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  • 25201.
    Wolvén, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Flach, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Third Sector; in Quest for Gemeinschaft and the Good Life?: Conference - Local Society and Global Economy : The Role of Co-operative. Naousa Imathias/Thessaloniki, Greece, May 9-122002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25202.
    Wolvén, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Olsson, Susanna
    Bengtsson, Johan
    Ekholm, Staffan
    Nordin, Tomas
    Att ta steget in i framtiden - om småföretagare och informationsteknologi i lokalsamhället: Slutrapport från projektet Apple Village Årefjällen1994Report (Other academic)
  • 25203.
    Wolvén, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Östersund.
    Söderström, Stig-Anders
    Högskolan i Östersund.
    Varför är forskning om mänskliga resurser viktig?1988In: Human resources: possibilities and limitations : documentation from an international conference, Östersund: Högskolan , 1988Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25204.
    Wolvén, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gemeinschaft, Gesellschaft and Leadership in Non-Profit Organizations - A Comparative Study between Non-Profit Organizations and Organizations within the Public and Private Sector in the Northern Part of Sweden.2004In: EGPA 2004 Annual Conference, 2004, p. 1-24Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25205.
    Wong, Winnie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A Hybrid Pixel Detector ASIC with Energy Binning for Real-Time, Spectroscopic Dose Measurements2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid pixel detectors have been demonstrated to provide excellent quality detection of ionising photon radiation, particularly in X-ray imaging. Recently, there has been interest in developing a hybrid pixel detector specifically for photon dosimetry. This thesis is on the design, implementation, and preliminary characterisation of the Dosepix readout chip.

    Dosepix has 256 square pixels of 220 mm side-length, constituting 12.4 mm2 of photo-sensitive area per detector. The combination of multiple pixels provides many parallel processors with limited input flux, resulting in a radiation dose monitor which can continuously record data and provide a real-time report on personal dose equivalent. Energy measurements are obtained by measuring the time over threshold of each photon and a state machine in the pixel sorts the detected photon event into appropriate energy bins. Each pixel contains 16 digital thresholds with 16 registers to store the associated energy bins. Preliminary measurements of Dosepix chips bump bonded to silicon sensors show very promising results. The pixel has a frontend noise of 120 e-. In low power mode, each chip consumes 15 mW, permitting its use in a portable, battery-powered system. Direct time over threshold output from the hybrid pixel detector assembly reveal distinctive photo-peaks correctly identifying the nature of incident photons, and verification measurements indicate that the pixel binning state machines accurately categorise charge spectra. Personal dose equivalent reconstruction using this data has a flat response for a large range of photon energies and personal dose equivalent rates.

  • 25206.
    Wong, Winnie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Design considerations for Area-Constrained In-Pixel Photon counting in Medipix32008In: Topical workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics, 2008, p. 539-543Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid pixel detectors process impinging photons using front-end electronics electrically connected to a segmented sensor via solder bumps. This allows for complex in-pixel processing while maintaining 100% fill factor. Medipix3 is a single photon processing chip whose 55 μm x 55 μm pixels contain analog charge-processing circuits, inter-pixel routing, and digital blocks. While a standard digital design flow would use logic gates from a standard cell library, the integration of multiple functions and configurations within the compact area of the Medipix3 pixel requires a full-custom manual layout. This work describes the various area-saving design strategies which were employed to optimize the use of available space in the digital section of the Medipix3 pixel.

  • 25207.
    Wong, Winnie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ballabriga, R.
    Campbell, M.
    Llopart, X.
    Tlustos, L.
    Counter architectures for a single photon-counting pixel detector such as Medipix32007In: AIP Conference Proceedings, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2007, Vol. 958, p. 262-263Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25208. Wong, Winnie S
    et al.
    Anton, G
    ECAP, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Ballabriga, R
    Medipix Team, PH-ESE-ME, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Blaj, G
    Medipix Team, PH-ESE-ME, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Böhnel, M
    ECAP, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Campbell, M
    Medipix Team, PH-ESE-ME, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Gabor, T
    ECAP, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Heijne, E
    Medipix Team, PH-ESE-ME, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Llopart, S
    Medipix Team, PH-ESE-ME, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Michel, T
    ECAP, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Ritter, I
    ECAP, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Poikela, T
    Medipix Team, PH-ESE-ME, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Sievers, P
    ECAP, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Tlustos, L
    Medipix Team, PH-ESE-ME, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Valerio, P
    Medipix Team, PH-ESE-ME, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection2012In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 7, no 1, p. Art. no. C01056-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the first electrical measurements of an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to be used in a hybrid pixel detector intended for dosimetry and radiation detection. The dosimeter has three programmable modes of operation: photon counting mode, energy integration mode, and dosimetry mode. The ASIC comprises a matrix of 16 by 16 (256 total) square pixels of 220 ÎŒm pitch, providing 12.4 mm 2 of segmented active area. Each pixel can be configured to operate in one of the three radiation measurement modes, with programmable-depth counters and shift registers to tailor the data word size and optimise the readout frame-rate in a given mode. The individual energies of impinging photons are determined through programmable analogue energy threshold discrimination, time over threshold measurement, or a combination thereof. Furthermore, the dosimetry mode contains 16 digital energy thresholds and automatically sorts data into 16 corresponding energy bin registers. The chip's output is therefore pre-processed charge spectra of the radiation field. This paper discusses results from measurements taken using programmable test-pulses to inject controlled stimuli into the pixel circuits.

  • 25209.
    Wong, Winnie S.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Anton, G.
    Ballabriga, R.
    Böhnel, M.
    Campbell, M.
    Heijne, E.
    Llopart, X.
    Michel, T.
    Münster, I.
    Plackett, R.
    Sievers, P.
    Takoukam, P.
    Tlustos, L.
    Valerio, P.
    A pixel detector asic for dosimetry using time-over-threshold energy measurements2011In: Radiation Measurements, ISSN 1350-4487, E-ISSN 1879-0925, Vol. 46, no 12, p. 1619-1623Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present the design of a chip which provides the readout of a highly segmented diode array, in which signals induced by individual X-ray photons are processed discretely. There are several benefits to this approach, including the ability to achieve a high signal to noise ratio due to the inherently low sensor capacitance, and the suppression of background noise (e.g. dark current) using an analogue threshold. The segmentation also ensures a linear behaviour even at very high dose rates. A time over threshold (ToT1) energy measurement technique provides an immediate digital value corresponding to the energy deposited onto the diode by each individual photon. Deadtime-free operation is achieved by reading out a subset of the detector segments at a time while the rest of the detector continues to process signals. This paper describes the application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chip which was designed to provide pre-processing of photo-induced signals in the detector and readout of the processed digital data.

