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  • 301.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Warne, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    A participatory visual method for increased knowledge of Swedish high school girls’ wellbeing and school achievement2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 302.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Warne, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Is gender equality an explicit issue in Swedish high schools? Results from a photovoice study with girls in a vocational program2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a contradictory picture of Swedish girls; they are talked about as academically successful and winner at the labor market, but at the same time stressed out, have low self-esteem and high as well as increasing mental health problems. The discourse as well as the gender equality politics are (Everyone sort of know) that Sweden is a gender equal society where women and men can both work and have children, take part in society and where there is (supposed to be) freedom from men’s violence against women. This is true for some girls and women, but to fully understand the challenges and possibilities to work for a gender equal society we have to add an intersectional perspective, including several different power orders. This study will focus on high school girls in a vocational program (proxy for working class) who are invited to participate because of their lack of academic success, low self-esteem and lack of belief in the future. They are participants in a photovoice study aiming at wellbeing, academic success, safety and a positive view of the future. Their suggestions for change will guide an analysis of the high school’s role in creating a gender equality supportive environment in line with the Swedish gender equality discourse.

  • 303.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Warne, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Photovoice as a method for increasing Swedish high school girls' wellbeing and school achievement2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 385-385Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 304.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Weiner, Gaby
    Centre for Educational Sociology, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Sweden.
    School health promotion to increase empowerment, gender equality and pupil participation: A focus group study of a Swedish elementary school initiative.2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 54-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A school health promotion project was carried out in an elementary school in Sweden where active participation, gender equality, and empowerment were leading principles. The objective of the study was to understand challenges and to identify social processes of importance for such a project. Focus group interviews were conducted with 6 single-sex groups (7–12 year olds) in grade 1–2, grade 3–4, and grade 5–6 on 2 occasions. The analysis used a grounded theory approach. The analysis identified the core category “normalization processes of violence and harassment.” It is argued that school health promotion initiatives need to be aware of normalization processes of violence and, which may be counter-productive to the increase of empowerment and participation among all pupils.

  • 305.
    Gintvainiene, Alma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Den psykosociala arbetsmiljön på en medicinklinik och hälsofrämjande insatser för förbättreing av denna: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med sjuksköterskor2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 306.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nyhlén, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kvarboende vid marknadens ände: Boendeformer, genus och hälsa i regional politik och praktik2014Report (Other academic)
  • 307.
    Glännerud, Caroline
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Effekten av rödbetsjuice på submaximalt arbete vid hypoxi och normoxi hos vältränade längdkidåkare2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 308.
    Govus, Andrew
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Erik P.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Shannon, Oliver M.
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Provis, Holly
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Mathilda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    McGawley, Kerry
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Commercially available compression garments or electrical stimulation do not enhance recovery following a sprint competition in elite cross-country skiers2018In: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 18, no 10, p. 1299-1308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated whether commercially available compression garments (COMP) exerting a moderate level of pressureand/or neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) accelerate recovery following a cross-country sprint skiing competitioncompared with a control group (CON) consisting of active recovery only. Twenty-one senior (12 males, 9 females) and 11junior (6 males, 5 females) Swedish national team skiers performed an outdoor sprint skiing competition involving foursprints lasting ∼3–4 min. Before the competition, skiers were matched by sex and skiing level (senior versus junior) andrandomly assigned to COMP (n = 11), NMES (n = 11) or CON (n = 10). Creatine kinase (CK), urea, countermovementjump (CMJ) height, and perceived muscle pain were measured before and 8, 20, 44 and 68 h after competition. NeitherCOMP nor NMES promoted the recovery of blood biomarkers, CMJ or perceived pain post-competition compared withCON (all P > .05). When grouping all 32 participants, urea and perceived muscle pain increased from baseline, peaking at8 h (standardised mean difference (SMD), [95% confidence intervals (CIs)]): 2.8 [2.3, 3.2]) and 44 h (odds ratio [95%CI]: 3.3 [2.1, 5.1]) post-competition, respectively. Additionally, CMJ was lower than baseline 44 and 68 h postcompetitionin both males and females (P < .05). CK increased from baseline in males, peaking at 44 h (SMD: 1.4 [−0.4,0.9]), but was decreased in females at 20 h post-competition (SMD: −0.8 [−1.4, −0.2]). In conclusion, cross-countrysprint skiing induced symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage peaking 8–44 h post-competition. However, neitherCOMP nor NMES promoted physiological or perceptual recovery compared with CON.

  • 309.
    Govus, Andrew
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Shannon, Oliver
    Provis, Holly
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Mathilda
    McGawley, Kerry
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Compression garments and electrical stimulation do not enhance recovery from a cross-country sprint skiing competition2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate whether compression garments (CG) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) augment post-race recovery compared with a passive control group (CON) following a cross-country sprint skiing competition. Methods: Twenty-one senior (12 males, 9 females) and 11 junior (6 males, 5 females) Swedish national team skiers performed a sprint skiing competition involving four, ~3-4 min sprints. After the race, skiers were matched by sex and skiing level (senior versus junior) and randomly assigned to a CON (n = 10), CG (n = 11) or NMES group (n = 11). Creatine kinase (CK) and urea, countermovement jump height (CMJ) and perceived sleep duration, sleep quality and muscle pain were measured before and 8, 20, 44 and 68 h after the race to assess the efficacy of each recovery intervention. Results: Neither CG nor NMES promoted the recovery of blood biomarkers, perceived wellness nor CMJ post-race compared with the passive control group (all P < 0.05). When grouping all 32 participants, CK, urea and muscle pain increased from pre-race values, peaking 20-44 h post-race (P < 0.05). CMJ was lower than pre-race values 44 and 60 h post-race in males and females (both P < 0.05). Sleep duration increased from pre-race to post-race (P < 0.05), whereas sleep quality was unchanged (P > 0.05). Conclusion: A cross-country sprint skiing competition induced symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage peaking 20-44 h post-race. However, CG and NMES did not augment the recovery of physiological, perceptual or performance parameters compared with a passive control group after the sprint skiing competition.

