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  • 251. Kahlin, Yvonne
    et al.
    Werner, Suzanne
    Romild, Ulla
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Self-related health, physical activity, BMI and musculoskeletal complaints - a comparison between foreign and Swedish high school students2009Inngår i: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, ISSN 0334-0139, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 327-341Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activities during leisure time and school hours as well as nutritional habits have changed over the past years by adolescents being less physically active and adopting a sedentary life-style. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible differences between foreign and Swedish high school students in terms of self-related health, physical activity, overweight, and possible complaints from the musculoskeletal system. METHODS: 1,090 high school students, 450 with foreign background and 640 with Swedish background, aged 16-26 years answered a questionnaire. RESULTS: A higher percentage of students with foreign background reported poor self-related health compared with students with Swedish background (p = .038). Students with a foreign background were to a greater extent less physically active than students of Swedish background (p = .003). No differences were found between the groups regarding musculoskeletal complaints. Students with foreign background were more often overweight than students with Swedish background and overweight was more frequent among males than females. Physical activity (moderate and high level) was concluded to be a factor with significant positive effect on self-related general health (moderate level p = .042, high level (p < .001), and musculoskeletal complaints were negative factors on self-related general health (p < .001). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that adolescents with foreign background should participate in physical activity to prevent overweight and thereby improve physical health.

     

     

  • 252.
    Kantomaa, M. T.
    et al.
    LIKES, Research Center for Sport and Health Sciences, FI-40720 Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Stamatakis, E.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
    Kankaanpää, A.
    LIKES, Research Center for Sport and Health Sciences, FI-40720 Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Kaakinen, M.
    Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Taanila, A.
    Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland.
    Ahonen, T.
    Primary Health Care Unit, Oulu University Hospital, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland.
    Järvelin, M. -R
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom.
    Tammelin, T.
    LIKES, Research Center for Sport and Health Sciences, FI-40720 Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 110, nr 5, s. 1917-1922Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people's cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratoryfitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Compromised motorfunctioninchildhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement.

  • 253.
    Karlsson, Ann-Sophie
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    GIS-baserad analys av äldres tillgänglighet i närmiljön: -en studie i Gävle kommun2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Tillgänglighet till service och resurser i närmiljön har betydelse för människors hälsa och livskvalitet. Äldre människor är särskilt beroende av god tillgänglighet i närområdet då det utgör den huvudsakliga vistelsemiljön för många äldre, samtidigt som åldrandet ofta medför en försämrad rörelseförmåga. Begreppet tillgänglighet innefattar flera faktorer, exempelvis avstånd och antal faciliteter som finns inom ett visst område, hur bekvämt och obehindrat man kan ta sig till faciliteterna och i vilken utsträckning faciliteterna uppfyller invånarnas behov. God tillgänglighet till faciliteter i närmiljön som främjar äldres hälsa och höjer deras livskvalitet förbättrar möjligheterna att uppnå ett gott åldrande.

    Syfte: Syftet med undersökningen var att beskriva tillgängligheten i närmiljön för äldre som bor i seniorboende samt studera skillnader i tillgänglighet i olika närområden. Studien belyste särskilt tillgängligheten till grönområden, livsmedelsbutiker, sociala mötesplatser för äldre och kollektivtrafik och fokuserades speciellt på faktorer relaterade till ”de fyra hörnpelarna för ett gott åldrande”, d v s fysisk aktivitet, god kosthållning, social gemenskap och stöd samt meningsfullhet och delaktighet.

    Metod: I studien ingick fyra seniorboenden i Gävle kommun, två belägna i centrala Gävle och två lokaliserade i perifera stadsdelar. Tillgängligheten analyserades med hänsyn till gångavstånd och beskrevs utifrån aspekterna rumslig fördelning, gångvägens beskaffenhet samt faciliteternas individuella kvaliteter. Kartläggningen av tillgängligheten gjordes med hjälp av geografiska informationssystem och fältstudier.

    Resultat: Tillgängligheten var likartad i de olika närområdena beträffande den rumsliga fördelningen av faciliteter. Samtliga undersökningsområden hade god tillgänglighet till grönområden, livsmedelsbutiker, sociala mötesplatser för äldre och kollektivtrafik med hänsyn till avstånd. Analysen av gångvägars beskaffenhet och faciliteters kvaliteter visade emellertid på vissa skillnader mellan områden. Mest framträdande var hur det mest centralt belägna området skilde sig från de övriga på flera sätt.

    Slutsatser: Analysen av resultatet visade att närområdena stödjer de fyra hörnpelarna för ett gott åldrande, speciellt vad gäller fysisk aktivitet, social gemenskap och meningsfullhet. Hörnpelaren ”god kosthållning” hade ett sämre stöd i samtliga områden.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 254. Karlsson, Berndt
    et al.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Andersson, E
    Toren, K
    Total mortality and cause specific mortality of Swedish shift and day workers in the pulp and paper industry between 1952 and 20012005Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 30-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 255. Karlsson, Berndt H
    et al.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Lindahl, Bernt O
    Alfredsson, Lars S
    Metabolic disturbances in male workers with rotating three shift work2003Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, Vol. 76, nr 6, s. 424-430Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We found a significant association between shift work and lipid disturbances (i.e. low HDL-cholesterol and high triglyceride levels). We did not find any association with hyperglycaemia.

  • 256. Karlsson, Berndt
    et al.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Lindahl, B
    Is there an association between working shift and having a metabolic syndrome?: Results from a population-based study of 27,485 individuals2001Inngår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, Vol. 58, s. 747-752Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 257.
    Karlsson, Carolina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Prostitution bland unga - Uppfattningar hos psykologer och kuratorer på ungdomsmottagningar.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 258.
    Katja, Raetz
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Upplevelse av sociala kontakter bland ensamboende äldsta äldre: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 259.
    Kellman, PJ
    et al.
    Swarthmore College, USA.
    Von Hofsten, C
    Uppsala University.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Uppsala universitet.
    Concurrent motion in infant event perception1987Inngår i: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Infant sensitivity to motion relationships specifying certain complex events, such as a person walking, has recently been demonstrated, but the perceptual principles underlying early event perception are not well understood. Retinal motion toward a common point (concurrent motion) specifies translation in depth to adult perceivers in the absence of conflicting information (Börjesson & von Hofsten, 1973). We tested this principle of event perception with 28 16-week-old infants. One group was habituated in a dark room to a concurrent motion: three points of light moving in a frontoparallel plane toward and away from a central point (not seen). After habituation, the room was illuminated, and looking time was tested to alternate presentations of two displays. In one display (depth motion), three lights were attached to a triangle actually moving in depth; in the other display (surface motion), the three lights moved visibly along the surface of a fronto-parallel stationary triangle. If concurrent motion, in the absence of conflicting information, specifies motion in depth to infants, they were expected to look longer after habituation at the surface motion display. A control group tested infants' relative interest in the two test displays with no prior habituation period.

