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  • 251.
    Landstad, Bodil J
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Olsson, Inger
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Millet, Patrick
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Personal Perspectives on Vocational Rehabilitation in Singapore and Sweden2010Inngår i: The Asia Pacific Disability & Rehabilitation Journal, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 3-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to describe and analyse personal reflections on vocational rehabilitation in Singapore and Sweden as described by employees who have been on sick leave. Further, the study investigates what similarities and differences can be discerned from the accounts provided by the participants in the different countries. Interviews were conducted with five Singaporeans and five Swedes undergoing rehabilitation due to musculoskeletal problems. The most significant result is that more differences than similarities were identified; e.g. the Singaporeans had fewer days of sickness absence, they were diagnosed more swiftly, treatment and the rehabilitation process began earlier and there were no queues for treatment. The conclusion is that the Singaporean system seems to be more effective with respect to returning people to work. However, the Swedish system creates more security for all groups of people.

  • 252.
    Landstad, Bodil Johanne
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Olsson, Inger
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Social welfare in Singapore and Sweden: Differences in organisational systems of health care, social security and rehabilitation2008Inngår i: / [ed] International Journal of Disability Management Research, Brisbane: Australian Academic Press, 2008, s. 30-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to describe and compare the health care, social security and rehabilitation systems in Singapore and Sweden. Two fundamental differences can be identified. First, the system in Singapore are strongly oriented towards a free market system, while Sweden's demonstrates strong public control. Second, following from how the systems are oriented, Singaporeans are expected to have a higher degree of independence and control over their health care, social security and rehabilitation. It appears that Singapore has had greater success in attaining and maintaining a system of health promotion, which influences the three systems. However, the Swedish welfare system provides greater security to those who are in need of health care, social security and rehabilitation.

  • 253.
    Larsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Governance i glesbygd: Bergs kommun – en fallstudie Hur agerar en kommun i kris och hur kan agerandet förklaras?2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Swedish municipalities are in crises. How does a municipality act in crises and how can this action be explained? That is the question this case study deals with in the sparsely populated municipality Berg in the county of Jämtland. The case study findings consist of about 40 interviews and other evidence. The findings were analysed in an iterative explanation building process. Seven different theoretic perspectives were used in the process. Leading theories in the field of policy analyses largely failed to explain the situation and acting. Through a new theoretic governance perspective the analyses went further to the field of democratic theory, which was more fruitful. The main problem emerged under the surface of the empiric findings. It consisted of two completely different views of what a municipality really is � a unit in public production of services or a way for people to locally and together try to realize what they regard as common good. The explanation was found in a conflict between real structural forces and actual conditions which results in a conflict oriented discourse and a non-action situation. The future holds two possible courses: A new period of creating fewer and larger municipalities´or a new road toward local participatory democracy.

  • 254.
    Larsson, Anders
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Är en region alltid regional?2013Inngår i: Regioner, regionalism och entreprenörskap: Festskrift till Marie-Louise von Bergmann-Winberg / [ed] Olausson, Pär och Nyhlén, jon, Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2013, s. 29-47Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 255.
    Larsson Falasca, Kajsa
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Political representation in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This is a Minor Field Study (MFS) which is a scholarship financed by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA). It was conducted in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa in 2007/2008. The purpose of this study is to understand the role of the political representative in the system of political representation and it will test the different theories of political representation based on interests or identity. This study is concerned with the function of the political representatives as they are the link between the system of representation and the electorate. Since the election system is designed for political representation based on interest and the voting in South Africa suggests voting based on identity/race the representatives must balance these different signals.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 256.
    Larsson, Isabel
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Oil - Curse or Blessing?: A qualitative study of how oil holdings have affected democratic development in Saudi Arabia2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Economic development along with the modernization theory have long been claimed to lead to wards democracy , however oil states seems to be a clear exception . Based on this background, this thesis focuses on Saudi Arabia with the purpose of trying to find out why and in what way oil is inhibiting a democratic development. The country has the world's largest known reservoir of oil which every year brings huge revenues to the government, but despite the economic growt h and the development into a welfare state the dictatorial rule remains strong. The analytical base consists of Michael L Ross (2001) theory on how oil impedes democracy, and focuses on the three casual mechanisms he identifies as possible explanations – t he rentier effect, the repression effect and the modernization effect. Using a qualitative text analysis method, I have applied these three effects on my case, partly as a means of testing the mechanisms but also as a guidance to discover other structures. The study's main findings are that oil has enabled for the royal family to establish contracts, both with its citizens and with the 'commoners', thereby hindering democratic forces by 'buying' them. These contracts and the dominating oil industry have in turn led to the preservation of patriarchal norms and traditions that exclude women at the same time as the male labor mentality have made the country dependent on immigrant labor.

