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  • 301.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Highly stereoselective alkylation of (S)-proline-based chiral auxiliaries2004In: Tetrahedron: asymmetry, ISSN 0957-4166, E-ISSN 1362-511X, Vol. 15, no 16, p. 2539-2545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkylation of the enolates of the propanoylamides of two chiral auxiliaries (S)-(-)-2-(pyrrolidin-2-yl)propan-2-ol 1a and (S)-(-)-2-(2-methoxypropan-2-yl)pyrrolidine 1b, derived from (S)-proline, with benzyl bromide and n-butyl iodide has been studied. The auxiliaries 1a and 1b induced opposite selectivity that is (R)- and (S)-configuration, respectively, at the newly created stereogenic centre. The diastereoselectivities and conversion yields in these alkylations were moderate to excellent. When Cp2ZrCl2 was used as an enolate coordinating agent, benzylation of propanoylated 1b gave an excellent diastereomeric ratio of 99:1. The benzylated diastereomeric products from either propanoylated 1a or 1b were easily separated by liquid chromatography.

  • 302.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Synthesis of two (S)-indoline-based chiral auxiliaries and their use in diastereoselective alkylation reactions2006In: Tetrahedron: asymmetry, ISSN 0957-4166, E-ISSN 1362-511X, Vol. 17, no 13, p. 1952-1957Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two chiral auxiliaries, 2-[(S)-indolin-2-yl]propan-2-ol 1a and (S)-2-(2-methoxypropan-2-yl)indoline 1b, were synthesised from enantiomerically pure (S)-indoline-2-carboxylic acid 3. High diastereoselectivities in alkylations of enolates of the propanoylamides derived from the two auxiliaries are presented. Surprisingly, both auxiliaries induced the same selectivity at the newly created stereogenic centre. The benzyl bromide and n-butyl iodide alkylation reactions showed diastereomeric ratios that were moderate (81:19) to very good (96:4) and with very good yields (86-98%). When LiCl was used as an enolate coordinating agent, in the benzylation of the enolate from propanoylated auxiliary 1a, a very high crude diastereomeric ratio was obtained (99.7:0.3).

  • 303.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Skoglund, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Viktorsson, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    A Portable Douglas Bag System2015In: Congress Proceedings: ICSNS 2015 / [ed] Hakkarainen Anni, Lindinger Stefan, Linnamo Vesa, 2015, p. 59-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 304.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Kommunikationsyrket - propaganda eller legitim profession?: En kvalitativ studie av kommunikationschefers upplevde roll och legitimitet inom kommunala organisationer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problemformulering och syfte:
Kommunikationsbranschen har länge dragits med ett negativt rykte och studier har visat att allmänheten har lågt förtroende för kommunikatörer och deras arbete. Under de senaste tio åren har kommunikatörens legitimitet ifrågasatts av externa parter men studier visar även att interna parter stundvis motverkar branschens strävan mot ökad legitimitet och professionalisering. Syftet med denna studie var därför att göra en uppdaterad beskrivning av hur svenska kommunikationschefer uppfattar sin roll och legitimitet, om det hade förändrats sedan 2007 och i sådana fall på vilket sätt
Metod och material:
Studien baserades på åtta samtalsintervjuer med kommunikationschefer/-direktörer från åtta olika svenska kommuner, som kategoriserats som större stad.
Huvudresultat:
Resultatet visar att kommunikationschefer inom kommuner upplever att de fortfarande har en tydlig strategisk ledningsroll inom sina organisationer. De upplever också generellt både hög intern och extern legitimitet. Jämfört med en tidigare studie så har kommunikationschefens roll blivit tydligare och mer etablerad inom organisationer, de har fått högre intern legitimitet medan deras externa legitimitet upplevs oförändrad. Resultatet visar också att kommunikationsbranschen genomgår en utvecklings- och förändringsprocess som långsamt ökar kommunikatörers legitimitet, formar deras arbete och professionaliserar yrket. Detta sker dock inte homogent, olika organisationer har kommit olika långt i processen. Branschen måste arbeta med att öka allmänhetens kunskap om kommunikation och samtidigt möta ett ökat behov av kommunikationsbranschen.

     

  • 305.
    Andersson, Hanna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Adawe, Idil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Haglund, Johanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Om du vill leka leken jag är dum men du är dummare” En jämförande fallstudie av svenska politikers strategiska kommunikation under SVTs partiledardebatt 2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 306.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Development of Process Technology for Photon Radiation Measurement Applications2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents work related to new types of photo detectors and their applications. The focus has been on the development of process technology and methods by means of experimentation and measurements. The overall aim has been to develop and improve photon radiation measurement applications which are possible to manufacture using standard Si processing technology.

    A new type of position sensitive detector that has switching possibilities based on the MOS principle has been fabricated and characterized. The influence of mechanical stress on the linearity of position sensitive detectors has been investigated. The results show that mechanical stress arising, for example, by the mounting of detectors in capsules can have an impact on device performance. Under normal circumstances these effects are rather small, but are considered to be worthwhile taking into account.

    Electroless deposition of Nickel including various dopants in porous silicon was performed to manufacture electrical contacts for this interesting material. After heat treatment it was confirmed by X-ray diffraction that Nickel silicide had been formed and I-V measurements show that different contacts exhibit Ohmic and rectifying behaviour.

    Spectrometers are used extensively in the process and food industry to measure both the chemical content and the amount of substances used during manufacturing. These instruments are often rather bulky and costly, though the trend is towards smaller and more portable equipment. A spectrometer based on an array of Fabry-Perot interferometers mounted close to an array detector is shown to be a viable option for the manufacture of a very compact device. Such a device has minimal intermediate optics and it may be possible, in the future, for it to be developed and completely integrated with a detector array into a single unit.

  • 307.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Position Sensitive Detectors: Device Technology and Applications in Spectroscopy2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the development, processing and characterization of position sensitive detectors and, in addition, to the development of compact and cost effective spectrometers.

    Position sensitive detectors are used to measure, with great accuracy and speed, the position of a light spot incident on the surface. Their main use is for triangulation, displacement and vibration measurements.

    A type of position sensitive detector based on the MOS principle and using optically transparent indium tin oxide as a gate contact has been developed. This type of detector utilizes the MOS principle where an induced channel forms beneath the gate oxide in the surface of the Silicon substrate.