    Control-group infants marginally preferred the depth movement display. The habituation group responded three times as much to the surface motion display, suggesting that motion in depth had been perceived during habituation. Specification of motion in depth by concurrency of relative proximal stimulus motions seems to be an operative principle in infants' perception; moreover, at least some principles of early event perception are unrelated to person perception or biological motion. The relation of these results to recent findings in infant object perception is discussed.

  • 260.
    Khalife, Natasha
    et al.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Glover, Vivette
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Inst Reprod & Dev Biol, London, England.
    Taanila, Anja
    Univ Oulu, Inst Hlth Sci, Oulu, Finland.
    Ebeling, Hanna
    Univ Oulu, Clin Child Psychiat, Inst Clin Med, Oulu, Finland.
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi. Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Prenatal Glucocorticoid Treatment and Later Mental Health in Children and Adolescents2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 11, s. Art. no. e81394-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Animal studies demonstrate a clear link between prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids (GC) and altered offspring brain development. We aim to examine whether prenatal GC exposure programs long-term mental health in humans. Methods: Using propensity-score-matching, children prenatally exposed to synthetic glucocorticoids (sGC), n=37, and controls, n=185, were balanced on important confounders related to sGC treatment - gestational age and pre-pregnancy BMI. We also used mixed-effects modeling to analyse the entire cohort - matching each sGC case, n=37, to all possible controls, n=6079, on gestational age and sex. We obtained data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 at four waves - pregnancy, birth, 8 and 16 years. Data on pregnancy and birth outcomes came from medical records. Mental health was assessed at 8 years by teachers with the Rutter B2 scale, and at 16 years by parents with the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD symptoms and Normal behavior (SWAN) scale and adolescents by the Youth Self-Report (YSR) scale. Results: Prenatal sGC treatment was consistently associated with adverse mental health in childhood and adolescence, as shown by both the propensity-score method and mixed-effects model. Using the propensity-score-matched subsample, linear multiple regression showed prenatal sGC was significantly linked with general psychiatric disturbance (B=8.34 [95% CI: .23-16.45]) and inattention (B=.97 [95% CI:. 16-1.80]) at 8 years after control for relevant confounders. Similar findings were obtained at 16 years, but did not reach statistical significance. Mediation by birthweight/placental weight was not detected. Conclusions: This study is the first to prospectively investigate the long-term associations between prenatal exposure to sGC treatment and mental health in children and adolescents. We report an association between prenatal exposure to sGC and child mental health, supportive of the idea that sGC has a programming effect on the fetal brain.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Rodriguez_Prenatal_glucocortoid_treatment
  • 261.
    Khalife, Natasha
    et al.
    Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom.
    Kantomaa, Marko
    Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom.
    Glover, Vivette
    Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom.
    Tammelin, Tuija
    LIKES - Research Center for Sports and Health Sciences, Finland.
    Laitinen, Jaana
    Finnish Institute for Occupational Health, Finland .
    Ebeling, Hanna
    Clinic of Child Psychiatry, University and University Hospital of Oulu, Finland .
    Hurtig, Tuula
    Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Finland .
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för psykologi. Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom.
    Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Are Risk Factors for Obesity and Physical Inactivity in Adolescence2014Inngår i: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 0890-8567, E-ISSN 1527-5418, Vol. 53, nr 4, s. 425-436Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To prospectively investigate the association and directionality between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and obesity from childhood to adolescence in the general population. We examined whether obesogenic behaviors, namely, physical inactivity and binge eating, underlie the potential ADHD symptom obesity association. We explored whether childhood conduct disorder (CD) symptoms are related to adolescent obesity/physical inactivity. Method: At 7 to 8 years (n = 8,106), teachers reported ADHD and CD symptoms, and parents reported body mass index (BMI) and physically active play. At 16 years (n = 6,934), parents reported ADHD symptoms; adolescents reported physical activity (transformed to metabolic equivalent of task [MET] hours per week) and binge eating; BMI and waist hip ratio (WHR) were measured via clinical examination. Obesity was defined using the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-offs for BMI and the 95th percentile cut-off for WHR. Results: Childhood ADHD symptoms significantly predicted adolescent obesity, rather than the opposite. Inattention-hyperactivity symptoms at 8 years were associated with indices of obesity at 16 years (obese BMI: odds ratio [OR] = 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-3.33; 95th percentile WHR: OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.05-2.78), adjusted for gender, baseline BMI, physical activity, family structure change, and maternal education. Child CD symptoms associated with indices of adolescent obesity. Reduced physically active play in childhood predicted adolescent inattention (OR = 1.61,95% CI = 1.16-2.24). Childhood ADHD and CD symptoms were linked with physical inactivity in adolescence (inattention-hyperactivity; OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.20-2.13), but not binge eating. Physical inactivity mediated the associations. Conclusions: Children with ADHD or CD symptoms are at increased risk for becoming obese and physically inactive adolescents. Physical activity may be beneficial for both behavior problems and obesity.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 262.
    Khan, Anokhi Ali
    et al.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Ctr Environm & Hlth, Hlth Protect Agcy, Med Res Council,Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Rodriguez, Alina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Sebert, Sylvain
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Ctr Environm & Hlth, Hlth Protect Agcy, Med Res Council,Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Kaakinen, Marika
    Univ Oulu, Inst Hlth Sci, Oulu, Finland.
    Cauchi, Stephane
    Univ Lille 2, Inst Pasteur, Inst Biol Lille, Ctr Natl Rech Sci,Unites Mixte Rech 8199, F-59800 Lille, France.
    Froguel, Philippe
    Univ Lille 2, Inst Pasteur, Inst Biol Lille, Ctr Natl Rech Sci,Unites Mixte Rech 8199, F-59800 Lille, France.
    Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa
    Univ Oulu, Dept Clin Sci Obstet & Gynecol, Oulu, Finland.
    Pouta, Anneli
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Oulu, Finland.
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Ctr Environm & Hlth, Hlth Protect Agcy, Med Res Council,Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    The Interplay of Variants Near LEKR and CCNL1 and Social Stress in Relation to Birth Size2012Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 6, s. Art. no. e38216-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: We previously identified via a genome wide association study variants near LEKR and CCNL1 and in the ADCY5 genes lead to lower birthweight. Here, we study the impact of these variants and social stress during pregnancy, defined as social adversity and neighborhood disparity, on infant birth size. We aimed to determine whether the addition of genetic variance magnified the observed associations. Methodology/Principal Findings: We analyzed data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 5369). Social adversity was defined by young maternal age (<20 years), low maternal education (<11 years), and/or single marital status. Neighborhood social disparity was assessed by discrepancy between neighborhoods relative to personal socio-economic status. These variables are indicative of social and socioeconomic stress, but also of biological risk. The adjusted multiple regression analysis showed smaller birth size in both infants of mothers who experienced social adversity (birthweight by -40.4 g, 95% CI -61.4, -19.5; birth length -0.14 cm, 95% CI -0.23, -0.05; head circumference -0.09 cm 95% CI -0.15, -0.02) and neighborhood disparity (birthweight -28.8 g, 95% CI -47.7, -10.0; birth length -0.12 cm, 95% CI -0.20, -0.05). The birthweight-lowering risk allele (SNP rs900400 near LEKR and CCNL1) magnified this association in an additive manner. However, likely due to sample size restriction, this association was not significant for the SNP rs9883204 in ADCY5. Birth size difference due to social stress was greater in the presence of birthweight-lowering alleles. Conclusions/Significance: Social adversity, neighborhood disparity, and genetic variants have independent associations with infant birth size in the mutually adjusted analyses. If the newborn carried a risk allele rs900400 near LEKR/CCNL1, the impact of stress on birth size was stronger. These observations give support to the hypothesis that individuals with genetic or other biological risk are more vulnerable to environmental influences. Our study indicates the need for further research to understand the mechanisms by which genes impact individual vulnerability to environmental insults.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 263.
    Khoshaba, Chamiran
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Skolsköterskors erfarenheter av metoder i hälsosamtalen för ett mer hälsofrämjande förhållningssätt: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 264.
    Khoshaba, Chamiran
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Växtbaserad kost för att förebygga hjärt-kärlsjukdom:: En kvalitativ studie om äldres uppfattningar och attityder.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 265. Kinney, Jean
    et al.
    Leaton, Gwen
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Att släppa taget: En handbok för alkoholbehandlare1997Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svensk översättning och bearbetning av det amerikanska originalet Kinney, J & Leaton, G. Loosening the Grip, 4th edition 1991, Moosby Year Book

