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  • 25251.
    Öberg, Anette
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ståhl, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tjock i en smal värld: Sjuksköterskans pedagogiska funktion vid viktnedgång hos överviktiga patienter2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Av den globala befolkningen, 2005, var 1,6 miljarder vuxna överviktiga och minst 400 miljoner vuxna led av fetma. Sjuksköterskor ska ha förmågan att uppfatta och förebygga hälsorisker och motivera till förändrad livsstil som till exempel viktminskning. Syfte: Att få förståelse för patienter med övervikt samt att belysa sjuksköterskans pedagogiska funktion vid viktnedgång hos dessa patienter. Metod: Litteraturstudie med 18 klassificerade och värderade vetenskapliga artiklar som analyserats och bearbetats. Resultat: Analysen gav två kategorier och fem subkategorier; den överviktige patientens upplevelser – beslut, försvarsmekanismer och hinder, motivation samt sjuksköterskans pedagogiska funktion – kommunikation och relation, stöd. Diskussion: Sjuksköterskan spelar en viktig roll i hanteringen av överviktiga och feta patienter och bemötandet de får är en avgörande faktor för viktnedgången. Slutsats: Då övervikt och fetma utvecklats till en global epidemi finns i dag ett stort behov av att hälso- och sjukvården arbetar förebyggande mot övervikt och fetma.

  • 25252.
    Öberg, Emelie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thelenius, Hanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Tänk längre: En studie om CSR och organisatoriskt engagemang.2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     Corporate social responsibility eller CSR som vi valt att kalla det i vår studie handlar om en organisations sociala ansvarstagande och innebär att organisationen gör någonting bra för samhället de verkar i. Syftet med denna studie är dels att undersöka om det faktum att en organisation ägnar sig åt CSR-arbete har betydelse för det organisatoriska engagemang medarbetare känner för organisationen. Vi undersöker även om det finns något samband mellan medarbetarna på Skandias deltagande i CSR-arbete via en ambassadörsroll och det organisatoriska engagemanget.

     

    Vi har utfört undersökningen på försäkringsbolaget Skandia i Sundsvall. Skandia har länge arbetat med CSR och har ett förhållningssätt till CSR där deras medarbetare genom en ambassadörsroll kan välja att engagera sig i CSR-arbetet under arbetstid. Studien bygger på en kvantitativ metod med material från en enkätundersökning med syftet att mäta organisatoriskt engagemang där 174 medarbetare svarat, samt kompletterande material från kvalitativa samtalsintervjuer med fyra medarbetare på Skandia. När vi samlat in svaren använde vi oss av statistikprogrammet SPSS, där vi genom en korstabulering kunde jämföra det organisatoriska engagemanget mellan ambassadörer och icke-ambassadörer. Resultaten från vår undersökning visar att en organisations CSR-arbete har betydelse för medarbetares organisatoriska engagemang. Om medarbetarna i det här fallet är engagerade i CSR-arbetet via ambassadörsrollen har mindre betydelse för det organisatoriska engagemanget på det stora hela då det CSR-arbete som utförs av organisationen och de deltagande medarbetarna spiller över på hela organisationen och skapar ett organisatoriskt engagemang även hos icke-ambassadörerna.

    Key words: CSR, Corporate Social Responsibility, Engagemang, Organisatoriskt engagemang, Internkommunikation.

  • 25253.
    Öberg, Fernando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Affärsmodellsinnovation i fastighetsbranschen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Business model innovation is used parallel with technical development to create competitive advantage within certain line of businesses. Many business have although not yet fully embraced business model innovation as a competitive foundation and still rely on technical development of products and services. The actual concept of business models and business model innovation has many different definitions and is perceived as ambiguous. The real estate business is a traditional line of business that often rely on technical development, location of the property and rent levels primarily as the competitive factors. As other line of businesses work more with business model innovation, as the IT-business, the interest for business model innovation grows in the real estate business.The purpose with this essay is to describe and analyze business model innovation within different types of real estate companies. Furthermore it’s investigated how companies within the real estate business today defines and uses business models.The study is based on a qualitative method whereof interview studies have been performed on different types of real estate companies. Primary data consists of interviews with 11 representatives from ten different real estate businesses. The result from the interviews have passed a thematic analysis to showcase eventual patterns in the answers from the interviewees.The definition of business models amongst the real estate companies was varying but all of them approached a definition that describes how a company works or creates profitability. None of the interviewees used business model innovation in a structured manner via for example a framework. The real estate companies on firsthand used technological development when innovating and not business model innovation.

  • 25254.
    Öberg, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Scrambling av databaser: Validering och implementering av scrambling av databas2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The demands on how personal data is handled have recently become much more strict with new regulations such as GDPR. Which means companies need to review how they save and manage data. Furthermore, there is a whole indust- ry that works with analyzing and anonymizing databases to create testdata for companies to use for tests. How can these companies guarantee that they can hand over their database for this particular purpose. Easit AB wants a system to be built for scrambling databases so that the structure and data in the database are unrecognizable, which can then be submitted to Easit for analysis.With the main objective, using existing functionality in the Easit Test Engine ETE, see if you can scramble customers databases and data to unrecognizable so that the handover of the database can be done without risk. But also to validate the scrambling methods that the solution contains.

