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  • 301.
    Alecrim, Viviane
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Hakan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Photoconductivity of bulk and liquid processed MoS22014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 302.
    Alecrim, Viviane
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Exfoliated Layered Materials for Digital Fabrication2015In: NIP & Digital Fabrication Conference, 2015, Vol. 1, p. 192-194Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduced an exfoliation method of MoS2 in a 3% solution of sodium dodecyl surfactant at high concentration (i.e. 2 g/L). The bulk MoS2 was thinned by mechanical exfoliation between sand papers and the resulting powder was used to prepare dispersions by liquid exfoliation through probe sonication. The resulting dispersion consisted of very thin MoS2 nanosheets in surfactant solution with average lateral size around 126 nm. This may be interesting for applications in inkjet printed electronics.

  • 303.
    Alem, Yonas
    et al.
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Persistence of Subjective Poverty in Urban Ethiopia2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using panel data spanning 15 years, this paper  investigates the persistence and correlates of subjective and consumption  poverty in urban Ethiopia. Despite the decline in consumption poverty in  recent years, which has been linked to rapid economic growth, subjective  poverty has remained largely unchanged. Dynamic probit regression results  show that households with a history of past poverty continue to perceive  themselves as poor even if their material consumption improves. Our results  also suggest that the relative economic position of households is a strong  determinant of subjective poverty, and having at least some type of  employment reduces the likelihood that households will perceive themselves  as poor, even if they remain in objective poverty. Receiving remittances  from abroad, on the other hand, does not reduce perceived poverty, even if  it raises material consumption. We argue that any analysis to measure the  impact of growth on welfare should encompass subjective measures as  well.

  • 304.
    Alem, Yonas
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Köhlin, Gunnar
    Göteborgs universitet, institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    The persistence of subjective poverty in urban Ethiopia2014In: World Development, ISSN 0305-750X, E-ISSN 1873-5991, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 51-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data spanning 15 years, we study subjective and consumption poverty in urban Ethiopia. Despite rapid economic growth and declining consumption poverty, subjective poverty remains largely unchanged. We find that households with a history of poverty continue to perceive themselves as poor even if their material consumption improves. The relative economic position of households is a strong determinant of subjective poverty. Having some type of employment makes households less likely to perceive themselves as poor, even if they remain in objective poverty. We argue that any analysis to measure the impact of growth on welfare should also encompass subjective measures.

  • 305.
    Alemayehu, Nardos
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    ”Tveksamt om du i vit kropp klarar en dag i mitt färgstarka liv”: En kvalitativ studie om erfarenheter av vardagsrasism och diskriminering hos kvinnor med afrikansk bakgrund.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien studerar vithet och vithetsprivilegium och problemet är att vi lever i en värld där det fortfarande råder vithetshegemoni. Denna hegemoni bidrar till att en del människor utesluts från vissa möjligheter, baserade på ens etniska tillhörighet, sexuella läggning, trosuppfattning etc. Syftet med denna studie är att studera hur ”det vita rummet” upplevs av och påverkar rasifierade kvinnor med afrikansk bakgrund i högre utbildning. Rasifiering beskriver sociala konstruktioner som gör att människor placeras i olika fack. Uppsatsen är en kvalitativ studie som bygger på två fokusgrupper med totalt 6 kvinnliga informanter med afrikansk bakgrund. De resultat som framträder i undersökningen är att informanterna upplevde diskriminering under sin universitetstid dock, främst från lärare och studenter. De menar att det inte är själva utbildningen som har en ensidig bild och upprätthåller diskriminering utan det är människorna de mött på under sin universitetstid som utsatt de för diskriminering. Denna utsatthet som kvinnorna upplevt har påverkat de då dem reflekterat över sina möjligheter respektive hinder i att vara en svart kvinna. Kvinnornas olika upplevelser visar på hur diskriminering är ett strukturellt problem när de inte endast mött på diskriminering av klasskamrater utan även av professorer och av utbildningsmaterial som diskuteras senare i studien. Ett sådant fenomen bör tas på samhällsnivå och inte på individnivå som kan kopplas till olika perspektiv och tidigare forskning som kan förklara deras erfarenheter.

  • 306.
    Alenius, Annie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Mårtensson, Carina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelser av sjuksköterskeledd telefonuppföljning vid cancer: En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Antalet patienter som lever med att fått en cancerdiagnos ökar med modern diagnostik och behandling. Detta leder till ökad belastning på vården. Under senare år har viss uppföljning av patientgruppen kommit att skötas av sjuksköterskor via telefon.

    Syfte:

    Att belysa cancerpatienters upplevelser av sjuksköterskeledd telefonuppföljning.

    Metod:

    Litteraturöversikt baserad på elva artiklar med kvalitativ eller kvantitativ ansats.. Resultaten från artiklarna granskades, analyserades och sammanställdes. Använda databaser var CINAHL och PubMed.

    Resultat:

    Analysen resulterade i sex kategorier: Trygg relation till sjuksköterskan, Behov av information samt att detta behov tillgodoses, Bekvämt och tidsbesparande alternativ, Möjlighet till ett normalt liv, Ekonomiska vinster och Känna sig generellt nöjd med uppföljningen. Diskussion: Patientupplevelsen av sjuksköterskeledd telefonuppföljning var positiv. En god relation till sjuksköterskan har samband med känslan av trygghet.

    Slutsats:

    Patienterna var generellt nöjda med den sjuksköterskeledda telefonuppföljningen. Sjuksköterskeledd telefonuppföljning visade inte på några negativa upplevelser hos patientgruppen. Ingenting i litteraturöversiktens resultat tyder på att det skulle missgynna patienterna om mängden sjuksköterskeledda telefonuppföljningar skulle öka. Fler studier skulle behövas för att ytterligare belysa vad patienterna upplever för behov och för att sjuksköterskan i framtiden ska kunna forma uppföljningen på bästa sätt.

  • 307.
    Alevåg, Rebecca
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Har positiv affekt samband med ohälsa?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 308.
    Alexander, Sjöström
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Institution of education.
    Att arbeta med autistiska barn inom förskolan: Pedagoger berättar om sitt arbete med autistiska barn2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen handlar om hur pedagoger inom förskolan arbetar med barn som har diagnosen autism. Syftet med undersökningen var att ta reda på pedagogernas erfarenheter kring detta. Svårigheterna för dessa personer uppstår när de ska samspela eller kommunicera med andra.

  • 309.
    Alexandersson, Emelie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Larsson, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sociala intranät: En fallstudie ur användarnas perspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att inom ramen för en organisation förstå hur användare upplever ett socialt intranät som ett verktyg för interaktion samt vad som motiverar till användning och vad denna användning har fått för konsekvenser i användarnas arbete. Studien har utgått ifrån det sociokulturella perspektivet på lärande och därmed finns centrala begrepp som har används för att förstå resultatet. Dessa begrepp var kommunikation, information och kunskap. Det empiriska materialet för denna kvalitativa fallstudie hämtades in genom intervjuer med anställda på en mindre statlig myndighet i Sverige. Resultatet visade på att användningen av det sociala intranätet på myndigheten har lett till ökad insyn i organisationen. Användningen resulterade även i en ny delning utav information som innan införandet av det sociala intranätet inte funnits. Denna plattform har även gett större möjligheter att öka kunskap genom informell kommunikation på den statliga myndigheten.