  • 310.
    Govus, Andrew D.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Coutts, Aaron
    University of Technology (UTS), Sydney, Australia.
    Duffield, Rob
    University of Technology (UTS), Sydney, Australia.
    Murray, Andrew
    University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, United States.
    Fullagar, Hugh
    University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, United States.
    Relationship between pretraining subjective wellness measures, player load, and rating-of-perceived-exertion training load in American college football2018In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The relationship between pretraining subjective wellness and external and internal training load in American college football is unclear. Purpose: To examine the relationship of pretraining subjective wellness (sleep quality, muscle soreness, energy, wellness Z score) with player load and session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE-TL) in American college football players. Methods: Subjective wellness (measured using 5-point, Likert-scale questionnaires), external load (derived from GPS and accelerometry), and s-RPE-TL were collected during 3 typical training sessions per week for the second half of an American college football season (8 wk). The relationship of pretraining subjective wellness with player load and s-RPE training load was analyzed using linear mixed models with a random intercept for athlete and a random slope for training session. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) denote the effect magnitude. Results: A 1-unit increase in wellness Z score and energy was associated with trivial 2.3% (90% confidence interval [CI] 0.5, 4.2; SMD 0.12) and 2.6% (90% CI 0.1, 5.2; SMD 0.13) increases in player load, respectively. A 1-unit increase in muscle soreness (players felt less sore) corresponded to a trivial 4.4% (90% CI ?8.4, ?0.3; SMD ?0.05) decrease in s-RPE training load. Conclusion: Measuring pretraining subjective wellness may provide information about players’ capacity to perform in a training session and could be a key determinant of their response to the imposed training demands American college football. Hence, monitoring subjective wellness may aid in the individualization of training prescription in American college football players.

  • 311.
    Grahn, Åsa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Har tidiga multidisciplinära rehabiliterande insatser betydelse för att komma tillbaka till arbete efter långvarig sjukskrivning för problem i rygg/nacke/axlar?: En litteraturstudie.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 312.
    Granhagen, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Åhlén Nyström, Catrin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Att starta och driva arbetsintegrerande sociala företag-möjligheter och hinder2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 313.
    Granqvist, Sara
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hagström, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Arbetsmiljöinspektörernas erfarenheter och upplevelse kring arbetsmiljöarbetets utförande i mikroföretag.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 314.
    Grav, Siv
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The relationship between social support, personality and depression in the general population: Focusing on older people2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's wide variety of diseases and health problems are

    influenced in part by an aging population and by environmental and

    lifestyle changes. Depression is one of the most quickly growing

    disorders, causing a huge decrease in quality of life. Depression also

    increases with age. The expected increase in the number of older

    people in the years to come might lead to an increasing problem of

    increased case loads for primary health care in the coming years as

    the delivery of healthcare services shifts from clinical settings to the

    home. People who lack social support are more likely to experience

    poorer quality of life, including depression. Personality is a robust

    predictor of behaviour and essential life outcomes. The aim of this

    thesis is to describe the relationship between social support,

    personality and depression in the general population, with a focus on

    older people.

    This thesis used data from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study

    (HUNT), a large census population survey in Norway. Paper I (n=

    40,659), II (n= 35,832), and III (n=35,797) used data from HUNT3

    (2006-2008), and Paper IV (n=25,626) used data from both HUNT2

    (1995-1997) and HUNT3. Paper I, II, and III used cross-sectional

    designs and paper IV used a longitudinal design. The age of the

    sample was 20−89, divided into three age-groups: 20−64 years

    (adults), 65−74 years (old), and 75−89 years (oldest old). Depression

    was measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

    (HADS in the HUNT2 and 3), personality was measured with a short

    version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ in the

    HUNT3), and social support was examined with single questions

    about perceived support from friends (HUNT2 and 3).

    iii

    The main finding in Paper I was that self-rated perceived support

    was significantly associated with depression, even after controlling

    for age and gender, emotional support (OR = 3.14), and tangible

    support (OR = 2.93). The effects of emotional and tangible support

    differ between genders. Interaction effects were found for age groups

    as well as emotional and tangible support. Paper II showed a

    relationship between depression and both neuroticism and

    extraversion in a general population. Older people are more likely to

    score low on extraversion (E) than younger people. Interactions were

    observed between neuroticism and age, neuroticism and gender, and

    extraversion with depression. The interaction terms indicates a high

    score on neuroticism (N) is enhanced by introversion, older age, and

    being a male with depression. Paper III showed a significant

    association between levels of perceived social support, personality,

    sense of community in the neighbourhood, and civic participation.

    Women frequently reported higher levels of social support, and

    higher scores on both extraversion and neuroticism than men, while

    men reported higher sense of community in the neighbourhood and

    levels of civic participation than women. Paper IV showed that risk

    factors had a greater effect on new cases than on recovery from

    depression. The greatest association with new cases of depression

    was found for male sex, the oldest age group, melancholics, those

    who lacked social support, those who never participated in social

    activities, those with decreasing community in the neighbourhood,

    those with poor health, and those who have gotten divorced. The

    greatest association with recovery from depression was found for

    female sex, sanguine temperament, those with social support, those

    who participated in social activities, those with increasing

    iv

    community in the neighbourhood, and those who have obtained

    better health.

    The findings show that both social support and personality are

    risk factors for developing depression. Nurses should put extra effort

    into how they care for patients with low extraversion, high

    neuroticism and, low social support in order to help these patients

    avoid depression. Nurses have to "see the patient" and "care about",

    and respect patient’s values, preferences and expressed needs.

  • 315.
    Grav, Siv
    et al.
    Nord-Trøndelag University College, Norway.
    Hellzen, Ove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Stordal, Eystein
    Sykehuset, Namsos, Norway.
    Romild, Ulla
    Sykehuset Levanger, Norway.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Nord-Trøndelag University College, Norway.
    The prevalence of recovered and new cases of depressionin relation to social support and temperament in an 11-year follow-up; The HUNT studyArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims.

    This study aimed to describe changes in the prevalence of depression in relation to

    social support and temperament, in an 11-year follow-up study.

    Background.

    Lack of social support is a risk factor for depression. Understanding the role of

    temperament and social support in relation to development of, and recovery from, depression

    may help nurses to intervene early with high-risk patients in order to prevent depression and

    promote health.

    Design.

    Longitudinal design was used.

    Methods.