  • 25255.
    Öberg, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Design.
    Bricks: en nyproduktion med miljöhänsyn2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker möjligheten att bygga en soffa med liten miljöpåverkan som samtidigt känns modern och nutida i en exklusivare hemmiljö. I projektet ingår en kort formstudie, undersökninge av tänkbara material som finns på marknaden och diskussion kring materialval samt tillverkning av en soffa som exempel på en miljövänlig möbel. Det svåraste var att finna tillräckligt med information om materialen och kunna jämföra dem på ett rättvist sätt. Resultatet blev en möbel med ungefär hälften miljömärkta material och de övriga som saknade märkning var noga utvalda för att vara så skonsamma som möjligt.

  • 25256. Öberg, J.
    et al.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Jantsch, A.
    Postula, A.
    Hemani, A.
    Grammar-based Design of Embedded Systems2001In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 47, no 3-4, p. 225-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grammars define syntax of languages and as such have not been commonly considered as methods for design, despite well-known applications in computer science. Only in recent years grammar-based design has become a promising research field and the first commercial tools have appeared on the market. This paper reviews the basic concepts of applying grammars to electronic design - in particular to the device driver synthesis of communication protocols for embedded software, to the design of custom-hardware, and to the virtual prototyping of DSP systems. The paper shows the power of these methods, presents the latest research results and discusses future developments in this field.

  • 25257.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Creation and maintenance of traceability2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 25258.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    En metod för att rekonstruera processer genom bevarande av handlingar2008In: Arkiv samhälle och forskning, ISSN 0349-0505, Vol. 01, p. 6-14Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The new Swedish method for archival description will be introduced the first of July 2008. The new method is built upon process modeling and will document how records are connected to the processes where the records have been created and managed. The aim with this article is to describe a method to reconstruct processes. The method has been used in a study where I have studied which components that make it possible to reconstruct processes afterwards. The method could serve as a complement to traditional process modeling methods which often builds upon seminars where participators together design todays and tomorrows processes. The method that has been used in the study presented in this paper is from this viewpoint different because it strives to understand and describe how the process has looked like. The method includes three steps; Data collection in archives, process modeling and validations seminars. The result from using the method has showed that it could be a helpful tool.

  • 25259.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Factors that improve traceability between information and processes over time2011In: Journal of Organisational Transformation and Social Change, ISSN 1477-9633, E-ISSN 2040-056XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 25260.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forskning och Utveckling kring teknisk information2007Report (Other academic)
  • 25261.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Identifiering och värdering av framtida krav kvalitetskrav på teknisk information2008Report (Other academic)
  • 25262.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Information management for long-term maintenance of technical atifacts -: Requirements on traceablity in technical information2010In: The international Multi-conference on Complexity, Informatics and Cybernetics: IMCIC 2010 / [ed] Wiliam Lesso, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical artifacts with a long lifetime put special requirement on management of technical information. The information need to be managed and maintained to keep it understandable and valid for as long as needed and this put high requirements on effective information management because it is necessary to keep track of which technical information that is valid for which variant of technical artifact.  This article is based on a study where requirements on technical information was in focus and especially requirements that concern traceability. Seven requirements have been identified and it have been concluded that those requirements basically concern between which object that the traceability concern, that it matters if a requirement is put from internal or external need or if the requirement concern objects from different information systems. The conclusion is that a requirement is harder to reach if the connections between objects are separated in different information systems.

  • 25263.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Is document in process supportive information systems prepared for long-term preservation?2005In: Proceedings of the 2005 International Business Information Management Conference July 5 - 7, 2005 Lisbon, Portugal,, 2005Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 25264.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Metadata use in document management systems which support business processes.2008In: Archives & Social Studies: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, ISSN 1988-0626, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 217-249Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25265.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Needed Components to Reconstruct Processes2006In: Archiving 2006: Final Program and Proceedings, Springfield: IS & T , 2006, p. 165-168Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many organizations there is changeover from paper-based records to electronic records. This is a natural process, when more and more information and documents are created by the usage of computer based information system. The problem is that many organizations implement information systems for managing electronic records, which not takes recordkeeping requirements into consideration to full extent. Record keeping system must fulfil requirements regarding context. This is necessary because it have to be possible to make interpretations of records, over time. The aim of this paper is to describe how much and what kind of traces of the handling process there are in paper based archives. A qualitative empirical study will be conducted. The method include interpretations of paper based records with an aim to model processes. The study includes comparisons between periods, before and after implementation of computerized systems. The process models will be analyzed and validated by dialog seminars. The contributions of this paper are; firstly descriptions of process elements that make it possible to interpret processes and records afterwards; secondly descriptions of differences of those process-elements between different time periods, thirdly: the process models will be important inputs when designing efficient digital record keeping in integrated e-services.