  • 310.
    Alexsson, Ida
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Alexsson, Moa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pedagogers delaktighet i barns lek: En studie om pedagogernas uppfattningar om och erfarenheter av delaktighet i barns lek2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att undersöka pedagogers uppfattningar om och erfarenheter av delaktighet i barns lek, med utgångspunkt i vilka roller pedagogerna uppfattar att de intar eller tilldelas i barns lek. Syftet har undersökts med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer med sex stycken förskollärare. Under intervjuerna har en intervjuguide använts med områden som behandlar studiens syfte och frågeställningar. Tidigare forskning på området har visat att det finns olika sätt för pedagoger att vara delaktiga i barns lek, främst genom olika roller. De roller som pedagoger intar kan bero på vilket pedagogiskt förhållningssätt som råder. Resultatet visar att pedagogerna är delaktiga i barns lek genom att inta eller tilldelas olika roller, i analysen synliggjordes följande roller; trygghetsskapare, medlekare, observatör, lekledare och närgranskare. Pedagogerna i studien uppfattade samtliga roller som betydelsefulla och betonade vikten av att hitta en tydlig övergång mellan dem. Vilken roll pedagogen intar eller tilldelas påverkas av leksituationen samt lekdeltagarna, det är inte heller självklart att barnen accepterar den vuxnes delaktighet i leken.

  • 311.
    Alfred, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Byggstenar för en hållbar by: En fallstudie på föreningen Permakultur Stjärnsund2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many definitions and thoughts around the idea of sustainability but a main theme for most of the modern and accepted approaches is the idea that the nature provides the frame for mankinds social and economic development. Still it is not clear how a sustainable life within this frame should be lived practically. The aim of this study is therefore to contribute to the understanding of how sustainable lifestyles should be promoted. To do that, this report searches for buildingblocks to create sustainable villages.

    The study has focused its work around a case study on the organisation Permakultur Stjärnsund, an organisation that has gotten attention for their alternative lifestyle. The case study was carried out with the help of four interviews from members of the organisation. To support the case study, earlier studies of sustainable villages was used. In addition, a framework of approaches to the concept sustainability was added.

    The conclusion of this study is that sustainable villages value a life closer to nature and social community higher than consuming goods and the ownership of things. Anti-consuming thoughts is the antipole to what people in the villages want to achieve. This is supported in part, even if it is in a less direct way, by the selected approaches to sustainability. They suggest a thoughtful usage of natural resources. The social community is the most important part of village life. Without a strong community and reciprocity the life within natures framework cannot even begin. This priority is in contrary to what the approaches suggest, where nature provides the base for the social. Both on village level and among the approaches there is an evident rule implying that the ecosystem provides the frame for our living-conditions. This is the most apparent similarity between the two groups. Mostly, though, there are not that many clear similarities. There is a form of dissidence between the approaches and the villages. There is simply a lack of understanding. There is a need for better communication between the practical and the governmental way of doing things.

  • 312.
    Alfredsson, Anette
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Holmberg, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Omvårdnadspersonals upplevelser av att arbeta med kvalitetsregistret Senior Alert.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 313.
    Alfredsson, Heléne
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tallstig, Pauline
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Mäns kunskap om och upplevelse av att drabbas av erektil dysfunktion: -en litteraturstudie2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Erektil dysfunktion (ED) definieras som nedsatt erektionsförmåga. En källa till bekräftelse är att utrycka sig sexuellt och att kunna tillfredställa kvinnor sexuellt är förenat med stolthet för många män. Kvinnor söker hjälp för bristande lust medan männen söker för erektions- eller andra funktionsstörningar. Sjukdomar, läkemedel och psykiska orsaker kan ge upphov till ED, oftast samverkar flera faktorer. Syfte: Litteraturstudiens syfte var att belysa mäns kunskap om och upplevelse av att drabbas av ED. Metod: Artiklar söktes via PubMed och Cinahl, bearbetades utifrån syfte och frågeställningar, kvalitetsbedömdes och sammanställdes. Tretton artiklar analyserades efter inspiration av innehållsanalys. Resultat: Män drabbade av ED upplevde att problemet inverkat på sexuallivet, självförtroendet och manligheten men inte i relationen till sin partner. Männen hade liten kunskap om riskfaktorer och efterfrågade mera information. Mer än hälften av männen med ED ansåg att gensvaret från vårdens var otillfredsställande. Diskussion: Mer resurser efterfrågas för att hjälpa män och par med ED, sannolikt skulle deras livskvalitet och livet i helhet förbättras, då detta är nära sammankopplat med tillfredställelsen i sexuallivet, parförhållandet och familjelivet. Slutsats: Begränsad specificerad hjälp finns för män och ämnet känns många gånger genant därför är det sjuksköterskans skyldighet att lyfta sexualitet i samtal och anamnesupptagning.

  • 314.
    Alfredsson, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Design of a Parallel A/D-converter System on PCB - For High-Speed Sampling and Timing Error Correction: Examensarbete - Linköpings universitet2002Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goals for most of today´s receiver system are sampling at high-speed, with high resolution and with as few errors as possible. This master thesis describes the design of a high-speed sampling system with �state-of-the-art� components available on the market. The system is designed with a parallel Analog-to-digital converter (ADC) architecture, also called time interleaving. It aims to increase the sampling speed of the system. The system described in this report uses four 12-bits ADCs in parallel. Each ADC can sample at 125 MHz and the total sampling speed will then theoretically become 500 Ms/s. The system has been implemented and manufactured on a printed circuit board (PCB). Up to four boards can be connected in parallel to get 2 Gs/s theoretically. In an approach to increase the systems performance even further, a timing error estimation algorithm will be used on the sampled data. This algorithm estimates the timing errors that occur when sampling with non-uniform time interval between samples. After the estimations, the sampling clocks can be adjusted to correct the errors. This thesis is concerning some ADC theory, system design and PCB implementation. It also describes how to test and measure the system�s performance. No measurement results are presented in this thesis because measurements will be done after this project. The last part of the thesis discusses future improvements to achieve even higher performance.

  • 315.
    Alfredsson, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Limitations of subthreshold digital floating-gate circuits in present and future nanoscale CMOS technologies2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 316.
    Alfredsson, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Performance of Digital Floating-Gate Circuits Operating at Subthreshold Power Supply Voltages2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    All who is involved in electronic design knows that one of the critical issues

    in today’s electronic is the power consumption. Designers are always looking for

    new approaches in order to reduce currents while still retain performance.

    Floating-gate (FGMOS) circuits have previously been shown to be a promising

    technique to improve speed and still keep the power consumption low when

    power supply is reduced below subthreshold voltage for the transistors.

