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  • 25151.
    Yang, Chenwei
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China.
    Wang, Gang
    University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China.
    Song, Xiaotian
    University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Design of secure UHF RFID tag by binding object dielectric permittivity2017In: Microwave and optical technology letters (Print), ISSN 0895-2477, E-ISSN 1098-2760, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 318-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antennas can always be affected by the attached materials. Such a property is here integrated with RFID technology of designing a passive RFID tag which is sensitive to a chosen object material. A good sensing ability will help the tag bonding up with the chosen material, which will benefit material security a lot. To achieve a high tag-object bonding sensitivity, a fragmented-type tag is introduced here. When permittivity of attached object material changes a little bit, readability of the tag will degrade rapidly. The sensitive properties are investigated by simulated and articulated experimentations.

  • 25152.
    Yang, D
    et al.
    Beijing Jiatong University, PR China.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. ABB Corporate Research.
    Shen, Wei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Xu, Youzhi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Zhang, Honke
    Beijing Jiatong University, PR China.
    CCA-Embedded TDMA Enabling Acyclic Traffic in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2013In: Ad hoc networks, ISSN 1570-8705, E-ISSN 1570-8713, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 1105-1121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing trend in the automation industry is to use wireless technologies to reduce cable costs and deployment time, unlock stranded information in deployed devices and enable wireless control applications. The WirelessHART protocol is the first open and interoperable industrial wireless sensor network standard, which proposes a combination of time division multiple access (TDMA) and channel hopping as a medium access control (MAC) protocol. TDMA is a schedule-based protocol, which is suitable for predictable cyclic traffic. However, for burst acyclic traffic, TDMA degenerates into an inefficient slotted ALOHA. In this article, we propose a complementary mechanism to TDMA, CCA-Embedded TDMA, which can be applied to improve the transmission efficiency and system stability of TDMA-based systems such as the WirelessHART protocol. A Markov model is proposed to evaluate the efficiency of system throughput and expected delay of CCA-Embedded TDMA. Furthermore, we show by analytical and simulation results that our proposed CCA-Embedded TDMA scheme can increase the throughput by 100% and reduce the expected delay by 75% for a common scenario. We also implement CCA-Embedded TDMA into an embedded system as a part of the WirelessHART MAC protocol. The experimental results verify the efficiency of CCA-Embedded TDMA and its backward compatibility with the WirelessHART protocol.

  • 25153.
    Yang, Dong
    et al.
    Beijing Jiatong University.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Xu, Youzhi
    Jönköping University.
    Performance Analysis on a New MAC DT-CSMA2011In: IECON 2011 - 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, p. 3522-3527Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TDMA has been resumed for industrial wireless sensor network (IWSN) like WirelessHART and ISA 100.11a recently, because TDMA is suitable for periodic traffic which is predictable to pre-assign. However, for random traffic TDMA degenerates to inefficient slotted ALOHA. In our previous work, we propose a new medium access control (MAC) scheme called discrete-time CSMA (DT-CSMA) that can be applied to improve the efficiency of TDMA-based system that transmits periodic and random traffic. In this paper, we give a model to evaluate system throughput for DT-CSMA. An analysis of typical scenario shows DT-CSMA improves the throughput by 100%. We also build a model to evaluate synchronization influence on DT-CSMA, which indicates that the influence is limited.

  • 25154.
    Yang, Dong
    et al.
    Beijing Jiatong University, China.
    Ma, Jian
    Beijing Jiatong Univeristy, China.
    Xu, Youzhi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Safe-WirelessHART: A Novel Framework Enabling Safety-Critical Applications Over Industrial WSNs2018In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 3513-3523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) have mainly been used to monitor applications, but recently an interest in control and safety applications has emerged. Functional safety and communication in open transmission systems have been laid down in the IEC 61784-3-3 standard. The standard is based on a cyclic polling mechanism, which consumes a considerable amount of bandwidth; since existing IWSNs are very resource-constrained, this becomes a major challenge. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel framework that uses an event-triggered failsafe mechanism based on synchronous wired polling and wireless time-slotted time division multiple access. We analytically derive the minimum and maximum bound for the most important metric for safety-critical applications, safety function response time (SFRT). A new metric, normal state interrupt time (NSIT), is proposed in this paper. Furthermore, we also implement the proposed framework by using the WirelessHART standard. The results are compared to the classical time-triggered approach used in the IEC 61784-3-3 standard. The obtained results show that the proposed framework can reduce the bandwidth usage by 90% and support safety-critical applications that require a SFRT less or equal to 150 ms.

  • 25155.
    Yang, Dong
    et al.
    Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Haochang
    Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China .
    Zheng, Tao
    Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China .
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Xu, Youzhi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Zhang, Honke
    Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China .
    Applying Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks to Welder Machine System2014In: IPSN 2014 - Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (Part of CPS Week), 2014, p. Art. no. 6835794-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite lots of research efforts in the area of Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs), there is a lack of really practical IWSN implementations, deployments and in-field experiments. This demo presents the design and implementation of an IWSN for welder machine systems based on the first IWSN standard WirelessHART. The goal of this work is to find the problems and challenges from IWSN standard to implementation, and motivate other designers to explore more IWSN applications.