  • 266.
    Kitzmüller, G.
    et al.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Häggström, T.
    Faculty of Health and Society, Narvik University College, Narvik, Norway.
    Asplund, Kenneth
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för omvårdnad.
    Living an unfamiliar body: The significance of the long-term influence of bodily changes on the perception of self after stroke2013Inngår i: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 19-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to illuminate the significance of the long-term influence of bodily changes on the perception of self after stroke by means of narrative interviews with 23 stroke survivors. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach inspired by the philosophy of Merleau-Ponty and Ricoeur is the methodological framework. Zahavi's understanding of the embodied self and Leder's concept of dys-appearance along with earlier research on identity guide the comprehensive understanding of the theme. The meaning of bodily changes after stroke can be understood as living with an altered perception of self. Stroke survivors perceive their bodies as fragile, unfamiliar and unreliable and tend to objectify them. The weak and discomforting body that 'cannot' demands constant, comprehensive awareness to keep itself in play. These long-term and often permanent consequences of bodily weakness may turn stroke survivors' intentionality inwards, away from external activities and projects and relationships with others. Negative judgements from others are added to lost roles and positions and threaten the vulnerable self. Stroke survivors try to regain familiarity with their body by their life-long project of testing its boundaries. Mastering important tasks helps them strengthen their self-concept. Health care workers should be aware of the embodied self and engage in long-term dialogues with stroke survivors to strengthen positive perceptions of body and self. More research is needed to understand destructive post-stroke phenomena such as fatigue and pain and to find effective methods to help stroke survivors regain wholeness of body and self.