  • 257.
    Larsson, Line
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Vad förklarar variationen i valdeltagandet bland Sveriges kommuner?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 258.
    Larsson, Sebastian
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Turism - faktorer för kommunal framgångIndependent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 259.
    Lasson, Frida
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Framåt marsch, damer!: En kvalitativ studie om jämställdheten i den svenska Försvarsmakten.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Gender equality is about all people, regardless of gender, having the same power to shape society and their own lives (Wittbom 2018; Holgersson et al. 2011). Sweden is often seen as a pioneer country, with a number of laws and policies to control gender equality work, but despite this there are major problems in Swedish society originating in the notion of gender. In this study I have researched how Yvonne Hirdman's (1988) principles of separation and hierarchy are made in the institutional framework and how it is expressed in everyday practices. Where the purpose of the paper was to study how the Swedish Armed Forces problematised gender equality and how it is done in action plans and everyday practices. The qualitative text analysis based on the institutional ethnography has been used as a method in the study. Through this, Ihave seen how the gender equality problem is presented in policies and how they are then translated into everyday practices. The result suggests that there is a separation between the gender within the Armed Forces that helps to maintain the man as the norm in the institutional framework, but which is also translated into everyday practice.

  • 260.
    Lauri, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Narratives of governing: rationalization, responsibility and resistance in social work2016Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, Sweden has had a reputation for having a comprehensive and women friendly welfare state. However, as in many other European countries during the past few decades, the organization and governing of welfare has undergone profound changes. Through interviews with social workers and the application of theories of governmentality, this thesis analyzes the expressions and consequences of such current organization and governing.

    One result is that the introduction of meticulous documentation practices of social workers contact with clients, regulate their interaction and constitute a control over both client and social worker. Another result is that the current organization fragments labor and awards more authority to managers, which functions to produce loyalty to the organization and management, rather than clients. This is expressed in demands not to voice protest, as it is said to create a bad mood. It is also expressed in demands to spend as little as possible on clients; short duration of treatment, preference for outpatient treatment and by making it difficult to receive financial support. This austerity is legitimized through the intermeshing of different ideals; budget awareness, evidence that supports short and outpatient treatment and that clients in order to change their course of life should to be allowed or coerced into taking individual responsibility.

    Another important finding is that the current governing and organization of social work produce distance and detachment, and thus discourage caring subjects. This is a complex process in which an assemblage of different techniques and rationalities undermines the cultivation of a relationship between social worker and client. 1) The ideal of evidence-based practice favors rigid methods over a flexible and holistic approach. 2) Ideals of rationality, closely connected to notions of masculinity and professionalism, value objectivity and devalue and deter the surfacing of emotions. 3) Meticulous practices of documentation reduce the amount of time available to meet clients. 4) Ideals and particular methods designed to promote individual responsibility in clients legitimize social workers distancing themselves from clients’ dependency and needs. 5) A division of labor, in either assessment or treatment, reduces time spent with clients for those who work with assessment and ultimately engage in the rationing of resources. 6) Standardized digital templates, installed to aid in assessments, regulate and proceduralize interactions with the client. 7) Austerity, heavy workloads, individualized responsibility and stress further accentuate distance, as detachment becomes a means to cope with arduous working conditions.

    The transformation of social work described above produces alienation and a fragmentation of social workers’ collective subjects. Simultaneously, an ethos of caring makes some social workers work extra hard to provide for clients, which ultimately covers for flaws in the system. Although such an ethos of caring allows for the further exploitation of social workers, it is also understood as a means of resistance, which in turn also forms the basis for organized resistance.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 261.
    Lauri, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Vad är problemet med Husby?2016Inngår i: Bortom kravallerna: konflikt, tillhörighet och representation i Husby / [ed] Paulina de los Reyes och Magnus Hörnqvist, Stockholm: Stockholmia förlag , 2016, s. 103-133Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 262.
    Lawal, Oluwafunto Victoria
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    The effect of godfatherism in Nigeria political system and election process2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Electing representatives into government is the basis of democracy. In a democratic country, people are supposed to have the final say on who governs the affairs of the country. This work focuses its study on how godfathers in Nigerian political system influence the electioneering and electing of representatives into government. The study examined the forms of godfatherism, what promotes it and its effect in the Nigerian political and election process based on conversational interview research method to get information from 5 reputable elites in Nigeria. The study shows that godfatherism is an imperative aspect of the Nigerian political system and election process.