  • 25156.
    Yang, Dong
    et al.
    Beijing Jiatong University, China.
    Xu, Youzhi
    Jönköpings Högskola.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Coexistence of IEEE802.15.4 Based Networks: a survey2010In: Proceedings, 2010, p. 2107-2113Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25157.
    Yang, Dong
    et al.
    Beijing Jiatong University.
    Xu, Youzhi
    Jönköping University.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Wireless Coexistence between IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.15.4-based Networks: A Survey2011In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As more and more wireless devices use the 2.4 GHz radio spectrum, the coexistence of 2.4 GHz wireless devices operating in one place has become a hot topic. With low transmit power, the widely deployed IEEE 802.15.4-based networks are easily interfered with by other 2.4 GHz wireless networks, such as IEEE 802.11. IEEE 802.15.4-based wireless networks have paid great attention to the coexistence between themselves and with other non-IEEE 802.15.4 wireless networks. This problem has been further promoted by two new industry wireless standards, WirelessHART and ISA100, to meet special industry requirements. This paper surveys the studies on the coexistence between IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.15.4-based networks following the general analysis method of “question-analysis-solution.” Based on the survey study, we discuss about some open research issues and developments in this field.

  • 25158.
    Yang, Dong
    et al.
    Beijing Jiaotong Univ, Beijing 100044, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Youzhi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Wang, Hongchao
    Beijing Jiaotong Univ, Beijing 100044, Peoples R China.
    Zheng, Tao
    Beijing Jiaotong Univ, Beijing 100044, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Hao
    Beijing Jiaotong Univ, Beijing 100044, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Hongke
    Beijing Jiaotong Univ, Beijing 100044, Peoples R China.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Assignment of Segmented Slots Enabling Reliable Real-Time Transmission in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2015In: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 62, no 6, p. 3966-3977Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) have the potential to contribute significantly in areas such as cable replacement, mobility, flexibility, and cost reduction. Nevertheless, the industrial environment that the IWSNs operate in is very challenging because of dust, heat, water, electromagnetic interference, and interference from other wireless devices, which make it difficult for current IWSNs to guarantee reliable real-time communication. In this paper, we present a novel method based on the segmented slot assignment, fast slot competition, and free node concept that will improve the reliability and real-time communication significantly so that more advanced applications can be enabled. The main purpose of the algorithms is to improve the retransmission efficiency for time-division-multiple-access-based multihop IWSNs by using limited shared slot resources more efficiently. More importantly, the proposed algorithms support efficient slot rescheduling caused by link or node failure. We evaluate the proposed methods by using simulations and a real implementation targeting monitoring of welder machines. Our obtained results show that the proposed method outperforms the first published and most widely used IWSN standard called WirelessHART.

  • 25159.
    Yang, Fei
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm; Univ Southern Calif, Dept Psychol, Los Angeles, CA USA.
    Ye, Weimin
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm.
    Liu, Zhiwei
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Epidemiol & Global Hlth, Umeå.
    Forsgren, Lars
    Umeå Univ, Dept Pharmacol & Clin Neurosci, Umeå.
    Lagerros, Ylva Trolle
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Med, Clin Epidemiol Unit, Stockholm; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol Metab & Diabet, Stockholm.
    Bellocco, Rino
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm; Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Stat & Quantitat Methods, Milan, Italy.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Jansson, Jan-Håkan
    Umeå Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Skellefteå Res Unit, Umeå.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå Univ, Family Med, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umeå.
    Galanti, Maria Rosaria
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm; Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Epidemiol & Community Med, Stockholm.
    Lager, Anton C. J.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm; Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Epidemiol & Community Med, Stockholm.
    Araghi, Marzieh
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm.
    Lundberg, Michael
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm.
    Magnusson, Cecilia
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm; Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Epidemiol & Community Med, Stockholm.
    Wirdefeldt, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm; Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm.
    Moist smokeless tobacco (Snus) use and risk of Parkinson's disease2017In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 872-880, article id dyw294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cigarette smoking is associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease. It is unclear what constituent of tobacco smoke may lower the risk. Use of Swedish moist smokeless tobacco (snus) can serve as a model to disentangle what constituent of tobacco smoke may lower the risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether snus use was associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease. Methods: Individual participant data were collected from seven prospective cohort studies, including 348 601 men. We used survival analysis with multivariable Cox regression to estimate study-specific relative risk of Parkinson's disease due to snus use, and random-effects models to pool estimates in a meta-analysis. The primary analyses were restricted to never-smokers to eliminate the potential confounding effect of tobacco smoking. Results: During a mean follow-up time of 16.1 years, 1199 incident Parkinson's disease cases were identified. Among men who never smoked, ever-snus users had about 60% lower Parkinson's disease risk compared with never-snus users [pooled hazard ratio (HR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28-0.61]. The inverse association between snus use and Parkinson's disease risk was more pronounced in current (pooled HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.23-0.63), moderate-heavy amount (pooled HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.19-0.90) and long-term snus users (pooled HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.83). Conclusions: Non-smoking men who used snus had a substantially lower risk of Parkinson's disease. Results also indicated an inverse dose-response relationship between snus use and Parkinson's disease risk. Our findings suggest that nicotine or other components of tobacco leaves may influence the development of Parkinson's disease.