    In total, 26,709 men (42.8%) and women (57.2%) aged 20-89 years from Nord-

    Trøndelag County in Norway participated. Those who had a valid rating on the depression

    subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) from The Nord-Trøndelag

    Health Study (HUNT) wave 2 (1995-97) and wave 3 (2006-08), including a complete

    response to the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and questions regarding social

    support, were included.

    Results.

    The prevalence of new cases of depression was higher than the prevalence of

    recovery from depression. There was a significant association between the sub-groups of

    depression and temperament, changes in health, and social support. The risk factors for new

    cases had a greater causal influence on depression than risk factors for recovery.

    Conclusions.

    Prevention of depression seems to be more effective than treatment. Older

    people and males are the most frequent new cases. Nurses should emphasize the interpersonal

    process to meet the needs of an individual patient and his or her social network that provides

    social support, especially among older people and males.

  • 316.
    Grav, Siv
    et al.
    Trondelag Univ Coll, Dept Hlth Sci, N-7800 Namsos, Norway.
    Stordal, Eystein
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Med, Dept Neurosci, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway.
    Romild, Ulla
    Swedish Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Ostersund, Sweden.
    Hellzén, Ove
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Trondelag Univ Coll, Dept Hlth Sci, N-7800 Namsos, Norway.
    Association of personality, neighbourhood, and civic participation with the level of perceived social support: the HUNT study, a cross-sectional survey2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 579-586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    The aim of the current study was to examine the association of personality,

    neighbourhood, and civic participation on the level of perceived social support if needed.

    Methods:

    The sample consists of a total of 35,797 men (16,035) and women (19,762) drawn

    from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 3 (HUNT3), aged 20-89, with a fully completed short

    version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) including a complete response to

    questions regarding perceived social support. A multinomial logistic regression model was

    used to investigate the association between the three-category outcomes (high, medium, and

    low) of perceived social support.

    Results: The Chi-square test detected a significant (p <

    0.001) association between personality, sense of community, civic participation, self-rated

    health, living arrangement, age groups, gender, and perceived social support except between

    perceived social support and loss of social network in which no significance was found. The

    crude and adjusted multinomial logistic regression models shows relation between medium

    and low scores on perceived social support, personality, and sources of social support.

    Interactions were observed between gender and self-rated health.

    Conclusions: There is an

    association between the level of perceived social support and personality, sense of

    community in the neighbourhood, and civic participation. Even if the interaction

    between men and self-reported health decreases the odds for low and medium social

    support, health professionals should be aware of men with poor health and their lack of

    social support.

  • 317.
    Grönberg, Caroline
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Simon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Upplevelsen av att arbeta i öppna kontorslandskap: - En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 318.
    Gustafsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Förutsägning av sopningsprestation i curling med fysiska och fysiologiska tester2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 319.
    Gustafsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Physical, technical and performance differences between elite and sub-elite curling players2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 320.
    Gustafsson, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Livsstilscoacher: - en utvärderingsstudie av delprojektet Livsstilscoacher2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 321.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Skoog, T.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Podlog, L.
    University of Utah, USA.
    Lundqvist, C.
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Sweden.
    Wagnsson, S.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Hope and athlete burnout: Stress and affect as mediators2013In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 640-649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In this study we examined the relationship between trait hope and burnout in elite junior soccer players and whether stress and positive and negative affect mediated this relationship. Methods: Participants were 238 Swedish soccer players (166 males, 71 females; one did not indicate gender) aged 15-19 years who completed questionnaires measuring trait hope, perceived stress, positive and negative affect, and athlete burnout (i.e., emotional/physical exhaustion, a reduced sense of accomplishment, and sport devaluation). Results: Bivariate correlations were consistent with hope theory contentions indicating significant negative relationships between hope and all three burnout dimensions. The relationship between hope and emotional/physical exhaustion was fully mediated by stress and positive affect. For sport devaluation and reduced sense of accomplishment, stress and positive affect partially mediated the relationship with hope. In contrast, negative affect did not mediate the relationship between hope and any of the burnout dimensions. Conclusion: The results support earlier findings that hope is negatively related to athlete burnout. Support was also found for the hypothesis that high hope individuals would experience less stress and therefore less burnout. Promoting hope may be relevant in reducing the likelihood of this detrimental syndrome. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 322.
    Gustafsson, Josefin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lindmark, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Personalens psykosociala arbetsmiljö inom Hem för vård och boende för ensamkommande flyktingbarn.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 323.
    Gustafsson Norling, Ann
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Depressiva symtom hos ungdomar.: Finns association med fysisk inaktivitet2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 324.
    Gustavsson, Britt-Louise
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Nyman, Helena
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Chefers förutsättningar för att främja en god arbetsmiljö: En studie på chefer i en kommunal förvaltning.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 325.
    Göpfert, Caroline
    et al.
    Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Christian Doppler Laboratory of Biomechanics in Skiing, Salzburg, Austria .
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Stöggl, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Müller, Erich
    Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Christian Doppler Laboratory of Biomechanics in Skiing, Salzburg, Austria .
    Lindinger, Stefan Josef
    Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Christian Doppler Laboratory of Biomechanics in Skiing, Salzburg, Austria .
    Biomechanical characteristics and speed adaptation during kick double poling on roller skis in elite cross-country skiers2013In: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, E-ISSN 1752-6116, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 154-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in cross-country ski racing should promote the use of kick double poling. This technique, however, has not been the focus in athletes' training and has barely been investigated. The aims of the present study were to develop a function-based phase definition and to analyse speed adaptation mechanisms for kick double poling in elite cross-country skiers. Joint kinematics and pole/plantar forces were recorded in 10 athletes while performing kick double poling at three submaximal roller skiing speeds. A speed increase was associated with increases in cycle length and rate, while absolute poling and leg push-off durations shortened. Despite maintained impulses of force, the peak and average pole/leg forces increased. During double poling and leg push-off, ranges of motion of elbow flexion and extension increased (p < 0.05) and were maintained for hip/knee flexion and extension. Cycle length increase was correlated to increases in average poling force (r = 0.71) and arm swing time (r = 0.88; both p < 0.05). The main speed adaptation was achieved by changes in double poling technique; however, leg push-off showed high variability among elite skiers, thus illustrating important aspects for technique training.