  • 25266.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Special section introduction: Examining the Context of Technical Information Use2016In: Communication Design Quarterly, ISSN 2166-1642, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 9-11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25267.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Traceability between S1000D and SCORM: lessons learnedManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 25268.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Traceable Information Systems: Factors That Improve Traceability Between Information and Processes Over Time2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Preservation of information is not a new issue but preservation of digital information has a relatively short history. Since the 60’s when computers began to be used within administration, digital information that has had to be preserved over time.The problem addressed in this research is how to preserve understandable information over time. Information is context dependent, which means that without context it is not possible to use the information. Process is one part of the context. And an important issue when preserving information is then to be able to trace an information

    object to the process where in it has been created and managed. Associating information to a particular process creates the possibility of relating information objects to each other and also to the context in which the information has been created and used. The aim of this thesis is to identify and structure factors that can improve the traceability between information and processes over time. A set of factors based on case studies and a set of analytical methods are presented that can improve the traceability over time. These factors have been identified and structured by the use of the Synergy-4 model. They have been identified within four different spheres namely: competence, management, organization/procedure and technology. The factors have further been structured in three different time states namely: creation time, short and middle term and long-term. The research concludes that there are a lot of factors influencing ability to preserve information. Preservation issues include selection of metadata standards, organizational culture, lack of understanding from management and formalization of documents. The conclusion is that if an organization wants to succeed in preserving traceable information they have to build strategies that cover the issues from a range of different angles. This thesis suggests that crucial angles are competence, management, organization/procedure

    and technology. Furthermore, the strategies must be in place at the stage of creationof the information objects.

  • 25269.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Borglund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Operational use of Records2006In: proceedings of IRIS 29, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The changeover from paper based records to electronic records in many organizations involves no longer only recordkeeping experts, but also people from the information system community. Electronic records are created, managed and preserved within information systems and methods to support this must be developed. In this paper the operational use of records and how that use might affect development of information systems supporting recordkeeping are of interest. This paper is empirical grounded with data from four previously performed studies. The results are compared with two existing models of recordkeeping; the life-cycle model and the Record Continuum Model. This paper presents a result where operational records use can be described in three categories; decision support, intelligence support and information retrieval. The operational use of records is widespread, difficult to predict, and not always related to a record�s original purpose of use. A record has an operational value that not always has been an issue of interest by the recordkeeping community. This altogether motivates both that a proactive approach is necessary when designing information system supporting recordkeeping, but also that the Record Continuum Model is more applicable when dealing with electronic records.

  • 25270.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Borglund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    What are the Characteristics of Records?2005In: Proceedings of the 28th Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, 2005, p. 55-76Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Project documentations, minutes of meeting, emergency plans, and inspection reports are all examples of records, recorded information. One key characteristic of records is preservation, records may be preserved for long time. There is a changeover from paper based records to electronic records in many organizations. Electronic records are part of computerbased information systems and need to be handled automatically following archival requirements to remain trustworthiness during preservation. The ISO definition of record is abstract and give limited support in understanding what a record is on operational level. Knowledge valuable for practitoners involved in design and development of information systems. The aim of this paper is to identify different classes of records, and identify categories of characteristics or variables for these records, i.e. make records operational. This paper is based on a qualitative case study performed at four different organizations. Empirical data was collected from multiple sources in order to understand records. More than 100 different records were identified, which together made ten classes of records. The classes together with the characteristics resulted in an object oriented based diagram, a visualization of the analysis of the empirical data.

  • 25271.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Borglund, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    What are the Characteristics of Records?2006In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 55-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Project documentation, minutes of meetings, emergency plans, and inspection reports are all examples of records, recorded information. There is a changeover from paper-based records to electronic records in many organizations and these organizations often implement information systems managing electronic records that only take archival requirements into consideration to some extent, if at all. This is a problem that makes preservation of electronic records difficult. The aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of records, based on a study of empirical data and archival theory. It is essential to identify and understand the characteristics of a record in order to manage and preserve records in computerised systems. Knowledge of what characteristics a record has is one way to make it possible to formalize records. Formalization at different levels is needed for computerized management of records. This paper is based on a qualitative case study performed at four different organizations in Sweden. Empirical data was collected from multiple sources within each organization and resulted in five groups of characteristics with several sublevels. The empirical data were compared with recordkeeping and archival theory. Based on this study the essential characteristics of records were identified as context, form, organization, structure and version/copy.

  • 25272.
    Öberg, Lena-Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    To Capture and Preserve Documents in Processes2005In: Information Management in modern enterprise - Issues & solutions: Proceedings of the 2005 international business information management conference July 5-7, 2005, Lisbon, Portugal, IBIMA , 2005, p. 181-183Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25273.
    Öberg, Lena-Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Nyström, Christina Amcoff
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Evaluation of the level of collaboration in a regional crisis exercise setting: - the use of Community of Inquiry2016In: Proceedings of Information systems research seminar in Scandinavia (IRIS) 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning for regional security and crisis management could be supported by well performed exercises. These exercises should be evaluated from different views in order to investigate the participants learning from the exercise. Since the evaluation seldom rest upon established learning theories it will be difficult to evaluate if the exercise will lead to the stated goals. Authorities in the counties of Jämtland and Västernorrland, intend to implement such exercise spring, 2016. The Theme for the exercise is “Flooding” - “Höga flöden” based on a scenario describing extremely high rainfall which could affect hydroelectric dams. The authorities should act and collaborate based on local crisis plans and how the scenario changes over time. We intend to use the Community of inquiry model when evaluating how the participants act, reflect and learn from the exercise. The Community of inquiry (CoI) model consists of three elements: social presence, cognitive presence and teaching presence. The model assumes that learning occurs within the Community through the interaction of this three core elements.  We intend to use a validated version of a survey instrument connected to the CoI model (Arbaugh et al, 2008). Hence, the aim of this paper is to propose an evaluation method to evaluate levels of communities in regional exercises.