  • 25160.
    Yang, Haiping
    et al.
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
    Wang, Daqian
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
    Li, Bin
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
    Zeng, Zhiwei
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
    Qu, Lei
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
    Zhang, Wennan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Chen, Hanping
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
    Effects of potassium salts loading on calcium oxide on the hydrogen production from pyrolysis-gasification of biomass2018In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 249, p. 744-750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of potassium (K) salts loading on CaO on the H2 production from pyrolysis-gasification of wheat straw were investigated. The loading of 0.25 wt% KCl could significantly enhance the CO2 absorption capability of CaO. The CO2 concentration in the product gas decreased sharply from 20.83 to 11.70 vol%, and the H2 concentration increased from 48.2 to 55.5 vol%. While the loading of 0.25 wt% K2CO3/K2SO4 inhibited the enhancing effect of CaO. Further increasing the loading of KCl on CaO, the CO2 absorption of CaO declined, but the catalytic effect of KCl on the gasification process was promoted. The loading of 0.25 wt% KCl on CaO significantly improved the cyclic performance of CaO during the pyrolysis-gasification process. Higher H2 concentration and more CO2 absorbed by CaO were obtained with the loading of 0.25 wt% KCl even after 5 cycles compared with those of pure CaO in the first cycle. 

  • 25161.
    Yang, Jiayi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Dahlström, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Lindman, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    pH-responsive cellulose–chitosan nanocomposite films with slow release of chitosan2019In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 3763-3776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose–chitosan films were preparedusing a physical method in which cellulose andchitosan were separately dissolved via freeze thawingin LiOH/urea and mixed in different proportions, theresulting films being cast and regenerated in water/ethanol. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transforminfrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy verifiedthe composition changes in the nanocomposites due todifferent mixing ratios between the polymers. Tensilestress–strain measurements indicated that the mechan-ical performance of the cellulose–chitosan nanocom-posites slightly worsened with increasing chitosancontent compared with that of films comprisingcellulose alone. Field emission scanning electronmicroscopy revealed the spontaneous formation ofnanofibers in the films; these nanofibers were subse-quently ordered into lamellar structures. Water uptakeand microscopy analysis of film thickness changesindicated that the swelling dramatically increased atlower pH and with increasing chitosan content, thisbeing ascribed to the Gibbs–Donnan effect. Slowmaterial loss appeared at acidic pH, as indicated by aloss of weight, and quantitative FT-IR analysisconfirmed that chitosan was the main componentreleased.Asample containing 75% chitosan reached amaximum swelling ratio and weight loss of 1500%and 55 wt%, respectively, after 12 h at pH 3. Thestudy presents a novel way of preparing pH-responsivecellulose–chitosan nanocomposites with slow-releasecharacteristics using an environmentally friendlyprocedure and without any chemical reactions.

  • 25162.
    Yang, Jiayi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Duan, Jiangjiang
    Wuhan University, China.
    Zhang, Lina
    Wuhan University, China.
    Lindman, Björn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Spherical nanocomposite particles prepared from mixed cellulose–chitosan solutions2016In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 3105-3115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel cellulose–chitosan nanocomposite particles with spherical shape were successfully prepared via mixing of aqueous biopolymer solutions in three different ways. Macroparticles with diameters in the millimeter range were produced by dripping cellulose dissolved in cold LiOH/urea into acidic chitosan solutions, inducing instant co-regeneration of the biopolymers. Two types of microspheres, chemically crosslinked and non-crosslinked, were prepared by first mixing cellulose and chitosan solutions obtained from freeze thawing in LiOH/KOH/urea. Thereafter epichlorohydrin was applied as crosslinking agent for one of the samples, followed by water-in-oil (W/O) emulsification, heat induced sol–gel transition, solvent exchange, washing and freeze-drying. Characterization by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, total elemental analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the prepared particles as being true cellulose–chitosan nanocomposites with different distribution of chitosan from the surface to the core of the particles depending on the preparation method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and laser diffraction was performed to study the morphology and size distribution of the prepared particles. The morphology was found to vary due to different preparation routes, revealing a core shell structure for macroparticles prepared by dripping, and homogenous nanoporous structure for the microspheres. The non-crosslinked microparticles exhibited a somewhat denser structure than the crosslinked ones, which indicated that crosslinking restricts packing of the chains before and under regeneration. From the obtained volume-weighted size distributions it was found that the crosslinked microspheres had the highest median diameter. The results demonstrate that not only the mixing ratio and distribution of the two biopolymers, but also the morphology and nanocomposite particle diameters are tunable by choosing between the different routes of preparation.

  • 25163.
    Yang, Jiayi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Selective separation of wood substances from TMP mill process water by flotation. Analysis of the foam fraction.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25164.
    Yang, Jiayi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Zasadowski, Dariusz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Edlund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Norgren, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Biorefining of Spruce TMP Process Water: Selective Fractionation of Lipophilic Extractives with Induced Air Flotation and Surface Active Additive2019In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 4124-4135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocellulose biomass plays an important role in reducing thedependency on fossil fuels and ameliorating the dire consequences ofclimate change. It is therefore important that all the components oflignocellulose biomass are exploited. These components includehemicelluloses and extractives that are liberated and sterically stabilizedduring the thermomechanical pulping and that form the dissolved andcolloidal substance (DCS) in the process water. Biorefining of this processwater can extract these substances, which have a number of promisingapplications and can contribute to the full exploitation of lignocellulosebiomass. This paper presents a simple treatment of unbleached Norwayspruce (Picea abies) process water from TMP (thermomechanical pulping)production using induced air flotation (IAF) and cationic surfactant,dodecyl trimethylammonium chloride (DoTAC) to refine the extractivesand prepare the waters so that hemicellulose could be easily harvested ata later stage. By applying 80 ppm of DoTAC at a pH of 3.5 and 50 °Cbefore induced air flotation, 94% of the lipophilic extractives wererecovered from process water. Dissolved hemicellulose polysaccharideswere cleansed and left in the treated process water. The process enabledefficient biorefining of lipophilic extractives and purification of the processwater to enable more selective harvesting of hemicelluloses in subsequentsteps.