  • 263.
    Lehnberg, Therese
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Sverigedemokraterna – Vilka är dom?: En jämforande fallstudie av SD och nazismen, konservatismen och hogerpopulismen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats utreder en eventuell koppling mellan Sverigedemokraterna och den nazistiska,konservativa och/eller högerpopulistiska ideologin. SD:s partiprogram, bade aktuell men avenhistoriska, har jamförts med tre teoretiska idealtyper som sammanstallts med hjalp av informationfran tidigare forskning. Metoden som anvants ar en jamförande fallstudie som undersöker sammaomrade med olika ideologier som utgangspunkt med ambitionen om att hitta kopplingar ochförandringar i Sverigedemokraternas politik, som kan harledas till de varderingar som de trepolitiska ideologierna föresprakar.Resultatet visar att, baserat pa idealtyperna som sammanstallts, finns det vissa likheter mellan SDoch högerpopulismen, aven konservatismen och vissa asikter skule kunna harledas till nazismen.Dock gar dessa inte att validera pa grund av att informationen ar högst beroende av just dessaidealtyper. Det visar aven att det finns mycket som inte stammer överens med just den nazistiskalaran och manga av Sverigedemokraternas asikter kan ses som en motsats till vad nazismen hadeföresprakat i samma fraga. Med förhoppningen om att studien genomförts pa objektiva grunder farlasaren sjalv avgöra om det finns en koppling, baserad pa den information som framkommer i dennastudie.

  • 264.
    Lenz, Magnus
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    War For Peace: Mali as a Theory-Consuming Case Study of International Interventions2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 265.
    Lidström, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Mittuniversitetet, Lärarutbildning, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Kommunerna och medborgarna2009Inngår i: Kan norra Sverige regionaliseras?: Beslutsprocesser och medborgarperspektiv / [ed] Lidström Anders, Umeå: Umeå universitet. Statsvetenskapliga institutionen , 2009, s. 153-162Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 266.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Adding Validity and New Results to the Global Explanations of e-democracy2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in democratic processes, often summarized by the term e-democracy, has seldom been analysed from a global perspective. Although the UN eParticipation index provides one of the few examples of an international measurement of e-democracy, it has been thoroughly criticized. At the same time, however, a number of studies have added knowledge in the field of global determinants of e-democracy by using this very index. In this study I resolve this by: (1) examining whether the UN index is a valid measurement of e-democracy; (2) inquiring whether there are alternative measurements of e-democracy and finally (3) retesting the determinants of e-democracy using the UN index and alternatives together with a larger data set and more suitable estimations than have previously been used in this field.  The paper gives answer to these questions. First, even if the index has flaws it is not necessarily as problematic as assumed. Second, combining this index with measurements of democracy corresponds with the emphasis in the literature on e-democracy being embedded in democracy. Third, the determinants of e-democracy on a global scale show the positive importance of technology but also of socio-economic variables and population size.

  • 267.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Assessing countries' success in digital politics – still a lot more to be explained2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 268.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Challenges of Digital Politics at the Subnational Level in Sweden: Descriptions and Explanations of Social Media Usage2018Inngår i: Sub-National Democracy and Politics Through Social Media / [ed] Soabachi, Mehmet Zahid och Hatipoğlu, İbrahim, Cham: Springer, 2018, s. 47-62Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since a number of years the use of social media in political processes appears to have had a significant effect on the political landscape. Irrespective of advantages or disadvantages of such technologies scholars have revealed great differences in how digital technologies have been adopted among subnational entities. Citizens risk facing substantial varieties in preconditions for the utilization of digitally based tools based on their residency. In this book chapter on Swedish municipalities adoption of social media both descriptions and patterns explaining variation in such adoption are studied. Findings indicate that an overwhelming majority of Swedish municipalities use social media. Based on the time period applied it can also be noticed that this proportion has increased annually. The explanatory models reveal particularly two noteworthy findings. First, larger municipalities with an already well-developed website are more inclined to adopt social media. As an additional predictor, municipalities with certain funding for democratic development shows a similar pattern. Second, when assessing municipalities versatility in social media usage two of the these predictors show relevance. Lager municipalities with an advanced website are more inclined to utilize social media for different reasons. Since this book chapter shows that certain resources, such as an already developed website and a larger population, will pose influence on social media usage the distribution of this form of digital technology can be distributed unequal over societies.