    In this thesis, the goal is to determine how good floating-gate circuits can be

    compared to conventional static CMOS when the circuits are working in

    subthreshold. The most interesting performance parameters are speed and power

    consumption and specifically the Energy-Delay Product (EDP) that is a

    combination of those two. To get a view over how the performance varies and how

    good the FGMOS circuits are at their best case, the circuits have been designed and

    simulated for best case performance.

    The investigation also includes trade-offs with speed and power

    consumption for better performance, how to select floating-gate capacitances, how

    a large circuit fan-in will affect performance and also the influence of different

    kinds of refresh circuits.

    The first simulations of the FGMOS circuits in a 0.13 μm process have

    several interesting results. First of all, in the best case it is shown that FGMOS has

    potential to achieve up to 260 times in better EDP-performance compared to CMOS

    at 150 mV power supply. Continuing with simulations of FGMOS capacitances

    shows that minimum floating-gate capacitance can be as small as 400 fF and more

    realistic performance shows that EDP is 37 times better for FGMOS (with parasitic

    capacitances included). Other aspects of FGMOS design have been to look at how

    refresh circuits will affect performance (semi-floating-gate circuits) and how a

    larger fan-in will change noise margin and EDP. It turns out that refresh circuits

    with the same transistor size does not give a noticeable change in performance

    while an increase of 8 times in size will give between 5 and 10 times wors EDP.

    When it comes to fan-in the simulations shows that a maximum fan-in of 5 is

    possible at 250 mV supply and it decrease to 3 when supply voltage is reduced to

    150 mV.

    Finally, it should be kept in mind that tuning the performance of FGMOS

    circuits with trade-offs and by changing the floating-gate voltages to achieve

    results like the ones stated above will also always affect the noise margins, NM, of

    the circuits. As a consequence of this, the NM will sometimes be so close to 1 that a

    fabricated circuit with that NM may not be as functional as simulations suggests.

    The probability to design functional FGMOS circuits in subthreshold does not

    seem to be a problem though.

  • 317.
    Alfredsson, Jon
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Aunet, Snorre
    Department of Informatics, University of Oslo.
    D-latch for Subthreshold Floating-Gate Circuits Exploiting Threshold Elements2007In: 2007 NORCHIP, IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 146-149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When power supply for circuits is reduced the performance will also drop accordingly and to keep up the performance while lowering power supply is an important issue. Floating-gate circuits (FGMOS) have previously been simulated with low power supply and basic digital gates and circuits have already been designed and studied to determine speed and power performance. In this paper we try to expand the circuit library for subthreshold power supply FGMOS circuits by including a floating-gate memory element in terms of a D-latch. Our simulations at 250 mV power supply of a FGMOS D-latch are compared with other D-latches based on static CMOS and mirrored gate elements. The simulations we have performed shows that static CMOS has an advantage in performance of several orders of magnitude in terms of power consumption, while PDP and EDP performance are also better than for FGMOS. When it comes to speed performance, we show that the FGMOS D-latch can be up to 18 times faster than CMOS at the expense of up to three orders of magnitude higher power consumption.

  • 318.
    Alfredsson, Jon
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Aunet, Snorre
    Department of Informatics, University of Oslo.
    Performance of CMOS and floating-gate full-adders circuits at subthreshold power supply2007In: Integrated Circuit and System Design: Power and Timing Modeling, Optimization and Simulation, Berlin: Springer, 2007, p. 536-546Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce power consumption in electronic designs, new techniques for circuit design must always be considered. Floating-gate MOS (FGMOS) is one of those techniques and has previously shown potentially better performance than standard static CMOS circuits for ultra-low power designs. One reason for this is because FGMOS only requires a few transistors per gate and still retain a large fan-in. Another reason is that CMOS circuits becomes very slow in subthreshold region and are not suitable in many applications while FGMOS can have a shift in threshold voltage to increase speed performance. This paper investigates how the performance of an FGMOS full-adder circuit will compare with two common CMOS full-adder designs. Simulations in a 120 nm process shows that FGMOS can have up to 9 times better EDP performance at 250 mV. The simulations also show that the FGMOS full-adder is 32 times faster and have two orders of magnitude higher power consumption than that for CMOS.

  • 319.
    Alfredsson, Jon
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Aunet, Snorre
    Department of Informatics, University of Oslo.
    Pseudo floating-gate design limitations in Nano-CMOS with low power supply2008In: Proceedings of IFIP VLSI-SOC Conference 2008: Rhodes, Greece, October 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows simulation results from a recentlyproposed Pseudo Floating-Gate (PFG) technique for use insubthreshold. The design and simulations is performed in a 120nm process CMOS technology and show that there arelimitations that will make subthreshold PFG very difficult tomanufacture with full functionality. The simulations showlimitations in fan-in that will contribute to making it harder tomanufacture structures that have small area or a higharithmetic complexity per active element. It also showbandwidth limitations for the input and output signals.As a complement to the simulations of our PFG design we havealso made a summary of several different kinds of PFGtechniques that are previously developed and some of theirlimitations. The summary also tries to determine where thePFG techniques originates from and present an overview of themost obvious limitations they have.

     

  • 320.
    Alfredsson, Jon
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Aunet, Snorre
    Department of Informatics, University of Oslo.
    Trade-offs for high yield in 90 nm subthreshold floating-gate circuits by Monte Carlo simulations2008In: Proceedings of IFIP VLSI-SOC Conference 2008: Rhodes, Greece, October 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work described in this paper is performed toestimate the influence of statistical process variations andtransistor mismatch that occurs in fabrication and affectfloating-gate digital circuits. These effects will affect and reduce“yield” (percentage of fully functional circuits). Monte Carlosimulations have been performed in a 90 nm to estimate theyield for manufactured floating-gate circuits running withsubthreshold power supply. The power supply, floating-gatecharge voltage (VFGP and VFGN) and transistor sizes have beenvaried during the simulations and the yield has been observed.The simulation results shows that by doubling the minimumsize transistors (length and width) the yield can be much betterthan for minimum size version. A yield of 100% can though notbe expected if the power supply is scaled down below 250 mV.

     

  • 321.
    Alfredsson, Jon
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Aunet, Snorre
    Department of Informatics, University of Oslo.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Basic Speed and Power Properties of Digital Floating-gate Circuits Operating in Subthreshold2005In: Proceedings of IFIP VLSI-SOC 2005: International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration, Edith Cowan Univ , 2005, p. 229-232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For digital circuits with ultra-low power consumption,floating-gate circuits have been considered to be a techniquepotentially better than standard static CMOS circuits.By having a DC offset on the floating gates, theeffective threshold voltage of the floating-gate transistoris adjusted and the speed and power performance can bealtered. In this paper the basic performance related propertiessuch as power, delay, power-delay product (PDP),and energy-delay product (EDP) for floating-gate circuitsoperating in subthreshold are investigated. Based on circuitsimulations in a 120nm process technology, it isshown that for the best case, the power can be reducedapproximately by one order of magnitude at the expenseof increased delay, while the PDP is more or less constantin comparison to static CMOS. The EDP can be reducedby two orders of magnitude at the expense of reducednoise margins.