  • 25165. Yang, L
    et al.
    Fogden, A
    Pauler, Nils
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sävborg, Örjan
    Kruse, Björn
    A novel method for studying ink penetration of a print2005In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 423-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method combining microscopy with image analysis for studying ink penetration of ink-jet prints has been proposed. Prints on paper substrates of various material compositions have been microtomed, imaged with optical microscopy, and analyzed with image processing. The penetration depth and distribution of the ink-jet dye in the paper, which depend on the material compositions of the substrates and printed ink volumes, are then obtained by means of statistical analysis. The study focuses on uncoated fine papers, including five types of hand-sheets and two commercial papers. It is observed that ink penetration can be significantly reduced by adding internal sizing (hydrophobizing) chemicals in the hand-sheet making, while it is relatively less affected by addition of filler and fluorescent whitening agent (FWA). Ink volume obviously influences the depth of its penetration, with depth increasing linearly for higher ink volumes but displaying a disproportionately shallow penetration for smaller applied volumes.

  • 25166.
    Yang, L.
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Fogeden, A.
    nstitute for Surface Chemistry, Stockholm.
    Pauler, Nils
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sävborg, O.
    Stora Enso Research Center, Falun.
    Kruse, B.
    Linköping University.
    Studying ink penetration with microscopic and spectroscopic techniques2006In: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, ISSN 1062-3701, E-ISSN 1943-3522, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 327-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distribution of ink jet ink in paper substrates and the consequences of ink penetration for printing color reproduction have been studied by combining microscopic image processing with spectroscopic analysis. The study focused on the effects of the composition of uncoated paper, for five laboratory papers plus two commercial products, all consisting of similar pulps but with different combinations of additives. In particular, it was observed that hydrophobizing internal size agents significantly reduced ink penetration, while their effect on paper optical properties was negligible. This observation thus made it possible to study experimentally the pure effects of ink penetration. Pairwise comparisons of prints on such laboratory papers with identical optical properties revealed remarkable impacts of ink penetration on optical density, causing color saturation reduction and color shift. These experimental observations confirmed the theoretical predictions.

  • 25167.
    Yang, Qing
    et al.
    School of Computer Science and Technology, Donghua University, China.
    Wang, ShaoYu
    School of Computer Science and Technology, Donghua University, China.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Pruning and Summarizing the Discovered Time Series Association Rules from Mechanical Sensor Data Qing2017In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 3RD ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ELECTRONICS, ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND INFORMATION SCIENCE (EEEIS 2017), Paris: Atlantis Press, 2017, Vol. 131, p. 40-45Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensors are widely used in all aspects of our daily life including factories, hospitals and even our homes. Discovering time series association rules from sensor data can reveal the potential relationship between different sensors which can be used in many applications. However, the time series association rule mining algorithms usually produce rules much more than expected. It's hardly to understand, present or make use of the rules. So we need to prune and summarize the huge amount of rules. In this paper, a two-step pruning method is proposed to reduce both the number and redundancy in the large set of time series rules. Besides, we put forward the BIGBAR summarizing method to summarize the rules and present the results intuitively.

  • 25168. Yang, S
    et al.
    Isaksson, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Mechanical modeling of boron carbide. Part III: Contact force and displacement analysis1996Report (Other academic)
  • 25169.
    Yang, Ying
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Routing protocols for wireless sensor networks: A survey2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor networks(WSNs) are different to traditional networks and are highly dependent on applications, thus traditional routing protocols cannot be applied efficiently to the networks. As the variability of both the application and the network architecture, the majority of the attention, therefore, has been given to the routing protocols. This work surveys and evaluates state-of-the-art routing protocols based on many factors including energy efficiency, delay andcomplexity, and presents several classifications for the various approaches pursued. Additionally, more attention is paid to several routing protocols and their advantages and disadvantages and, indeed, this work implements two of selected protocols, LEACH and THVRG, on the OPNET, and compares them in many aspects based on a large amount of experimental data. The survey also provides a valuable framework for comparing new and existing routing protocols. According to the evaluation for the performance of the routing protocols, this thesis provides assistance in relation to further improving the performance in relation to routing protocols. Finally, future research strategies and trends in relation to routing technology in wireless sensor networks are also provided.

  • 25170.
    Yang, Ying
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Time Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks:A Survey2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been used as an important tool inmany fields of science and industry. Time synchronization is also a criticalissue in wireless sensor networks and its aim is to synchronize the local timefor some or all nodes in the network, if necessary. However, wireless sensornetworks are limited in their accuracy, energy efficiency, scalability, and complexityand some traditional time synchronization algorithms such as NetworkTime Protocol (NTP) and Global Positioning System (GPS) are unsuitable forWSNs. This work surveys and evaluates state-of-art time synchronization protocolsbased on many factors including accuracy, energy efficiency, and complexity,and analyzes the effect that time synchronization has in a wirelesssensor network. IN ADDITION, more attention is paid to several time synchronizationalgorithms and their advantages and disadvantages. Also, the surveyprovides a valuable framework for comparing new and existing synchronizationprotocols. According to the evaluation for the performance of time synchronizationalgorithms, this thesis provides assistance in relation to further improvingthe performance of time synchronization. Finally, future research directionsin relation to time synchronization in wireless sensor networks are alsoproposed.