  • 267.
    Kivimaki, Mika
    et al.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Jokela, Markus
    Univ Helsinki, Inst Behav Sci, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Sweden.
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Koege Hosp, Dept Occupat Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Burr, Hermann
    Fed Inst Occupat Safety & Hlth BAuA, Berlin, Germany.
    Casini, Annalisa
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sch Publ Hlth, Brussels, Belgium.
    Clays, Els
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, Belgium.
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, Belgium.
    Dragano, Nico
    Univ Dusseldorf, Fac Med, Inst Med Sociol, Dusseldorf, Germany.
    Erbel, Raimund
    Univ Duisburg Essen, West German Heart Ctr Essen, Dept Cardiol, Essen, Germany.
    Geuskens, Goedele A.
    TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Hamer, Mark
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, England.
    Hooftman, Wendela E.
    TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Houtman, Irene L.
    TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Jockel, Karl-Heinz
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Fac Med, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Essen, Germany.
    Kittel, France
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sch Publ Hlth, Brussels, Belgium.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Univ Dusseldorf, Fac Med, Inst Med Sociol, Dusseldorf, Germany.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Frederiksberg Univ Hosp, Unit Social Med, Denmark.
    Nordin, Maria
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Sweden.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Danish Natl Ctr Social Res, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Salo, Paula
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Shipley, Martin J.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, England.
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Univ Dusseldorf, Fac Med, Inst Med Sociol, Dusseldorf, Germany.
    Steptoe, Andrew
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, England.
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Univ Turku, Dept Publ Hlth, Turku, Finland.
    Theorell, Tores
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Sweden.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Uppsala Univ, Occupat & Environm Med, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Sweden.
    O'Reilly, Dermot
    Queens Univ Belfast, Ctr Publ Hlth, Belfast, Antrim, Northern Ireland.
    Kumari, Meena
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, England.
    Batty, G. David
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, England.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, England.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, England.
    IPD-Work Consortium,
    Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished data for 603 838 individuals2015Inngår i: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 386, nr 10005, s. 1739-1746Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Long working hours might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but prospective evidence is scarce, imprecise, and mostly limited to coronary heart disease. We aimed to assess long working hours as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. Methods We identified published studies through a systematic review of PubMed and Embase from inception to Aug 20, 2014. We obtained unpublished data for 20 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium and open-access data archives. We used cumulative random-effects meta-analysis to combine effect estimates from published and unpublished data. Findings We included 25 studies from 24 cohorts in Europe, the USA, and Australia. The meta-analysis of coronary heart disease comprised data for 603 838 men and women who were free from coronary heart disease at baseline; the meta-analysis of stroke comprised data for 528 908 men and women who were free from stroke at baseline. Follow-up for coronary heart disease was 5.1 million person-years (mean 8.5 years), in which 4768 events were recorded, and for stroke was 3.8 million person-years (mean 7.2 years), in which 1722 events were recorded. In cumulative meta-analysis adjusted for age, sex, and socioeconomic status, compared with standard hours (35-40 h per week), working long hours (>= 55 h per week) was associated with an increase in risk of incident coronary heart disease (relative risk [RR] 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26; p=0.02) and incident stroke (1.33, 1.11-1.61; p=0.002). The excess risk of stroke remained unchanged in analyses that addressed reverse causation, multivariable adjustments for other risk factors, and different methods of stroke ascertainment (range of RR estimates 1.30-1.42). We recorded a dose-response association for stroke, with RR estimates of 1.10 (95% CI 0.94-1.28; p=0.24) for 41-48 working hours, 1.27 (1.03-1.56; p=0.03) for 49-54 working hours, and 1.33 (1.11-1.61; p=0.002) for 55 working hours or more per week compared with standard working hours (p(trend)<0.0001). Interpretation Employees who work long hours have a higher risk of stroke than those working standard hours; the association with coronary heart disease is weaker. These findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the management of vascular risk factors in individuals who work long hours. Copyright (C) Kivimaki et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY.

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  • 268.
    Kivimäki, M.
    et al.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
    Nyberg, S. T.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Batty, G. D.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
    Fransson, E. I.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Heikkilä, K.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Alfredsson, L.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjorner, J. B.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Borritz, M.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Burr, H.
    Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), Berlin, Germany.
    Casini, A.
    School of Public Health, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
    Clays, E.
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    De Bacquer, D.
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Dragano, N.
    Department of Medical Sociology, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Ferrie, J. E.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
    Geuskens, G. A.
    TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Goldberg, M.
    Versailles-Saint Quentin University, Versailles, France.
    Hamer, M.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
    Hooftman, W. E.
    TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Houtman, I. L.
    TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Joensuu, M.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Jokela, M.
    Institute of Behavioral Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kittel, F.
    School of Public Health, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Koskenvuo, M.
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Koskinen, A.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kouvonen, A.
    School of Sociology, Social Policy and Social Work, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Kumari, M.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
    Madsen, I. E. H.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Marmot, M. G.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
    Nielsen, M. L.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nordin, M.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Oksanen, T.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku, Finland.
    Pentti, J.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku, Finland.
    Rugulies, R.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Salo, P.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku, Finland.
    Siegrist, J.
    Department of Medical Sociology, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Singh-Manoux, A.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
    Suominen, S. B.
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Väänänen, A.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vahtera, J.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
    Virtanen, M.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Westerholm, P. J. M.
    Institute of Behavioral Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Westerlund, H.
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zins, M.
    Versailles-Saint Quentin University, Versailles, France.
    Steptoe, A.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.
    Theorell, T.
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Job strain as a risk factor for coronary heart disease: A collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data2012Inngår i: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 380, nr 9852, s. 1491-1497Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Published work assessing psychosocial stress (job strain) as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is inconsistent and subject to publication bias and reverse causation bias. We analysed the relation between job strain and coronary heart disease with a meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies. Methods We used individual records from 13 European cohort studies (1985-2006) of men and women without coronary heart disease who were employed at time of baseline assessment. We measured job strain with questions from validated job-content and demand-control questionnaires. We extracted data in two stages such that acquisition and harmonisation of job strain measure and covariables occurred before linkage to records for coronary heart disease. We defined incident coronary heart disease as the first non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary death. Findings 30 214 (15%) of 197 473 participants reported job strain. In 1•49 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 7•5 years [SD 1•7]), we recorded 2358 events of incident coronary heart disease. After adjustment for sex and age, the hazard ratio for job strain versus no job strain was 1•23 (95% CI 1•10-1•37). This effect estimate was higher in published (1•43, 1•15-1•77) than unpublished (1•16, 1•02-1•32) studies. Hazard ratios were likewise raised in analyses addressing reverse causality by exclusion of events of coronary heart disease that occurred in the first 3 years (1•31, 1•15-1•48) and 5 years (1•30, 1•13-1•50) of follow-up. We noted an association between job strain and coronary heart disease for sex, age groups, socioeconomic strata, and region, and after adjustments for socioeconomic status, and lifestyle and conventional risk factors. The population attributable risk for job strain was 3•4%. Interpretation Our findings suggest that prevention of workplace stress might decrease disease incidence; however, this strategy would have a much smaller effect than would tackling of standard risk factors, such as smoking. Funding Finnish Work Environment Fund, the Academy of Finland, the Swedish Research Council for Working Life and Social Research, the German Social Accident Insurance, the Danish National Research Centre for the Working Environment, the BUPA Foundation, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment, the Medical Research Council, the Wellcome Trust, and the US National Institutes of Health.