  • 25210.
    Wonkavaara, Camilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Påverkar mindfulnessinterventioner upplevelsen av krav och kontroll på arbetsplatsen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 25211.
    Wreber, Rebecka
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Intressenters betydelse för hållbar utveckling: Hinder och möjligheter på kommunal nivå2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 25212.
    Wredenberg, Agnes
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Electromyographic activity in standing shooting position in biathlon at rest and after physical activity2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between muscle activation and shooting performance in biathlon at rest and after pysical activity (PA). Seven female age 19 - 24 (21+-1 yrs) regularly competin on natinal/international level participated. The study was made indoor with sharp ammunition and contents of 20 shots at rest an 20 shots at rest and 20 shots after PA (arm-andlegcycle) 4X4 minuters of 85% of HRmax. EMG measured on right, m. Triceps Brachii, m. Deltoideus, m. Flexor Carpi Radialis, m. Extenstor Cari Radialis, left and right m. Bicepts Brachii, left and right m. Gastrocnemiuns, m. Rectus Abdominis. The muscle activation is low for all shooters in all shots at rest and after PA. Left m. Gastrocnemius was more activated in bad shots compared to good at rest (P=0.03). A positive correlation (P<0.05) between good and bad shots shows that muscle activation is not a depending factor in shooting performance. The muscle activation is individual and variations can be explained by altered shooting stance and technique. A stable stance is advantageously in standing shooting. The main results was that if an athlete activate a muscle more or less during bad or good shot is individual.

  • 25213.
    Wredenberg, Agnes
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tryckfördelning i olika skotyper i stående skytte i vila och efter fysisk ansträngning - en skidskyttestudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skidskytteträning bedrivs med varierande utrustning på och under fötterna beroende på säsong och typ av träningspass. Syftet med studien var att i skidskyttets stående skjutmoment undersöka joggingskor (JOGG), skatepjäxor på skidor (SKID) och på rullskidor (RULL) vid vila samt efter fysisk ansträngning med avseende på förändringar i tryck och dess area under fötterna samt skjutprestation. Åtta aktiva skidskyttejuniorer testades i skyttehall där tre sko- och skidkombinationer, JOGG, SKID och RULL, undersöktes i vila samt efter fysiskt arbete. I vila sköts 10 skott med respektive utrustning i randomiserad följd därefter arm- och bencyklade försökspersonen 6x4min på 90% av maximal hjärtfrekvens och sköt fem skott i varje intervallpaus och efter två serier byttes sko- och skidutrustning. Tryckfördelningsarean minskade efter fysisk ansträngning jämfört med i vila för samtliga undersökta skotyper däremot fanns inga skillnader i tryck. Skjutrestultatet tenderade att försämras efter fysisk ansträngning. För rullskidor korrelerade den minskade tryckfördelningsarean efter fysisk ansträngning med ett sämre skjutresultat. Rullskidor, med liten kontaktyta mot underlaget, hade tendens att påverka skjutmomentet negativt efter fysisk aktivitet jämfört med joggingskor och skidor. Det kan därmed vara fördelaktigt att träna skytte i kombination med fysisk ansträngning och gärna på rullskidor för att därigenom erhålla positiv träningseffekt när skidor används i samband med skytte. 

  • 25214.
    Wredenfors, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stå eller sitta? - Arbetsställningens effekt på koncentrationsförmågan hos kontorsanställda2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 25215.
    Wu, Gang
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Brand Management in SMEs - The Case of Hasta AB2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the issues around the process of brand management in SMEs. Most of conventional principles prescribed in the brand management literature are invalid to be applied to the SMEs’ marketing problems, but there are some relevant researches regarding some proposed branding policies for small businesses.

     

    The purpose of this thesis is to find an effective and practical brand strategy for SMEs, which means I expect to generate a framework for the SME branding process. After I developed a conceptual model, some proposed branding guidelines were examined through a case study. Qualitative interviewing was used to collect data within a Swedish SME –HastaAB.

     

    The empirical findings indicate that the SME branding policies are highly influenced by these factors: brand awareness, marketing strategies, brand recognition and resource etc. Based on the empirical findings, my conceptual model was adjusted by assessing the effect of proposed policies. In conclusion, I came up with a final model of brand management in SMEs which helps SMEs to build and develop their brands. The model involves some executable branding policies for SMEs.

  • 25216.
    Wulff, Annegrete
    Statistics Denmark.
    Eyes Wide Shut - Or Using Eye Tracking Technique to Test a Website2007In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation provides an introduction to the technique called "Eye Tracking" which Statistics Denmark has recently used to test the usability of its website user interface. Eye tracking is a tool used to analyse "human - computer" interaction. The user's eye movements and fixation time are both registered when this technique is used. However, whether the person actually perceives what the eyes are fixed on is not documented. Statistics Denmark has tested this method on ten users who were asked to carry out particular tasks on the website. It is open to discussion whether the method is strong enough to be used independently. Some of the results were quite persuasive and supported the comments from other users. However, we suggest that eye tracking should not be the only method employed, but it should be used in combination with more traditional usability methods such as, "think aloud" and follow-up interviews.