    One and two dimensional detectors have both been fabricated and characterized. The first measurements showed that the linearity did not fulfil expectations and it was suspected that stress induced by the gate contact could be the reason for the seemingly high nonlinearity.

    Further investigations into both the p-n junction and the MOS type position sensitive detectors lead to the conclusion that the indium tin oxide gate is responsible for inducing a substantial stress in the surface of the detector, thus giving rise to increased position nonlinearity. The heat treatment step which was conducted was determined to be critical as either a too short or too long heat treatment resulted in stress in the gate and channel leading to position nonlinearity. If a correctly timed heat treatment is performed then the detector’s linearity is in parity with the best commercial position sensitive detectors.

    In addition, the development of very small, compact and cost effective spectrometers has been performed with the aim of constructing devices for use in the process industry. The development of a wedge shaped array of Fabry-Perot interferometers that can be mounted directly on top of a detector makes it possible to construct a very compact spectrometer using the minimum amount of optics. This wedge interferometer has been evaluated by means of array pixel detectors and position sensitive detectors for both the infrared and the visible wavelength ranges.

    When used with a position sensitive detector it is necessary to use a slit to record the intensity of the interferogram for many points over the detector, equivalent to pixels on an array detector. Usually the use of moving parts in a spectrometer will impose the use of high precision scanning mechanisms and calibration. By using a position sensitive detector for the interferogram readout both the position and the intensity are known for every measurement point and thus the demands placed on the scanning system are minimized.

  • 308.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Contacting paper-based supercapacitors to printed electronics on paper substrates2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 476-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid printed electronics, in which printed structures and silicon-based components co-exist will likely be among the first commercial solutions. In this case the paper substrate acts much in the same way as circuit boards, containing conductive tracks and acting as a carrier for the electrical components. It is important to consider the contacting of the components to be able to produce low resistance electrical contacts to the conductive tracks. Supercapacitors are able to deliver a large amount of current in a short time and are a good option for short term energy storage and if the printed product is to be used only one, or a few times, it can be the only power source needed. When manufacturing printed electronics, the overall resistance of the printed tracks as well as the contact resistance of the mounted components will add up to the total resistance of the system. A high resistance will cause a voltage drop from the power source to the component. This will waste power that goes to Joule heating and also the voltage and current available to components may be too low to drive them. If the intention is to use a power supply such as batteries or solar cells this becomes a limitation. In this article have been tested several conductive adhesives used to contact paper based supercapacitors to ink jet printed silver tracks on paper. The best adhesive gives about 0.3 Ω per contact, a factor 17 better compared to the worst which gave 5 Ω. The peak power that is possible to take out from a printed system with a flexible battery and super capacitors is about 10 times higher than compared with the same system with only the battery.

  • 309.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Processing and Characterization of a MOS Type Tetra Lateral Position Sensitive Detector with Indium Tin Oxide Gate Contact2008In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 8, no 9-10, p. 1704-1709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 2-D tetra lateral position sensitive detector (PSD) based on the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) principle has been manufactured and characterized. The active area of the device is 5 nun x 5 mm and the intention is to use the central 4 nun x 4 nun for low nonlinearity measurements. The gate contact is made of indium tin oxide (ITO) that is a degenerate electrically conducting semiconductor, which, in addition, is also transparent in the visible part of the spectrum. The use of a MOS structure results in a processing with no necessity to use implantation or diffusion in order to make the resistive p-layer as in a conventional p-n junction lateral effect PSD. Position measurements show good linearity in the middle 4 nun x 4 mm area. Within the middle 2.1 mm x 2.1 mm, the nonlinearity is within 1.7% of the active area with a position detection error of maximum 60 mu m. Measured MOS IV characteristics are compared to a level 3 spice model fit and show good agreement. The threshold voltage is determined to be -0.03 V. Responsivity measurements show a high sensitivity in the visible spectral region.

  • 310.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Bylund, Nicklas
    CTRR, AB Sandvik Coromant.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Analysis and improvement of the position nonlinearity caused by a residual stress in MOS-type position-sensitive detectors with indium tin oxide gate contact2008In: Semiconductor Science and Technology, ISSN 0268-1242, E-ISSN 1361-6641, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, lateral effect position-sensitive detectors based on the MOS principle have been fabricated in lengths of 15 mm, 45 mm and 60 mm. The gate contact covering the active area consists of indium tin oxide which is a degenerate semiconductor transparent in the visible spectral range. Characterization and analysis have both been performed especially withparticular focus on the nonlinearity believed to be caused by stray stress induced in the inversion channel originating in the indium tin oxide gate contact. Stress in the channel will change the resistance in a non-uniform manner because of the piezoresistance effect, thus causing a nonlinearity in the position determination. It has been shown that the heat treatmentgreatly influences the linearity of the position-sensitive detectors. A heat treatment performed correctly results in 60 mm and 15 mm detectors with nonlinearity within ±0.1% and 45 mm detectors with nonlinearity within ±0.15% over 60% of the active length. This is an improvement over the previous results with this type of MOS position-sensitive detector. By performing a correctly timed heat treatment this PSD type has the potential to be used incommon position-sensing applications.

  • 311.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hammarling, Krister
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Modified EAS Tag Used as a Resistive Sensor Platform2012In: MDPI Electronics, ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 32-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, a modified design of an RF Radio Frequency Electronic ArticleSurveillance (EAS) tag, used as a sensor platform, is manufactured and characterized. EAStags are passive devices consisting of a capacitor and coil, tuned to a resonance frequencyreadable by the detector equipment, in this case 8.2 MHz. They were originally used todetect whether merchandise was being moved through the detection gates at shop exits, inwhich case an alarm was triggered. If the capacitance is divided in two and a resistivesensor device inserted in between, the resonant Inductor-Capacitor (LC) circuit becomes anInductor-Capacitor-Capacitor-Resistor LCCR circuit and can be used as a sensor tag. Ahigh sensor resistance means that one capacitor is decoupled, leading to one resonancefrequency, while a low resistance will couple both capacitances into the circuit, resulting ina lower resonance frequency. Different types of resistive sensors exist that are able todetect properties such as pressure, moisture, light and temperature. The tag is manufacturedin Aluminum foil on a polyetylentereftalat (PET) substrate, resulting in a cost effectiveRF-platform for various resistive sensors. Two types of tags are designed andmanufactured, one with parallel plate capacitors and the other with interdigital capacitors.To test the tags, a resistive tilt sensor is mounted and the tags are characterized using anetwork analyzer. It is shown that for high resistance, the tags have a resonance frequencyof more than 10 MHz while for low values the frequency approaches 8.2 MHz.