  • 25171.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Acquisition of external capital at start-up stage:: Differences between female and male owned firms Evidence from female and male owned firms in Sweden.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25172.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Agency costs theory and the financing life cycle, Empirical Evidence from Swedish firm-level data’2012In: International Journal of Business and Globalisation, ISSN 1753-3627, E-ISSN 1753-3635, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 226-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the financing life cycle pattern of micro-firms in Sweden from the agency costs theory perspective. The study shows that the financing structures of firms change over the firms' life cycles. Firms generally rely on internal financial sources such as equity capital and retained profits, particularly at the start-up stage. They also use short-term debt as the second most important financial source at this stage. As firms age and develop, the use of short-term debt decreases and the use of both equity capital and long-term debt simultaneously increase. The financing patterns of firms in different industries over their life cycles follow the general pattern of the total sample. The results from the statistical tests support the applicability of the financial life cycle model and the agency costs theory to explain it.

  • 25173.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    GARCH model and predictive performance of volatility forecasting: Evidence from oil market2015In: World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1746-0573, E-ISSN 1746-0581, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 345-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the predictive performance of the GARCH (1, 1) model in forecasting the return volatility of the three major items on the oil market, WTI crude, Brent crude and heating oil, for horizons of one, five, twenty and thirty days ahead. The empirical results indicate that the predictive performance of the GARCH model is best for short horizons, from one day ahead for WTI, one to five days ahead for Brent and one to twenty days ahead for heating oil, at the 5% significant level. For horizons from twenty days ahead, no robust forecasting model can be observed for any of these items. Thus, although the results show that the GARCH (1, 1) model has high predictive performance in forecasting the volatility for the short-term horizons, it cannot produce reliable results when the forecast horizon increases. The findings also show how volatility clustering on returns emerges on the oil market, which creates periods of high volatility followed by small movements.

  • 25174.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Impact of capital structure on micro firm productivity: Empirical evidence from Swedish firm-level data2012In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 223-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper examines the impact of key productivity determinants at the firm level using data on 24,257 Swedish micro firms, including approximately 194,000 observations for the 2007-2008 period. The regression model includes a firm-level measure of total factor productivity as the dependent variable and capital structure and other relevant control variables as independent variables. Analysis reveals that firm-level variables, such as lagged productivity, size, age, profitability, short-term debt ratio, and industry affiliation, significantly affect firm productivity. Agency cost theory seems applicable in partly explaining the relationship between capital structure and productivity. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 25175.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Industry Effects and SMEs' Capital Structure Determinants2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25176.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Information asymmetry and capital structure: An empirical study of micro firms in Sweden2012In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 304-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study empirically examines the capital structure determinants of

    Swedish micro companies by testing hypotheses based on information

    asymmetry theory. The study sample contains 20,270 micro firms for which

    complete 2007 to 2008 financial information is available, giving a total of

    182,430 observations. The empirical results indicate that six explanatory

    variables, that is, lagged long-term debt, size, age, profitability, tangibility, and

    industry affiliation, are related to capital structure to various extents. The

    results suggest that information asymmetry theory is relevant in explaining the

    financial behaviour of micro firms in Sweden. These findings can help SMEs to

    improve their awareness of financial management and to use resources more

    effectively.

  • 25177.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Predicting bankruptcy among SMEs, Evidence from Swedish firm-level data2011In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 551-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The failure rate of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Sweden is high, with about 6,000 SMEs claiming bankruptcy every year. This paper attempts to identify the main prediction variables that are believed to forecast the failure of Swedish SMEs. The research is principally based on an analysis of a panel data sample consisting of 1,412 bankrupt and 3,084 non-bankrupt Swedish SMEs for the period 2004 to 2006. The statistical technique of logistic regression model is employed to analyse the data. The results, which have a high rate of accuracy, indicate that a set of six variables are significant as bankruptcy predictors: the ratio of short-term debt to total assets, total leverage (the ratio of short- and long-term debt to total assets), change in total assets from the previous year, firm size (natural logarithm of sales), financial expenses to total debt, and return on assets.

  • 25178.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Profitability determinants among micro firms: evidence from Swedish data2013In: international journal of managerial finance, ISSN 1743-9132, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 151-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the variables affecting firm profitability applying the seemingly unrelated regression method to a large sample of approximately 87,000 observations covering 12,530 non-financial micro firms operating in four industry sectors from 2006 to 2007. The study considers profitability determinants at the firm as well as industry affiliation levels in examining hypotheses developed from resource-based approaches. The findings indicate that while firm size, lagged profitability, growth, and productivity positively influence profitability, firm age and industry affiliation negatively influence it. The empirical results suggest that productivity is the most significant determinant of profitability. These results are fairly robust across the various industry sectors covered in the study and are largely consistent with the hypotheses developed from the resource-based approach.

  • 25179.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Capital Structure Determinants of Swedish SMEs in Jamtland2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines empirically capital structuredeterminants of Swedish SMEs located in Jamtland through testing hypotheses formulated from pecking theory. The study focuses on a sample contains 1710SMEs for which complete financial information was available for 2003–2005 andrepresents a target population of 4116 firms located in the studied region.While most previous research has focused on publicly traded firms, the presentstudy uses a broad database and pays attention to unlisted SMEs in a rural areawhere small businesses occupies a prominent social position and reflect aspecial financial environment. In addition, more explanatory variables are usedthan in prior research. The empirical results indicate that the explanatoryfactors are associated to various extents with capital structure. However, theresults are somewhat mixed, suggesting that both pecking order and trade-offtheories are relevant, but giving stronger support to pecking order theory.SMEs can use these findings to improve their awareness of financial managementand of how to use resources more effectively. Moreover, potential SMEs willhave a better understanding of how to approach financial problems encountered inthe start-up stage. Finally, both the financial sector and policy makers areexpected to re-evaluate their policies regarding SME financing.