  • 25274.
    Öberg, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Den interaktiva skrivtavlan: En kvalitativ undersökning på fem förskollärares uppfattningar av den interaktiva skrivtavlan2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 25275.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Treeline dynamics in short and long term perspectives: observational and historical evidence from the southern Swedish Scandes2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Treelines in high-mountain regions are constrained by heat deficiency, although the working mechanisms are still not entirely understood. Observational and paleoecological studies on treeline performance may contribute to increased understanding of the treeline phenomenon in general. The present thesis addresses elevational shifts of alpine treelines in the Swedish Scandes. By various analytical tools, the studies embrace widely different temporal scales.

    The concept treeline refers to the elevation (m a.s.l.) at a specific site of the upper individual tree of a certain tree species, at least 2 m tall. All the principal tree species in the Scandes are concerned, i.e. mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

    Paper I deals with regional treeline dynamics at more than 100 sites over the past 100 years. Concurrent with temperature rise by c. 1.4 °C over the same period, maximum treeline advances of all species amount to about 200 m. Thus, under ideal conditions, treelines respond in close equilibrium with air temperature evolution. However, over most parts of the landscape, treeline upshifts have been much smaller than 200 m, which relates to the combined action of geomorphology, wind, snow distribution and soil depth. After 1975, the birch has lost its role as the most rapidly advancing tree species, being superseded by pine and spruce.

    Paper II is a short-term (2005/2007-2010/2011) study of mountain birch treeline performance along a regional maritimity-continentality gradient. Upshift by 3.0 yr-1 in the maritime part of the gradient contrasts to retreat by 0.4 m yr-1 in the continental part. In the latter area, earlier and more complete melting of late-lying snow patches has seemingly progressed to a state when soil drought sets back the vigour of existing birches and precludes sexual regeneration and upslope advance of the treeline. In the maritime area, extensive and deep snow packs still exist above the treeline and constrain its position, although some release is taking place in the current warm climate.

    Paper III explores treeline change by phenotypic transformation of old-established stunted and prostrate spruce individuals (krummholz) growing high above the treeline and is based on analyses of radiocarbon-dated megafossils, preserved in the soil underneath clonal groups of spruce. Living spruce clones, which in some cases may date back to the early Holocene (9500 cal. yr BP), suggests that spruce immigrated from “cryptic” ice age refugia much closer to Scandinavia than conventionally thought. As the krummholz form presupposes open and windy habitats, it is inferred that permanently open spots prevailed in the high-mountain landscape even during periods when treelines in general were much higher than today.

    Paper IV reports radiocarbon dates of wood samples, retrieved from newly exposed glacier forefields at three main sites, located high above the modern treelines and embracing the entire Swedish Scandes. It appears that pine colonized early emerging nunataks already during the Late Glacial. Around 9600-9500 cal. yr BP a first massive wave of tree establishment, birch and pine, took place in “empty” glacier cirques. Both species grew 400-600 m above their present day treeline position and accordingly, the summer temperatures may have been 3.5 °C warmer than present (uncorrected for land uplift). During the entire interval 9600 to 4400 cal. yr BP, birch prospered 100-150 m above the uppermost pines. In response to Neoglacial cooling, treelines of both birch and pine descended until their final disappearance from the record 4400 and 5900 cal. yr BP, respectively. Thereafter, these habitats experienced increased snow accumulation and glacier inception.

  • 25276.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Treeline dynamics in short and long term perspectives: observational and historical evidence from the southern Swedish Scandes2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Against the background of past, recent and future climate change, the present thesis addresses elevational shifts of alpine treelines in the Swedish Scandes. By definition, treeline refers to the elevation (m a.s.l.) at a specific site of the upper trees of a specific tree species, at least 2 m tall.

    Based on historical records, the first part of the thesis reports and analyzes the magnitude of treeline displacements for the main trees species (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris) since the early 20th century. The study covered a large and heterogeneous region and more than 100 sites. Concurrent with temperature rise by c. 1.4 °C over the past century, maximum treeline advances of all species amount to about 200 m. That is virtually what should be predicted from the recorded temperature change over the same period of time. Thus, it appears that under ideal conditions, treelines respond in close equilibrium with air temperature evolution. However, over most parts of the landscape, conditions are not that ideal and treeline upshifts have therefore been much smaller. The main reason for that discrepancy was found to be topoclimatic constraints, i.e. the combined action of geomorphology, wind, snow distribution, soil depth, etc., which over large parts of the alpine landscape preclude treelines to reach their potential thermal limit.