  • 326.
    Göransson, Karina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Design.
    Ulin, Monica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Positiv respons och återkoppling i samband med vetenskapligt skrivande2018In: NU2018: Det akademiska lärarskapet. Västerås, 9-11 oktober, 2018, 2018, p. 136-136Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract: 752 Session: B2 Format: Pitcha en idé

    POSITIV RESPONS OCH ÅTERKOPPLING I SAMBAND MED VETENSKAPLIGT SKRIVANDE

    Karina Göranson (karina.goranson@miun.se), Monica Ulin (monica.ulin@miun.se)

    Inom Mittuniversitetets utbildningsstrategi, aktivitet 4, har det under våren 2018 pågått ett pedagogiskt utvecklingsprojekt med rubriken “Hur kan man lära ut konsten att läsa och skriva akademiska texter”. Några slutsatser i detta projekt är vikten av att ge studenter positiv återkoppling i samband med vetenskapligt skrivande. Vi vill utveckla dessa idéer och, med ett vetenskapligt förhållningssätt, skapa en modell för positiv återkoppling och respons med syfte att höja kvaliteten på det vetenskapliga skrivandet hos studenterna.

    En utbredd missuppfattning bland många studenter och lärare är att studenterna i första hand behöver veta vad som är fel för att bli bättre. För att bli en bra skribent är det istället viktigt att samla på sig ett förråd av goda exempel (egna och andras) för att skaffa sig en god språklig repertoar och vid varje skrivtillfälle ha många uttryckssätt att välja emellan (Sigrell, 2008; Pelger & Santesson, 2012). Dessutom, om man vill att studenterna ska se förtjänster i varandras texter, måste läraren visa hur positiv respons ser ut (Pelger & Santesson, 2012). Lärarens respons blir stilbildande när studenten själv ska ge respons. Människor som upplevs som auktoriteter blir effektiva modeller, vilket gör att studenter tar efter lärare (Karlsson, 2012).

    Det är av vikt att försöka förstå funktionen bakom ett beteende. Då kommer de “beteenden vars konsekvenser är belönande” att öka i antal (Janson & Laninge. 2017, 91). Människor handlar ofta på den motivation som driver handlingen. Om man vill att ett beteende ska öka i frekvens är det därför bättre att fokusera på att göra det enkelt att utföra beteendet snarare än att försöka sporra till en viss handling. Man bör alltså hellre motivera genom positiv förstärkning (Janson & Laninge. 2017, 108, 153). Istället för att lägga ner tid på att tala om för studenterna vad de inte ska göra och vad som är fel, bör man istället leda dem i rätt riktning med hjälp av positiva knuffar, så kallad nudging. Nudging handlar om processen att komma fram till en lösning och att börja i att specificera det underliggande problemet (Janson & Laninge. 2017, 45). Det är en utmaning för lärare att hitta vilka “triggers” som kan bidra till att studenterna motiveras att höja nivån på det akademiska skrivandet. Detta vill vi skapa en modell för.

    Referenser

    Janson & Laninge. (2017). Beteendedesign: psykologin som förändrar tankar, känslor och handlingar. Förlag: Natur & Kultur Akademiska.

    Karlsson, L. (2012). Psykologins grunder. Lund: Studentlitteratur.

    Pelger, S & Santesson, S (2012). Retorik för statsvetare. Förlag: Studentlitteratur.

    Sigrell, A. (2008). Retorik för lärare: konsten att välja språk konstruktivt. Åstorp: Retorikförlaget.

    Thaler, R., H. och Sunstein, C., R (2008). Nudge. lmproving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data.

  • 327.
    Götestrand, Linnéa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Panhed, Therese
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Skiftarbetets påverkan på sjuksköterskors hälsa2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 328.
    Hagfeldt, Petra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hoppfullhet och dess inverkan på den fysiska kapaciteten hos unga elitsatsande fotbollsspelare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 329.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sweden’s welfare state: Human cost or contribution to humanity?2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 330.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The juggle and struggle of everyday life. Gender, division of work, work-family perceptions and well-being in different policy contexts.2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background This thesis explores the division of work, work-family perceptions and well-being in different policy contexts. Work (both paid and unpaid) is an arena where gender order is emphasised. Work task specialisation is often based on our ideas of femininity and masculinity. A gender order results in different chances and possibilities in life for men and women, influencing for example access to paid work. Genders are constructed differently across contexts, and countries policies and norms seem to play an important role in for instance the possibilities to combine work and children. Also, gender is important for the understanding and for the experiences of health and well-being. Two main research question are investigated in this thesis. First, how do gendered work division and work-family perceptions relate to well-being? Second, what are the contextual differences (policies and norms) with regard to gendered time use, gender attitude, work-family perceptions and well-being? Methods The thesis is based on data from three sources: the European Social Survey (ESS), the International Social Survey programme (ISSP) and Multinational Time Use Data (MTUS). With these sources, the aim is to capture patterns of behaviours, attitudes and perceptions on both individual level and national level. The methods used are logistic regression (Study I), OLS regression (Study III) and two different types of multilevel analyses (Studies II and IV). Results The results indicate that work-family perceptions are more important for individuals' well-being than actual time spent on paid and unpaid work. Further, the relationship between experiences of imbalance between work and family and low well-being differs by country. In countries where labour markets are more gender-equal the experience of imbalance to a higher degree relate to lower well-being, indicating that those who do experience imbalance in these gender-equal countries report lower levels of well-being than in countries which are less gender-equal. There have been changes in division of work and attitudes towards women's employment over the last few decades. Institutions and policies play a role for the division of work, and to some extent for changes in work task specialisation, as well as attitudes towards women's employment. Conclusion Central findings in this thesis show that it seems as if the experience of balance in life is more important for individuals' well-being than time use. The context in which gender is constructed is important for the relationship between paid work and family life imbalance and well-being and should be taken into consideration in cross-country studies. The fact that individuals in more gender-equal countries report lower well-being when experiencing imbalance could be a result of the multiple burden for both men and women in more gender-equal contexts. Also, the role of context and policies for attitudes and behaviours in relation to work is complex, and although this thesis adds to previous knowledge more research is needed. From a gender perspective the conclusion is that there are dual expectations in relation to work. In more gender-equal countries, women are expected to be equal to men by participating in the labour market. Meanwhile women still have the main responsibility for the home. Thus, it seems as if the equality of work is based on a masculine norm where paid work is highly valued.