  • 25180.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Growth determinants among Swedish SMEs2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25181.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Growth Determinants among Swedish SMEs, Evidence from firm-level data2011In: International Journal of Business and Globalisation, ISSN 1753-3627, E-ISSN 1753-3635, Vol. 6, no 3/4, p. 313-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper identifies the firm-level internal determinants that explain the economic growth of Swedish SMEs. The analysis is based on a sample consisting of 989 growth SMEs and 6,119 non-growth SMEs with 95,475 observations, and applies logistic regression models for the period 2004-2006. The results, which have a high rate of accuracy, indicate that a set of four factors – age, size, leverage rate and profitability – had a significant impact on the growth probability of sample firms over a period of three years. The results can be summarised as follows. First, younger SMEs have a better chance of seeing growth. Second, financial constraints significantly decrease the probability of growth in terms of employees. Third, profitability plays a significant role in the growth process. Lastly, access to external financial resources has a positive effect on the growth of firms. The results of this paper are useful for firm stakeholders, including managers, shareholders, debt holders and potential investors, as well as academic researchers and policy makers

  • 25182.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Impact of Financing Pattern on Firm Growth: Evidence fromSwedish Micro Firms2012In: International Business Research, ISSN 1913-9004, E-ISSN 1913-9012, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 16-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the impact of financial structures on the growth of micro firms in Sweden. The objective of

    this paper is to explore whether firms’ growth can be associated with patterns of financial acquisition and

    whether these patterns influence firms’ growth differently when the source is either internal or external. Based

    on agency cost theory, hypotheses were formulated and tested with panel data consisting of 12 101 micro firms,

    using 84 707 observations for the period 2006–2007. The data were analysed using the seemingly unrelated

    regression (SUR) model. The empirical results reveal that internal financial sources – retained profit –

    significantly influence firm growth. Similarly, short-term debt and growth are positively related. However, firm

    growth is generally more sensitive to retained profit than short-term debt. Interestingly, long-term debt generally

    has no effect on growth. The findings also indicate that size, age, and industry affiliation influence firm growth. Finally, agency cost theory is relevant in explaining the relationship between financing pattern and growth.

  • 25183.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The patterns of financial bootstrapping behavior, Empirical evidence from Swedish SMEs’2011In: International Journal of Business and Globalisation, ISSN 1753-3627, E-ISSN 1753-3635, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 255-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore the patterns of financial bootstrapping behaviour of SMEs in Ostersund/Sweden. The present research is based on a structured questionnaire survey and focuses on a sample of 146 SMEs. 'Financial bootstrapping' denotes a set of techniques such as reliance on internal funding sources, low-cost acquisition of financial resources, and avoidance of external financial resources. The empirical results show that the sample firms use a wide variety of bootstrapping techniques. In addition, although the internal resources and social oriented techniques emerged as the most- and second most highly used financial bootstrapping techniques respectively, other techniques such as minimising accounts receivable, minimising capital, and subsidy bootstrapping have been ranked as the most important bootstrapping techniques. The results from this study contribute to the understanding of informal financial behaviour of SMEs.

  • 25184.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The patterns of financial bootstrapping behaviour: An empirical explorative study of Swedish SMEs in Jämtland.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore the patterns of financial

    bootstrapping behaviour of SMEs in Östersund/Sweden. The present research is

    based on a structured questionnaire survey and focuses on a sample of 146

    SMEs. ‘Financial bootstrapping’ denotes a set of techniques such as reliance on

    internal funding sources, low-cost acquisition of financial resources, and

    avoidance of external financial resources. The empirical results show that the

    sample firms use a wide variety of bootstrapping techniques. In addition,

    although the internal resources and social oriented techniques emerged as the

    most- and second most highly used financial bootstrapping techniques

    respectively, other techniques such as minimising accounts receivable,

    minimising capital, and subsidy bootstrapping have been ranked as the most

    important bootstrapping techniques. The results from this study contribute to

    the understanding of informal financial behaviour of SMEs.

  • 25185.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Debt financing among native- and immigrant-owned firms: empirical evidence from Swedish small business at start up stage2014In: World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1746-0573, E-ISSN 1746-0581, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 422-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides evidence on ethnic differences in bank debtfinancing among small Swedish firms at the start-up stage. The empiricalanalysis is carried out on a sample of small firms consisting of 2,814native- and immigrant-owned firms for year 2008. The method of binarylogistic regression analysis was mainly performed to analyse the data. Theempirical results suggest that immigrant-owned firms tend to use less bank debtthan their native counterparts. Moreover, the variables related to human capital,previous experience of starting a business, university education and anadditional job beside the business have a positive impact on the use of bankdebt. There is also a positive influence of personal start capital and the size offirm in terms of number of employees on access to debt capital. However, firmcharacteristics, legal form and industry affiliation affect the debt fundingnegatively, indicating that firms with less formalised legal status operating inless developed market segments and with less physical capital are less likely tohave access to debt capital.