  • 312.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lidenmark, Cecilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Evaluation of coatings applied to flexible substrates to enhance quality of ink jet printed silver nano-particle structures2012In: IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, Part C, ISSN 1083-4400, E-ISSN 1558-1241, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 342-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different types of the commercial surface treatment InkAid have been evaluated as a surface treatment to enhance print quality of silver nano-particle ink structures printed on polyimide and polyethene substrate. Originally these coatings have been specified to be applied on substrates for graphical ink jet printing. On the coated polyimide and polyethene substrates lines of different widths have been printed using a Dimatix materials printer together with silver nano-particle ink manufactured by Advanced Nano Products. The prints have then been evaluated in terms of print quality and resistivity before and after sintering. The results show that the application of these coatings can improve the print quality considerably, making it possible to print lines with a good definition, which is not  otherwise possible with this type of ink on this substrate types. It has been found that the coating Semi Gloss provides the best results, both in terms of print quality as well as the lowest resistivity. The resistivity on polyethene is 3.5*10-7Ωm at best when sintered at 150°C and for polyimide  8.9*10-8Ωm sintered at 200°C. This corresponds to a conductivity of about  4.5% and  18%of bulk silver, respectively. It can be concluded that applying such PVP based coatings to polyethene and polyimide will increase the print quality quite substantially, making it possible to print patterns with requirements of smaller line widths and more details than what is possible without coating.

  • 313.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Gao, Jinlan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Lidenmark, Cecilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Unander, Tomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Dewire AB, Sundsvall 85185, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Investigation of Humidity Sensor Effect in Silver Nanoparticle Ink Sensors Printed on Paper2014In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 14, no 3, p. Art. no. 6615915-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin inkjet-printed tracks of silver nanoparticles have previously been observed to show a non-reversible decrease in resistance when exposed to a high degree of relative humidity and thus providing sensor functionality with a memory effect. This paper provides a more in-depth explanation of the observed humidity sensor effect that originates from inkjet-printed silver nanoparticle sensors on a paper substrate. It is shown that the geometry of the sensor has a large effect on the sensor's initial resistance, and therefore also on the sensor's resistive dynamic range. The importance of the sensor geometry is believed to be due to the amount of solvent from the ink interacting with the coating of the paper substrate, which in turn enables the diffusion of salts from the paper coating into the ink and thus affecting the silver ink.

  • 314.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Haller, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hummelgård, Christine
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board2014In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 25, p. Art. no. 094002-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Printed electronics is a rapidly developing field where many components can already be manufactured on flexible substrates by printing or by other high speed manufacturing methods. However, the functionality of even the most inexpensive microcontroller or other integrated circuit is, at the present time and for the foreseeable future, out of reach by means of fully printed components. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate hybrid printed electronics, where regular electrical components are mounted on flexible substrates to achieve high functionality at a low cost. Moreover, the use of paper as a substrate for printed electronics is of growing interest because it is an environmentally friendly and renewable material and is, additionally, the main material used for many packages in which electronics functionalities could be integrated. One of the challenges for such hybrid printed electronics is the mounting of the components and the interconnection between layers on flexible substrates with printed conductive tracks that should provide as low a resistance as possible while still being able to be used in a high speed manufacturing process. In this article, several conductive adhesives are evaluated as well as soldering for mounting surface mounted components on a paper circuit board with inkjet printed tracks and, in addition, a double sided Arduino compatible circuit board is manufactured and programmed.

  • 315.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Lidenmark, Cecilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Gao, Jinlan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schmidt, Wolfgang
    Schoeller Technocell GmbH and Co. KG, Burg Gretesch, D-49086, Osnabrück, Germany.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    The influence of paper coating content on room temperature sintering of silver nanoparticle ink2013In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 24, no 45, p. Art. no. 455203-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The resistance of inkjet printed lines using a silver nanoparticle based ink can be very dependent on the substrate. A very large difference in resistivity was observed for tracks printed on paper substrates with aluminum oxide based coatings compared to silica based coatings. Silica based coatings are often cationized with polymers using chloride as a counter ion. It is suggested that the precipitation of silver salts is the cause of the high resistivity, since papers pretreated with salt solutions containing ions that precipitate silver salts gave a high resistance. Silver nitrate has a high solubility and paper pretreated with nitrate ions gave a low resistivity without sintering. The results obtained show that, by choosing the correct type of paper substrate, it is possible to manufacture printed structures, such as interconnects on paper, without the need for, or at least to reduce the need for, post-print sintering. This phenomenon is, of course, ink specific. Inks without or with a low silver ion content are not expected to behave in this manner. In some sensor applications, a high resistivity is desired and, by using the correct combination of ink and paper, these types of sensors can be facilitated.

  • 316.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Gao, Jinlan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kunninmel, Gokuldev
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Chemically programmed ink-jet printed resistive WORM memory array and readout circuit2014In: Materials Research Express, ISSN 2053-1591, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 035021-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an ink-jet printed write once read many (WORM) resistive memory fabricated on paper substrate is presented. The memory elements are programmed for different resistance states by printing triethylene glycol monoethyl ether on the substrate before the actual memory element is printed using silver nano particle ink. The resistance is thus able to be set to a broad range of values without changing the geometry of the elements. A memory card consisting of 16 elements is manufactured for which the elements are each programmed to one of four defined logic levels, providing a total of 4294 967 296 unique possible combinations. Using a readout circuit, originally developed for resistive sensors to avoid crosstalk between elements, a memory card reader is manufactured that is able to read the values of the memory card and transfer the data to a PC. Such printed memory cards can be used in various applications.