  • 269.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Digitala former för politik i lokalsamhället2016Inngår i: Thule: Kung. Skytteanska Samfundets Årsbok 2016 / [ed] Jacobsson, Roger, Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundet , 2016Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 270.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Från demokrati till e-demokrati: En jämförande studie av demokratiutveckling i det moderna samhället2011Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This mainly deductive study examines what factors explain the variation of e-democracy and if, why a causal pathway exists. The deductive feature is carried out through examining the predictions of the modernization theory, testing hypotheses concerning the link between economic development and wealth in relation to e-democracy. Deriving from a theoretical point of departure where e-democracy is conceptualized with the help of democratic theory, this phenomenon is studied in three different but linked empirical parts. A cross-sectional global study did establish a relationship between some of the indicators derived from the theory; however, the magnitude of the explanatory power was lower at the level of e-democracy than at the level of democracy. A cross-sectional national study of all Sweden’s municipalities did show that especially high levels of education were clearly related to high levels of e-democracy. Approaching the questions of causal mechanisms and deviations from the found pattern, case studies did emphasize that the linkage between the structural conditions and actor’s-orientated explanations largely could verify what is deducted from theory. However, the importance of economic possibilities and internal prioritizations inside the political organization was essential for the development of e-democracy and was found through more inductive approaches.

    The main contribution of this thesis is the results that, both on an aggregated and a micro level, verify the theory but also add other important explanations. Another important conclusion is the creation of a model for e-democracy where a complete e-democracy is linked to democratic theory and not only maintains information, discussion, and decision-making processes through information and communication technology but also does this while strengthening political participation and political equality.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 271.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Inequality in local digital politics: How different preconditions for citizen engagement can be explained2016Inngår i: Policy & Internet, ISSN 1944-2866, E-ISSN 1944-2866, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 270-291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital technologies have struggled to achieve more equal participation in politics, the so-called “unresolved dilemma of democracy.” Previous research has emphasized the drivers of involvement in digital politics from an individual perspective, but studies looking at the general prerequisites of online engagement in politics are lacking. Not much attention has been directed toward the supply side, namely the online presence of political actors and the structures created by them. Applying a mixed-method design, this article examines the supply of channels for digital politics distributed by Swedish municipalities. Quantitative data collected from municipality websites are used for both a description and explanation of the varying opportunities for involvement encountered by Swedish citizens as a result of where they live. Two extreme cases are then examined in depth in which preconditions for involvement are particularly weak. We find that significant variation exists between municipalities and that these patterns are explained primarily by population size, but also by economic conditions and education levels. The cases show how a lack of policies and unenthusiastic politicians creates poor possibilities for development. The findings also verify previous notions that without demand from citizens, in combination with internal ambition from politicians, successful provision of services for digital politics will be hard to achieve.