  • 25186.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Ethnicity and aquisition of external capital at start-up stage: differences between small native Swedish- and immigrant-owned firms2012In: International Journal of Business and Globalisation, ISSN 1753-3627, E-ISSN 1753-3635, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 442-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explain empirically the differences in external financing between native- and immigrant-owned small businesses in terms of ethnicity and other relevant variables. A sample of 2,814 native- and immigrant-owned small businesses, based on a unique and comprehensive database gathered through interviews, was analysed employing several univariate and multivariate methods. The results suggest that ethnicity is an important explanatory variable differentiating between acquisitions of external capital at start-up stage. Owner characteristics such as age, experience of starting businesses and education also have an impact on finance-seeking behaviour and thereby on the acquisition of external capital. The findings indicate that characteristics of the firm, such as personal start-up capital, firm size, legal form and industrial sector, do partly influence access to external capital. Since knowledge about this issue is limited, the results of this study add to our understanding of variables affecting the behaviour of small business endeavours in seeking funding at start-up.

  • 25187.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Ethnicity and the pattern of capital acquisition at start-up stage:: differences between small Swedish native and immigrant-owned firms2013In: International Journal of Business and Globalisation, ISSN 1753-3627, E-ISSN 1753-3635, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 357-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explain empirically the differences in external financing between native– and immigrant–owned small businesses in terms of ethnicity and other relevant variables. A sample of 2,814 native– and immigrant–owned small businesses, based on a unique and comprehensive database gathered through interviews, was analysed employing several univariate and multivariate methods. The results suggest that ethnicity is an important explanatory variable differentiating between acquisitions of external capital at start–up stage. Owner characteristics such as age, experience of starting businesses and education also have an impact on finance–seeking behaviour and thereby on the acquisition of external capital. The findings indicate that characteristics of the firm, such as personal start–up capital, firm size, legal form and industrial sector, do partly influence access to external capital. Since knowledge about this issue is limited, the results of this study add to our understanding of variables affecting the behaviour of small business endeavours in seeking funding at start–up.

  • 25188.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    External capital acquisition at start-up stage among small business owners in Sweden: A comparison between Swedish native and immigrant-owned firms2012In: ABSTRACTS, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25189.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Gender and the use of external business advice: A Swedish study2015In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 105-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this study is to examine whether there are significant differences betweenfemale and male entrepreneurs’ use of consultation during business start-ups.Design/methodology/approach – Using several statistical tools, including ANOVA and seeminglyunrelated regressions, empirical analyses are conducted on a unique and firm-level panel database of837 female- and 1926 male-owned active small firms.Findings – The results indicate that gender may be an important variable in the use of advice amongsmall business owners in Sweden. Female owners in this study are shown to be more eager than maleowners to use external business advice, and do so to a higher extent.Practical implications – One implication of this study is that firms may not be able to use allbusiness advice types simultaneously during their start-up stage, so an ordered list of consultancyservices would help them prioritize and adjust their needs accordingly. Because the use of businessadvice is context-based, the findings of this study may not be generalized to firms in othercountries. This paper shows some gender-based attributes/features relating to the use of businessadvice, which need to be better integrated into policymaking for the future assistance of smallbusinesses.Originality/value – This article focuses on an important issue and is unique partly because fewstudies have examined the relationship between gender and external business advice. By explicitly andempirically examining this issue, this article makes a contribution to the small- and medium-sizedenterprises’ literature.

  • 25190.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    The Determinants of Informal Capital in the Financing of Small Firms at Start-Up:: An Ethnic Comparison of Small Firms in Sweden2013In: International Journal of Economics and Finance, ISSN 1916-971X, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 62-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explains empirically the differences in the use of informal financing between native- and immigrant-owned small businesses in terms of ethnicity and other relevant variables. A sample of 2814 native- and immigrant-owned small businesses, consisting of a unique database gathered, was analysed and several univariate and multivariate methods employed. The results suggest that ethnicity is a significant explanatory variable and an important factor in informal capital access in the start-up stage in terms of loans from family members and friends. Moreover, the other independent variables, namely gender, age, experience of starting businesses, the amount of start capital, and firm size, affect loans from family members, whereas loans from friends are influenced by age, size, and industry affiliation. Since knowledge about informal capital determinants is limited, the results of this study add to our understanding of the variables that explain the financing behaviour of small businesses at start-up.

  • 25191.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The external capital acquisition at start-up stage: Differences between small Swedish native and immigrant-owned firms2012In: ABSTRACTS, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25192.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Brouder, Patrick
    School of Tourism and Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Business Advice Strategies of Immigrant Entrepreneurs in Sweden2015In: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 98-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether there are any significant differences between native Swedish and immigrant entrepreneurs in business advice sought at start-up.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study, based on a unique and large database consisting of 304 immigrant and 2,512 native-owned firms, applies several univariate and multivariate statistical methods including ANOVA and regression analysis.

    Findings – According to the results there are certain similarities and differences between Swedish native- and immigrant-owned firms concerning the type of external business advice they seek. The results suggest there are significant differences between native and immigrant-owned firms for four of 20 types of advice received. Native-owned firms, on average, tend to seek more advice on accounting and on the choice of business form as well as the help of a knowledgeable person. On the other hand, immigrants seek, on average, more advice on export questions than their native counterparts.

    Research limitations/implications – This research contributes to policy-making by helping authorities gain a better understanding of the impact of immigrant background on business network decisions at the nascent stage of development. Immigrant access to good advice in the nascent stage should increase new firm survival. This study does not, however, measure performance. As this research is based on aggregate level secondary data, more specific analysis has been impossible. This is an important limitation of this paper. In addition, immigrants are not homogenous groups and they differ in age, education, work experiences, etc. The results should therefore be interpreted carefully.