    Recorded treeline advance by maximum 200 m or so over the past century emerges as a truly anomalous event in late Holocene vegetation history.

    The second part of the thesis is focused more on long-term changes of treelines and one specific and prevalent mechanism of treeline change. The first part of the thesis revealed that for Picea and Betula, treeline shift was accomplished largely by phenotypic transformation of old-established stunted and prostrate individuals (krummholz) growing high above the treeline. In obvious response to climate warming over the past century, such individuals have transformed into erect tree form, whereby the treeline (as defined here) has risen. As a means for deeper understanding of this mode of positional treeline change, extant clonal spruces, growing around the treeline, were radiocarbon dated from megafossil remains preserved in the soil underneath their canopies. It turned out that Picea abies in particular may attain almost eternal life due to its capability for vegetative reproduction and phenotypic plasticity. Some living clones were in fact inferred to have existed already 9500 years ago, and have thus persisted at the same spot throughout almost the entire Holocene. This contrasts with other tree species, which have left no living relicts from the early Holocene, when they actually grew equally high as the spruce. Thereafter they retracted by more than 300 m in elevation supporting that also on that temporal scale, treelines are highly responsive to climate change.

    The early appearance of Picea in the Scandes, suggests that Picea “hibernated” the last glacial phase much closer to Scandinavia than earlier thought. It has also immigrated to northern Sweden much earlier than the old-established wisdom.

    The experiences gained in this thesis should constitute essential components of any model striving to the project landscape ecological consequences of possible future climate shifts.

  • 25277.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Trädgränsdynamik på Sånfjället2002In: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 96, no 3/4, p. 177-185Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 25278.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Trädgränsen som indikator för ekologiska klimateffekter i fjällen: En metodstudie för långsiktig miljöövvervakning.2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kunskap om trädens svar på dokumenterade klimatändringar ger indikationer om var och med vilken frekvens framtida miljöövervakningsinsatser beträffande trädgränsvegetationen bör koncentreras. Som ett viktigt komplement till den regionala trädgränsövervakningen och för att ge en totalbild av klimatets effekter på hela ekosystemet föreslås även ett objekt lämpligt för detaljerad strikt lokal övervakning (monitoring) av träd- och fältskiktsvegetationen. På så sätt skapas en mer fördjupad förståelse av de ekologiska mekanismer som orsakar de förändringar som dokumenteras i fjällandskapet. Omfattande landskapsekologiska förändringar, bl.a. stigande artgränser och förändrade utbredningsmönster för olika växtarter pågår idag i Jämtlands- och Dalafjällen. Den klimatuppvärmning som konstaterats under 1900-talet och fram till idag framstår som den främsta anledningen till fjällandskapets pågående omvandling. Trädgränserna för fjällbjörk, gran och tall har avancerat inom hela det undersökta området, både fenotypiskt (tillväxt) och genotypiskt (nyetablering). Trenden är tydlig med vissa regionala och artspecifika skillnader. Förändringar av trädgränsens läge har tidigare visat sig indikera även förskjutningar av andra arters utbredningsgränser när klimatet och andra geoekologiska förutsättningar som t.ex. snöförhållanden, vegetationsperiodens längd och markfuktighet förändras. Ett viktigt resultatav projektet är att trädgränsen svarar på klimatets förändring direkt och utan nämnvärt dröjsmål (jfr. Kullman 2007, in press). Detta understryker dess styrka och användbarhet som miljöövervakningsindikator för klimatändringars ekologiska effekter på vegetationen i fjällen. Trädgränsens dynamik har också ett stort pedagogiskt värde, eftersom den är lätt identifierbar och förändringar av trädgränsens läge i fjällandskapet är lätta att förstå och visualisera.

  • 25279.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Trädgränsprojektet - lägesrapport 20062007Report (Other scientific)
  • 25280.
    Öberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kullman, L.
    Fjällvärld i förvandling - klimatförändringens effekter på fjällens växtliv2006In: Jämten, Östersund: Jamtli förlag , 2006, p. 83-91Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 25281.
    Öberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Kullman, Leif
    Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap, Umeå universitet.
    Ancient subalpine clonal spruces (Picea abies) – sources of postglacial vegetation history in the Swedish Scandes2011In: Arctic, ISSN 0004-0843, E-ISSN 1923-1245, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 183-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the long-standing issue of postglacial immigration of Picea abies (Norway spruce) into Scandinavia. Methodologically, the main focus is on megafossil tree remains (wood and cones) of spruce and other species, retrieved from the treeline ecotone (Swedish Scandes), as a tool for vegetation reconstruction. Radiocarbon dating of megafossils, preserved in the soil underneath layering clonal groups of Picea abies, provide the core data. Living spruce clones, with in some cases likely continuity back to the early Holocene (9500 cal. yr BP onwards), were found at high-elevations. First postglacial arrival to the Swedish Scandes at this stage concurs with previous megafossil inferences. This is several millennia earlier than inferred from pollen data and very soon after regional deglaciation. Persistence of some individual Picea clones since the early Holocene thermal optimum and up to the present is indicative of permanently open or semi-open spots in the high-mountain landscape, also at times when treelines in general were much higher than present. Initially, Picea clones appear to have existed in a regional no-analogue vegetation matrix of widely scattered pine (Pinus sylvestris), mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) and thermophilic broadleaved deciduous species. In response to subsequent neoglacial cooling, the alpine character of the landscape has been enhanced through a lowered pine treeline and disappearance of larch and thermophiles. Spruces, which escaped fire and other calamities, endured due to their inherent phenotypic plasticity. Increasing climatic harshness throughout the Holocene conserved them as crippled krummholz, protected from winter stress by almost complete snow coverage. Appearance of Picea abies exclusively in the west, shortly after the deglaciation, could suggest that it has immigrated from “cryptic” ice age refugia much closer to Scandinavia than conventionally thought.