  • 331.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Toward gender equality in practice? Cross-national patterns of change in the gendered division of housework over two decades2018In: Journal of Comparative Family Studies, ISSN 0047-2328, E-ISSN 1929-9850, Vol. XLIX, no 3, p. 355-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on cross-sectional data from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) repeated at three time points, this article studies whether and how the gendered division of housework changed between 1994 and 2012 across 21 countries. Large transformations toward greater gender equality at the societal level during this period (i.e., gender equality norms, the share of women with higher education, and women’s employment rate) are analyzed in relation to potential changes in the division of housework at the individual level. The results reveal a general change toward an equalization in the division of housework over the two studied decades. To a certain extent, these changes are related to corresponding changes at the societal level, particularly in relation to increases in the employment rate of women. In addition, the pace of change over time varies across countries clustered in different family-policy models. The models became increasingly similar to one another during the analyzed period. Demonstrating a greater change in the conservative models in relation to the dual earner countries.

  • 332.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Gender Perspectives on Self-Employment Focusing on Work - Life Balance and Working Conditions2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Political decisions and influences steer individuals toward greater entrepreneurship and self-employment (European Commission, 2004; Verheul, Wennekers, Audretsch, & Thurik, 2002), and for example the increasing share of women in self-employment has been a major development in the world economy since the 1980s (Ahl, 2006). However, knowledge about self-employed individuals’ work and living conditions from a gender perspective is limited (Brush & Brush, 2006), since still today, women are underrepresented in self-employment and also widely ignored in research about self-employment. Additionally, the political agenda concerning self-employment is to a great extent set in a masculine norm (Holmquist & Sundin, 2002). This lead to great gender inequality in self-employment and thus, we need to unravel the unwritten rules and norms related to starting and running one’s own business.Reasons for choosing self-employment may vary but seem to be linked to gender role expectations. Men more often than women cite work-related reasons to become self-employed (Marler & Moen, 2005). Fathers are less likely than mothers to report family reasons to choose self-employment (Hilbrecht & Lero, 2014). Rather, they emphasize employment opportunity, job control and high job satisfaction for choosing self-employment (Ibid.). Mothers of young children choose self-employment as a way to manage the “second shift” and more often than fathers use self-employment as a strategy for work-life balance (Marler & Moen, 2005; Walker & Webster, 2007). However, self-employed individuals seem to experience more conflict between work and family than employees (Johansson Sevä & Öun, 2015; Nordenmark, Vinberg, & Strandh, 2012), even though the variation is large. The phenomenon often labled work-family conflict is ‘a form of inter-role conflict in which the role pressures from work and family domains are mutually incompatible in some respect’ (Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985). There is no cocensus on whether men or women reort higher levels of conflict, but clearly gender norms are important for perceptions of work-family conflict (Hagqvist, 2016). Self-employed individuals, due to more job control, seem to be able to distribute their time better than employees (Nordenmark et al., 2012). Meanwhile, self-employed individuals state that they are always on, constantly developing the company, marketing, seeking new opportunities or worrying about income (Hilbrecht & Lero, 2014). Possibilities to successful combine work and family demands when self-employed also differ depending on economic resources. Self-employed persons who experience dependence on clients and few possibilities to adapt working hours and amount of work experience work-family conflict more often than self-employed persons with low dependency on clients but high autonomy (Annink & den Dulk, 2012; Kunda, Barley, & Evans, 2002). Thus, the benefits gained by choosing self-employment as opposed to organisational employment may be outweighed by costs that can affect the ability to balance work and family (Bunk, Dugan, D’Agostino, & Barnes-Farrell, 2012). Also, the ability to fend of conflicts between work and family is ingrained ingendered constructions and experiences of balance among self-employed individuals (Loscocco, 1997).The fact that self-employment is based on a masculine norms is reflected in studies of working conditions. Working conditions of the self-employed are often characterized by high work load (Stephan & Roesler, 2010) and working more hours per week than the average employee (Eurofound, 2014), especially among men (Hagqvist, Toivanen, & Vinberg, 2016). However, being self-employed has also been related to a situation of high control, in terms of entrepreneurial autonomy and decision making, and the allocation of time and other resources for each of the work tasks (van Gelderen, 2016). Work characteristics function as a recourse for one person and a demand for another (Annink, Den Dulk, & Amorós, 2016). As the typical working conditions for self-employed are masculine (Connell, 2008), it can be stipulated that they are foremost a resource for men and not women. Thus, we need emphasise the role of gender in working conditions among self-employment.Some studies have employed the well-known job control-demand-support model (Karasek & Theorell, 1990) to compare working conditions of the self-employed with wage earners, but results have been contradictory. In some studies, self-employed individuals were found to have more control but also more demands than employees (Nordenmark et al., 2012; Stephan & Roesler, 2010), and these factors explained, at least in part, differences in work-family balance and well-being but also job satisfaction between the self-employed and wage earners. Other studies have discussed the so called “paradox” of the self-employed meaning that although there is clear evidence that the self-employed have more demands, more risks and responsibilities for business success vs failure, and higher work-family conflict, they also often are more satisfied with their job and life in general (Obschonka & Silbereisen, 2015). Several ideas have been brought forward to explain this paradox. For example, it may be that the self-employed are less restricted by organizational regulations or agreements with unions, and thus, there job control differs from that of employees not only in terms of its amount, but also its meaning. This may for example also include employing sub-contractors to do extra work, or being able to work anywhere and at any time. Others suggest that several important factors are overlooked when only studying control and demands, since for instance, it has been found that self-employed with and without employees differ (Johansson Sevä, Vinberg, Nordenmark, & Strandh, 2016), or that conditions vary depending on the economic cycle. The overall financial situation of the business is another salient factor: those in needs for clients and contracts do not find self-employment offers them a lot of freedom and feel forced to work even during free time and vacation days (Annink & den Dulk, 2012). Meanwhile, there is a gender gap in amount and perception of availability in and spillover of work, which is linked to provider status norm (Loscocco, 1997). Clearly, when studying working conditions of the self-employed, the scope has to be extended beyond aspects such as control and demands related to work tasks, to include also questions pertaining to the economic situation (e.g. threat of bankruptcy, business prospects such as security in amounts of clients and contracts) and the overall size and conditions of the business (e.g. number of employees, sector or occupation), but also developments over time (longitudinal studies). Also, perhaps most important, evidence on gendered working conditions in self-employment is still scarce and needs to be put in the spot light.This stream aims to foster a discussion and dialog on the role of gender in self-employment with a focus on working conditions and work-family balance. We welcome multidisciplinary contributions on the following topics:

    - Research focusing on motivating factors for men and women to become self-employed.