  • 25217.
    Wunderer, C. B.
    et al.
    DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Allahgholi, A.
    DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Bayer, M.
    DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Bianco, L.
    DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Correa, J.
    DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Delfs, A.
    DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Gottlicher, P.
    DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Hirsemann, H.
    DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Jack, S.
    DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Klyuev, A.
    DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Lange, S.
    DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Marras, A.
    DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Niemann, M.
    DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Pithan, F.
    DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Reza, Salim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Sheviakov, I.
    DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Smoljanin, S.
    DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Tennert, M.
    DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Trunk, U.
    DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Xia, Q.
    DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Zhang, J.
    DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Zimmer, M.
    DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Das, D.
    STFC, Harwell, Oxford, Didcot, United Kingdom.
    Guerrini, N.
    STFC, Harwell, Oxford, Didcot, United Kingdom.
    Marsh, B.
    STFC, Harwell, Oxford, Didcot, United Kingdom.
    Sedgwick, I.
    STFC, Harwell, Oxford, Didcot, United Kingdom.
    Turchetta, R.
    STFC, Harwell, Oxford, Didcot, United Kingdom.
    Cautero, G.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy.
    Giuressi, D.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy.
    Menk, R.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy.
    Khromova, A.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy.
    Pinaroli, G.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy.
    Stebel, L.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy.
    Marchal, J.
    Diamond, Harwell Campus, Didcot, United Kingdom.
    Pedersen, U.
    Diamond, Harwell Campus, Didcot, United Kingdom.
    Rees, N.
    Diamond, Harwell Campus, Didcot, United Kingdom.
    Steadman, P.
    Diamond, Harwell Campus, Didcot, United Kingdom.
    Sussmuth, M.
    Diamond, Harwell Campus, Didcot, United Kingdom.
    Tartoni, N.
    Diamond, Harwell Campus, Didcot, United Kingdom.
    Yousef, H.
    Diamond, Harwell Campus, Didcot, United Kingdom.
    Hyun, H.
    Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, South Korea.
    Kim, K.
    Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, South Korea.
    Rah, S.
    Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, South Korea.
    Dinapoli, R.
    PSI, Villingen, Switzerland.
    Greiffenberg, D.
    PSI, Villingen, Switzerland.
    Mezza, D.
    PSI, Villingen, Switzerland.
    Mozzanica, A.
    PSI, Villingen, Switzerland.
    Schmitt, B.
    PSI, Villingen, Switzerland.
    Shi, X.
    PSI, Villingen, Switzerland.
    Krueger, H.
    University of Bonn, Regina-Pacis-Weg 3, Bonn, Germany .
    Klanner, R.
    University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, Hamburg, Germany .
    Schwandt, J.
    University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, Hamburg, Germany .
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. DESY, Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg, Germany .
    Detector developments at DESY2016In: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, ISSN 0909-0495, E-ISSN 1600-5775, Vol. 23, p. 111-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased brilliance of state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation sources and the advent of free-electron lasers (FELs) enabling revolutionary science with EUV to X-ray photons comes an urgent need for suitable photon imaging detectors. Requirements include high frame rates, very large dynamic range, single-photon sensitivity with low probability of false positives and (multi)-megapixels. At DESY, one ongoing development project-in collaboration with RAL/STFC, Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Diamond, and Pohang Accelerator Laboratory-is the CMOS-based soft X-ray imager PERCIVAL. PERCIVAL is a monolithic active-pixel sensor back-thinned to access its primary energy range of 250 eV to 1 keV with target efficiencies above 90%. According to preliminary specifications, the roughly 10 cm × 10 cm, 3.5k × 3.7k monolithic sensor will operate at frame rates up to 120 Hz (commensurate with most FELs) and use multiple gains within 27 μm pixels to measure 1 to ∼ 100000 (500 eV) simultaneously arriving photons. DESY is also leading the development of the AGIPD, a high-speed detector based on hybrid pixel technology intended for use at the European XFEL. This system is being developed in collaboration with PSI, University of Hamburg, and University of Bonn. The AGIPD allows singlepulse imaging at 4.5 MHz frame rate into a 352-frame buffer, with a dynamic range allowing single-photon detection and detection of more than 10000 photons at 12.4 keV in the same image. Modules of 65k pixels each are configured to make up (multi)megapixel cameras. This review describes the AGIPD and the PERCIVAL concepts and systems, including some recent results and a summary of their current status. It also gives a short overview over other FEL-relevant developments where the Photon Science Detector Group at DESY is involved. © 2016 International Union of Crystallography.

  • 25218.
    Wunderer, C. B.
    et al.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Correa, J.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Marras, A.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Aplin, S.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Boitrelle, B.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany; Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Goettlicher, P.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Krivan, F.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Kuhn, M.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Lange, S.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Niemann, M.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Okrent, F.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    Shevyakov, I.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Zimmer, M.
    DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Guerrini, N.
    RAL, STFC, CMOS Sensor Design, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Marsh, B.
    RAL, STFC, CMOS Sensor Design, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Sedgwick, I.
    RAL, STFC, CMOS Sensor Design, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Cautero, G.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy.
    Giuressi, D.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy.
    Gregori, I.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy.
    Pinaroli, G.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy; Univ Udine, Udine, Italy.
    Menk, R.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy.
    Stebel, L.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy.
    Greer, A.
    Diamond Light Source, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Nicholls, T.
    RAL, STFC, CMOS Sensor Design, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Pedersen, U. K.
    Diamond Light Source, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Tartoni, N.
    Diamond Light Source, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Hyun, H.
    Pohang Accelerator Lab, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, South Korea.
    Kim, K.
    Pohang Accelerator Lab, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, South Korea.
    Rah, S.
    Pohang Accelerator Lab, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, South Korea.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. DESY, Hamburg, Germany; CFEL, Hamburg, Germany.
    The Percival 2-Megapixel monolithic active pixel imager2019In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 14, no 1, article id C01006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The peak brilliance reached by today's Free-Electron Laser and Synchrotron light sources requires photon detectors matching their output intensity and other characteristics in order to fully realize the sources' potential. The Pixellated Energy Resolving CMOS Imager, Versatile And Large (Percival) is a dedicated soft X-ray imager (0.25-1 keV) developed for this purpose by a collaboration of DESY, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory/STFC, Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Diamond Light Source, and Pohang Accelerator Laboratory. Following several generations of prototypes, the Percival "P2M" 2-Megapixel imager - a 4.5x5 cm monolithic, stitched sensor with an uninterrupted imaging area of 4x4 cm(2) (1408x1484 pixels of 27x27 mu m - was produced and has demonstrated basic functionality with a first-light image using visible light. It is currently being brought to full operation in a front-illuminated configuration. The readout system being commissioned in parallel has been developed specifically for this imager which will produce - at full 300 Hz frame rate - data at 20 Gbit/s. A first wafer with eight Percival P2M chips has undergone backthinning to enable soft X-ray detection. It has been diced and chips are currently being wirebonded. We summarize here the P2M system, the project status, and show the P2M sensor's first response to visible light.