  • 322.
    Alfredsson, Jon
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Aunet, Snorre
    Department of Informatics, University of Oslo.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Small Fan-in Floating-gate Circuits with Application to an Improved Adder Structure2007In: 20TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON VLSI DESIGN, PROCEEDINGS - TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES IN THE NANOELECTRONICS ERA, IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 314-317Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For digital circuits with ultra-low power consumption, floating-gate circuits (FGMOS) have been considered to be a potentially better technique than standard static CMOS circuits. One reason for this is because FGMOS only requires a few transistors per gate while it still can have a large fan-in. When power supply is reduced to subthreshold region it will influence the maximum fan-in that is possible to use in designs. In this paper we have investigated how the performance of FGMOS circuits will change in subthreshold region. Simulation in a 120 nm process technology shows that FGMOS will not be working for circuits that have a large fan-in and might not be useable for many designs. At 250 mV power supply it can have a maximum fan-in of 5 and for 150 mV the maximum is 3. FGMOS simulations of an improved full-adder structure with fan-in of 3 is also proposed and compared to a conventional structure with fan-in of 5. It is shown that the improved full-adder with fan-in 3 will have more than 36 times better energy-delay product (EDP)

  • 323.
    Alfredsson, Jon
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Capacitance Selection for Digital Floating Gate Circuits Operating in Subthreshold2006In: Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, IEEE conference proceedings, 2006, p. 4341-4344, article id 1693590Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For digital circuits with ultra-low power consumption, floating-gate circuits (FGMOS) have been considered to be a potentially better technique than standard static CMOS circuits. By having a DC offset on the floating gates, the effective threshold voltage of the floating-gate transistor is adjusted and the speed and power performance can be altered. In this paper we have investigated how the floating-gate capacitances can be selected to achieve the best performance in floating-gate circuits operating at subthreshold power supply. Based on circuit simulations in a 120nm process technology, it is shown that the EDP offers a reduction of more than one order of magnitude for FGMOS with capacitance selection in comparison to static CMOS circuits. This paper also deals with the possibilities available for trade-offs between lower power consumption and higher speed to achieve a better performance for FGMOS than for static CMOS. The main cost involved in achieving these performance improvements is reduced noise margins

  • 324.
    Alfredsson, Jon
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Influence of Refresh Circuits Connected to Low Power Digital Quasi-Floating gate Designs2006In: 2006 13TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ELECTRONICS, CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOLS 1-3, 2006, p. 1296-1299Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For digital circuits with ultra-low power consumption, floating-gate circuits (FGMOS) have been considered to be a potentially better technique than standard static CMOS circuits. For each new generation of process technology the thickness of the transistor gate-oxide will be reduced. This will increase charge leakage in FGMOS circuits and it is therefore necessary to introduce techniques to keep the charge in the node. In this paper we investigate how the most commonly used refresh circuits (quasi-and pseudo-floating gate) affect the performance when they are connected to an FGMOS circuit working with subthreshold power supply. The simulations show that refresh circuits equal in size compared to FGMOS will not have much influence on performance while it is reduced up to an order in magnitude when the size increase 8 times. This strong impact from the refresh circuitry also indicates that it might not be an option for future technologies.

  • 325.
    Alfredsson, Jon
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Trading Speed and Power for Reduced Substrate Noise from Digital CMOS Circuits2004In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Signals and Electronic Systems, Poznan, Poland: Polish Society for Theoretical and Applied Electrical Engineering , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 326.
    Alfredsson Kamp, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Eriksson, Carl-Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Papperstidningen i den digitala tidsåldern: En kvantitativ innehållsanalys i nyhetsvärdering på Aftonbladet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Purpose and framing of the question: To study how Aftonbladet’s news values and news selection have changed in the last two decades.

    Method and material: Quantitative study in form of a coding scheme covering Aftonbladet’s front pages in the month of march of 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015.

    Main result: Both news selection and news value remains in the bigger perspective unchanged, indicating that the newspaper print version is rather unaffected by the change of online journalism. That in turn indicates that the gatekeeper role more or less remains the same for the print version of Aftonbladet.

  • 327.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    et al.
    lars.alfredsson@imm.ki.se.
    Hammar, Niklas
    Fransson, Eleanor
    de Faire, Ulf
    Hallqvist, Johan
    Knutsson, Anders
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Theorell, Törres
    Westerholm, Peter
    Job strain and major risk factors for coronary heart disease.: Baseline results from the WOLF Study2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, ISSN 0355-3140, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 238-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results do not support the hypothesis that job strain has an adverse impact on serum total cholesterol and plasma fibrinogen levels. They suggest that an increased risk of coronary heart disease in association with job strain, if causal, is mediated by other factors, possibly partly by hypertension and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  • 328.
    Alfsvåg, Hannele
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Är de blåsta eller blundar de bara?: En kvalitativ studie om hur kvinnor upplevt stödet under sitt liv med missbruk, vid vändpunkten och tiden efter upphörandet.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kvinnors bruk av droger ökar konstant, till stor del genom användandet av droger som ett sätt att döva ett dåligt psykiskt mående som orsakar ångest och depression. Det finns ett behov av mer missbruksforskning med ett genusvetenskapligt perspektiv eftersom missbrukande kvinnors situation skiljer sig från männens. Genussystemet påverkar hela samhällsstrukturen, således även forskningen som mestadels har varit inriktad mot männen. Följaktligen är missbruksvården och övriga stödinsatser huvudsakligen baserade på kunskap om män. Studiens syfte var att ur ett genusperspektiv beskriva hur kvinnor med ett tidigare missbruksproblem har upplevt ett socialt stöd under tiden med och efter missbruk. I denna studie användes den kvalitativa forskningsmetoden och ett narrativt och fenomenologiskt perspektiv. Resultatet visar att stödet från de närmaste varit villkorat och kvinnorna upplevde att de hade instabila sociala band. Det fanns inget stöd då de behövde det som mest vare sig från familj eller sociala sektorn. Missbrukande kvinnor är ofta mer stigmatiserade, en bild som bekräftas i denna studie. Kvinnorna kom i kläm mellan olika samhällsinstanser och sjukvården, där fokus ibland hamnade på andra problem än de primära, nämligen missbruket och grundorsaken till det. Läkemedelsberoende kvinnor upplever ofta en bristande samordning. Istället skrivs mer mediciner ut till dem. Dessa i kombination med andra droger är förödande. Den avgörande faktorn för att upphöra med missbruket var personlig, det var den egna viljan att leva och lämna en nedbrytande och destruktiv livsstil bakom sig. Kvinnorna upplevde att till och med den sociala sektorn upplevdes på ett annat sätt efter det livsavgörande beslutet, troligen en effekt av att man inte kan ta emot hjälp om man inte har kommit till insikt själv.