    - Studies of gender identities in self-employment

    - Research employing a gender perspective when studying work-family balance for self-employed individuals.

    - Studies emphasising the role of gender in working conditions for self-employed individuals.

    - Research taking new angles to inquire how working conditions, business circumstances and resources differ for women and men in self-employment.

  • 333.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Claudia, Bernhard-Oettel
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Balancing work and life when self-employed: the role of gender contexts2018In: Gender perspectives on self-employment focusing on work - life balance and working conditions, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 334.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Work-family conflict and well-being across Europe: The role of gender context2017In: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 132, no 2, p. 785-797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed whether gender context is important to differences in therelationship between work–family conflict (WFC) and well-being across Europe. Wehypothesised that in countries that support equality in work life and where norms supportwomen’s employment, the relationship between WFC and low well-being is weaker than incountries with less support for gender equality. Cohabiting men and women aged18–65 years from 25 European countries were selected from the European Social Survey.A multilevel analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between well-being andWFC, and two measurements were used to represent gender context: gender equality inwork life and norms regarding women’s employment. Contrary to the hypothesis, theresults showed that the negative relationship was stronger in countries with high levels ofgender equality in work life and support for women’s employment than in countries with arelatively low level of gender equality in work life and support for traditional genderrelations. The context in which gender is constructed may be important when studying therelationship between WFC and well-being. In addition, emphasis should be placed onpolicies that equalise both the labour market and the work performed at home.

  • 335.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Perez, G.
    Trujillo Aleman, S.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Are changes in parental leave policies related to gendered time use?: A case study of Spain and SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 336.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Pérez, Glória
    Barcelona Agency of Public Health.
    Trujillo Alemán, Sara
    Barcelona Agency of Public Health.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Parental leave policies and time use for mothers and fathers: A case study of Spain and Sweden2017In: Society, health and vulnerability, E-ISSN 2002-1518, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 2-12, article id 1374103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    States play an important role in gender equality through policy structuring. In this case study, the aim is to explore whether changes in parental leave policies over two decades trickle down to changes in gendered time use in two polarised countries: Sweden and Spain, represented by the Basque Country. Sweden represents dual-earner countries with high relative gender equality, whereas Spain represents a south European policy model supporting a breadwinning/homemaker ideal. The results show that changes in the gendered time use among mothers and fathers in both countries are associated with changes in parental leave policies. Changes in policies directed towards increasing gender equality reduce the gender gap in time use among mothers and fathers and seem to increase gender equality within a country. From these results, the conclusion is that parental leave policies that are structured to promote or enable gender equality could reduce the gender time gap in work among mothers and fathers.

  • 337.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholm Universitet.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Balancing Work and Life When Self-Employed: The Role of Business Characteristics, Time Demands, and Gender Contexts2018In: Social Sciences, ISSN 2076-0760, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 7, no 8, article id 139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores individual and contextual risk factors in relation to work interfering with private life (WIL) and private life interfering with work (LIW) among self-employed men and women across European countries. It also studies the relationship between interference (LIW and WIL) and well-being among self-employed men and women. Drawing on data from the fifth round of the European Working Conditions Survey, a sample of self-employed men and women with active businesses was extracted. After applying multilevel regressions, results show that although business characteristics are important, the most evident risk factor for WIL and LIW is time demands. Both time demands and business characteristics also seem to be important factors in relation to gender differences in level of interference. There is a relationship between well-being and both WIL and LIW, and time demands is again an important factor. Gender equality in the labor market did not relate to level of interference, nor did it affect the relationship between interference and well-being. However, in gender-separated analyses, LIW and LIW interacted with gender equality in the labor market in different ways for women’s and men’s well-being. In conclusion, gender relations are important in interference and how interference relates to well-being.

  • 338.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Toivanen, Susanna
    CHESS, Stockholm University.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Time strain among employed and self employed women and men in Sweden2015In: Society, Health & Vulnerability, ISSN 2002-1518, Vol. 6, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dual-earner families are common in Sweden, and most women are involved in the labour market. It has been shown that employees and self-employed individuals perceive their working conditions differently: self-employed individuals are more likely to experience an imbalance between work and family, higher job demands, and the feeling that they must be ‘‘always on.’’ Thus, there may also be a difference between employees and self-employed individuals in terms of perceived time strain. Previous studies have identified differences in time-use patterns among men and women who are employed and self-employed. This study uses time-use data to examine potential gender differences among men and women who are self-employed and those who are employees with regard to time strain effects related to time spent on paid and unpaid work in Sweden. The results show that self-employed individuals, particularly self-employed women, report the highest levels of time strain. For self-employed women, an increase in the time spent on paid work reduces perceived time strain levels, whereas the opposite is true for employees and self-employed men. It is primarily individual and family factors, and not time use, that are related to time strain. The results provide evidence that gender differences in time strain are greater among self-employed individuals than among employees.