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  • 269.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    et al.
    University College London, London, UK.
    Kuosma, Eeva
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    University College London, London, UK.
    Luukkonen, Ritva
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Stockholm County Council.
    Batty, G. David
    University College London, London, UK.
    Brunner, Eric J.
    University College London, London, UK.
    Fransson, Eleonor
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Population-Based Epidemiological Cohorts Unit, Villejuif, France.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nordin, Maria
    Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Shipley, Martin J.
    University College London, London, UK.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    University College London, London, UK.
    Steptoe, Andrew
    University College London, London, UK.
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Theorell, Töres
    Population-Based Epidemiological Cohorts Unit, Villejuif, France.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Westerholm, Peter
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Zins, Marie
    Inserm UMS 011, Population-Based Epidemiological Cohorts Unit, Villejuif, France.
    Hamer, Mark
    University College London, London, UK.
    Bell, Joshua A.
    University College London, London, UK.
    Tabak, Adam G.
    University College London, London, UK.
    Jokela, Markus
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Overweight, obesity, and risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity: pooled analysis of individual-level data for 120 813 adults from 16 cohort studies from the USA and Europe2017Inngår i: The Lancet Public Health, ISSN 2468-2667, Vol. 2, nr 6, s. e277-e285Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Although overweight and obesity have been studied in relation to individual cardiometabolic diseases, their association with risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity is poorly understood. Here we aimed to establish the risk of incident cardiometabolic multimorbidity (ie, at least two from: type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke) in adults who are overweight and obese compared with those who are a healthy weight. Methods We pooled individual-participant data for BMI and incident cardiometabolic multimorbidity from 16 prospective cohort studies from the USA and Europe. Participants included in the analyses were 35 years or older and had data available for BMI at baseline and for type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke at baseline and follow-up. We excluded participants with a diagnosis of diabetes, coronary heart disease, or stroke at or before study baseline. According to WHO recommendations, we classified BMI into categories of healthy (20·0–24·9 kg/m2), overweight (25·0–29·9 kg/m2), class I (mild) obesity (30·0–34·9 kg/m2), and class II and III (severe) obesity (≥35·0 kg/m2). We used an inclusive definition of underweight (&lt;20 kg/m2) to achieve sufficient case numbers for analysis. The main outcome was cardiometabolic multimorbidity (ie, developing at least two from: type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke). Incident cardiometabolic multimorbidity was ascertained via resurvey or linkage to electronic medical records (including hospital admissions and death). We analysed data from each cohort separately using logistic regression and then pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analysis. Findings Participants were 120 813 adults (mean age 51·4 years, range 35–103; 71 445 women) who did not have diabetes, coronary heart disease, or stroke at study baseline (1973–2012). During a mean follow-up of 10·7 years (1995–2014), we identified 1627 cases of multimorbidity. After adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, compared with individuals with a healthy weight, the risk of developing cardiometabolic multimorbidity in overweight individuals was twice as high (odds ratio [OR] 2·0, 95% CI 1·7–2·4; p&lt;0·0001), almost five times higher for individuals with class I obesity (4·5, 3·5–5·8; p&lt;0·0001), and almost 15 times higher for individuals with classes II and III obesity combined (14·5, 10·1–21·0; p&lt;0·0001). This association was noted in men and women, young and old, and white and non-white participants, and was not dependent on the method of exposure assessment or outcome ascertainment. In analyses of different combinations of cardiometabolic conditions, odds ratios associated with classes II and III obesity were 2·2 (95% CI 1·9–2·6) for vascular disease only (coronary heart disease or stroke), 12·0 (8·1–17·9) for vascular disease followed by diabetes, 18·6 (16·6–20·9) for diabetes only, and 29·8 (21·7–40·8) for diabetes followed by vascular disease. Interpretation The risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity increases as BMI increases; from double in overweight people to more than ten times in severely obese people compared with individuals with a healthy BMI. Our findings highlight the need for clinicians to actively screen for diabetes in overweight and obese patients with vascular disease, and pay increased attention to prevention of vascular disease in obese individuals with diabetes. Funding NordForsk, Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, Finnish Work Environment Fund, and Academy of Finland.

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  • 270.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    et al.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, England.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Batty, G. David
    UCL, England.
    Kawachi, Ichiro
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, USA.
    Jokela, Markus
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm.
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen O, Denmark.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Bispebjerg Univ Hosp Copenhagen, Copenhagen NV, Denmark.
    Burr, Hermann
    Fed Inst Occupat Safety & Hlth BAuA, Berlin, Germany.
    Dragano, Nico
    Univ Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Jönköping Univ, Jönköping.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kumari, Meena
    Univ Essex, Essex, England.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen O, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    AS3 Co, AS3 Employment, Denmark.
    Nordin, Maria
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Danish Natl Ctr Social Res, Copenhagen K, Denmark.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen O, Denmark.
    Salo, Paula
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Shipley, Martin J.
    UCL, London, England.
    Suominen, Sakari
    Univ Skövde, Skövde.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Univ Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Westerholm, Peter
    Uppsala Univ, Uppsala.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm.
    Steptoe, Andrew
    UCL, London, England.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Hop Paul Brousse, Villejuif, France.
    Hamer, Mark
    Loughborough Univ Technol, Leics, England.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    Univ Bristol, Avon, England.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Tabak, Adam G.
    UCL, London, England.
    Long working hours as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation: a multi-cohort study2017Inngår i: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 38, nr 34, s. 2621-2628Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims Studies suggest that people who work long hours are at increased risk of stroke, but the association of long working hours with atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia and a risk factor for stroke, is unknown. We examined the risk of atrial fibrillation in individuals working long hours (>= 55 per week) and those working standard 35-40 h/week.