  • 272.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Integrationspolitik i lokala valkampanjer2018Inngår i: Snabbtänkt: Reflektioner från valet 2018 av ledande forskare / [ed] Nord, Lars, Grusell, Marie, Bolin, Niklas & Falasca, Kajsa, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, DEMICOM , 2018, s. 77-78Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 273.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Is e-democracy more than democratic?: An examination of the implementation of socially sustainable values in an e-Democratic processes2016Inngår i: Leading Issues in e-Government Research: Volume 2: for Researchers, Teachers and Students / [ed] Singh, S & Castelnovo, W, Reading: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2016, s. 171-193Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 274.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Is e-democracy more than democratic?: An examination of the implementation of socially sustainable values in e-democratic processes2012Inngår i: Electronic Journal of e-Government, ISSN 1479-439X, E-ISSN 1479-439X, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 84-94Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing literature tries to contribute to a more balanced view of the concept of e-democracy. However, one seldom discussed aspect is the concept’s inadequate dimension on what a desirable development of society consists of. By adding certain values, today most pronounced in the theory of social sustainability, this article examines the awareness of such in three e-democratic projects in Swedish municipalities. This is carried out through a qualitative inquiry that uses different types of data and that regards social sustainability as an ongoing process that is suitable to be analysed in relation to other structures in society. The empirical part reveals different important topics. First it shows that the consciousness of socially sustainable values varies between the examined cases. Second, this variation can be due to both the varying success of e-democracy and to conditions inside the political organizations. In conclusion, this paper reveals that the consequence of adding a socially sustainable perspective to e-democracy is that it provides adequate opportunities for analysing social development without missing out qualities that are desired in a democratic society.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 275.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Progress in Global Assessments of E-Democracy: Refined Measurements and New Findings2018Inngår i: International E-Government Development: Policy, Implementation and Best Practice / [ed] Laura Alcaide Muñoz och Manuel Pedro Rodríguez Bolívar, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, s. 215-238Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 276.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Qualities of e-democracy: Examples from Sweden2013Inngår i: Participatory Democratic Innovations in Europe: Improving the Quality of Democracy? / [ed] Geissel, Brigitte & Joas, Marko, Opladen: Verlag Barbara Budrich, 2013, s. 225-248Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 277.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Supply of and demand for e-democracy: A study of the Swedish case2013Inngår i: Information Polity, ISSN 1570-1255, E-ISSN 1875-8754, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 217-232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The field that tries to answer, through comparative research, the question of what factors explain the existence of e-democracy is, despite several recent contributions, quite undeveloped. Due to strong theoretical foundations and extensive quantitative data, this article adds to this field with an overall ambition of not only explaining variation in supply of and demand for e-democracy but also examining how these two dimensions are related. The case in this article is Sweden and the analyses report several unexpected findings. E-democracy provided by Swedish municipalities is positively related to citizens’ level of education and population figures but not to the level of technological development. With an analogous logic, citizens in Sweden are more inclined to use e-democratic functions if they have high levels of income and education and, also have experiences of using computers. However, no significant variation exists among different genders or age groups. When these two perspectives are combined no significant relationship emerges, indicating a discrepancy between supply of and demand for e-democracy. Finally, the fact that this inclination for citizens’ involvement in e-democracy is solely determined by micro characteristics points to the importance of theoretical development.

  • 278.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Technology and democracy: Validity in measurements of e-democracy2015Inngår i: Democratization, ISSN 1351-0347, E-ISSN 1743-890X, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 698-713Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of information and communication technologies in democratic processes, often summarized by the term e-democracy, has seldom been analysed from a global perspective. Although the United Nations E-Participation Index provides one of the few examples of an international measurement of e-democracy, it has been thoroughly criticized; at the same time, however, a number of studies have broadened our understanding of the global determinants of e-democracy by using this very index. In this study, I approach this problem by considering (i) whether the UN E-Participation Index is a valid measurement of e-democracy and (ii) whether any alternative measurements of e-democracy present themselves. In answer to these questions, it would seem that the index, despite its flaws, is not necessarily as problematic as is assumed, although there are observations that violate essential theoretical assumptions and so reduce its validity. Furthermore, its use in combination with measurements of democracy agrees with the emphasis in the literature on e-democracy being embedded in democracy, and results in a measurement that better corresponds with theoretical ideas of e-democracy.

  • 279.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    The policy making of digital politics: Examining the local level in Sweden2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 280.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Theoretical foundations for analyzing dictatorships2011Inngår i: Annual meeting of the Swedish Political Science Association, Umeå University 27-28 October 2011, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the third wave of democratization, dictatorships are still widespread global phenomena. However, in comparative research they are often treated merely as theoretical anomalies and empirical residual categories. By addressing this shortcoming, this research has three overall ambitions which are reached by reviewing, compiling and analyzing earlier research. First, different perspectives on how to define dictatorships are discussed. This makes it possible to approach the regimes in a more nuanced way compared with only classifying them as non-democratic. It is no understatement to claim that dictatorships are heterogeneous. Therefore, the second ambition of this research is to discuss different approaches to how to categorize these regimes more precisely. Theoretically valid categories are necessary when carrying out empirical inquiries. Third, and most absent in contemporary research, the ambition is to elaborate upon the factors that can explain dictatorships. In other words, what constitutes the explanans in an explanatory model of dictatorships and types of them? This includes both the existence of and transitions to dictatorship. To answer this question and to reach a theoretical framework for an explanation of dictatorship, contributions from a variety of research need to be put together. All in all, this paper will add greater theoretical understanding that is necessary for empirical examinations of dictatorships. Increased validity and increased confidence in explanations of dictatorships could be the result if the conclusions of this research are implemented in empirical studies.