  • 25282.
    Öberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Kullman, Leif
    Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap, Umeå universitet.
    Contrasting short-term performance of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) treeline along a latitudinal continentality-maritimity gradient in the southern Swedish Scandes2012In: Fennia, ISSN 0015-0010, Vol. 190, no 1, p. 19-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positional treeline shift is a fundamental aspect and indicator of high-mountain vegetation response to climate change. This study analyses treeline performance during the period 2005/2007 -2010/2011 in the Swedish Scandes. Focus is on mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) along a regional climatic maritimity-continentality gradient. Treeline upshift by 3.0 yr-1 in the maritime part differed significantly from retreat by 0.4 m yr-1 in the continental part of the transect. This discrepancy is discussed in terms of differential warming-induced snow cover phenology patterns and their influence on soil moisture conditions. In the continental area, earlier and more complete melting of prior relatively rare late-lying snow patches, even high above the treeline, has progressed to a state when melt water irrigation ceases. As a consequence, soil drought sets back the vigor of existing birches and precludes sexual regeneration and upslope advance of the treeline. In the maritime area, extensive and deep snow packs still exist above the treeline and constrain its position, although some release is taking place in the current warm climate. Thereby, the birch treeline expands upslope as the alpine snow patches shrink, but continue to provide sufficient melt water throughout the summer. Treeline rise appears to have been based primarily on seed regeneration over the past few decades. This is a novelty, since prior (1915-2007) treeline advance was accomplished mainly by in situ shifts in growth form of relict krummholz birches, in some cases millennial-old, prevailing above the treeline. By the snow phenology mechanism, birch can benefit from climate warming in the maritime region, which contrasts with the situation in the continental region. This discrepancy should be accounted for in projective models. In a hypothetical case of sustained warming, the subalpine birch forest belt may expand less extensively than often assumed, although advance may continue for some time in snow rich maritime areas.

  • 25283.
    Öberg, Lisa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Kullman, Leif
    Umeå University, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, SE 90187 Umeå.
    Recent Glacier Recession – a New Source of Postglacial Treeline and Climate History in the Swedish Scandes2012In: Landscape Online, ISSN 1865-1542, E-ISSN 1865-1542, Vol. 26, p. 1-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate warming during the past century has imposed recession of glaciers and perennial snow/ice patches along the entire Swedish Scandes. On the newly exposed forefields, subfossil wood remnants are being outwashed from beneath ice and snow bodies. In Scandinavia, this kind of detrital wood is a previously unused source of postglacial vegetation and climate history. The present study reports radiocarbon dates of a set of 78 wood samples, retrieved from three main sites, high above modern treelines and stretching along the Swedish Scandes. In accord with previous studies, pine (Pinus sylvestris) colonized early emerging nunataks already during the Late Glacial. Around 9600-9500 cal. yr BP a first massive wave of tree establishment, birch and pine, took place in "empty" glacier cirques. Both species grew 400-600 m above their present-ay treeline position and the summer temperatures may have been 3.5 °C warmer than present. In respons to Neoglacial cooling, treelines of both birch and pine descended until their final disappearance from the record 4400 and 5900 cal. yr BP, respectively. During the entire interval 9600 to 4400 cal. yr BP, birch prospered in a 100-150 broad belt above the uppermost pines. The recent emergence of tree remnants in the current habitats relates to the contemporary episode of climate warming, possibly unprecedented for several past millennia. It is inferred, by an anology with the past, that in a future scenario with summers 3.5 ° warmer than present, the birch treeline may rise by 600 m or so.

  • 25284.
    Öberg, Michael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Förvaltningen och verkligheten: Ett implementeringsperspektiv på verkställigheter av utvisningsdomar i brottmål2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     

    I det föreliggande arbetet undersöks dels huruvida verkställigheten av domstolsbeslut gällande utvisning med återreseförbud omgärdas av några implementeringsproblem, dels av vilken karaktär dessa är och ur vad de är sprungna. Undersökningen, som är inom ramarna för det som brukar kallas policyanalys, sker med utgångspunkt i en teoretisk modell som tar hänsyn till tre olika typer av generella villkor som måste vara uppfyllda för att en lyckad implementering av ett överordnat beslut skall kunna sägas vara för handen. Studien bygger på en numerär genomgång av alla utvisningsärenden  som handlagts av Polismyndigheten i Västernorrlands län under en femårsperiod, samt på intervjuer med tillämpare på olika nivåer. Syftet med arbetet är att svara på frågorna: finns implementeringsproblem i den studerade kontexten? Om så är fallet, vilken karaktär har problemen och vad är det som gör att de uppstår?