  • 25219.
    Wunderer, C. B.
    et al.
    DESY Deutsch Elektronensynchrotron, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Marras, A.
    DESY Deutsch Elektronensynchrotron, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Bayer, M.
    DESY Deutsch Elektronensynchrotron, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Correa, J.
    DESY Deutsch Elektronensynchrotron, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Göttlicher, P.
    DESY Deutsch Elektronensynchrotron, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Lange, S.
    DESY Deutsch Elektronensynchrotron, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Shevyakov, I.
    DESY Deutsch Elektronensynchrotron, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Smoljanin, S.
    DESY Deutsch Elektronensynchrotron, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Tennert, M.
    DESY Deutsch Elektronensynchrotron, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Viti, M.
    DESY Deutsch Elektronensynchrotron, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Xia, Q.
    DESY Deutsch Elektronensynchrotron, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Zimmer, M.
    DESY Deutsch Elektronensynchrotron, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Das, D.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab STFC, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England.
    Guerrini, N.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab STFC, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England.
    Marsh, B.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab STFC, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England.
    Sedgwick, I.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab STFC, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England.
    Turchetta, R.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab STFC, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England.
    Cautero, G.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, I-34149 Trieste, Italy.
    Gianoncelli, A.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, I-34149 Trieste, Italy.
    Giuressi, D.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, I-34149 Trieste, Italy.
    Menk, R.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, I-34149 Trieste, Italy.
    Stebel, L.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, I-34149 Trieste, Italy.
    Yousef, H.
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, I-34149 Trieste, Italy.
    Marchal, J.
    Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 ODE, Oxon, England.
    Rees, N.
    Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 ODE, Oxon, England.
    Tartoni, N.
    Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 ODE, Oxon, England.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. DESY Deutsch Elektronensynchrotron, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    The PERCIVAL soft X-ray imager2015In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 10, no 2, article id C02008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased brilliance of state-of-the-art Synchrotron radiation sources and the advent of Free Electron Lasers enabling revolutionary science on atomic length and time scales with EUV to X-ray photons comes an urgent need for suitable photon imaging detectors. Requirements include high frame rates, very large dynamic range, single-photon counting capability with low probability of false positives, and (multi)-megapixels. PERCIVAL ("Pixelated Energy Resolving CMOS Imager, Versatile And Large") is currently being developed by a collaboration of DESY, RAL, Elettra, DLS and Pohang to address this need for the soft X-ray regime. PERCIVAL is a monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS), i.e. based on CMOS technology. It will be back-thinned to access its primary energy range of 250 eV to 1 keV with target efficiencies above 90%. According to its preliminary specifications, the roughly 10 × 10 cm2, 3.5k × 3.7k monolithic "PERCIVAL13M" sensor will operate at frame rates up to 120 Hz (commensurate with most FELs) and use multiple gains within its 27 μm pixels to measure 1 to ∼ 105 (500 eV) simultaneously-arriving photons. A smaller "PERCIVAL2M" with ∼ 1.4k × 1.5k pixels is also planned. Currently, small-scale back-illuminated prototype systems (160 × 210 pixels of 25 μm pitch) are undergoing detailed testing with X-rays and optical photons. In March 2014, a prototype sensor was tested at 350 eV-2 keV at Elettra's TwinMic beamline. The data recorded include diffraction patterns at 350 eV and 400 eV, knife edge and sub-pixel pinhole illuminations, and comparisons of different pixel types. Another prototype chip will be submitted in fall 2014, first larger sensors could be in hand in late 2015.

  • 25220.
    Wunderer, C. B.
    et al.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Marras, A.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Bayer, M.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Glaser, L.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Göttlicher, P.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Lange, S.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Pithan, F.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Scholz, F.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Seltmann, J.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Shevyakov, I.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Smoljanin, S.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Viefhaus, J.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Viti, M.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Xia, Q.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Zimmer, M.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Klumpp, S.
    Universität Hamburg, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    Gasiorek, P.
    Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), OX11 0QX Didcot, United Kingdom .
    Guerrini, N.
    Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), OX11 0QX Didcot, United Kingdom .
    Marsh, B.
    Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), OX11 0QX Didcot, United Kingdom .
    Sedgwick, I.
    Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), OX11 0QX Didcot, United Kingdom .
    Turchetta, R.
    Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), OX11 0QX Didcot, United Kingdom .
    Cautero, G.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S.14 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Trieste, Italy.
    Farina, S.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S.14 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Trieste, Italy.
    Giuressi, D.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S.14 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Trieste, Italy.
    Menk, R.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S.14 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Trieste, Italy.
    Stebel, L.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S.14 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Trieste, Italy.
    Yousef, H.
    Elettra Sinchrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S.14 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Trieste, Italy.
    Marchal, J.
    Diamond Light Source, OX11 0DE Didcot, United Kingdom.
    Nicholls, T.
    Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), OX11 0QX Didcot, United Kingdom .
    Tartoni, N.
    Diamond Light Source, OX11 0DE Didcot, United Kingdom.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany .
    The PERCIVAL soft X-ray imager2014In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 9, no 3, article id C03056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased brilliance of state-of-the-art Synchrotron radiation sources and the advent of Free Electron Lasers enabling revolutionary science with EUV to X-ray photons comes an urgent need for suitable photon imaging detectors. Requirements include high frame rates, very large dynamic range, single-photon counting capability with low probability of false positives, and (multi)-megapixels. PERCIVAL (''Pixelated Energy Resolving CMOS Imager, Versatile and Large'') is currently being developed by a collaboration of DESY, RAL, Elettra and DLS to address this need for the soft X-ray regime. PERCIVAL is a monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS), i.e. based on CMOS technology. It will be back-thinned to access its primary energy range of 250 eV to 1 keV with target efficiencies above 90%. According to its preliminary specifications, the roughly 10 × 10 cm2, 3520 × 3710 pixel monolithic sensor will operate at frame rates up to 120 Hz (commensurate with most FELs) and use multiple gains within its 27 μm pixels to measure (e.g. at 500 eV) 1 to ∼ 105 simultaneously-arriving photons. Currently, small-scale front-illuminated prototype systems (160 × 210 pixels) are undergoing detailed testing with visible-light as well as X-ray photons. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl.

  • 25221.
    Wyatt, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    Identity, Language and Culture in Eva Hoffman's Lost in Translation2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay looks at the relation between identity, language and culture. The essay defines the three concepts and comes to the conclusion that these concepts are so closely related that they can not be described without each other. The theories used to define these concepts are culture studies, ethnolinguistics, translation studies and culture translation studies. The relation between identity, language and culture is viewed thru Eva Hoffman’s novel Lost in Translation which is Hoffman’s own story of moving from Poland to Canada as a child and how this shaped her identity. The essay focus on the complex process of how people living “in-between” cultures develop their identity.

  • 25222. Wängberg, Sten-Åke
    et al.
    Selmer, Johanne-Sophie
    Gustavsson, Kim
    Ekelund, Nils
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    UV-B Effects on Nordic Marine Ecosystem – A literature Review1997Book (Other academic)
  • 25223.
    Wängdahl, Jon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Design.
    Ny utmaning: The lost temple of ELDO-RAT-O2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete gjordes i samarbete med Boda Borg Torpshammar där jag fick i uppdrag att ta fram ett förslag till ett nytt quest. Questet skulle ersätta ett tidigare och behövde därför ha ungefär samma svårighetsgrad och samma fysiska nivå. Jag har under projektets gång genomfört tester och brukarstudier för att ta fram hinder och utmaningar samt arbetat fram ett gemensamt tema. Avslutningsvis har jag byggt en fysisk modell som visar förslaget i en skala på 1:10.