  • 281.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Theories of Dictatorships: Sub-Types and Explanations2014Inngår i: Studies of Transition States and Societies, ISSN 1736-874X, E-ISSN 1736-8758, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 50-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the third wave of democratisation, dictatorships are still a widespread global phenomenon. In recent years, comparative scholars have shown a renewed interest in such regimes, which has resulted in a significant increase in the volume of research that has been produced. However, such research is not always carried out in a cumulative fashion and, therefore, lacks the traits of a more holistic perspective. Hence, it is appropriate to review this research to try to create opportunities for more systematisation in future studies. This study does this by focusing on two approaches: that is providing definitions of non-democracies, but also developing a framework for empirical explanations of these regimes. Addressing the first approach reveals gaps in previous definitions of dictatorships, which is something that is managed by stating a theoretically founded conceptualisation. Moreover, scrutinising the typologies of dictatorships and their variants provided by previous research reveals some loosely connected or almost arbitrary alternatives. Such flaws are discussed and solutions are given. Regarding the second approach, this article discusses findings on how both the existence of and the transition to dictatorships and their variants can be systematised. The outcome is a framework that can be applied in future research. To conclude, there is still much that is unknown about both the description and the explanation of dictatorships, but by systematising recent research this article sets out a more unified strategy.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 282.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Åbo Akademi.
    Variationer i demokrati: En kvantitativ studie som utvärderar tänkbara förklaringar2008Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 283.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    What about theory?: The consequences on a widened perspective of social theory2013Inngår i: Quality and quantity, ISSN 0033-5177, E-ISSN 1573-7845, Vol. 47, nr 1, s. 213-225Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the leading debates in social sciences concerns research design. However, in comparative politics, the predominant way conducting research misses out crucial aspects that are central to social theory. This article shows how method and empirical research are highly dependent on the definition of theory. Arguing that theory should not only give an explanation of the social phenomena in question but should also show how this relationship is constructed, this article outlines the consequence of such a perspective, namely that the collection of data should reflect both macro and micro perspectives and the analyses of data should be carried out using mixed methods. In conclusion, such an integrated framework is the most appropriate way to give valuable theoretical feedback, either by examination and revision of already established theories or by a contribution to the construction of new theory in the social sciences. It is important, though, that such a framework is applied in a systematized way.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Lidén_What_about_theory
  • 284.
    Lidén, Gustav
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Why do some local authorities have such poor websites?: Insights from Sweden2016Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 285.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Analysing the intersections between technology, performativities and politics: The case of local citizen dialogue2013Inngår i: Transformations, ISSN 1444-3775, E-ISSN 1444-3775, nr 23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the challenges to the theories of the political sphere posed by a digital society. It is suggested that this most evident at the intersection between understandings of technology, performativities, and politics that combines empirical closeness with abstract understandings of socio-political and cultural contexts. The paper exemplifies this by reporting on a study of online citizen dialogue in the making, in this case concerning school planning in a Swedish municipality. Applying these theoretical perspectives to this case provides some key findings. The technological design is regarded as restricting the potential dialogue, as is outlined in different themes where the participants enact varying positions—taxpayers, citizen consumers, or local residents. The political analysis stresses a dialogue that lacks both polemic and public perspectives, and rather is characterized by the expression of different special interests. Together, these perspectives can provide the foundation for the development of applying theories in a digital society.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 286.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Larsson, Anders Olof
    Westerdals Oslo School of Arts, Communication and Technology.
    From 1.0 to 2.0: Swedish municipalities online2016Inngår i: Journal of Information Technology & Politics, ISSN 1933-1681, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 339-351Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study examines the social media use of Swedish municipalities, detailing the potential relationship between traditional forms of e-government initiatives and social media engagement of municipal bodies. By bringing these two forms of digital politics together, a more valid measurement of the supply of online democratic tools for citizen engagement is suggested. Moreover, the potential variation in determinants influencing these two concepts is examined as well. The main results indicate that municipalities’ adoption of social media is related to the procuration of more traditional services through their Web sites. Hence, a tendency of a “rich-get-richer” effect is indicated. In this respect, drivers of the different types of government use of digital services are to some extent similar. According to previous research, population size has a positive effect on the studied phenomena. Somewhat surprisingly, however, other explanatory factors differ. For example, although socioeconomic factors appear to have a positive influence on more traditional forms of online services, previous ambitions of e-government development appear as important for social media adoption by municipalities.