     

  • 25285.
    Öberg, Petra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Psykisk ohälsa hos äldre, hur påverkar fysisk aktivitet?Personalens upplevelser.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 25286.
    Öberg, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fostran: En kvalitativ studie om tre pedagoger och fyra föräldrars syn på olika aspekter av fostran2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 25287.
    Öberg, Sophia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Wikberg, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kvinnojourers arbete med våldsutsatta äldre kvinnor – en kvalitativ enkätundersökning2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 25288.
    Öberg, Tomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and System science.
    Server-vs klientgenererade webbapplikationer: Enjämförelse ur ett usabilityperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes a closer look and conducts a   comparison of two different approaches to generate interactivity of web   applications today, namely server or client side generation. The overall   purpose of the comparison is to help determine which approach is best suited   to generate maximum business advantage to least possible time cost. The   perspective used to measure this is usability seen from a developer's point   of view. The time it takes to acquaint oneself with a framework may vary on   several aspects and therefore a demarcated scenario has been set up and   individual parts have been evaluated side by side in the frameworks JSF and   Angular.io. Together with interviews of developer’s gathered experiences a   result has been possible to assemble. This result speaks neither for or   against either of the two approaches as both techniques have their own   advantages and disadvantages. What has been most prominent in the comparison   however is the introduction of the design pattern Model View Controller in a   framework for client side generation as Angular.io. This results in a similar   experience in usability as in a corresponding framework for server side   generation as JSF, which is good in an efficiency point of view. Still, the   lack of relevant error messages is experienced as a big problem in client   side frameworks and is an issue which stands out negatively in the   comparison.

  • 25289.
    Öblom, Rosanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Egenvårdsstrategier för personer med högt blodtryck.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: 1 miljard människor världen över lider av hypertoni. Det är en kronisk folksjukdom som påtagligt bidrar till olika kardiovaskulära följdsjukdomar. Med effektiv blodtrycksbehandling kan man minska sjukligheten, dödligheten och även de följdsjukdomar som uppkommer. I samband med följdsjukdomar spelar egenvård en central roll. Syfte: Belysa egenvårdsstrategier för personer med högt blodtryck. Metod: Litteraturöversikt gjordes av 14 vetenskapliga artiklar som söktes i databaserna PubMed och Cinahl. Dessa granskades genom fyra urval och bildade sedan fyra kategorier. Resultat: Det visade sig att goda egenvårdsstrategier så som kost, fysisk aktivitet, viktnedgång, saltreduktion och stresshantering kan sänkta blodtrycket avsevärt. Diskussion: Det kan vara svårt att bibehålla livsstilsförändringar för patienten. Då är det sjuksköterskans uppgift att ge råd och stöd för att motivera personen i sina livsstilsförändringar och egenvårdsstrategier. Slutsatser: De två största egenvårdsstrategier som sänker blodtrycket är kost och fysisk aktivitet.

  • 25290.
    Öblom, Rosanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Egenvårdsstrategier för personer med högt blodtryck2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: 1 miljard människor världen över lider av hypertoni. Det är en kroniskfolksjukdom som påtagligt bidrar till olika kardiovaskulära följdsjukdomar. Med effektivblodtrycksbehandling kan man minska sjukligheten, dödligheten och även deföljdsjukdomar som uppkommer. I samband med följdsjukdomar spelar egenvård encentral roll. Syfte: Belysa egenvårdsstrategier för personer med högt blodtryck. Metod:Litteraturöversikt gjordes av 14 vetenskapliga artiklar som söktes i databaserna PubMed ochCinahl. Dessa granskades genom fyra urval och bildade sedan fyra kategorier. Resultat: Detvisade sig att goda egenvårdsstrategier så som kost, fysisk aktivitet, viktnedgång,saltreduktion och stresshantering kan sänkta blodtrycket avsevärt. Diskussion: Det kanvara svårt att bibehålla livsstilsförändringar för patienten. Då är det sjuksköterskans uppgiftatt ge råd och stöd för att motivera personen i sina livsstilsförändringar ochegenvårdsstrategier. Slutsatser: De två största egenvårdsstrategier som sänker blodtrycketär kost och fysisk aktivitet.