  • 25224.
    Wärja, Mathias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Björkqvist, Olof
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    A Systems Approach to Maintenance and Renewal Strategies2005In: CIRED 2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25225.
    Wärja, Mathias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Björkqvist, Olof
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Reliability Based Approach to Maintenance and Renewal Strategies2004In: Proceedings of PowerCon 2004, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25226.
    Wärja, Mathias
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Björkqvist, Olof
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Variety Reduction Model for Maintenance and Renewal Strategies2004In: Proceedings of NORDAC 2004, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25227.
    Wärme, Gunvor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Hur Ånge kommun möter den lokala medieutvecklingen: en kvalitativ studie om medieskuggan i Sverige med exemplet Ånge2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och problemformulering: Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur ett urval av politiker och tjänstemän inom Ånge kommun ser på medieutvecklingen och medieskuggan. Samt hur den lokala medieutvecklingen har förändrat möjligheten för Ånge kommun att komma ut med information.

    Metod och material: Studien är byggd på sju samtalsintervjuer inom Ånge kommun. Respondenterna är två politiker, fyra tjänstemän och en som arbetar med service.

    Huvudresultat: Resultatet visar att kommunen letar nya vägar genom den medieutveckling som snabbt ändrar förutsättningarna för att nå ut till medborgarna via den traditionella journalistiken. På bara några år har stora förändringar skett i medielandskapet i Ånge kommun. Först togs en lokalredaktion bort och tre år senare fick Dagbladet en hastig nedläggning 2015. Medieskuggan började breda ut sig över kommunen genom detta. Kvar finns en lokalredaktion med en lokalreporter som arbetar mitt i centrala Ånge. Facebook fick en stor plats i studien. Informationsavdelningen på Ånge kommun ser positivt på att utveckla sociala medier för att nå medborgarna via internets nya vägar.

  • 25228.
    Wärme, Josefin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Nilsdotter, Mira
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Bör målet med preoperativ patientundervisning vara ångesteliminering?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 25229.
    Wärn, AnnChristine
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Annelie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Dialyspatienters sexuella dysfunktion och behov av rutinmässig information - en litteraturöversikt2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Patienter inom dialysvård fick lite information om påverkan på sexualitet och samliv som en komplikation av njurarnas bristande funktion. Sexualitet och samliv påverkade individen och dennes livslust i stor utsträckning. Syfte: Syftet var att belysa dialyspatienters sexuella dysfunktion (SD), prevalens, symtom, orsak och bidragande faktorer. Vi ville belysa SD:s påverkan på det psykiska måendet samt i vilken mån patienter sökte och fick behandling. Metod: Vi använde oss av kvantitativa artiklar från Pubmeds databas. Artiklarna kvalitets-bedömdes, bearbetades utifrån syfte och frågeställningar som sedan sammanställdes i resultatet. Urval ur aktuell litteratur gjordes med inriktning mot njursjukvård i syfte att hitta basfakta om hur njursjukdomar yttrade sig i kroppen. Resultat: Prevalensen var hög hos dialyspatienter av SD och sänkt psykiskt mående. Diskussion: Det fanns bevis på att få dialyspatienter med SD delgav sina problem för sin läkare. Medicinsk personal prioriterade inte SD och ansåg att det var på patientens eget ansvar att ta upp. Det saknades rutiner för att tidigt upptäcka SD och genom det kunna höja patientens livskvalitet och förebygga psykiska problem. Slutsats: Om patienten fick adekvat information och kunskap om sin SD så kunde behandling sättas in, patientens livskvalitet höjas och depressiva symtom förhindras.

  • 25230.
    Wärn, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    Läroplanen2011: För enhållbar framtid?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis looks into the Swedish   national curriculum, Lgr 11, and its requirements of knowledge in environment   and sustainable development. Lgr 11 is analysed with a model which summarizes   the planetary boundaries, the global sustainability goals and the Swedish   environmental goals. These are combined into an analytical model with nine   categories.

    The requirements of knowledge in environment   and sustainable development in Lgr 11 fulfils the categories set up in the   model. This is in large due to the general phrasing used in Lgr 11 which   makes them easy to match with the analytical model. The general phrasing   leaves the interpretation of Lgr 11 up to factors such as specific teachers   or schools, with the risk of leading to a varying quality of the education.

    The improvements of Lgr 11 that’s suggested   are to sharpen the phrasings of the knowledge requirements for environment   and sustainable development, and allow for facts to be incorporated into the   sentences. By steering the content towards specific requirements, the quality   of the education in sustainable development is not left up to individual   teachers or schools, but is regulated from a national standpoint and sets a   nationwide standard for which knowledge the next generation should have in   environment and sustainable development.

     

  • 25231.
    Wågberg, Jerker
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ideal inks vs. optimal inks2005In: 2005 Beijing International Conference on Imaging: Technology and Applications for the 21st Century, BEIJING: Science Press, 2005, p. 218-219Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a notion of ideal colors within color science. The significant properties of these ideal colors are that they cover the whole visible spectrum and that they spectrally exclude each other Ideal colors are rather predictable when using additive color mixing, but as ideal inks, they present more of a challenge, as subtractive mixing must be used. Many hold ideal inks as optimal mks, but as this paper will show, this is not always the case. Ideal inks are often used as a goal, albeit unobtainable, but there are other artificial mks that can be more optimal than the ideal mks. By making the ideal mks overlap, they will render more than 20% larger color gamut, and if the transitions in the overlapping regions are made smooth, an even larger gamut can be obtained. A simple model of smoother absorption spectra render a more than 40% larger color gamut than do ideal inks.

  • 25232.
    Wågberg, Lars
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Polyelectrolyte adsorption on cellulose fibres: a review2001Report (Other academic)
  • 25233.
    Wågberg, Lars
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Polyelectrolyte adsorption onto cellulose fibres - A review2000In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 586-597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review focuses upon the following questions: a) Why are the polyelectrolytes adsorbed onto cellulosic fibres? The easiest way to describe the adsorption is as an interaction between the charges on the fibres and the charges on the polyelectrolytes. However the entropy gain upon the release of counterions to the charges on the fibres and the polyelectrolytes gives a much larger contribution to the adsorption energy than the charge interaction. There are some investigations which clarify the influence of certain basic parameters on the fibres and the surfaces and these investigations will be reviewed. An attempt will also be made to create a link between published adsorption data and the Scheutjens-Fleer theory for polyelectrolyte adsorption. Another important question is how the polyelectrolytes are adsorbed on the fibres, i.e. are the segments only found in trains on the surface or will there be some loops and/or tails protruding into the solution? Very little is known about this but the topic will be discussed in some detail. b) Where are the polyelectrolytes adsorbed - on the external surfaces of the fibres or within the fibre wall and how is this related to the molecular properties of the polyelectrolytes? There are a lot of definitions in the literature about fibre surfaces, external surfaces etc. but it is important to link the adsorption to molecular properties and the work in this area will be reviewed. The influence of fines will also be discussed. c) What controls the kinetics of polyelectrolyte adsorption and are there models to describe this adsorption? It is still not entirely known how polymers that adsorb onto the internal surfaces of the fibres are then transported through the fibre wall. The work conducted in this area will be reviewed, It is also important to know the kinetics of the reconformation of the polymer on the fibre surface and this topic will also be discussed in detail. Finally the kinetics of desorption will be treated.