    Methods and results In this prospective multi-cohort study from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium, the study population was 85 494 working men and women (mean age 43.4 years) with no recorded atrial fibrillation. Working hours were assessed at study baseline (1991-2004). Mean follow-up for incident atrial fibrillation was 10 years and cases were defined using data on electrocardiograms, hospital records, drug reimbursement registers, and death certificates. We identified 1061 new cases of atrial fibrillation (10-year cumulative incidence 12.4 per 1000). After adjustment for age, sex and socioeconomic status, individuals working long hours had a 1.4-fold increased risk of atrial fibrillation compared with those working standard hours (hazard ratio = 1.42, 95% CI= 1.13-1.80, P= 0.003). There was no significant heterogeneity between the cohort-specific effect estimates (I-2= 0%, P = 0.66) and the finding remained after excluding participants with coronary heart disease or stroke at baseline or during the follow-up (N= 2006, hazard ratio= 1.36, 95% CI= 1.05-1.76, P = 0.0180). Adjustment for potential confounding factors, such as obesity, risky alcohol use and high blood pressure, had little impact on this association.

    Conclusion Individuals who worked long hours were more likely to develop atrial fibrillation than those working standard hours.

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  • 271.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    et al.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Centre of Expertise for the Development of Work and Organizations, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden .
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Centre of Expertise for the Development of Work and Organizations, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Casini, Annalisa
    School of Public Health, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium .
    Clays, Els
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium .
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium .
    Dragano, Nico
    Department of Medical Sociology, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany .
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Inserm U1018, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Villejuif Cedex, France .
    Hamer, Mark
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Jokela, Markus
    Institute of Behavioral Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland .
    Karasek, Robert
    Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA, United States .
    Kittel, France
    School of Public Health, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium .
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland .
    Nordin, Maria
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Centre of Expertise for the Development of Work and Organizations, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Pentti, Jaana
    Centre of Expertise for the Development of Work and Organizations, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Rugulies, Reiner
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Salo, Paula
    Centre of Expertise for the Development of Work and Organizations, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Department of Medical Sociology, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany .
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland .
    Theorell, Tores
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Centre of Expertise for the Development of Work and Organizations, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Centre of Expertise for the Development of Work and Organizations, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Zins, Marie
    Inserm U1018, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Villejuif Cedex, France .
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Batty, G. David
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Associations of job strain and lifestyle risk factors with risk of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis of individual participant data2013Inngår i: CMJA. Canadian Medical Association Journal. Onlineutg. Med tittel: ECMAJ. ISSN 1488-2329, ISSN 0820-3946, E-ISSN 1488-2329, Vol. 185, nr 9, s. 763-769Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is unclear whether a healthy lifestyle mitigates the adverse effects of job strain on coronary artery disease. We examined the associations of job strain and lifestyle risk factors with the risk of coronary artery disease. Methods: We pooled individual-level data from 7 cohort studies comprising 102 128 men and women who were free of existing coronary artery disease at baseline (1985-2000). Questionnaires were used to measure job strain (yes v. no) and 4 lifestyle risk factors: current smoking, physical inactivity, heavy drinking and obesity. We grouped participants into 3 lifestyle categories: healthy (no lifestyle risk factors), moderately unhealthy (1 risk factor) and unhealthy (2-4 risk factors). The primary outcome was incident coronary artery disease (defined as first nonfatal myocardial infarction or cardiac-related death). Results: There were 1086 incident events in 743 948 person-years at risk during a mean follow-up of 7.3 years. The risk of coronary artery disease among people who had an unhealthy lifestyle compared with those who had a healthy lifestyle (hazard ratio [HR] 2.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.18-2.98; population attributable risk 26.4%) was higher than the risk among participants who had job strain compared with those who had no job strain (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.06-1.47; population attributable risk 3.8%). The 10-year incidence of coronary artery disease among participants with job strain and a healthy lifestyle (14.7 per 1000) was 53% lower than the incidence among those with job strain and an unhealthy lifestyle (31.2 per 1000). Interpretation: The risk of coronary artery disease was highest among participants who reported job strain and an unhealthy lifestyle; those with job strain and a healthy lifestyle had half the rate of disease. A healthy life style may substantially reduce disease risk among people with job strain.

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    Kivimäki_Associations_of_job_strain
  • 272.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    et al.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London WC1E 6BT, England.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kawachi, Ichiro
    Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Soc Human Dev & Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Batty, G. David
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London WC1E 6BT, England.
    Björner, Jakob B.
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Brunner, Eric J.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London WC1E 6BT, England.
    Burr, Hermann
    Fed Inst Occupat Safety & Hlth, Berlin, Germany.
    Dragano, Nico
    Univ Dusseldorf, Fac Med, Inst Med Sociol, Dusseldorf, Germany.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London WC1E 6BT, England.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hamer, Mark
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London WC1E 6BT, England.
    Heikkila, Katriina
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umea Univ, Dept Psychol, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Danish Natl Ctr Social Res, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Salo, Paula
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Univ Dusseldorf, Fac Med, Inst Med Sociol, Dusseldorf, Germany.
    Steptoe, Andrew
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London WC1E 6BT, England.
    Suominen, Sakari
    Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Helsinki, Finland.
    Theorell, Tres
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Uppsala Univ, Occupat & Environm Med, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London WC1E 6BT, England.
    Jokela, Markus
    Univ Helsinki, Inst Behav Sci, Helsinki, Finland.
    Long working hours, socioeconomic status, and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data from 222 120 individuals2015Inngår i: LANCET DIABETES & ENDOCRINOLOGY, ISSN 2213-8587, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 27-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Methods We identified four published studies through a systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase up to April 30, 2014. Study inclusion criteria were English-language publication; prospective design (cohort study); investigation of the effect of working hours or overtime work; incident diabetes as an outcome; and relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, or sufficient information to calculate these estimates. Additionally, we used unpublished individual-level data from 19 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working-Populations Consortium and international open-access data archives. Effect estimates from published and unpublished data from 222 120 men and women from the USA, Europe, Japan, and Australia were pooled with random-effects meta-analysis. Findings During 1.7 million person-years at risk, 4963 individuals developed diabetes (incidence 29 per 10 000 person-years). The minimally adjusted summary risk ratio for long (>= 55 h per week) compared with standard working hours (35-40 h) was 1.07 (95% CI 0.89-1.27, difference in incidence three cases per 10 000 person-years) with significant heterogeneity in study-specific estimates (I-2 = 53%, p = 0.0016). In an analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, the association between long working hours and diabetes was evident in the low socioeconomic status group (risk ratio 1.29, 95% CI 1.06-1.57, difference in incidence 13 per 10 000 person-years, I-2 = 0%, p = 0.4662), but was null in the high socioeconomic status group (1. 00, 95% CI 0.80-1.25, incidence diff erence zero per 10 000 person-years, I-2 = 15%, p = 0.2464). The association in the low socioeconomic status group was robust to adjustment for age, sex, obesity, and physical activity, and remained after exclusion of shift workers. Interpretation In this meta-analysis, the link between longer working hours and type 2 diabetes was apparent only in individuals in the low socioeconomic status groups. Copyright (C) Kivimaki et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY.