  • 317.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lundgren, Anders
    SiTek Electro Opt, S-43330 Partille, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Principle of FT Spectrometer based on a Lateral Effect Position Sensitive Detector and Multi Channel Fabry-Perot Interferometer2009In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 668-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The principle of a new type of multi channel Fourier-Transform spectrometer based on a multi channel wedge Fabry-Perot interferometer using a one dimensional lateral effect Position Sensitive Detector and a scanning slit for interferogram readout have been shown. The design of this spectrometer is very compact and the readout electronics very simple. The drawback of using a scanning slit system is minimized by the use of a position sensitive detector where the position is inherently known for each measurement. Experiments show that the position can be resolved with high accuracy and the summation of the two photocurrents gives the interferogram after scanning the slit between the wedge interferometer and the position sensitive detector. The spectral resolution obtained with a 25mm wedge interferometer together with a 45mm position sensitive detector and a 25µm slit is about 5nm around 600nm wavelength range, which is close to the theoretically anticipated resolution. The evaluated spectrometer setup show promising results and could be used in applications where compact and low cost spectrometers are required.

  • 318.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Broadband Parameters of Compact FT Spectrometer based on Fabry-Perot Interferometer Integrated with detector2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 319.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Evaluation of an Integrated Fourier-Transform Spectrometer Utilizing a Lateral Effect Position Sensitive Detector with a Multi-Channel Fabry-Perot Interferometer2008In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 045306-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The basis of this paper is the evaluation of an integrated multi-channel Fourier-transform (FT) spectrometer based on a multi-channel wedge Fabry-Perot interferometer and a one-dimensional lateral effect position sensitive detector (PSD). The use of a PSD for an interferogram readout allows for a simple scanning mechanism with no requirement for any position reference. The use of a wedge-shaped interferometer makes it possible to integrate it directly onto the PSD surface, thus producing a very compact spectrometer. The capabilities of the spectrometer are demonstrated by absorption spectral measurements using a reference sample. In addition, spectral measurements on 532 nm DPSS and 632.8 nm He-Ne lasers are presented. The resolution of the spectrometer is approximately 5 nm. The evaluated spectrometer set-up can be used in applications where compact and low cost spectrometers are required, such as in process control and in education. Further, it is shown that there are deteriorations in very high accuracy position measurements, which are caused by changes in incident light intensity. A model describing the above-mentioned nonlinearities was developed based on analysing the equivalent circuit for PSDs and parameters such as leakage current and serial resistance. Additionally, a method is proposed to assist in the reduction of the nonlinearity caused by this effect.

  • 320.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Unander, Tomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lidenmark, Cecilia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Inkjet printed silver nanoparticle humidity sensor with memory effect on paper2012In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 1901-1905Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the design and the manufacture of an inkjet printed resistive type humidity sensor on paper are reported. After having been exposed to humidity above a given threshold level, the resistance of the sensor decreases substantially and remains at that level even when thehumidity is reduced. It is possible to deduce the humidity level by monitoring the resistance. The main benefit of the printed sensor presented in this case is in relation to its very low production costs. It has also been shown that both the ink type and this paper combination used prove to be crucial in order to obtain the desired sensor effect. More research is required in order to fully understand the humidity sintering effect on the nano particle ink and the role of the substrate. However, the observed effect can be put to use in printed humidity sensors which possess a memoryfunction. The sensor can be used in various applications for environmental monitoring, for example, in situations where a large number of inexpensive and disposable humidity sensors are required which are able to detect whether they have been subjected to high humidity. This could be the checking of transportation conditions of goods or monitoring humidity within buildings. © 2001-2012 IEEE.

  • 321.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Mattsson, Claes
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lundgren, Anders
    SiTek Electro Optics.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The effect of mechanical stress on lateral-effect position sensitive detector characteristics2006In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 563, no 1, p. 150-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Position-sensitive detectors (PSDs) are widely used in noncontact measurement systems. In order to minimize the size of such systems, interest has increased in mounting the PSD chip directly onto printed circuit boards (PCBs). Stress may be induced in the PSD because of the large differences in thermal expansion coefficients, as well as the long-term geometrical stability of the chip packaging. Mechanical stress has previously been shown to have an effect on the performance of semiconductors. The accuracy, or linearity, of a lateral effect PSD is largely dependent on the homogeneity of the resistive layer. Variations of the resistivity over the active area of the PSD will result in an uneven distribution of photo-generated current, and hence an error in the readout position. In this work experiments were performed to investigate the influence of anisotropic mechanical stress in terms of nonlinearity. PSD chips of 60×3 mm active area were subjected, respectively, to different amounts of compressive and tensile stress to determine the influence on the linearity.

  • 322.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Rusu, A
    EPFL-STI-IEL-NANOLAB, Bat ELB342, Station 11, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Haller, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ayöz, S
    EPFL-STI-IEL-NANOLAB, Bat ELB342, Station 11, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    System of nano-silver inkjet printed memory cards and PC card reader and programmer2011In: Microelectronics Journal, ISSN 0959-8324, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 21-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes the development of inkjet printed, low-cost memory cards, and complementary pair of memory card reader and card reader/programmer for PCs. This constitutes a complete system that can be used for various applications. The memory cards are manufactured by inkjet printing nano-silver ink on photo paper substrate. The printed memory structures have an initial high resistance that can later be programmed to specific values representing data on the cards, the so called Write Once Read Many (WORM) memories. The memory card reader measures the resistance values of the memory cells and reads it back to the computer by USB connection. Using multiple resistance levels that represent different states it is possible to have a larger number of selectable combinations with fewer physical bits compared to binary coding. This somewhat counters one of the limitations of resistive memory technology that basically each cell needs one physical contact. The number of possible states is related to the resolution of the reader and the stability of the WORM memory.

  • 323.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Skerved, Vincent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Li, Xiaotian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Gyllner, Linnea
    Iniss Triab AB, S-16250 Vällingby.
    Soldering Surface Mount Components onto Inkjet Printed Conductors on Paper Substrate using Industrial Processes2016In: IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 2156-3950, E-ISSN 2156-3985, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 478-485, article id 7422029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes mounting of standard surface mount component packages on a paper substrate using an industrial solder process with a low-temperature solder. The use of paper as a substrate for printed flexible electronics is becoming more and more widespread as an alternative to the more commonly used plastic substrates, such as polyethylene and polyimide. Paper has the benefits of being environmentally friendly, recyclable, and renewable, as well as inexpensive. It is shown that it is possible to mount standard surface mount device components on paper substrates using low-temperature solder in an industrial soldering process. The contact resistances obtained are mostly low, although the yield of functioning contacts is low. The reason is cracking of the substrate coating layer that goes through the printed silver tracks. It was observed that the cracks appear mostly close to the contact pads, the most likely cause is thermal mismatch between the coating layer and solder and also thermal expansion of the photo paper resin coating. The smallest component package size, 0201, resulted in the highest yield of >80% with decreasing yield for larger package sizes.