  • 339.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The leader identity - a means to experience conflict and constructing balance2018In: Gender, Work and Organisation International Interdisciplinary Conference ABSTRACTS BOOKLET, 13-16 JUNE 2018, 2018, p. 120-120Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Literature shows that self-employed individuals seem to experience more conflict between work and family demands than employees but variation is great, especially among self-employed men and women. For instance, studies suggest that women chooses self-employment as a strategy to balance work and family while men uses self-employment as a way to find employment and earnings. Many self-employed individuals describe a feeling of being always on. Self-employment is closely related to masculine values giving emphasis to long work hours and high job demands. Self-employment is an identity and impede men and women to draw a line between work and private life. It is often argued that this is not a problem in the Nordic countries because of high gender equality. However, quantitative data shows rather the opposite.Sparse literature suggest that both men and women use self-employment as a way to ease conflict between work and family. In recent years the concept of work-life enrichment has grown as an explanation how one role can improve quality in other roles easing conflicts. Research suggest that high job control for self-employed men and women eases conflict demand and perhaps create enrichment.In this study, we analyzed interview data from managers in 18 small scale enterprises (SSE), of which 8 were women and 10 men, in the central regions of Norway and Sweden aiming to gain a deeper understanding of how they men and women construct and relate to work and private life in their role as managers of SSEs.Preliminary results show that self-employed men and women narrate a strong identification in their leader identity resulting in a duality in relation to work and family. We identify that interviewees describe that conflict seams to part of the deal of being a leader. They describe how the strong leader identity legitimate a high level of conflict among both men and women. This is in line with the notion that self-employment builds on masculine values and women, though being the main responsible of the home, seem to construct these male values. Meanwhile, the strong leader identity is used as a way to construct balance. In their role as managers and leaders they are allowed to be flexible, more flexible than their employees. However, this flexibility is often used as a way to fit work around family. Lastly, interviewees describe how managerial identity contribute to a work-life enrichment. High job identification gave the leader self-esteem, skills and perspectives which produced a positive affect in relation to work.

  • 340.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Levanger Hospital, Nord-Trøndelag Hospital Trust, Levanger, Norway.
    Nordenmark, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Is the gap between experienced working conditions and the perceived importance of these conditions related to subjective health?2018In: International Journal of Workplace Health Management, ISSN 1753-8351, E-ISSN 1753-836X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 2-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the gaps between experienced working conditions (WCs) and the perceived importance of these conditions in relation to subjective health in Swedish public sector workplaces.

    Design/methodology/approach

    In total, 379 employees answered questions concerning WCs and health. Nine WC areas were created to measure the gap between the experienced WCs and the perceived importance of each condition. These WC areas were: physical work environment, social relationships, communication, leadership, job control, recognition, self-development, workplace culture and work/life satisfaction. Subjective health was measured using mental ill health, well-being and general health.

    Findings

    The results indicated relatively large gaps in all nine WC areas. Leadership, physical work environment and work/life satisfaction in particular seemed to be problematic areas with relatively large gaps, meaning that employees have negative experiences of these areas while perceiving these areas as very important. Additionally, all WC areas were significantly related to subjective health, especially regarding mental ill health and well-being; the larger the gaps, the worse the subjective health. The WC areas of work/life satisfaction, self-development, social relationships, communication and recognition had the highest relationships and model fits. This indicates that it is most problematic from an employee’s point of view if there are large gaps within these WC areas.

    Originality/value

    This study improves the understanding of workplace health by exploring the gap between experienced WCs and the perceived importance of these conditions.

  • 341.
    Hagqvist, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Öun, I.
    Changing gender relations, fact or fiction?: Patterns of change in the gendered division of housework and attitudes toward gender equality over two decades in 21 countries.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 342.
    Hagvall, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Norberg, Rebecka
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Studie-och yrkesvägledares upplevelser av stöd och resurser för att kunna förbereda gymasieelever inför ett kommande studier och arbetsliv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 343.
    Hallner, Linn
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Östman, Josefin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vi då?: En litteraturöversikt om upplevelser och behov hos syskon till ett cancerdrabbat barn2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 344.
    Hammarstedt, Anette
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hinder/möjligheter i rehabiliteringsprocessen: -vilka faktorer kan påverka?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 345.
    Hansen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Björklund, Glenn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. The Swedish Sports Confederation.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Workplace Health Interventions and Physical Fitness Status among Managers of Small-Scale Enterprises in Norway and Sweden2016In: Health, ISSN 1949-4998, E-ISSN 1949-5005, Vol. 8, p. 1697-1712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background : The ability of managers of small-scale enterprises (SSEs) to prioritize health, working conditions, and their own physical fitness is an important issue for workplace health promotion in Norway and Sweden, where most owner-manager positions are in SSEs. Aim : To assess the physical fitness status of SSE managers compared to a norm population and to study changes in physical fitness status, self-reported physical activity, and sickness outcomes after workplace health interventions. Methods : The study allocated SSE managers to either an intervention or a reference group. The intervention, over twelve months, consisted of motivational input related to lifestyle and physical activity through tests and feedback, individual support, and courses on health and psychosocial working conditions. The participants (N = 28) completed health screening checks, questionnaires and testing before and after the intervention. Results : SSE managers in the study had positive outcomes for BMI levels and strength compared to the norm population, while percentage of fat for both men and women indicated poor results. There were no further improvements in the intervention group after comparison with the reference group. Separately, both groups seemed to improve strength and body composition. Conclusion : Workplace health interventions with essentially motivational components may increase SSE managers’ attention to physical fitness, but appear to have limited effects on objective and subjective physical fitness outcomes.

  • 346.
    Hansen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gundersen, Kjell Terje
    Nord University, Levanger, Norway.
    Svebak, Sven
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Sense of Humor and General Life Satisfaction in Association with the Biological Effects of Resistance Training in People with Impaired Glucose Tolerance2017In: Health, ISSN 1949-4998, E-ISSN 1949-5005, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 870-882, article id 76436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate associations between psychological and biological changes due to resistance training in people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Subjects were randomized into maximal (MRT) versus endurance resistance training (ERT) groups. Intervention periods lasted four months. All subjects had blood work that suggested IGT at the initial screening. The ERT acted as a wait-list control group when the MRT performed their training. Baseline scores on general life satisfaction (LISAT) and sense of humor (SHQ-6: a positive coping resources) were obtained. Potential differences between groups (types of intervention and intervention versus control) were investigated by analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). Correlations were calculated in each group to estimate the degree of covariance between biological and psychological changes from pre- to post-intervention by Pearson and Spearman coefficients. Sense of humor tended to be correlated with a positive reduction of insulin following MRT as well as with reduction in body fat following ERT. Differences across the intervention groups in changes from pre- to post-training in biological variables (glucose, insulin, muscle mass, and corrected percentage of fat) as well as psychological variables (general life satisfaction and sense of humor) were not significant, whereas differences in BMI and weight were significant. By investigating the intervention groups separately in comparison to the control group, the MRT revealed significant improvement by reduction in insulin, percentage of fat, BMI and weight. The ERT caused significant improvements for insulin and percentage of fat, while general life satisfaction had a significant negative development.