  • 329.
    Alfvin, Tiia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Science Education and Mathematics.
    Det laborativa arbetsmaterialet i matematik i lågstadiet (åk1-3) – vad, vem, när, hur & varför?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka det laborativa arbetsmaterialets förekomst i matematikundervisningen och ta reda på hur lärare förhåller sig till materialet och användandet av detta i årskurserna 1-3. Undersökningen är huvudsakligen en kvalitativ studie som bygger på 7 enkätfrågor ställda till lärare i lågstadiet. Min undersökning visar att laborativt arbetsmaterial förekommer i matematikundervisningen och används vid genomgångar av lärarna samt vid behov av både elever och lärare. Materialet är både roligt att använda och ett stöd för lärandet. Vissa tyckte dock att det kunde vara jobbigt att plocka fram och städa undan och att eleverna ibland lekte med det. Lärarna gav exempel på kopplingar till läroplanen och de tillfrågade lärarna upplever sig ha tillräcklig kompetens för att kunna bedriva god undervisning för främjandet av elevernas kunskapsutveckling inom ämnet matematik. Det var dock viktigt med ett fungerande erfarenhetsutbyte i arbetslaget samt möjlighet till fortbildning vid behov.

  • 330.
    Alfvin, Tiia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    Urvalet för läsning av bänk-bok i lågstadiet (åk1-3): – hur, vad, vem, när, var &varför?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 331.
    Algerbo, Josefin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Noren Linder, Madelen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Hur patienter med fibromyalgi upplever vårdpersonalens bemötande: en litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Fibromyalgi är ett kroniskt smärttillstånd som ger smärta i muskler och leder. Patienterna utsätts även för psykisk påfrestning då de inte längre kan göra sådant de tidigare gjort. Diagnosen är svår att ställa vilket gör att patienterna ofta skickas fram och tillbaka mellan olika vårdpersonal. Hur detta påverkar patienterna är viktigt att vårdpersonalen tar hänsyn till i bemötandet av patienter med fibromyalgi då de är en lågt värderad patientgrupp.Syfte: Att belysa hur patienter med fibromyalgi upplever vårdpersonalens bemötandeMetod: En litteraturöversikt med induktiv analysmetod. Inkluderar 12 kvalitativa artiklar som belyser bemötandet av patienter med fibromyalgi.Resultat: Resultatet visar att patienter med fibromyalgi upplever att de får ett dåligt bemötande av vårdpersonalen. Efter att ha fått diagnosen fibromyalgi upplevde de att bemötandet förändrades och att vårdpersonalen tappade intresset för dem. Resultatet presenteras i fyra kategorier: Bemötandet före och efter diagnos, Vårdpersonalens okunskap och bristande information, Patienternas förväntningar om en god vårdrelation och Att inte bli bekräftad.Diskussion: Vårdpersonalens perspektiv lyfts i diskussionen för att belysa hur de upplever bemötandet och vad det tror påverkar att patienterna med fibromyalgi upplever det som dåligt.Slutsats: Patienternas upplevelse av ett dåligt bemötande tycks grundas i bristande kommunikation mellan patienter och vårdpersonal. Det behövs inte mer forskning om hur upplevelsen är utan snarare hur upplevelsen kan förbättras.

  • 332.
    Algerbo, Josefin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Noren Linder, Madelen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Hur patienter med fibromyalgi upplever vårdpersonalens bemötande: Hur patienter med fibromyalgi upplever vårdpersonalens bemötande: en litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Fibromyalgi är ett kroniskt smärttillstånd som ger smärta i muskler och leder. Patienterna utsätts även för psykisk påfrestning då de inte längre kan göra sådant de tidigare gjort. Diagnosen är svår att ställa vilket gör att patienterna ofta skickas fram och tillbaka mellan olika vårdpersonal. Hur detta påverkar patienterna är viktigt att vårdpersonalen tar hänsyn till i bemötandet av patienter med fibromyalgi då de är en lågt värderad patientgrupp.Syfte: Att belysa hur patienter med fibromyalgi upplever vårdpersonalens bemötandeMetod: En litteraturöversikt med induktiv analysmetod. Inkluderar 12 kvalitativa artiklar som belyser bemötandet av patienter med fibromyalgi.Resultat: Resultatet visar att patienter med fibromyalgi upplever att de får ett dåligt bemötande av vårdpersonalen. Efter att ha fått diagnosen fibromyalgi upplevde de att bemötandet förändrades och att vårdpersonalen tappade intresset för dem. Resultatet presenteras i fyra kategorier: Bemötandet före och efter diagnos, Vårdpersonalens okunskap och bristande information, Patienternas förväntningar om en god vårdrelation och Att inte bli bekräftad.Diskussion: Vårdpersonalens perspektiv lyfts i diskussionen för att belysa hur de upplever bemötandet och vad det tror påverkar att patienterna med fibromyalgi upplever det som dåligt.Slutsats: Patienternas upplevelse av ett dåligt bemötande tycks grundas i bristande kommunikation mellan patienter och vårdpersonal. Det behövs inte mer forskning om hur upplevelsen är utan snarare hur upplevelsen kan förbättras.

  • 333.
    Alghetmi, Ramzi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Cyrene Destination: Visitors’ Perceptions of Negative Factors Affecting Heritage Tourism at the World Heritage Site2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 334.
    Algovik, Lovisa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hyvönen, Maja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kompetenta kvinnor - under konstant konstruktion? En kvantitativ studie om könsstereotyper kopplad tillstereotype content model2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 335.
    Al-Hilali, Ahmed
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Vilka bakomliggande orsaker påverkar LSS-handläggares arbete?: En kvalitativ studie om LSS-handläggarna i Sundsvalls kommun2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle ser vi många individer som är i behov av assistans. Dessa individer med funktionsnedsättning ställs varje dag inför svårigheter. Människorna är olika och därför behöver olika former av hjälp för att kunna överleva på samma sätt som andra individer. Lagen om stöd och service till vissa funktionshindrade är en lag som bidrar till goda levnadsvillkor för dessa individer. Men det finns individer som har det ansvaret att uppfylla dessa människors behov. LSS-handläggarna har huvudansvaret för dessa genom att bevilja eller avslå deras ärenden. Att arbeta som LSS-handläggare är inte enkelt och oftast finns det svårigheter i arbetet. Syftet med denna studie är att med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer undersöka LSS-handläggarnas handlingsutrymme och om det uppstår inre konflikter i deras arbete i Sundsvalls kommun. I studien har Lipskys teori om gräsrotsbyråkrater använts som utgångspunkt för att får mer större förståelse för och bättre inblick i handläggarnas handlingsutrymme. Med hjälp av tematisk analys byggde studien olika teman för att få bättre överblick över problemet. Resultat av studien har visat att LSS-handläggarna har olika faktorer som påverkar deras arbete i form av resursbristen och stressen som de upplever i arbetet, vilket resulterar i felaktiga beslut som handläggarna fattas.