  • 324.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lundgren, A.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Processing and characterization of a position sensitive lateral-effect metal oxide semiconductor detector2004In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 531, no 1-2, p. 140-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Position sensingdetectors (PSDs) are useful in many applications, such as vibration, displacement, and triangulation measurements. In this paper we present a lateral-effect metal oxide semiconductor PSD with switchingcapability fabricated by our group. The detector can be switched off by the application of 0V on the substrate and 0.2V on the gate. A linear current-position behaviour is exhibited by the detector at a substrate bias of both 5 and 10V with the gate at 0V. There is no effect on the linearity when the substrate voltage is changed from 5 to 10V. The non-linearity is within 0.2% at a distance of 71.5mm from origin for 5, 10 and 15mm device length.

  • 325.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Electroless deposition and silicidation of Ni contacts into p-type Porous Silicon2008In: Journal of porous materials, ISSN 1380-2224, E-ISSN 1573-4854, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 335-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Porous Silicon (PS) has attracted much attention since the discovery of its photo luminescent behavior. It has also been used for various other applications such as electroluminescent light emitting-diodes (LEDs), photodetectors and solar cells. For such devices, it is important to make good metallic Ohmic contacts to the PS in order to maximize the efficiency. In order to produce buried contacts, barrier layers, Schottky devices, etc. in PS, it is advantageous to deposit metal that covers not only the surface of the porous layer, but also the inside walls and the bottom of the pores. In this work experiments were performed to examine the morphology and properties of electroless deposition of Nickel into p-type PS and subsequent formation of Nickel silicide after heat treatment. Circular PS samples of 6 mm diameter were produced by anodizing p-type Silicon wafers for 15 min and were subsequently plated with Ni using three different plating baths. The pores are on average 20 µm deep and 4 µm wide. Two samples of each type were heat treated in an nitrogen atmosphere for one hour at 400 and 600°C respectively to produce Nickel silicide. Reference samples were made by means of electron beam evaporation of Ni. SEM micrographs show that the best pore coverage was achieved using the Ni plating bath containing hypophosphite. I–V characterization shows that different rectifying and Ohmic contacts can be formed between electroless deposited Ni and PS depending on the conditions of the heat treatment. XRD and EDX characterizations show that both the NiSi and Ni2Si phases exist in the sample at the same time.

  • 326.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Evaluation of InkAid surface treatment to enhance print quality of ANP silver nano-particle ink on plastic substrates2010In: Large Area, Organic & Printed Electronics (LOPE-C) 2010, Frankfurt, 2010, p. 241-245Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 327.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Šuly, Pavol
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Zlin, Czech Republic.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Engholm, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Mašlík, Jan
    Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Zlin, Czech Republic.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    PEDOT: PSS thermoelectric generators printed on paper substrates2019In: Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications, ISSN 2079-9268, Vol. 9, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible electronics is a field gathering a growing interest among researchers and companies with widely varying applications, such as organic light emitting diodes, transistors as well as many different sensors. If the circuit should be portable or off-grid, the power sources available are batteries, supercapacitors or some type of power generator. Thermoelectric generators produce electrical energy by the diffusion of charge carriers in response to heat flux caused by a temperature gradient between junctions of dissimilar materials. As wearables, flexible electronics and intelligent packaging applications increase, there is a need for low-cost, recyclable and printable power sources. For such applications, printed thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are an interesting power source, which can also be combined with printable energy storage, such as supercapacitors. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), or PEDOT:PSS, is a conductive polymer that has gathered interest as a thermoelectric material. Plastic substrates are commonly used for printed electronics, but an interesting and emerging alternative is to use paper. In this article, a printed thermoelectric generator consisting of PEDOT:PSS and silver inks was printed on two common types of paper substrates, which could be used to power electronic circuits on paper. 

  • 328.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    3D Video Playback: A modular cross-platform GPU-based approach for flexible multi-view 3D video rendering2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of depth‐perception visualization technologies, emerging format standardization work and research within the field of multi‐view 3D video and imagery addresses the need for flexible 3D video visualization. The wide variety of available 3D‐display types and visualization techniques for multi‐view video, as well as the high throughput requirements for high definition video, addresses the need for a real‐time 3D video playback solution that takes advantage of hardware accelerated graphics, while providing a high degree of flexibility through format configuration and cross‐platform interoperability. A modular component based software solution based on FFmpeg for video demultiplexing and video decoding is proposed,using OpenGL and GLUT for hardware accelerated graphics and POSIX threads for increased CPU utilization. The solution has been verified to have sufficient throughput in order to display 1080p video at the native video frame rate on the experimental system, which is considered as a standard high‐end desktop PC only using commercial hardware. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed solution a number of throughput evaluation metrics have been introduced measuring average frame rate as a function of: video bit rate, video resolution and number of views. The results obtained have indicated that the GPU constitutes the primary bottleneck in a multi‐view lenticular rendering system and that multi‐view rendering performance is degraded as the number of views is increased. This is a result of the current GPU square matrix texture cache architectures, resulting in texture lookup access times according to random memory access patterns when the number of views is high. The proposed solution has been identified in order to provide low CPU efficiency, i.e. low CPU hardware utilization and it is recommended to increase performance by investigating the gains of scalable multithreading techniques. It is also recommended to investigate the gains of introducing video frame buffering in video memory or to move more calculations to the CPU in order to increase GPU performance.