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  • 273.
    Klink, Ingrid
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Etablerade studentorganisationers alkoholpolicy vid Lunds universitet ur ett hälsofrämjande perspektiv2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Etablerade studentorganisationers alkoholpolicy vid Lunds universitet ur ett hälsofrämjande perspektiv
  • 274.
    Klockar, Erika
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Sjukgymnastisk sekundärprevention vid TIA: - om och hur sjukgymnaster ger råd om fysisk aktivitet2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    TIA är en kraftig varningssignal för att drabbas av en allvarligare hjärt-kärlhändelse, bland annat stroke. Hjärt-kärlsjukdomar är beroende av levnadsvanor, där låg nivå av fysisk aktivitet är en viktig faktor. Bland de viktigaste behandlingsmetoderna mot hjärt-kärlsjukdomar, både primär - och sekundärpreventivt, är förändring av levnadsvanor. Rådgivning om fysisk aktivitet bör bestå av individanpassade muntliga råd i kombination med skriftlig information och uppföljning. Sjukgymnaster som träffar TIA-patienter har möjlighet att informera patienterna om fysisk aktivitet men det är inte känt i vilken omfattning detta sker. Syftet med denna deskriptiva studie var att genom en enkät undersöka om och hur sjukgymnaster gav råd angående fysisk aktivitet till TIA-patienter. 25 sjukgymnaster deltog i studien. Samtliga träffade regelbundet TIA-patienter. Resultatet blev att en majoritet av sjukgymnasterna gav korta, individanpassade råd, oftast utan uppföljning. Huvudsyftet för sjukgymnasterna var att bekräfta eller förkasta TIA-diagnosen genom bedömning av eventuella fysiska funktionsbortfall. Organisatoriska, tidsmässiga och resursmässiga hinder kom ibland i vägen för informationen. Konklusionen var att fysisk aktivitet som sekundärprevention hos TIA-patienter inte har en självklar plats i hälso – och sjukvården idag.

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  • 275. Knutsson, Anders
    Computerization in industry causes problem for people with reading and writing difficulties (dyslexia)1986Inngår i: Scandinavian journal of social medicine, ISSN 0300-8037, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 179-181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For 10 years computerization in industry has advanced at a rapid pace. A problem which has not received attention is that of people with reading and writing difficulties who experience severe problems when they have to communicate with a computer monitor screen. These individuals are often embarrassed by their difficulties and conceal them from their fellow workers. A number of case studies are described which show the form the problems can take. In one case, an employee was compelled to move from department to department as each was computerized in turn. Computers transform a large number of manual tasks in industry into jobs which call for reading and writing skills. Better education at elementary school and at the workplace in connection with computerization are the most important means of overcoming this problem. Moreover, computer programs could be written in a more human way.

  • 276.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Health disorders of shift workers2003Inngår i: Occupational Medicine Oxford, ISSN 0962-7480, Vol. 53, nr 2, s. 103-108Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of shift work on physiological function through disruption of circadian rhythms are well described. However, shift work can also be associated with specific pathological disorders. This article reviews the evidence for a relationship between specific medical disorders and working at night or on shift systems. The strongest evidence exists for an association with peptic ulcer disease, coronary heart disease and compromised pregnancy outcome.

  • 277. Knutsson, Anders
    Immunoglobulins in workers with traumatic vasospastic disease1975Inngår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, Vol. 17, nr 11, s. 706-707Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty-seven rockdrillers of whom 63% had symptoms of Traumatic Vasospastic Disease were examined. The concentrations of IgG, IgA and IgM in serum were determined with immunoelectrophoresis. The immunoglobulins were found not to be significantly raised.

  • 278.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Methodological aspects of shift-work research2004Inngår i: Chronobiology International, ISSN 0742-0528, E-ISSN 1525-6073, Chronobiology International, ISSN 0742-0528, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 1037-1047Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A major issue in shift-work research is to understand the possible ways in which shift work can impact performance and health. Nearly all body functions, from those of the cellular level to those of the entire body, are circadian rhythmic. Disturbances of these rhythms as well as the social consequences of odd work hours are of importance for the health and well-being of shift workers. This article reviews a number of common methodological issues which are of relevance to epidemiological studies in this area of research. It discusses conceptual problems regarding the use of the term "shift work," and it underscores the need to develop models that explain the mechanisms of disease in shift workers.

  • 279.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Mortality of shift workers2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 97-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 280. Knutsson, Anders
    Multiple logistic analysis software usually does not provide error message for empty cells: Letter to the editor1995Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, ISSN 0355-3140, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 150-150Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 281. Knutsson, Anders
    Relationships between serum trigycerides and g-Glutamyltransferase among shift and day workers1989Inngår i: Journal of internal medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, Vol. 226, nr 5, s. 337-339Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased levels of serum triglycerides in shift workers have been reported in two population-based studies. In order to examine this relationship and to take some common confounding factors into account this cross-sectional study of 562 shift and day workers was carried out. The shift workers had significantly higher levels of serum triglycerides. gamma-glutamyltransferase and total cholesterol, and Body Mass Index did not differ between the groups. The cause of increased serum concentrations of triglycerides is unclear. The present study provides no evidence to support the assumption that alcohol drinking or obesity accounts for increased levels of serum triglycerides in shift workers.