  • 347.
    Hansen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Krokstad, Steinar
    Hunt forskningscenter NTNU.
    Kulturaktivitet, selvopplevd helse, tilfredshet med livet, selvfölelse og mental helse - UNG Hunt studien2016In: BestPractice Psykiatri, nevrologi & geriatri, no 25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 348.
    Hansen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gundersen, Kjell Terje
    Faculty of Education, Nord University, Norway.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Leader-Based Workplace Health Interventions — A Before–After Study in Norwegian and Swedish Small-Scale Enterprises2016In: International Journal of Disability Mangement Research, ISSN 1833-8550, E-ISSN 1834-4887, Vol. 11, no e5, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to knowledge about leader-based workplace health interventions by investigating changes in psychosocial working conditions and health in Norwegian and Swedish small-scale enterprises (SSEs). The study also aims to investigate whether there are differences between position, and countries. In total, 30 leaders and 149 coworkers in 34 SSEs participated in two intervention and two reference groups. Leaders and coworkers completed the validated questionnaires (Nordic Questionnaire on Positive Organizational Psychology ([N-POP]), Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS), and Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS), which cover different psychosocial working conditions and health outcomes. The interventions were carried out by advisors from occupational health services (OHSs) over a one-year period and consisted of analyses of health and psychosocial working conditions, company visits, education and networking meetings, including information and tools on issues such as leadership, work environment and health, and leadership support. The statistical methods used included principal component analyses, reliability tests, paired sample t tests and three-way ANOVA. The results indicate a significant positive development concerning external job performance in the intervention groups. Regarding internal job performance, both the Norwegian intervention group and the reference group showed positive improvements. However, there were negative or nonsignificant developments for several of the psychosocial working conditions and health outcomes in the intervention groups. With regard to associations and interactions between the studied variables, there were significantly positive developments with regard to external job performance and sickness absences in the total intervention group. The study indicates that more thorough procedures and testing of leader-based interventions in SSEs are required.

  • 349.
    Hansen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ledarfokuserade hälsofrämjande insatser i små företag: resultat och erfarenheter (Leader-based workplace health interventions in small enterprises: results and experiences)2016In: Inkluderande och hållbart arbetsliv - Book of abstracts - FALF 2016, Östersund, 2016, p. 43-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leader-based workplace health interventions in small-scale enterprises: a pre post Study. Introduction Leader’s competence about health and working environment issues is of particular importance in small scale enterprises (SSEs). Studies indicate lack of tools for 44 Book of abstracts – FALF 2016implementation of working environment improvements and support from occupationalhealth services to develop such services towards SSE`s. The aim of the study was to investigate organizational-, psychosocial working environment- and health outcomes among leaders and employees in SSEs before and after workplace health interventions, and to contribute to knowledge about tools suited for implementation. Description Data presented is part of a research project concerning leader-based workplace health interventions in SSEs. 179 subjects, intervention group (103) and control group (76), from 32 SSE ́s in the middle part of Norway and Sweden participated. Leaders (N=30) and Employees (N=149) answered validated questionnaires (WEMS, SHIS and N-POP) covering organizational outcomes, psychosocial working conditions and health. The interventions were carried out by advisers from occupational health services, and consisted of courses, meetings including information, advices and tools for working on issues like leadership, working environment, and health during a one year period. Results Organizational outcomes as Job Performance indicatedan interaction in favor of intervention group compared to control group, and for leaders compared to employees. For Psychosocial working conditions, the Swedish leaders reported a positive change concerning pressure of Time. Regarding Health outcomes the Norwegian leaders reported a more positive development concerning sleep problems compared to employees in Norway, and leaders in Sweden. The Intervention group reported lower Sickness absence. Conclusion Leader-based interventions in SSE`s seems effectively to a limited extent. Time between pre and post intervention including measure points, might be too short to detect improvements over time.

  • 350.
    Hansen, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Landstad, Bodil
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Work Experience and Health before and after interventions among leaders and employees in small-scale enterprises2016In: Decent Work: 4th Conference Disability Management, Olten, 2016, p. 26-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Workplace-based prevention and rehabilitation programs including strategy to change might contribute to increase employee health. The importance of leader competence in small scale enterprises (SSE´s) to prioritize health and adjusting the work-environment are important. Some studies indicate associations between psychosocial work environment factors and mental health, but contradicting findings suggest that good leadership does not substantially ameliorate any effects of emotional demands at work on employee mental health. The cost-effect for the society as whole, the enterprise alone and the workers employed e.g. regarding sick leave, injury rates, stable employment levels and other factors are complex. Traditionally there has been a focus on these factors mostly in large workplaces, but a broader understanding, sustainable standards, procedures, implementing methods, and more knowledge regarding leadership, health, work-environment, stress and health promoting interventions towards SSE´s is needed. Purpose and method: The aim of the study is to investigate Work Experience (WEMS) and Salutogenic Health (SHIS) changes among leaders and employees in SSEs pre-post intervention. Present study analyzed data from two questionnaires (WEMS, and SHIS) based on established theories regarding work and health. Leaders (N=30) and employees (N=149) from 32 small scale enterprises in the middle part of Norway and Sweden participated. The interventions were carried out by work environment advisers and consisted of meetings including information, advices and tools towards leaders and employees during a one year period. The methodology used to identify any pre-post changes, and changes between groups (ex. Norway-Sweden, leaders-employees) involved SPSS analyses with descriptive statistics, univariate analysis of variance and t-tests. Findings: The analysis revealed no positive significant changes from pre to post intervention for the total Index of SHIS, nor the total Index of WEMS. Some indications of changes however could be detected, were the main tendency was a negative development after intervention. The subindex of WEMS regarding Management (MT) though, yielded a significant effect of mean for leaders compared with employees after intervention. Conclusions: Present interventions towards leaders and employees regarding Work environment and Salutogenic health in SSE`s seems not to be sufficient. More knowledge regarding leadership, work-environment and health are crucial, and even more thorough procedures and testing of interventions in SSE´s needs to be carried out to improve these parameters.

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