pixeloriented

    techniques displaying the data in the form of a video.

  • 342.
    Yesilkayali, Aydin Sergen
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Sidén Eriksson, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    The Subjective Perception of Risks by Individual Key Stakeholders Within SCRUM: A qualitative case study at an IT firm2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of knowledge regarding the perception of risks in agile project management is evident in research. With this knowledge, this study sets out to address this issue and close the gap in knowledge regarding this issue by identifying the individual perception of risk by a project leader, SCRUM master, and two system developers, and comparing the individual appetite matrices to a unified appetite matrix created by a Delphi panel. A case study at an IT consulting firm, working with several projects in parallel, in Sweden is conducted. A risk register is used to collect the data, with the principle of assisting in creation of the risk appetite matrices. The result shows that the individual risk appetites differ significantly from the group’s unified risk appetite. The group showed itself far more risk aggressive than the individual appetite which was risk aversive in relation to the group’s appetite. The lack of RM practices is evident in smaller IT firms such as these, as there are no clear standardized approaches to the mapping or classification of risks; a far more informal approach is taken.

  • 343.
    Yesilkayali, Selin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Aref, Abed
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Bankers resiliens vid större kriser: En studie av hur banker hanterar störningar i kortsystem2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s society is built upon different infrastructures; structured and integrated systems that are available generally. The consequences of an infrastructure that has stopped working may lead to detrimental implications for the dependent entity – critical infrastructure of said kind are called critical infrastructures. If a payment system would happen to cease to work, a bullwhip-like effect would occur within the financial infrastructure. To create resilience, i.e. the ability to counteract or rehabilitate such an event, is a methodology that may assist the society in handling crises such as these in a more efficient manner. The purpose of this study is to examine the banking sectors resilience in the context of disruptions within card payment systems. The study has been conducted with the help of interviews by different stakeholders working within the banking sector in Sweden. The collected data has been completely confidential. This study is of an exploratory nature, thus a qualitative research method has been applied. The interviews have been recorded and transcribed, and lastly analyzed. The conclusions drawn from the results and analysis has shown that the banks have knowledge of core principals of resilience. The banks resilience principals do differ from the principles conveyed in theoretical literature – while maintaining a unified view of said principles among themselves in the financial sector. The banks are prepared for short-term crises that may emerge, but they do not seem particularly prepared for long-term - more rare – crises.

     

  • 344.
    Yi, Lirong
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Evaluation and Implementation of a Secure Zero Configuration IoT System2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) comprises a large number of heterogeneous devices. It is forecasted that up to 50 billion devices will be connected to the Internet by 2020. All of them have to be configured. Due to the heterogeneity of devices and the enormous increasing number of devices, manual configuration becomes more and more complex and inefficient. Zero configuration is put forward to solve this problem, which makes device configured automatically without additional manual involvement. Besides that, there are many security threats we want to avoid in the future. These security problems include unauthenticated nodes accessing to IoT data, denial of service, lack of confidentiality, malicious attack from hackers and so on. This paper studies the characteristics of IoT firstly and then highlights the implementation of zero configuration and security to IoT. This paper describes the underlying features of zero configuration and primary requirements of security, as well as finds some related mature technologies, based on that proposes a concise solution – combining the Bonjour and many security approaches for implementation of a secure zero IoT system. In addition, this solution is implemented in a small environment scenario of IoT, a smart home. All the programs are in Java language. Evaluation and conclusion are done in final phase.

  • 345.
    Ytterström, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    SCA Logistics Informationsapplikation2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det ha r examensarbetet a r en uppdatering utav SCA logistics befintliga mobil applikation. Arbetet a r gjort hos IT- fo retaget Easit ab som fo rvaltar SCA' logistics system. Applikationen anva nds fo r att spa ra fo retagets ba tar pa en karta och inneha ller kontaktuppgifter till ansta llda. Arbetet fo r det ha r projektet kommer att beskrivas fra n grunden om hur det a r att med fria ha nder kunna va lja det ramverk som passar ba st. Med dom krav som fo retaget har sta llt pa att applikationen ska inneha lla sa kommer flera ramverk att underso kas. Fo r att komma fram till vilket ramverk som ska anva ndas sa har tva prototyper gjorts som anva ndare provko rt och da refter svarat pa en underso kning. Utvecklingen av applikationen kommer att go ras med det ba st la mpade ramverket. Designen kommer att vara genuin sa att anva ndarna ma rker skillnad mellan dom olika plattformarna. Applikationen kommer kunna byggas pa med mer funktioner och uppdateras utan att man beho ver ladda upp till app store och google play.