  • 287.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Stockholms universitet.
    A framework for governance of local migration policy: Assumptions and theoretical consequences2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 288.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Evidence of Swedish municipalities' reception of unaccompanied minors: A multi-method approach2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden annually receives several thousands of unaccompanied minors who have left their home countries due to poverty or abuse or because they have become trapped in warzones. These children can either receive a residence permit that grants them the status of quota refugees or go through the process of applying for asylum. Swedish municipalities are responsible for the housing of and care of these children. Two empirical phenomena are associated with this reception. First, a variation exists between those who have a reception and those who do not. Second, in recent years a tremendous change has occurred in that the number of more positively inclined municipalities has grown. To examine these aspects, we derive from structural conditions and form a set of hypotheses that is based on assumptions about municipalities’ rational acting and then continue with a statistical examination of all the municipalities for a number of years. We complement these findings with intensive inquiries into two municipalities that have both established a reception during the examined time period, and we evaluate the structurally founded causal effects from a micro perspective. Our findings show that municipalities with a challenging demographical situation are more inclined to maintain or to start to offer reception of minors. Additional effects such as economic and political consequences could also influence decision-makers. However, this article also provides data that reveal the actual effect of leading politicians’ own desires and beliefs in shaping such local migration policy.

  • 289.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Explaining Local Swedish Refugee Policy2014Inngår i: Journal of International Migration and Integration, ISSN 1488-3473, E-ISSN 1874-6365, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 547-565Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish migration system, the local level plays a crucial role since the municipalities have full autonomy to accept or decline refugees. This has created a considerable variation in numbers of immigrants among municipalities, and there is a large variation in local societies' willingness to receive refugees. In this study, we focus on all the Swedish municipalities for a time span of several years and derive from economic, demographic, socio-cultural, and explanatory factors that have been put forward in earlier research. Through quantitative analysis, we can show how income, the unemployment rate, population, and support for the right-wing party negatively vary with the willingness to receive refugees. Moreover, the distribution of income results in the opposite significant direction. These results, partly contradicting theory, show the importance of a nuanced and holistic theoretical base in further research.

  • 290.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Stockholm University.
    Governing Swedish Migration and Integration Policy2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of migration policy, it has become evident that subnational policies are important since they actually deal with local policy efforts in relation to the reception and inclusion of immigrants. This paper originates from a book project where local migration and integration policies in Sweden are in focus. An emerging literature verify such standpoints by showing how divergences in policies between national and local level appear. The theoretical starting point is taken in a Multi-level Governance perspective specified thru vertical and horizontal governance. To be able to understand the role of local migration policy a simple division between vertical and horizontal perspectives can be utilized. How power over policy is shared between different administrative levels is a question of vertical aspects whereas acknowledging different actors participating in networks, between and within organizations, is a question of a horizontal perspective. More complex, though, the intersection of dynamics generated by vertical and horizontal dimensions appear to be the setting for the inquiry of migration policy that also will involves the negotiating and bargaining between the involved actors on the output of policy. Empirically, this paper draws on an analysis of the development of the policy field, including previous reforms, combined with interviews with public officials representing both national and local actors. In summary, this material makes it possible to examine multi-level governance relations within this policy sector. The results show that there are significant challenges within this governance structure that involves tensions between national and local level when it comes to negotiations and bargains.

  • 291.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Stockholm University.
    How to understand governance of local migration policy: The creation of a theoretical framework2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 292.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Local varieties in integration policies: Experiences from the perspective of immigrants in Sweden2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 293.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Lokal migrationspolitik: Om flyktingmottagande och integration i svenska kommuner. 2015Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 294.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Lokalt flyktingmottagande: strukturer, aktörer och processer2015Inngår i: Lokalt beslutsfattande / [ed] Niklas Bolin, Sara Nyhlén och Pär M. Olausson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 295.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Stockholm University.
    Reception of immigrants among Swedish municipalities2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of migration policy, it has become evident that subnational polities are important since they actually deal with local policy efforts in relation to the reception and inclusion of immigrants. In this manuscript, consisting of a draft of one of the chapters from a forthcoming monography that focuses on local migration and integration policy in Sweden, the reception of immigrants in Swedish municipalities is given attention. This mainly descriptive chapter focuses on the numbers that describe Swedish municipalities’ reception of immigrants. This will provide both a comprehensive quantitative review of the complete municipal sector in Sweden based on the issue of immigration but will also make it possible to notice important patterns that have occurred over the years. Considering the temporal focus, the first part of the chapter display data of key variables over long time series whereas the chapter thereafter will distinguish between the situation before and after the policy shifts that occurred in the wake of the refugee crisis in 2015. This design will enable comparisons both over time as well as allow comparisons between Swedish municipalities. In addition to describing the admission of immigrants, some attempts are given to also identify patterns that provide better understanding for the distribution among municipalities.