  • 25291.
    Ödegaard, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Är den ojämlika hälsan nästa samhällsutmaning?: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots att medellivslängden ökar och vi blir allt friskare fortsätter den ojämlika i hälsan att öka. Samhället bör skapa goda förutsättningar för att jämna ut skillnader i hälsa, som i sin tur bidrar till en hållbar utveckling. Eftersom socialarbetare kommer i kontakt med utsatta grupper i sitt dagliga arbete, har de en unik position att vägleda individer i rätt riktning som främjar en god hälsoutveckling. Syftet med studien är att studera aktuell forskning för att skapa en förståelse för de bakomliggande mekanismer som ger upphov till ojämlik hälsa. Metoden är en litteraturstudie som analyserar aktuellt forskningsläge inom valt ämnesområde. Resultatet visar att individer med låg utbildningsnivå och låginkomsttagare tillhör riskgrupper för att utveckla en sämre hälsa. Sämre hälsa riskerar även att reproduceras och överföras till nästa generation. Studien visar även att en jämn fördelning av samhällets resurser bekämpar ojämlikhet i hälsa.

  • 25292.
    Öderyd, Emma-Sofia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Pedagogiskt idrottsledarskap: Med fokus på genus- och jämställdhetsfrågor2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats ämnar undersöka ledarskapet inom idrotten med fokus på ishockey och hur en arbetar med genus- och jämställdhetsfrågor. Valet av detta ämne har sin bakgrund i våra egna upplevelser kring jämställdheten i samhället överlag och intresset för ledarskap och genus. Under processens gång utvecklades intresset för just idrott. Syftet är att belysa ledarskapet i ett kvinnligt och i ett manligt hockeylag med avseende på hur ledarna arbetar med pedagogik, genusmedvetenhet och jämställdhet. Frågeställningarna grundar sig i hur ledarna behandlar deltagare i idrottslag och om de arbetar på ett genusmedvetet sätt. Undersökningen är huvudsakligen kvalitativ, med semistrukturerade intervjuer och observationer. Även en enkätundersökning har genomförts för att få in en kvantitativ del. Av resultatet framkom att ingen av ledarna har någon pedagogisk utbildning, ändå finns ett pedagogiskt tänk och de vill ta fram de bästa i både gruppen och hos individen. Genusmedvetenheten hos ledarna skiljer sig åt och båda arbetar med jämställdhet utifrån olika perspektiv. Det vi har sett i undersökningen är att ledarna för respektive lag försöker att göra sitt bästa i arbetet med jämställdhet och genusmedvetenhet. Dock finns brister hos båda ledarna där de motsäger sig själva ibland. De slutsatser vi kan dra av detta arbete är att jämställdhet och genus uppfattas på olika sätt och att olika strategier används för att arbeta med det.

  • 25293.
    Ödliing, Gunvor
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Danielson, E
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Borup, S
    Norberg, A
    Personalens syn på bröstcancer och omvårdnad av kvinnor som opererats för bröstcancer.: Paper presenterat vid Årligt möte för psykosocial forskning om bröstcancer, Karolinska sjukhuset i Stockholm.1997Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 25294.
    Ödling, Gunvor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Omvårdnadshandledning.: Medverkan i symposium - Professionell växt genomhandledning. 5:e Kirurgveckan i Östersund 21-25 aug.2000Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25295.
    Ödling, Gunvor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Professional caregivers' experiences of caring for women with breast cancer on a surgical ward2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 25296.
    Ödling, Gunvor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Screeningupptäckta bröstcancerpatienters väg genom vårdkedjan.2000Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25297.
    Ödling, Gunvor
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Axelsson, Karin
    Norberg, Astrid
    Umeå universitet. Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Upplevelser i samband med operation av nyupptäckt bröstcancer1995In: Vård i Norden, ISSN 0107-4083, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 14-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25298.
    Ödling, Gunvor
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Danielson, Ella
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Borup Christensen, Svend
    Caring for women with recurrent breast cancer- care givers´ descriptions in connection with supervision sessions at a surgical ward.: The 11th Annual Scientific Meeting of the European Association for Cancer Education, Warzawa1998Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 25299.
    Ödling, Gunvor
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Danielson, Ella
    Borup Christensen, Svend
    Norberg, Astrid
    Umeå universitet. Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Living with breast cancer: Care givers´ perceptions in a surgical ward1998In: Cancer Nursing, ISSN 0162-220X, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 187-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Caring for women with breast cancer has potential for increasing care giver distress and anxiety. Knowledge of the threats implicit in the disease and treatment as well as overidentification with the patient form the basis for this outcome. In order to describe perceptions of breast cancer as an illness, semistructured interviews were carried out with 37 care givers at a surgical department. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. An analysis was then carried out of the stories told by the care givers about breast cancer as an illness. The results indicated that breast cancer as an illness gave rise to predominantly negative and dark associations among the care givers. Their experiences of caring for women in critical stages of the illness over many years appear to have had a negative influence on them. Death itself, and even more so the process leading to the end, were very tangible in their stories. The article concludes that care givers on a surgical ward have a fragmented picture of the patients and need to be given opportunities to follow the total care process. Those care givers who were able to follow the women's stages of illness throughout more often had a positive picture.

  • 25300.
    Ödling, Gunvor
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Danielson, Ella
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Borup, S
    Norberg, A
    Umeå universitet.
    Care givers´ perceptions of nursing care and support to women with breast cancer. The 10th Annual Scientific Meeting of the European Association for Cancer Education, Bryssel.1997Conference paper (Other scientific)
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