  • 25234.
    Wågberg, Lars
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Spreading of droplets of different liquids on specially structured papers2000Report (Other academic)
  • 25235. Wågberg, Lars
    et al.
    Decher, Gero
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Lindström, Tom
    Ankerfors, Mikael
    Axnäs, Karl
    The build-up of polyelectrolyte multilayers of microfibrillated cellulose and cationic polyelectrolytes2008In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 784-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new type of nanocellulosic material has been prepared by high-pressure homogenization of carboxymethylated cellulose fibers followed by ultrasonication and centrifugation. This material had a cylindrical cross-section as shown by transmission electron microscopy with a diameter of 5-15 nm and a length of up to 1 mu m. Calculations, using the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, showed that the surface potential was between 200 and 250 mV, depending on the pH, the salt concentration, and the size of the fibrils. They also showed that the carboxyl groups on the surface of the nanofibrils are not fully dissociated until the pH has reached pH = similar to 10 in deionized water. Calculations of the interaction between the fibrils using the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory and assuming a cylindrical geometry indicated that there is a large electrostatic repulsion between these fibrils, provided the carboxyl groups are dissociated. If the pH is too low and/or the salt concentration is too high, there will be a large attraction between the fibrils, leading to a rapid aggregation of the fibrils. It is also possible to form polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) by combining different types of polyelectrolytes and microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). In this study, silicon oxide surfaces were first treated with cationic polyelectrolytes before the surfaces were exposed to MFC. The build-up of the layers was monitored with ellipsometry, and they show that it is possible to form very well-defined layers by combinations of MFC and different types of polyelectrolytes and different ionic strengths of the solutions during the adsorption of the polyelectrolyte. A polyelectrolyte with a three-dimensional structure leads to the build-up of thick layers of MFC, whereas the use of a highly charged linear polyelectrolyte leads to the formation of thinner layers of MFC. An increase in the salt concentration during the adsorption of the polyelectrolyte results in the formation of thicker layers of MFC, indicating that the structure of the adsorbed polyelectrolyte has a large influence on the formation of the MFC layer. The films of polyelectrolytes and MFC were so smooth and well-defined that they showed clearly different interference colors, depending on the film thickness. A comparison between the thickness of the films, as measured with ellipsometry, and the thickness estimated from their colors showed good agreement, assuming that the films consisted mainly of solid cellulose with a refractive index of 1.53. Carboxymethylated MFC is thus a new type of nanomaterial that can be combined with oppositely charged polyelectrolytes to form well-defined layers that may be used to form, for example, new types of sensor materials.

  • 25236. Wågberg, Lars
    et al.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Johansson, A
    Juntti, P
    Engineering of fibre surface properties by application of the polyelectrolyte multilayer concept: Part I: Modification of paper strength2002In: Journal of Pulp and Paper Science (JPPS), ISSN 0826-6220, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 222-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consecutive layers of cationic polyallylamine and anionic polyacrylic acid have been deposited on both unbeaten and beaten fully bleached cellulosic fibres. By preparing sheets of these fibres and by forming 5-10 layers of these polyelectrolytes on the unbeaten fibres, it was possible to develop the same strength as can be achieved by conventional beating. Experiments show that considerable strength improvement can be achieved with this type of treatment also on beaten fibres. Atomic force microscopy investigations of multilayers of the polylectrolytes formed on silicon oxide surfaces showed that the thickness of 10 layers of polyelectrolytes was 52 nm. Since the strength improvement was significant with 5 layers, it is suggested that a 26 nm thick multilayer of polyelectrolytes is sufficient to create a strong joint between fibres. The structure of the polyelectrolyte multilayers formed on the fibres was not determined.

  • 25237.
    Wågberg, Lars
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hägglund, R
    SCA Packaging Research.
    Kinetics of polyelectrolyte adsorption on cellulosic fibers2001In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 1096-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present investigation has been focused on studying the adsorption of three different molecular mass fractions of a polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride (DMDAAC) (8750 (LMw), 48 000 (MMw), and 1 200 000 (HMw)) on bleached chemical fibers. Both kinetics of adsorption and equilibrium adsorption measurements have been conducted, and the adsorption has been measured by polyelectrolyte titration. The results show that the LMw polymer can reach all the charges in the fiber wall whereas the MMw and HMw can only reach the charges on the external surfaces of the fibers. It is also shown that the kinetics of adsorption of the LMw polymer is not at all affected by the presence of a saturated layer of HMw polymer on the surface of the fibers. Finally the results from the investigation show that it is possible to have a full coverage of the external surface of the fibers by a high molecular mass polymer and a full coverage of the internal surface of the fibers with a low molecular mass polymer provided that the high molecular mass polymer is adsorbed before addition of the low molecular mass polymer. This is true if the polymers are adsorbed to the same type of groups on the fibers. A simplistic model for describing ployelectrolyte adsorption in turbulent flow also shows good agreement with measured values for the low molecular mass polyelectrolyte whereas the agreement for the high molecular polyelectrolyte is not as good. For the high molecular mass polyelectrolyte a more sophisticated model is needed.