  • 336.
    Ali Ahmet, Dlara
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Said, Fatima
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Intervjustudie om Socialtjänstens val av insatser för barn till föräldrar med missbruk2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Missbruk av alkohol och droger bidrar till många risker för individer och familjer och kan bidra till en särskild utsatthet med sociala, psykosociala, psykiska och fysiska problem vilket i sin tur kan påverka anhöriga och barn. Svenska studier pekar på stora konsekvenser som rör barns skolgång, hälsa och arbetsliv när de växer upp i familjer med missbruksproblem. Det finns många sociala insatser som berör barn som anhöriga. Syfte: Studiens syfte har varit att undersöka och redovisa vilka insatser som Socialtjänsten erbjuder barn till föräldrar med missbruksproblem och vilka orsaker som föreligger valen. Metod: Genom kvalitativa semi-strukturerade intervjuer med socialsekreterare som har utförts i två svenska städer har material samlats in för att sedan analyseras med hjälp av innehållsanalys. En teoretisk analys har genomförts med hjälp av ett organisationsteoretiskt perspektiv. Resultat: Studiens resultat kategoriseras i fyra teman; Socialtjänstens val av insatser för barn till föräldrar med missbruksproblem, Socialsekreterares bedömningar om insatser ur ett barn- och förändringsperspektiv, Socialsekreterares bedömningar om insatser utifrån resurser och förutsättningar och Socialsekreterares resonemang och kunskap kring alternativa metoder. Studien visar att Socialtjänsten främst arbetar med familjebaserade insatser och externa stödgruppsverksamheter. Vidare framkommer det i studien att val av insatser utgår ifrån barnperspektivet. Insatserna påverkas av kostnadsfrågor, socialsekreterarnas handlingsutrymme och Socialtjänstens omorganisering.

  • 337.
    Ali, Asha
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Fawaz, Zainab
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Hudsjukdomen psoriasis påverkan på det dagliga livet: -Utifrån patientens upplevelser2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Psoriasis är en kronisk hudsjukdom med omkring 300 000personer i Sverige. Psoriasis förekommer i olika former och plaque psoriasis ärden vanligaste formen. Många gånger kan psoriasis leda till psykiska, fysiskaoch sociala begränsningar i det dagliga livet och en stor påverkan pålivskvaliteten för personen med psoriasis. Känslan av sammanhang, kan varaviktigt för att kunna hantera olika stressorer i livet med psoriasis. Syftet: Syftet med denna litteraturöversikt var att beskriva hur personer med hudsjukdomen psoriasis upplevde att deras dagliga liv och livskvalitet påverkades av sjukdomen. Metod: I denna litteraturöversikt användes både kvantitativa samt kvalitativa studier. Resultat: Hudsjukdomen psoriasis medförde sig många fysiska,psykiska samt sociala begränsningar. För att leva med den kroniska hudsjukdomen psoriasis utvecklade många deltagare hanteringsstrategier. Stödet från hälso- och sjukvården upplevdes otillräcklig. Diskussion: Genom att sjuksköterskan införskaffar sig egen kunskap blir det lättare att utbilda patienten och närstående och ge de en ökad förståelse samt kunskap om psoriasis. Detta ökar begripligheten på så sätt att personen lättare kan hantera sin psoriasis. Slutsats: Det behövs djupare kunskap samt förståelse om hudsjukdomen psoriasis. Sjuksköterskan behöver förstå patientens upplevelser och vilka faktorer som kan påverka patientens dagliga liv.

  • 338.
    Ali, Hana
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Hot och våld - en del av sjuksköterskans vardag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 339.
    Ali, kathem Hassan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Associated Petroleum Gas management in the south of Iraq2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is considered as the second largest oil producer in organization of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC) with oil production average of 3.2 MMbbl/day. Iraq has very ambitious plans to increase oil production in the coming few years, which means rapid increase of the associated petroleum gas (APG) which has dissolve form in crude oil and consider as a common by-product with crude oil extraction.

    This study aims to give more understanding about APG management in the south of Iraq and highlight the most important reasons standing behind utilize failure of a huge amount of APG instead of flare it and what the consequences of flare option in the environmental, economic and political perspectives.

    Natural gas featuring as a cleanest fossil fuel with less emission comparing with other types of fossil fuels. In addition, natural gas is considered as an important source for thermal, electrical and mechanical energy and can be used in very wide branches such as transport, industry, electricity and in the housing sector. Furthermore, it is considered as a raw material for petrochemical, fertilizer industries and for the productions of pesticides.

    In this study, APG flaring from economic and environmental perspectives were studied. This study has produced three different scenarios for the future gas production. Three different scenarios were studied (business as usual (BAU), new processing facilities (NPF) and gas to grid (GTG)). BAU scenario depends on rehabilitate the entire infrastructures which are old, unsufficient and it is platform capacity is very small to capture and process a huge amount of APG which expected to be produced in the coming years. NPF means build new capturing and processing facilities to treat the total expected amount of APG and the GTG scenario depend on the same assumptions of the second scenario but, all the produced dry gas will destined to the power plant to produce electricity.

    Most promising results (economic and environment results) gained by adapting GTG scenario. These results, however, might explain and justify the economic investment that should be used in the Iraqi gas industry will give more revenue, improve Iraqis people life conditions and reduce the global environmental degradation.

    As a result of that the imported gas, electricity and natural gas liquids (NGL) will be stopped after three to five years. So it is recommended that the produced dry gas should utilize in the power plant as a feedstock instead of crude oil and diesel and after the increasing of provide dry gas can Iraq stop import gas and electricity as well.

    More involved by adopting gas to grid scenario because the produced dry gas used as feedstock in the power generations to cover the domestic and industry demand for electricity. More investment needs to apply this scenario but also more benefit will be gain due to replacing oil and diesel which are currently used in the power plants by using natural gas.

    Iraq has to take rapid steps toward changing all the existing fuel fire generators to cover the shortage of electricity supply and guaranteed the domestic and the industrial sectors of stable providing of electricity. Iraq is facing a real problem at the moment because of the burning of Iraqi gas, which causes to accumulate of 20 million tons per year of carbon dioxide emissions, the equivalent of three million tailpipe emissions car.

    Accompanied with the increasing in crude oil production during the past few years an increase in the production of APG, which means an increase in the quantities of burned gas and that needs to evolution of energy installations of gas collection and treatment in the same period. In addition, increase the quantities of liquid petroleum gas and light naphtha for domestic demand, will be an urgent need for the establishment of appropriate facilities for the storage and export in the south harbors to export the surplus for the local need.

    The implementation of these scenarios beginning in 2015 requires speeding up the construction of the assembly plants, pressure, treatment and the related infrastructures at the level of the oil fields production. The construction of the necessary pipelines infrastructure needs to connect the centers of demand treatment plants, power plants and the oil wells. It is also required to raise the capacity of the gas filling facilities near centers of domestic consumption.

    Preparation of technical plans for the gas system, gas industries, electricity generation and all the investment possibilities will be very important and it should be ready by 2015 to exploit the total gas production in Iraq and its treatment, so that it becomes available to transfer it to the local and international markets. At that point, gas flaring may reach to the lowest level, and then will meet all the requirements of the local gas demand, local electricity demand and contributing with international efforts to protect the global environment.