  • 296.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Reception of refugees in Sweden2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish migration system the municipalities play a crucial role since they have full autonomy to accept or decline refugees. This has created a considerable variation in numbers of immigrants among municipalities’ and there is a large variation in local societies’ willingness to receive refugees. In this study we focus on all the Swedish municipalities for a time span of several years and derive from economic, demographic, socio-cultural and explanatory factors that have been put forward in earlier research. Through quantitative analysis we can show how income, the unemployment rate, population and support for the right-wing party negatively vary with the willingness to receive refugees. Moreover, the distribution of income results in the opposite significant direction. These results, partly contradicting theory, show the importance of a nuanced and holistic theoretical base in further research.

  • 297.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Refugee Policy and Local Decision-Making: Comparative Case studies from Sweden2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration flows are frequent topics of research in different disciplines. Focusing on the Swedish municipality level, we complement such earlier studies’ macro perspective with an intensive examination of how a few Swedish municipalities design their local refugee policy and thereby either accept or do not accept refugees. Combining this local perspective with micro theory, we derive from rationalistic premises of how political leaders and bureaucrats act to maximize their interests. By selecting municipalities that share several important characteristics except their attitude towards the reception of refugees, we can, through analyzing interviews and documents, show how a pragmatic view and internal constraints often shape local decision making in terms of outlining refugee policy.Doing this makes it possible to connect the actors’ behavior with structures forming the society and the municipality’s organization in which they are embedded.

  • 298.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Structure and Agency in Swedish Municipalities’ Reception of Unaccompanied Minors2016Inngår i: The Journal of Refugee Studies, ISSN 0951-6328, E-ISSN 1471-6925, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 39-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Children without parents or guardians who leave their home country to start a new life somewhere else are a contemporary and global phenomenon that represents a significant proportion of the migration to developed states. Although, historically, Swedish municipalities have been, through traditions of local self-government, able to decide whether to receive unaccompanied children or not, a significant subnational variation does exist. This study addresses this variation by examining the factors that explain whether a municipality offers to receive such children. To examine these factors, we derive from structural conditions and form a set of hypotheses that is based on assumptions about municipalities’ rational action and then continue with a statistical examination of all municipalities for a number of years. We complement these findings with intensive inquiries into two municipalities that have established a reception during the examined time period. The findings reveal that political factors, such as support for parties that are sceptical about immigration, are negatively related to a receiving policy. In addition, structural characteristics such as population size and levels of human capital have a positive effect on the outcome of the policy. The results from case studies add to such findings and emphasize that, although economic aspects are ubiquitous and hard to neglect, decision makers do stress the real and long-term benefits of reception.

  • 299.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Nyhlén, Sara
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Challenging Steering: Public and Private relations within Swedish integration policy2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 300.
    Lidén, Gustav
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Nyhlén, Jon
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Nyhlén, Sara
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Contradictions in government steering: analyzing the Swedish establishment reform2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2010 significant parts of Swedish migration policy were changed. Through ”establishment reform” a centralization was implemented in which the national level took over the responsibility of municipalities for the establishment of newly arrived immigrants. In today's system, the responsibility is shared between several authorities, and the municipalities, the Swedish Public Employment Service, the County Councils, the Swedish Migration Board, and publicly financed private services are the central actors. Recent governmental reports have described the current situations as being characterized by coordination problems and shortcomings in accountability. Having that said, this policy creates an institutional landscape that spans both vertical and horizontal dimensions, reflecting several levels of the public administration and, simultaneously, actors that originate from the governmental, regional, local, and private sectors. In this article we present one of the first Swedish studies on this reformed policy area and apply theoretically founded ideal types for analyzing the governing within the reform. Hence, the focus of the article is to analyze the complex steering processes that arise when the two quite contradictory elements of centralization and governance emerges. We examine one Swedish region in which parts of the establishment reform was applied as a pilot project before being applied to the rest of Sweden. Results are theoretically unexpected, both giving results of traits of governance steering but also of top-down perspectives and great restrictions for involved actors.

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