  • 25238.
    Wågberg, Lars
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Hägglund, Rickard
    SCA packaging Research.
    Kinetics of polyelectrolyte adsorption on cellulosic fibres2000Report (Other academic)
  • 25239. Wågberg, Lars
    et al.
    Pettersson, Gunilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Notley, Shannon
    Adsorption of bilayers and multilayers of cationic and anionic copolymers of acrylamide on silcon oxide2004In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 274, no 2, p. 480-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silica surfaces were consecutively treated with copolymers of cationic and anionic polyacrylamides (C-PAM and A-PAM, respectively) and the layer-by-layer build-up was continuously monitored with the aid of stagnation point adsorption reflectometry (SPAR). Four different charge densities of the cationic polymer and one charge density of the anionic polymer were studied. The solid substrate used in the investigation was an oxidized Si wafer, the charge of which was varied by performing the measurements at different pH. Adsorption measurements were performed both in deionized water and with a background electrolyte concentration of 0.01 M NaCl The results show that the adsorption of C-PAM at pH 6 was dominated by electrostatic interactions. However, a significant nonionic contribution to the adsorption of C-PAM on SiO2 was detected-when the results of adsorption measurements conducted in deionized water and in 0.01 M NaCl were compared. At pH 9, the adsorption of C-PAM onto SiO2 was found to be geometrically restricted since the adsorption stoichiometry between the polymer charges and the charges on the surface was less than I irrespective of the charge of the C-PAM. Adsorption of the A-PAM onto the C-PAM covered surface increases as a function of the adsorbed charges in the first layer. Experiments showed that it was possible to form multilayers of polyelectrolytes on the SiO2 surface provided the charge of the C-PAM was high enough. The critical charge of the polyelectrolyte for the formation of multilayers was also dependent on the charge of the substrate; that is, the lower the surface charge the higher the critical charge of the C-PAM. The substrate affected the amount of polyelectrolyte adsorbed up to the fifth layer. For further layers there was almost a stoichiometric relationship between the charges of the polyelectrolytes in consecutive layers. Results from studies of the formed multilayers with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) indicated that there was a close correlation between energy dissipation into the multilayers and a decrease in the adsorption as detected with SPAR. This in turn indicates that a decrease in the reflectometer signal does not necessarily indicate a decrease in adsorption.

  • 25240.
    Wågberg, Lars
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Westerlind, Christina
    SCA.
    Spreading of droplets of different liquids on specially structured papers2000In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 598-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spreading kinetics of drops of different liquids (water, glycerol and ethylene glycol) on different types of model papers have been investigated. In the first part of the investigation single ply and two-ply papers, made from pulps with different degrees of beating, were investigated. The results show that is very common the surface layer of the paper had a much larger influence on the spreading than the bottom ply. By normalising the data showing the drop radius as a function of time with the viscosity and surface tension of the liquids all data collapse onto a master curve. The results from the first part of the investigation also show that in order to determine a contact angle between the liquid and the paper the drop volume should remain constant and the contact angle should be determined when the drop has reached its equilibrium volume. In the second part of the investigation the influence of surface topography and surface energy of the papers on the spreading kinetics was determined. The results show that when the pattern of use, the avails on the surface creates fine capillaries the contact angle is decreased compared to the situation with a flat surface. For papers with a higher roughness the uneven structure creates barriers against the spreading which increases the contact angle compared to the situation with a flat surface. A simple attempt to fit the data to a power law based on a hydrodynamic approach was also conducted. The results from this treatment show that it is possible to get a good match for the sheets with virtually only surface spreading. The constants achieved in this treatment can be used to rationalise the spreading data to be compared with other investigations.

  • 25241.
    wågberg, magnus
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Östling, Marie-Louise
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    "Förr var det förr torrt nu är det för blött": En kvalitativ studie om nyktra anonyma alkoholisters sociala situation2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    INLEDNING

    I samhället kan alkoholism ses som ett avvikande beteende men också nyktra kan ses som avvikande. I vår kultur anses ofta alkohol vara en social dryck som används när vi umgås med vänner och bekanta. Alkohol är betydelsefull för många och kan även vara en självklar del i umgänget med andra. De som inte dricker ses därmed ofta som "onormala" och "konstiga". Sanktioner som påtvingat utanförskap och ifrågasättande av handlingar och åsikter utdelas då någon bryter mot normen att dricka alkohol. Dessa sanktioner gör enligt den amerikanske sociologen Howard S. Becker (1963) de nyktra till avvikare och, som en följd av detta, inte känner att de är en del av gemenskapen. Även de ritualer som tillhör alkoholdrickandet gör att nyktra personer ställs utanför samhörigheten. Detta gör att många nyktra undviker att till exempel gå på fest, besöka pubar eller gå på släktträffar. Utanförskapet som skapas är dock inte statiskt utan beroende på kontexten.

    Enligt den amerikanske sociologen Randall Collins (2004) hålls samhället ihop av sociala interaktionsritualer. Dessa ritualer verkar för att skapa och upprätthålla solidaritet, inte minst inom stratifierade grupper och grupper i konflikt, men även inom fredliga grupper. Resultatet av att delta i sociala ritualer är en känsla av medlemskap, självförtroende och en önskan att handla på ett sätt som anses som det moraliskt rätta. Detta resultat bidrar till att en gränslinje uppstår som markerar vilka som tillhör ritualen och vilka som står utanför.

    Alkoholforskningen i Sverige har mestadels fokuserat på missbruk och konsumtionsmönster. Det har gjorts betydligt färre studier på den nyktra alkoholistens upplevelser av sociala sidoeffekter när det gäller relationer. Etnologen Ingegerd Sigfridsson diskuterar i

    Självklara drycker; kaffe och alkohol i social samvaro

    (2005) alkoholhaltiga drycker i termer av normer och avvikelser. Sigfridsson beskriver alkohol som en gemenskapsdryck i en social kontext. Den sociala tillvaron kan uppfattas lättare om man som de andra i gruppen tackar ja till drycken, om man tackar nej kan det kännas obekvämt eller att man avviker från de övriga. Som alkoholist kan man uppfattas som en avvikare då man dricker för mycket och som nykter alkoholist för att man helt tagit avstånd ifrån drycken. Sigfridsson (2005) skriver i sin avhandling att samhörighet och gemenskap kan skapas genom att förtära en dryck tillsammans med någon i en social situation. Detta kan vara en indikation på att gemenskapen i en social kontext är mycket viktigare än vad man dricker, man dricker fastän man inte vill. Ett exempel kan vara att man dricker alkohol trots att man egentligen inte tycker om det, man dricker ändå för att det passar in i den sociala samvaron. Den sociala tillvaron kan bli lättare om man tackar ja till drycken då personen kanske inte vill vara obekväm eller sticka ut. 3

    Ingegerd Sigfridsson diskuterar detta i termer av norm och avvikelse. Normaliteten är att servera och dricka dryckerna. Att inte dricka den självklara drycken uppfattas som en avvikelse. Klass och kön kan dessutom relateras till alkoholkonsumtion. Sigfridsson säger att de personer som intervjuades hade en enformig bild av vad kvinnor respektive män eller medelklassen respektive arbetarklassen sägs föredra för drycker. En trångsynt bild är att vin kan betraktas som medelklassdryck medan öl och brännvin uppfattas som arbetardryck. I ett trångsynt perspektiv bortser man från könsperspektivet. Detta påvisas exempelvis genom att arbetarkvinnornas val av vin åsidosätts eller medelklassens mäns val av öl tonas ned. En alkoholdryck är på ett flertal sätt knutet till vad som förknippas vara ett rätt val, både ur ett klass- och könsperspektiv. Kontexten har här en stor betydelse. I en offentlig miljö är det svårare att handla friare än i en privat miljö där man även kan handla mer efter egna önskemål. Dryckesvalet indikerar sociala skillnader: social position och kulturell tillhörighet uttrycks genom vad du dricker, när du dricker och vem du dricker med.