  • 346.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Performance Evaluations and Measurements of the REALFLOW Routing Protocol in Wireless Industrial Networks2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 1410-1420, article id 7506102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks (IWSANs) offer significant advantages to industria lautomation. However, high-reliability demands and hard communication deadlines pose challenges to its practical applications. To achieve this goal, flooding is considered as a promising approach due to multipath diversity and simplicity. In this paper, an enhanced version of REALFLOW, a flooding-based routing protocol for IWSANs is presented. Compared to the original REALFLOW, network management and network stability are improved. REALFLOW is compared with four other flooding protocols via simulations. The simulation results show that REALFLOW has better performance in terms of reliability and consecutive transmission errors when considering deadlines. Compared with normal flooding, REALFLOW achieves comparable reliability performance with decreased redundancy. Measurements from a prototype implementation conducted in an industrial manufacturing workshop reveal that high-reliability and low-application failure rates can be achieved, giving more confidence in providing reliable wireless sensing and actuating for industrial automation.

  • 347.
    Zacharoff, Robin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Vad är kunskapshantering?: En fallstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge management is a subject that is described in the literature as difficult-to-define, but important to an organization's competitiveness. Successful knowledge management is something that is also described as challenging with the subject's subjectivity. Critical success factors are used to gain an understanding of how knowledge management can be measured and implemented. The purpose of this study is to create an increased understanding of what knowledge management is all about. Through a literature search, two theses are formulated, which are then tested via a deductive approach. The first thesis states that knowledge management is seen as a process including different steps. The second thesis states that there exists a number of success factors for successfully implementing knowledge management. These are then tested against practice through semi-structured interviews in a case study. The result answers how knowledge management is perceived in practice, how success factors relate to each other and how these factors can be operationalized. The conclusion shows that informants perceive knowledge management differently, that success factors have a relation to each other and can be operationalized with a clear subject role.

  • 348.
    Zadmirazaei, Majid
    et al.
    University of Guilan, Iran.
    Mohammadi Limaei, Soleiman
    University of Guilan, Iran.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Amirteimoori, Alireza
    Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    Assessing the impact of the external non-discretionary factor on the performance of forest management units using DEA approach2017In: Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1341-6979, E-ISSN 1610-7403, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 144-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative performance of forest management units, and to analyze the impact of the external non-discretionary (ND) factors on these units' technical efficiency. Toward this end, data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique in variable returns to scale environment with both discretionary and ND factors has been used. The required data are collected from 24 Iranian forest management units (as decision-making units (DMUs)) and included four inputs and two outputs. The ND factors are first ignored and it is shown that most of the forest management units are operating at high efficiency levels. Then the variable area is considered as the exogenously fixed (or the external ND) input in a modified ND model because it is outside of the forest manager's control. The results indicate that the number of efficient units and the average technical efficiency score are reduced to 12 (approximately 50%) and 0.85, respectively. The forest management units should therefore increase their average efficiency score by 0.15 to move onto the new efficient frontier which is made by applying this strict criterion. As a consequence, it is recommended to apply the ND models for controlling the exogenously fixed factors and carrying out a correct and accurate evaluation, because the traditional DEA approaches may overestimate the efficiency of DMUs.

  • 349.
    Zanni, Alessandro
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Bellavista, Paolo
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Elastic Provisioning of Internet of Things Services using Fog Computing: an Experience Report2018In: 2018 6th IEEE International Conference on Mobile Cloud Computing, Services, and Engineering (MobileCloud), IEEE, 2018, p. 17-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adoption of cloud and fog computing techniquesfor elastic provisioning of quality-constrained industrial Internet of Things (IoT) services is largely envisioned as very promising, but experience reports and lessons learned from real deployment still lack. To fill this gap, this paper presents andreports the evaluation of a system consisting of virtual services in a combined fog, cloud, and IoT setting, made up of multiple devices with varying computation capabilities. In particular,we have utilized and integrated off-the-shelf solutions into our architecture and have experimentally investigated the benefits of virtualization to move and redeploy mobile components to the fog nodes closest to the targeted end devices. In addition, the paper proposes an original solution to dynamically scale and provision the resources for the fog computing layer by using geometric monitoring. The reported results show the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed exploitation of both fog and cloud virtualized resources to enable scalability in the domain of IoT-assisted mobile presence services.

  • 350.
    Zhang, Heng
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Efficient database management based on complex association rules2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The large amount of data accumulated by applications is stored in a database. Because of the large amount, name conflicts or missing values sometimes occur. This prevents certain types of analysis. In this work, we solve the name conflict problem by comparing the similarity of the data, and changing the test data into the form of a given template dataset. Studies on data use many methods to discover knowledge from a given dataset. One popular method is association rules mining, which can find associations between items. This study unifies the incomplete data based on association rules. However, most rules based on traditional association rules mining are item-to-item rules, which is a less than perfect solution to the problem. The data recovery system is based on complex association rules able to find two more types of association rules, prefix pattern-to-item, and suffix pattern-to-item rules. Using complex association rules, several missing values are filled in. In order to find the frequent prefixes and frequent suffixes, this system used FP-tree to reduce the time, cost and redundancy. The segment phrases method can also be used for this system, which is a method based on the viscosity of two words to split a sentence into several phrases. Additionally, methods like data compression and hash map were used to speed up the search.

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