    Originality/value – This paper is one of the first and few empirical studies investigating the issue of immigrant business advice strategies in the Swedish context. The study provides a detailed overview of how ethnicity influences entrepreneurs’ use of external business advice in the firm formation stage for micro and small firms.

  • 25193.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Hellgren, Carina
    Division of Education and Research Administration, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Competence development and performance among Swedish micro firms2014In: European Journal of Training and Development, ISSN 2046-9012, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 162-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study examines the association between performance and competence development among Swedish micro firms, measured as number of hours per person a company allocates annually to competence development. Design/methodology/approach: A panel dataset consisting of around 395 firms will be analyzed using seemingly unrelated regression-model (SUR-model) for relationships between the hours allocated to competence development and various proxies for business performance, and the relationship between attending a business training program and various proxies for business performance. Findings: The empirical results are mixed showing a positive association between owners' attendance on a business training program and company performance merely with regard to four performance variables: better job satisfaction within a company, increased number of employees, organizational improvements and increased exports. However, the findings provide no evidence to suggest that there is a link between competence development and other performance variables. Practical implications: The present study provides a better understanding of the relationship between company performance and competence development. An investment in entrepreneur training and education could ensure the improvement of the performance of micro firms. This implication is especially relevant to firms in such industries as the service sectors, which are highly competitive. Originality/value: This study is based on a unique sample including many relevant variables, compared to previous researches. To the authors' best knowledge, this study is the one of the first empirical investigations focusing on this issue in the Swedish context.

  • 25194.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Jahandar, S.
    Nottingham Business School, Nottingham Trent University, Chaucer 4711, Nottingham NG1 4BU, United Kingdom.
    Acquisition of external capital at start-up stage: Differences between Swedish female- and male-owned firms2012In: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 435-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores differences in external capital acquisition between female- and male-owned firms at start-up stage in Sweden. The study sample is taken from a unique and large database including 836 female- and 1928 male-owned firms in 2008, giving a total of 47,022 observations. ANOVA, multinomial logistic regression, and other robust statistical tests are employed to analyse the data. The results indicate that two variables, i.e., loans from family members and government grants, are significant in distinguishing between female- and male-owned firms in terms of external start-up capital. The findings also indicate that owners' previous experience and having an additional job outside one's own business influence the use of external capital at start-up stage. Knowledge of the difference between female- and maleowned firms' use external capital at start-up stage is limited and ambiguous. The present results contribute to research into small firm financing by adding insight into the relationships between capital acquisition, gender, and other variables. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 25195.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Jahandar, Sara
    School of Business and Economics,Loughborough University.
    The impact of internal finance on growth,: empirical evidence from Swedish firm-level data2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25196.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lindvert, Märta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The impact of capital structure on productivity among micro firms: Empirical Evidence from Swedish firm-level data2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25197.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Nilsson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The bankruptcy determinants of Swedish SMEs.2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25198.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Salman, A. Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Life Cycle of Growth Path among Micro Firms: Swedish Data2012In: International Business Research, ISSN 1913-9004, E-ISSN 1913-9012, Vol. 5, no 10, p. 107-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether the implications of the life cycle model hold on the growth path of a sample of Swedish micro firms. The study is based on a sample containing 22001 Swedish micro firms across six industries for the year 2007. Several methods are used to analyse the impact of the life stage and two control variables, size and industry, to analyse the impact on firm growth. The empirical results of the study confirm a clear pattern of the growth life-cycle process among Swedish micro firms. Young micro firms, generally, grow on average more than their older counterparts and as they age and develop, their growth rate decreases. Additionally, firm growth among firms of different sizes and in various industries still follows the general pattern of the total sample. Thus, it appears from the results that the growth rate of Swedish micro firms included in the sample follows a systematic and predictable pattern associated mainly with the life stage.

  • 25199.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Salman, A. Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Arnesson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Life Cycle of profitability among Swedish micro firms2013In: World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1746-0573, E-ISSN 1746-0581, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 340-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the profitability life cycle among Swedish micro firms. The study sample contains 22,710 micro firms across six industries for which complete financial information is available for the year (2007, giving a total of 68,130 observations. The results of the empirical study indicate that the firm profitability changes systematically over its life cycle stages. The profitability is high in the first life cycle stage, and as firms age and develop, it decreases. The change of firm profitability in different industries over their life cycles follows the general pattern of the total sample. Empirical tests provide support for two additional predictions of the life cycle model: specifically, that firm size influences profitability, and that the industry affiliation has a more pronounced effect on firms’ profitability than the variables size and life cycle stage. The results from the statistical tests support the applicability of the life cycle model to explain the profitability development pattern.

  • 25200.
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Salman, Khalik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Assessing determinants on job creation at the firm level: Swedish micro firm data2012In: International journal of economics and finance, ISSN 1916-971X, Vol. 4, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses job-creation determinants at the firm level for a panel of Swedish micro firms across four industry sectors, using the GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) system to analyse a database consisting of 12532 Swedish micro firms during 2007. It was found that the firms’ size and age, the importance of debt financing and increased availability of liquidity are positively related to job creation as well as industry affiliation. Finally, the results suggest that a resource-based approach is at work in explaining job creation in micro firms. Unlike the majority of previous studies, this study is characterized by being based on a large and cross-sectoral firm-level dataset, testing a number of hypotheses driven from the resource-based approach. The present study contributes to the literature on the determinants of employment at the firm level as it investigates the importance of liquidity and financial leverage to firm labour demand dynamics in Sweden.

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