  • 25242.
    Wågberg, Max
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Att förutspå Sveriges bistånd: En jämförelse mellan Support Vector Regression och ARIMA2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the use of machine learning has increased significantly. Its uses range from making the everyday life easier with voice-guided smart devices to image recognition, or predicting the stock market. Predicting economic values has long been possible by using methods other than machine learning, such as statistical algorithms. These algorithms and machine learning models use time series, which is a set of data points observed constantly over a given time interval, in order to predict data points beyond the original time series. But which of these methods gives the best results? The overall purpose of this project is to predict Sweden’s aid curve using the machine learning model Support Vector Regression and the classic statistical algorithm autoregressive integrated moving average which is abbreviated ARIMA. The time series used in the prediction are annual summaries of Sweden’s total aid to the world from openaid.se since 1998 and up to 2019. SVR and ARIMA are implemented in python with the help of the Scikit- and Statsmodels libraries. The results from SVR and ARIMA are measured in comparison with the original value and their predicted values, while the accuracy is measured in Root Square Mean Error and presented in the results chapter. The result shows that SVR with the RBF-kernel is the algorithm that provides the best results for the data series. All predictions beyond the times series are then visually presented on a openaid prototype page using D3.js

  • 25243.
    Wåger, Sandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Wall-Reinius, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Sammanhållen kommunikation för forskningssatsningen Storslagen fjällmiljö2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport sammanfattar kommunikationsprojekten Forskningskommunikation: Nytta och relevans 2013-2015 och Forskningskommunikation för Storslagen fjällmiljö 2014-2017 inom ramen för forskningssatsningen Storslagen fjällmiljö.

  • 25244.
    Wågström, Kristina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Betygsättning ur ett lärarperspektiv: Lärares erfarenheter och upplevelser av att sätta betyg på elever i årskurs 62013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 25245.
    Wåhlin, Anna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Hoorn Ceder, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Kundorientering - En utmaning för offentlig sektor2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that customer orientation is an important factor for organizational success, innovation and quality. However, there are few studies that specifically show how the public sector can increase its customer orientation. The purpose of this study is to develop a better understanding of customer orientation in the public sector, by identifying success factors and highlight good examples of organizations with proven strong customer orientation.

    A qualitative case study was conducted at Lucksta preschools through interviews with Appreciative Inquiry (AI) methodology, using the estimation of customer orientation degree and the study of documents. The empirical data is strengthened through a triangulation.

    The results show that Lucksta preschools have a high degree of customer orientation and have contributed a number of success factors for customer orientation. Significant success factors were the committed staff and that they systematically question about the children's and parents' needs and views. The most important factors were the leadership and the values such as ways of thinking about the customer. The overall picture of success factors are presented in Lucksta model for customer orientation with dimensions of leadership, culture, structure and motivation.The results of the study by Lucksta model application is a contribution to public organizations that wish to increase its customer orientation.

    Keywords: Success Factors customer orientation, customer orientation, customer, total quality management (TQM), Appreciative Inquiry (AI), Public Sector

  • 25246.
    Wåhlstedt, Marlene
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Franzén Ähdel, Annelie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Leda kvalitetsarbetet för en hållbar framtid: Kvalitetschefens roll, kompetens och utveckling isvenska företag och organisationer2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In successful quality management, the role and competence of the quality manager is of importance. Previous studies show that the role is ambiguous and relatively few are educated on a university level. This study seeks to contribute to the knowledge and understanding of the success factors and the development of role and competence of the quality manager the last decade. Quality managers in public-, private- and non-profit sector was selected that as of today works as a quality manager. The working procedure remained of six phases: literature review, pilot study, questionnaire design, survey management and data collection and analysis. To analyze the result, a method of a multiple stepwise regression analysis and affinity diagram was used. The result shows that the competence of the quality manager lays within 12 identified areas and the role operates within five areas of a quality manager and quality management. The role appears as clear in smaller organizations where there is a committed leadership, possibilities for competence development and a collaboration with customers and suppliers. To succeed, the management's commitment and personal capacity are important. Leading for sustainable development, is a field of work that has been identified as part of the role. Most of the quality managers sit in the management group, where factors that contribute to whether the quality manager influences strategic decisions and goals in organizations are whether they are in the management group where they can influence decisions.

    The education level of the quality manager has not increased significantly the past few years which leads to the conclusion that quality managers holds the required skills for the work. The competence consists of knowledge and experience and of formal and non-formal education. Education, competence and commitment within the management are factors that stick together and affect each other.

  • 25247.
    Wåhlén Nordkvist, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Implementering av förbättringsprogram: - faktorer för att lyckas2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this master thesis was to investigate the factors necessary for a successful implementation of an improvement program in an organization, regardless of the improvement program used.

    The improvement program has grown from TQM and has its origins in continuous improvement and the PDSA cycle. The improvement programs are used by management to achieve a higher level of customer satisfaction in a structured way.

    The implementation of an improvement program in a company consists of five phases, introductory, pilot, implementation, expansion and integration. There are three types of introductions of the implementation phase, total, partial and during existing concepts. The implementation process must be measured in order to enable it to determine whether it was successful implementation or not.

    The method used in this thesis is a qualitative research process with hermeneutical ideals of a qualitative method with a combination of ethno-methodological tradition and naturism. The author has used a cross-sectional research design and the data collection methodology was qualitative interviews with five respondents, and literature studies from scientific articles and books. The result has been ad-hoc analyzed.

    The results showed that the factors for the success of an implementation of the improvement program are: engaged leadership, vision, goals, participation, willingness, resources, knowledge, understanding, communication, perseverance and demand.

    This master thesis shows above all the importance of engaged leadership and this is of paramount importance, if an implementation is to be succeed or not. It is important that the organization makes it clear what the expectations of the roles that will be involved and that it is based on the organization's own resources and conditions.

  • 25248.
    Wållgren, Max
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Implicit and explicit predictors of aggressive behavior: The role of aggression and competitiveness2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 25249.
    Wörlund, Ingemar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Does local party equal protest party? The development of the local party systems in Sweden.: opulism in Scandinavia: Left, Right, Local. A joint workshop of the Nordic History Group and the Political Studies Associations Scand. Politics Specialist Group, University College, London, 12 apr2002Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 25250.
    Wörlund, Ingemar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Kommunstorlek och lokal demokrati: den omvända partipolitiseringen.: XII Nordiska statsvetarkonferensen2005Conference paper (Other scientific)
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