  • 329.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Parallel Simulation: Parallel computing for high performance LTE radio network simulations2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Radio access technologies for cellular mobile networks are continuously being evolved to meet the future demands for higher data rates, and lower end‐to‐end delays. In the research and development of LTE, radio network simulations play an essential role. The evolution of parallel processing hardware makes it desirable to exploit the potential gains of parallelizing LTE radio network simulations using multithreading techniques in contrast to distributing experiments over processors as independent simulation job processes. There is a hypothesis that parallel speedup gain diminishes when running many parallel simulation jobs concurrently on the same machine due to the increased memory requirements. A proposed multithreaded prototype of the Ericsson LTE simulator has been constructed, encapsulating scheduling, execution and synchronization of asynchronous physical layer computations. In order to provide implementation transparency, an algorithm has been proposed to sort and synchronize log events enabling a sequential logging model on top of non‐deterministic execution. In order to evaluate and compare multithreading techniques to parallel simulation job distribution, a large number of experiments have been carried out for four very diverse simulation scenarios. The evaluation of the results from these experiments involved analysis of average measured execution times and comparison with ideal estimates derived from Amdahl’s law in order to analyze overhead. It has been shown that the proposed multithreaded task‐oriented framework provides a convenient way to execute LTE physical layer models asynchronously on multi‐core processors, still providing deterministic results that are equivalent to the results of a sequential simulator. However, it has been indicated that distributing parallel independent jobs over processors is currently more efficient than multithreading techniques, even though the achieved speedup is far from ideal. This conclusion is based on the observation that the overhead caused by increased memory requirements, memory access and system bus congestion is currently smaller than the thread management and synchronization overhead of the proposed multithreaded Java prototype.

  • 330.
    Andersson, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Science Education and Mathematics.
    Hur har digitaliseringen i skolan förändrat kemiundervisningen i årskurs 7-9?: En jämförelse mellan forskning och praktik2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den reviderade variation av LGR 11 (Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen ochfritidshemmet 2011) från 2017 lyfts digitaliseringen fram. Skolan är under förändringoch digitala verktyg finns i klassrum. Eleverna förväntas använda dessa och utvecklaförmågor som lyfts fram i LGR 11 och utveckla kunskaper om hur de ska förhålla sigtill ett konstant informationsflöde. Samtidigt använder lärare redan idag många digitalaverktyg i sin undervisning. Med de förändringar som gjorts markerar myndigheter iSverige vikten av att eleverna lär sig navigera och hantera den digitala världen.Frågan som då måste ställas är hur det ser ut i klassrum i Sverige och hurdigitaliseringen har påverkat undervisningen i kemi. När datorn gjorde entréförändrades klassrummet men det tog tid. Idag finns det en mängd olika digitalaverktyg att använda. Genom att gå ut och intervjua lärare skapades en bild avsituationen i det digitala kemiklassrummet. De arbetade med digitala böcker,interaktiva övningar och formativ feedback via delade dokument. Digitaliseringen iskolan speglar den utveckling som samhället har tagit och det är viktigt att alla få följamed i den utvecklingen.Det har även bedrivits forskning inom digitaliseringen i skolan där begrepp som digitalläsning återfinns. Hur har undervisningen hanterats i förhållande till den forskningsom finns och hur lyfter digitaliseringen undervisningen? Genom att göra en jämförelsemellan forskning och praktik skapas en bild av hur det ser ut i skolor men också varmöjligheter för utveckling ligger.

  • 331. Andersson, J
    et al.
    Biasoletto-Tjellström, G
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Reduced pulmonary oxygen uptake during apnea in resting humans: European Underwater and Baromedical Society (EUBS) meeting Copenhagen2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 332.
    Andersson, J
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTHB.
    Ageing of Flexographic Printed Model Cellulose Surfaces and Determination of the Mechanisms Behind Ageing2009In: Pulp & paper Canada, ISSN 0316-4004, Vol. 110, no 7-8, p. 34-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of storage conditions on the ink detachment efficiency of

    water-based flexographic ink printed onto model cellulose surfaces and

    handsheets was investigated. It was shown that UV light, elevated

    temperatures, longer storage time, increasing surface roughness, and

    increasing surface hydrophobicity all had a negative effect on ink

    detachment. It was also shown that the ink's chemical and structural

    characteristics changed when stored at elevated temperatures. No

    chemical or structural changes could be observed for the ink when

    stored under UV light.

     

  • 333.
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    Mattsson, Johan
    Monte Carlo studies of the dynamics of reentrant Ising spin glasses1996In: Physical Review B (Condensed Matter and Materials Physics), ISSN 0163-1829, Vol. 54, p. 9912-9919Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 334.
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Mattsson, J.
    Svedlindh, P.
    Monte Carlo evidence for the existence of an overlap length in Ising spin glass systems1994In: Physica B: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0921-4526, Vol. 194-196, p. 307-308Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 335.
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Mattsson, J.
    Svedlindh, P.
    Monte Carlo studies of Ising spin-glass systems: aging behavior and crossover between equilibrium and nonequilibrium dynamics1992In: Physical Review B (Condensed Matter), ISSN 0163-1829, Vol. 46, no 13, p. 8297-8304Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 336.
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Mattsson, J.
    Svedlindh, P.
    Monte Carlo studies of Ising spin-glass systems: Investigations of the overlap length in spin-glasses.1994In: Physical Review B (Condensed Matter), ISSN 0163-1829, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 1120-1126Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 337.
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Mattsson, J.
    Svedlindh, P.
    Overlap length in a Cu-Mn spin glass probed by ac susceptibility.1993In: Physical Review B (Condensed Matter), ISSN 0163-1829, Vol. 48, no 18, p. 13977-13980Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 338.
    Andersson, Jan-Olov
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sibani, Paolo
    Domain growth and thermal relaxation in spin glasses1996In: Physica A, ISSN 0378-4371, Vol. 229, no 3-4, p. 259-272Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 339.
    Andersson, J-O
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Djurberg, C.
    Jonsson, T.
    Svedlindh, P.
    Nordblad, P.
    Monte Carlo studies of the dynamics of an interacting monodispersive magnetic-particle system1997In: Physical Review B (Condensed Matter and Materials Physics), ISSN 1098-0121, Vol. 56, no 21, p. 13983-13988Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 340.
    Andersson, J-O
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Svedlindh, P.
    Aging behaviour in two- and three-dimensional ising spin glasses studied by Monte Carlo simulations.1992In: Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, ISSN 0304-8853, Vol. 104-107, p. 1609-1610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nonequilibrium character of the spin glass dynamics has been studied in Monte Carlo simulations of two- and three-dimensional short-range Ising spin glass systems. The spin system was quenched in zero field to a temperature T. After equilibrating for a waiting time tw a weak magnetic field was applied and the time dependence of the magnetization M(t) was studied. Our results show that the relaxation rate, S(t) = ∂M(t)/∂log t, exhibits a maximum at a time t ≈ tw, which is consistent with results from experiments. If the temperature is increased or decreased prior to the field application, the apparent age ta of the system, as defined by the maximum in relaxation rate, is changed. The results are qualitatively in agreement with experiments as well as with theoretical models for the nonequilibrium spin glass dynamics