  • 340. Ali Khan, A.
    et al.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Kaakinen, M.
    Pouta, A.
    Hartikainen, A-L
    Järvelin, M-R
    Does in utero exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids influence birthweight, head circumference and birth length?: A systematic review of current evidence in humans2011In: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, ISSN 0269-5022, E-ISSN 1365-3016, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 20-36Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthetic glucocorticoids are the mainstay treatment for stimulating lung maturation in threatened preterm delivery. Animal studies suggest that in utero exposure to glucocorticoids leads to a reduction in birth size. Smaller birthweight has been associated with higher risk of many chronic diseases. Therefore, the authors undertook a systematic review of human studies examining the association between synthetic glucocorticoid treatment and birth size. Medline, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane, Google scholar and Institute of Life Science databases were searched for studies published between 1978 and 2009 investigating the association between synthetic glucocorticoids and birthweight, head circumference, birth length and ponderal index. All studies controlling for gestational age were examined. Seventeen studies were included in the analysis. Nine out of 17 studies reported a reduction in birthweight (range 12-332 g), five of nine a reduction of head circumference (range 0.31-1.02 cm) and two of four a reduction of 0.8 cm in birth length. Despite methodological inconsistencies and limitations that impede clear conclusions, the evidence suggests an association between in utero exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids and reduced birth size.

  • 341.
    Ali, Majid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Improving the Adaptive Context Views and Evaluate Real-Time Performance2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The versatility and dimension of smart phone applications is   increasing at magnificent rate and getting more and more advanced in a level that could solve complicated real time tasks. One of the important factors for such advancement has been the powerful sensors embedded on a Smartphone devices and sensory networks. Moreover, Context and Context-awareness would have remained a myth without the advent of sensors. The objective of this thesis has been to contribute to the research work carried out under the MediaSense project. Accordingly, the ultimate purpose of the thesis has been to evaluate and study the feasibility of the adaptive context view proposed in MediaSense Platform. In precise words, the thesis has done three core tasks. Firstly, the theoretical presentation of related works and the significance of the research question have been discussed through various social applications. Secondly, a proof-of-concept application has been developed to simulate what has been proposed in the research work. Finally, Android application has been designed and implemented in order to evaluate and study the techniques presented in a practical scenario. Moreover, in the android application known as SundsvallBIGBuddies, we have used the extensions designed for the existing MediaSense platform. The impact of using Android app relaying on a continuous stream of context data has been presented using graphs and tables.  In order to study the impact we used smart phone and tablets from Samsung.

  • 342.
    Ali, S.
    et al.
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Orban, I.
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mahmood, S.
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Altun, Z.
    Marmara Univ, Dept Phys, TR-81040 Istanbul, Turkey.
    Glans, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Schuch, R.
    Univ Stockholm, Dept Phys, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    ELECTRON-ION RECOMBINATION RATE COEFFICIENTS FOR C II FORMING C I2012In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 753, no 2, p. Art. no. 132-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have determined absolute dielectronic recombination rate coefficients for C II, using the CRYRING heavy-ions storage ring. The resonances due to 2s-2p (Delta n= 0) core excitations are detected in the center-of-mass energy range of 0-15 eV. The experimental results are compared with intermediate coupling AUTOSTRUCTURE calculations. Plasma rate coefficients are obtained from the DR spectrum by convoluting it with a Maxwell-Boltzmann energy distribution for temperatures in the range of 10(3)-10(6) K. The derived temperature-dependent plasma recombination rate coefficients are presented graphically and parameterized by using a fit formula for convenient use in plasma modeling codes. The experimental rate coefficients are also compared with the theoretical data available in literature. In the temperature range of 10(3)-2 x 10(4) K, our experimental results show that previous calculations severely underestimate the plasma rate coefficients and also our AUTOSTRUCTURE calculation does not reproduce the experimental plasma rate coefficients well. Above 2x10(4) K, the agreement between the experimental and theoretical rate coefficients is much better, and the deviations are smaller than the estimated uncertainties.

  • 343.
    Ali, Tara
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Bylund, Dan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Essén, Sofia A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Lundström, Ulla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Liquid extraction of low molecular mass organic acids and hydroxamate siderophores from boreal forest soil2011In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 2417-2422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low molecular mass organic acids (LMMOAs) and hydroxamate siderophores (HS) are molecules secreted by microbes and have previously been found in soil solution and in cultures. Mycorrhizal fungi are suggested to be involved in the nutrient uptake processes of trees and weathering of minerals. In this study soil samples taken from the O and E horizons of a podzol were extracted with 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer at pH 7.2. Variable parameters included addition of methanol to the extraction buffer and the use of ultrasonication or rotary shaking during extraction. LMMOAs and HS content of the soil extracts were determined. Analysis of soil extracts were carried out by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and the extraction results compared to results for soil solution samples obtained by centrifugation of the soils sampled. The extraction yields were significantly increased by addition of methanol to the extraction buffer, especially for the O horizon samples. Rotary shaking of the samples for 90 min gave slightly higher yields than ultrasonication for 15 min but the reduction in extraction time makes ultrasonication an attractive option. Of the HSs determined, ferricrocin was found in all samples. Optimal extraction conditions showed citric acid and isocitric acid to be the most abundant organic acids in the O and E horizons, respectively.

  • 344.
    Alic, Emin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Publiceringsfunktion för obemannade tjänster avseende användbarhet2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 345.
    Alieva, Heidi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Fåglund, Susanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Vad kan orsaka stress hos föräldrar på en neonatal intensivvårdsavdelning?: En litteraturöversikt om vilka stressorer föräldrar på en neonatal intensivvårdsavdelning kan uppleva.2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Föräldrar som får ett prematurfött barn kan uppleva en känslomässig berg-och-dalbana när deras barn får ligga på en neonatal intensivvårdsavdelning. Föräldrarna hamnar i en ny situation som kan medföra nya stressorer. Som sjuksköterska bör man uppmuntra till en närkontakt mellan föräldrar och barnet så att föräldrar kan skapa en god anknytning med barnen. På en neonatal intensivvårdsavdelning är familjecentrerad vård är ett centralt begrepp där man fokuserar på både patient och familj samtidigt. Föräldrar är konstant i behov av information och därför bör sjuksköterskan finnas tillhands och ha en god kommunikation med föräldrarna. Syfte: Syftet är att belysa vilka stressorer föräldrar som har ett barn på en neonatal intensivvårdsavdelning kan uppleva. Metod: En litteraturöversikt med tolv artiklar: fem kvantitativa, sex kvalitativa och en mixad. Resultat: Stressorer från analysen redovisas under fyra huvudkategorier: Förväntningar, Det förtidigt födda barnet, Omgivningen och Vårdpersonalen. Slutsats: Föräldrar som har ett barn på en neonatal intensivvårdsavdelning upplever olika stressorer. Föräldrar som haft en god kommunikation och ett gott informationsutbyte med sjuksköterskan har upplevt mindre stress. Klinisk betydelse: Denna litteraturöversikt kan bidra med kunskap om stressorer föräldrar med ett barn på en neonatal intensivvårdsavdelning kan mötas av. Det är kunskap som sjuksköterskan kan använda i sitt arbete med föräldrar, eller andra anhöriga.

  • 346.
    Alimadadi, Majid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Foam-formed Fiber Networks: Manufacturing, Characterization, and Numerical Modeling: With a Note on the Orientation Behavior of Rod-like Particles in Newtonian Fluids2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fiber networks are ubiquitous and are seen in both industrial materials (paper and nonwovens) and biological materials (plant cells and animal tissues). Nature intricately manipulates these network structures by varying their density, aggregation, and fiber orientation to create a variety of functionalities.

    In conventional papermaking, fibrous materials are dispersed in water to form a sheet of a highly oriented two-dimensional (2D) network. In such a structure, the in-plane mechanical and transport properties are very different from those in the out-of-plane direction. A three-dimensional (3D) network, however, may offer unique properties not seen in conventional paper products.

    Foam, i.e., a dispersed system of gas and liquid, is widely used as the suspending medium in different industries. Recently, foam forming was studied extensively to develop the understanding of foam-fiber interactions in order to find potential applications of this technology in papermaking.

    In this thesis, a method for producing low-density, 3D fiber networks by utilizing foam forming is investigated and the structures and mechanical properties of such networks are studied. Micro-computed tomography is used to capture the 3D structure of the network and subsequently to reproduce artificial networks. The finite element method is utilized to model the compression behavior of both the reproduced physical network and the artificial networks in order to understand how the geometry and constitutive elements of the foam-formed network affect its bulk mechanical properties. Additionally, a method was studied in order to quantify the orientation behavior of particles in a laminar Newtonian flow based on the key parameters of the flow which control the orientation.

    The resulting foam-formed structures were extremely bulky. Yet despite this high bulk, the fiber networks retained good structural integrity. The compression behavior in the thickness direction was characterized by extreme compressibility and high strain recovery after compression. The results from the modeling showed that the finite-deformation mechanical response of the fiber network in compression was satisfactorily captured by the simulation. However, the artificial network shows higher stiffness than the simulated physical network and the experiment. This discrepancy in stiffness was attributed to macroscopic structural non-uniformities in the physical network, which result in increased local compliance. It was also found that the friction between the fibers, as well as the fiber curvature, had a negligible impact on the compression response of the fiber network, while defects (in the form of kinks) had an effect on the response in the last stages of compression. The study of the orientation behavior of particles at different flow velocities, particle sizes, and channel geometries suggests that it might be possible to utilize the flow shear rate as a means to quantify the orientation behavior.

  • 347.
    Alimadadi, Majid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lindström, Stefan B.
    Division of Solid Mechanics, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kulachenko, Artem
    Department of Solid Mechanics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Role of microstructures in the compression response of three-dimensional foam-formed wood fiber networks2018In: Soft Matter, ISSN 1744-683X, E-ISSN 1744-6848, Vol. 14, no 44, p. 8945-8955, article id C7SM02561KArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-porosity, three-dimensional wood fiber networks made by foam forming present experimentally accessible instances of hierarchically structured, athermal fiber networks. We investigate the large deformation compression behavior of these networks using fiber-resolved finite element analyses to elucidate the role of microstructures in the mechanical response to compression. Three-dimensional network structures are acquired using micro-computed tomography and subsequent skeletonization into a Euclidean graph representation. By using a fitting procedure to the geometrical graph data, we are able to identify nine independent statistical parameters needed for the regeneration of artificial networks with the observed statistics. The compression response of these artificially generated networks and the physical network is then investigated using implicit finite element analysis. A direct comparison of the simulation results from the reconstructed and artificial network reveals remarkable differences already in the elastic region. These can neither be fully explained by density scaling, the size effect nor the boundary conditions. The only factor which provides the consistent explanation of the observed difference is the density and fiber orientation nonuniformities; these contribute to strain-localization so that the network becomes more compliant than expected for statistically uniform microstructures. We also demonstrate that the experimentally manifested strain-stiffening of such networks is due to development of new inter-fiber contacts during compression.

  • 348.
    Alimadadi, Majid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Uesaka, Tetsu
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    3D-oriented fiber networks made by foam forming2016In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 661-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In industrial applications, such as paper and nonwovens, cellulose fibers are used in the form of a network where the fibers are oriented more or less in the sheet-plane direction. However, in many biological systems, fibers are instead oriented in a three-dimensional (3D) space, creating a wide variety of functionalities. In this study we created a 3D-oriented fiber network on the laboratory scale and have identified some unique features of its structure and mechanical properties. The 3D fiber network sheets were prepared by using foam-forming as well as modifying consolidation and drying procedures. The fiber orientation and tensile/compression behavior were determined. The resulting sheets were extremely bulky (above 190 cm3/g) and had extremely low stiffness (or high softness) compared to the reference handsheets. Despite this high bulk, the sheets retained good structural integrity. We found that a 3D-oriented fiber network requires much less fiber-fiber contact to create a connected (“percolated”) network than a two-dimensionally oriented network. The compression behavior in the thickness direction was also unique, characterized by extreme compressibility because of its extreme bulk and a long initial increase in the compression load as well as high strain recovery after compression because of its fiber reorientation during compression.

  • 349.
    Alimadadi, Majid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Uesaka, Tetsu
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Exploring One-more Dimension of Paper: Properties of 3D-Orieneted Fiber Network2014In: Progress in Paper Physics Proceedings 2014, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 350.
    Alimohammadzadeh, Rana
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Osong, Sinke H.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Cordova, Armando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Scalable Improvement of the Strength Properties of Chemimechanical Pulp Fibers by Eco-Friendly Catalysis2018In: IMPC 2018, Trondheim, Norway, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainable improvement of the strength properties of chemimechanical pulp by eco-friendlycatalysis is disclosed. Significant research activities have been performed on the use of cationic starchand polyelectrolyte complexes for improving the strength properties of cellulose-based materials. Herewe apply an eco-friendly strategy based on catalysis for significantly improving the strength propertiesof sheets made from chemimechanical pulp (CTMP) and bleeched sulphite pulp (BSP) using sustainablepolyelectrolyte complexes as the strength additives and organocatalysis. This surface engineeringstrategy significantly increased the strength properties of the assembled sheets (up to 100% in the caseof Z-strength). We also developed a catalytic selective colour marking of the cationic potato starch (CS)and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) in order to elucidated how the specific strength additives aredistributed on the sheets. It revealed that the strength additives were more evenly distributed on thesheets made from CTMP as compared to BSP sheets. This is most likely attributed to the presence oflignin in the former lignocellulosic material. It also contributes to the increase in strength (up to 100%,Z-strength) for the CTMP derived sheets. The selective colour marking method also revealed that morestrength additives had been bound to the pulps in the presence of the catalyst.

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