  • 341.
    Andersson, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Affärsmodellsutveckling: Hur företag hanterar utmaningar på en förändrad marknad2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A market change comes with challenges for the organisations which operate on that market, since they must adjust to the new market conditions, a new competitive situation and such. The purpose of this study was to examine which challenges organisations experience when they develop their business models. This was performed by doing a literature review as well as interviews with representatives from the electric market in Sweden. The result from the literature review showed that multiple concepts can be connected to form an encompassing view with the change as the catalyst. Four aspects regarding challenges could be developed based on previous research: (1) he organisation is not used to change management; (2) the organisation is used to change management; (3) management does not know how to start working with BMI; and (4) management knows how to start working with BMI. The result from the interviews showed that the literature was reflected in reality, since the informants described several concepts from the literature. The informants’ organisations could be placed in the aspects which had been developed and based on previous research suggestions of how to handle these challenges could be developed, some of which the informants had already applied (but not fully, yet).

  • 342.
    Andersson, Joakim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Bizimana, Mike
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Digitalisering och kundnytta: En undersökning om digitaliserings effekt på ett företag och dess kunder2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society, businesses and organizations are facing increasing challenges to change and adapt to a digitizing world. In order to stay relevant in the market, businesses need to work constantly on developing and improving the efficiency of its various processes. This study is designed as a case study at MittSverige Vatten & Avfall which is a municipal corporation in Sundsvall municipality. Its goal is to be a leader in its sector by the year 2021. The study’s objective was to investigate if the digitization of information gathering could bring benefit to a company and its customers. The investigation has focused on the digitization of information gathering from the customer's water meter. The study's objective has been to identify and analyze how digitization impacts business processes and its financial condition with help from value stream mapping and a customer survey. The study was conducted with the support of written and web based literary sources. A survey as well as interviews was conducted. An investment analysis has been conducted to study and evaluate the benefits that the investment brings the customer and MittSverige Vatten & Avfall regarding cost. The study proved that the digitization of water meters would mean an improvement for both MittSverige Vatten & Avfall and its customers.

  • 343.
    Andersson, Joakim
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Eriksson, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Konsten att delegera prefix: En jämförelse av automatiserad och statisk konfiguration2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When it became clear that the number of ipv4 addresses would not be enough, ipv6 was developed. With new features that had been adapted to the infrastructure that had been built up around the world, there was now a replacement for ipv4. But the differences are many and the protocols are not alike at all, especially when looking at the built-in functions. One of these new features in ipv6 is called Prefix Delegation, a simple and convenient way to automatically distribute parts of a larger network into smaller networks. Although there are simple and flexible way to implement this, the existing infrastructure of the Internet may not be so simple. The complexity of the infrastructure forces us to use a variety of routes, both static and dynamic. To get an understanding of how this can differ, we looked at an overview of how the infrastructure might look like and then tested how to solve the addressing through an automated process and a static process. The results shows that the automated solution requires a little more preparation and specified equipment, but the work then becomes easy to control, debug, and document. The static process is more straightforward and requires no special equipment, however, it will be difficult to control, debug, and document where the slightest change can require a lot of work where the risk of complications is great.

  • 344.
    Andersson, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Optimering av interna trucktransporter vid Emhart Glass i Sundsvall2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Resurssnål produktion är en teori om hur produktionsplanering i ett företag kan förbättras, vilket syftar till att öka effektiviteten och skapa en bättre arbetssituation för medarbetarna i företaget. Examensarbetets övergripande syfte har varit att med stöd i denna teori ta fram ett optimerat och verklighetstroget truckkörschema för dagens interna transporter vid Emhart Glass i Sundsvall. Målsättningen har varit att jämföra de interna transporterna med de behov som finns i företaget, att identifiera hur ofta transporter av tomma lastpallar sker samt att klar-göra om en dubbelpallshantering innebär tidsmässigt vinst. En kart-läggning av de interna transporterna och arbetsställenas behov av lastpallar har genomförts. Informationen från kartläggningen har implementerats i programmet Matlab, där en algoritm för beräkning av ett körschema har skapats som tar hänsyn till dagens tidshantering av lastpallar och sannolikheten att truckförarna lastar av och på lastpallar vid olika arbetsställen. Jämförelsen av arbetsställenas behov och truck-körningarna visar att behoven vid arbetsställena och dagens truckkör-ning stämmer ganska bra överens. Med stöd av kartläggningen har ett truckschema kunnat konstrueras för enkelpallshantering samt för dubbelpallshantering. Körschemana visar att det finns möjligheter till optimering av de interna transporterna. Den viktigaste slutsatsen har varit att kunna visa att truckförarnas trucktransporter kan både fören-klas och effektiviseras genom ett körschema, och det i sin tur kan leda till att arbetssituationen blir mer effektiv och mindre stressig.

  • 345. Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Linér, Mats
    Fredsted, Anne
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Cardiovascular and respiratory responses to apneas with and without face immersion in exercising humans2004In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 96, no 3, p. 1005-1010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the diving response on alveolar gas exchange was investigated in 15 subjects. During steady-state exercise (80 W) on a cycle ergometer, the subjects performed 40-s apneas in air and 40-s apneas with face immersion in cold (10degreesC) water. Heart rate decreased and blood pressure increased during apneas, and the responses were augmented by face immersion. Oxygen uptake from the lungs decreased during apnea in air (-22% compared with eupneic control) and was further reduced during apnea with face immersion (-25% compared with eupneic control). The plasma lactate concentration increased from control (11%) after apnea in air and even more after apnea with face immersion (20%), suggesting an increased anaerobic metabolism during apneas. The lung oxygen store was depleted more slowly during apnea with face immersion because of the augmented diving response, probably including a decrease in cardiac output. Venous oxygen stores were probably reduced by the cardiovascular responses. The turnover times of these gas stores would have been prolonged, reducing their effect on the oxygen uptake in the lungs. Thus the human diving response has an oxygen-conserving effect.

  • 346. Andersson, Johan P A
    et al.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Repeated apneas do not affect the hypercapnic ventilatory response in the short term2009In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 105, no 4, p. 569-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term training of breath-hold diving reduces the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR), an index of the CO(2) sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether also short-term apnea training (repeating apneas with short intervals) reduces the HCVR, thereby being one contributing factor explaining the progressively increasing breath-holding time (BHT) with repetition of apneas. Fourteen healthy volunteers performed a series of five maximal-duration apneas with face immersion and two measurements of the HCVR, using the Read rebreathing method. The BHT increased by 43% during the series of apneas (P < 0.001). However, the slope of the HCVR test was not affected by the series of apneas, being 2.52 (SD 1.27) and 2.24 (SD 1.14) l min(-1) mmHg(-1) in the control test and in the test performed within 2 min after the last apnea of the series, respectively (NS). Thus, a change in the HCVR cannot explain the observed short-term training effect on BHT.

  • 347.
    Andersson, Johan P.A.
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Biasoletto-Tjellströma, Gustaf
    Schagatay, Erika K.A
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Pulmonary gas exchange is reduced by the cardiovascular diving response in resting humans2008In: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, ISSN 1569-9048, E-ISSN 1878-1519, Vol. 160, no 3, p. 320-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diving response reduces the pulmonary O2 uptake in exercising humans, but it has been debated whether this effect is present at rest. Therefore, respiratory and cardiovascular responses were recorded in 16 resting subjects, performing apnea in air and apnea with face immersion in cold water (10 ◦C). Duration of apneas were predetermined to be identical in both conditions (average: 145 s) and based on individual maximal capacity (average: 184 s). Compared to apnea in air, an augmented diving response was elicited by apnea with face immersion. The O2 uptake from the lungs was reduced compared to the resting eupneic control (4.6 ml min−1 kg−1), during apnea in air (3.6 ml min−1 kg−1) and even more so during apnea with face immersion (3.4 ml min−1 kg -1). We conclude that the cardiovascular djustments of the diving response reduces pulmonary gas exchange in resting humans, allowing longer apneas by preserving the lungs’ O2 store for use by vital organs.

  • 348.
    Andersson, Johan P.A.
    et al.
    Department of Animal Physiology, Lund University.
    Linér, Mats H.
    Lund University Hospital.
    Rünow, Elisabeth
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Diving response and arterial oxygen saturation during apnea and exercise in breath-hold divers2002In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 93, no 3, p. 882-886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addressed the effects of apnea in air and apnea with face immersion in cold water (10°C) on the diving response and arterial oxygen saturation during dynamic exercise. Eight trained breath-hold divers performed steady-state exercise on a cycle ergometer at 100 W. During exercise, each subject performed 30-s apneas in air and 30-s apneas with face immersion. The heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation decreased and blood pressure increased during the apneas. Compared with apneas in air, apneas with face immersion augmented the heart rate reduction from 21 to 33% (P < 0.001) and the blood pressure increase from 34 to 42% (P < 0.05). The reduction in arterial oxygen saturation from eupneic control was 6.8% during apneas in air and 5.2% during apneas with face immersion (P < 0.05). The results indicate that augmentation of the diving response slows down the depletion of the lung oxygen store, possibly associated with a larger reduction in peripheral venous oxygen stores and increased anaerobiosis. This mechanism delays the fall in alveolar and arterial Po2 and, thereby, the development of hypoxia in vital organs. Accordingly, we conclude that the human diving response has an oxygen-conserving effect during exercise.

  • 349. Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Arterial oxygen desaturation during apnea in humans.1998In: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine, ISSN 1066-2936, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 21-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the effect of the human diving response, defined as bradycardia and reduced peripheral blood flow, on arterial hemoglobin desaturation. We induced a diving response of different magnitudes by using apnea in air and apnea with face immersion. Each of21 subjects performed five apneas in air and five apneas with face immersion in 10°C water. Periods of apnea in both conditions were of the same duration in any individual subject (average: 126.4 s) and the order of air and water was equally distributed among subjects. Heart rate, skin capillary blood flow, arterial blood pressure, arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation during apneas, and end-tidal fractions of CO2 after apneas were recorded with non-invasive methods. The bradycardia and capillary blood flow reduction during apnea in air (7.8 and 37.7% change from control, respectively) were significantly potentiated by face immersion (13.6 and 55.9%, respectively). Arterial hemoglobin desaturated more during apnea in air (2.7%) compared to during apnea with face immersion (1.4%). We conclude that the potentiation of the human diving response with face immersion in cold water leads to a smaller decrease in arterial hemoglobin saturation, which may reflect an oxygen-conserving effect

  • 350. Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Diving response and apneic time in humans. 1998In: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine, ISSN 1066-2936, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 13-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare apneic time with the human diving response, defined as heart rate (HR) reduction and reduced skin blood flow, in groups with varying degrees of breath-hold diving experience. Apneic time and HR reduction at apneas in air and apneas with face immersion in cold water were thus recorded in nine groups. Skin capillary blood flow was recorded in six of the groups. All subjects received the same information on maximizing apneic duration, and no information about their progress during the apneas. The longest apneas and the most pronounced cardiovascular adjustments were found in the young, trained divers. It was found that apneic time was significantly correlated to HR reduction among the nine groups (r = 0.94, P < 0.001), and to skin capillary blood flow reduction among the six groups where the parameter was measured (r = 0.82, P < 0.05). The correlation between HR reduction and skin capillary blood flow reduction was also significant (r = 0.85, P < 0.05). When the difference in HR reduction and apneic time between apneas in air and apneas with face immersion were compared in the nine groups, it was found that all groups reacted with a more pronounced HR reduction during apneas with face immersion. All groups without prior breath-hold diving experience were found to perform shorter apneas with face immersion than apneas in air, or apneas of the same duration in both conditions, which has been reported in other studies. However, in all groups with diving experience, the apneic time was prolonged during apneas with face immersion. The results of this study suggest an oxygen-conserving effect of the diving response in trained apneic divers

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