  • 282. Knutsson, Anders
    Shift work and coronary heart disease1989Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on the medical consequences of shift work has mainly been concerned with sleep disorders and gastrointestinal disturbances. Cardiovascular disease has not been clearly implicated. The objective of the present study was to investigate a possible association between shift work and Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), which is the most common cause of death in industrialized countries. Previous research is reviewed and criticized for using simple approaches with little ability to quantify exposure and to control for selection. Two longitudinal and two cross-sectional studies have been carried out. One study has measured incidence of CHD in 504 male day and shiftworkers from 1968 to 1982/83. The results indicate that shift work is associated with CHD. Our result has demonstrated a dose-response relationship between years of shift work and CHD. Our findings on increased risk of CHD in shift workers are consistent with recent epidemiological studies from Sweden which have used register data. The cross-sectional studies in which two different cohorts of male blue-collar workers were investigated did show a higher percentage of smokers among shift workers. In addition, the shift workers had higher serum concentrations of serum triglycerides. The difference in serum triglyceride levels between day and shift workers could not be explained by obesity, smoking or alcohol intake in the statistical analyses. These results suggest that the prevalence of risk factors for CHD is higher among shift workers. A prospective study of 25 male shift and day workers, who were followed for six months, indicated that the diet of shift workers might be responsible for changes in the ratio between apoB and apoA-1, a ratio which is related to risk of coronary disease. The analyses of spontaneous changes in the diet showed that the shift workers tended to decrease the intake of dietary fibre and increase the intake of sacharose. The change in the ratio between apoB and apoA-1 correlated inversely with the change in intake of dietary fibre. It is concluded that spontaneous changes in the diet of shift workers might be responsible for changes in serum lipoproteins. Three major disease pathways from shift work to CHD are proposed: (i) disturbed physiological rhythm and/or a collision between the circadian rhythm and myocardial performance, (ii) changes in behaviour, and (iii) disturbed sociotemporal rhythmicity, which might lead to distress reactions.

  • 283.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Shift work and ischaemic heart disease: Editorial2008Inngår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 65, nr 3, s. 152-152Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 284. Knutsson, Anders
    The Workplace and Cardiovascular Disease2000Inngår i: Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, ISSN 0355-3140, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 455-455Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 285. Knutsson, Anders
    et al.
    Andresson, Håkan
    Berglund, Ulf
    Serum lipoproteins in day and shift workers: a prosspective study1990Inngår i: British journal of industrial medicine, ISSN 0007-1072, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 132-134Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was designed to assess changes in diet and serum lipoproteins in shift workers. Twelve shift workers and 13 day workers were examined before employment and after six months at work. Total cholesterol and serum triglycerides did not change significantly. In both groups a decrease in systolic blood pressure was observed. The ratio between apoB and apoA-1 lipoproteins increased by 18% in shift workers compared with 5% in day workers. The change in the ratio between apoB and apoA-1 lipoproteins showed a significant inverse correlation with the change in intake of dietary fibres

  • 286.
    Knutsson, Anders
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Böggild, H
    Gastrointestinal disorders among shift workers2010Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 85-95Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Our aim was to review published literature on the association between shift work and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders.

    Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted of studies that have reported GI symptoms and diseases among shift workers. We used Medline to search for articles from 1966-2009. Next, we manually searched articles in the reference list of each article and previous reviews.

    Results Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. Four of six studies showed a significant association between shift work and GI symptoms, and five of six studies reported an association between shift work and peptic ulcer disease. Two of three studies showed an association between shift work and functional GI disease. Only a few studies have examined gastroesophageal reflux disease, chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, or GI cancers in relation to shift work.

    Conclusions Our general judgment is that shift workers appear to have increased risk of GI symptoms and peptic ulcer disease. However, control for potential confounders (eg, smoking, age, socioeconomic status, and other risk factors) was often lacking or insufficient in many of the studies we examined.

  • 287. Knutsson, Anders
    et al.
    Bøggild, H
    Shiftwork and cardiovascular disease: Review of disease mechanisms2000Inngår i: Reviews on Environmental Health, ISSN 0048-7554, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 359-372Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 288. Knutsson, Anders
    et al.
    Damber, Lena
    Järvholm, Bengt
    Cancers in concrete workers: results of a cohort study of 33,668 workers2000Inngår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, Vol. 57, s. 264-267Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study has shown a slightly increased overall risk of cancer among concrete workers. The increased risk of lung cancer could entirely be due to differences in smoking habits between concrete workers and the general population. There is a possibility that the smoking also has contributed to the increased risks of stomach cancer and lip cancer, but occupational factors may have contributed to these cancer sites.

  • 289. Knutsson, Anders
    et al.
    Hallquist, Jonas
    Reuterwall, Christina
    Theorell, Töres
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Shiftwork and myocardial infarction: a case control study1999Inngår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, Vol. 56, nr 1, s. 46-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 290.
    Knutsson, Anders
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Hammar, Niklas
    Karlsson, Berndt
    Shift workers mortality scrutinized2004Inngår i: Chronobiology International, ISSN 0742-0528, E-ISSN 1525-6073, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 1049-1053Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to reappraise previous published data on the mortality of male shift workers from Taylor and Pocock (1972). Mortality rate ratios were calculated for shift workers, ex-shift workers, and for shift workers plus ex-shift workers, respectively, compared to day workers using the Mantel-Haenszel method. The overall risk for current and former shift workers was 1.05 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.95-1.16). For ex-shift workers the mortality was increased compared to day workers (1.24, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.03-1.51). In the age specific analyses increased mortality was observed in shift workers compared with day workers in the age group of 45-54 yrs (Relative Risk: 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.12-1.93). We suggest that shift work is associated with increased mortality risk.

  • 291. Knutsson, Anders
    et al.
    Jacobsson, Bo
    Tooth discoloration due to isocyanate exposure?1998Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 1077-3525, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 279-279Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 292.
    Knutsson, Anders
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Karlsson, B
    Örnkloo, K
    Landström, U
    Lennernäs, M
    Eriksson, K
    Postprandial responses of glucose, insulin and triglycerides: influence of the timing of meal intake during night work2002Inngår i: Nutrition and health : an international journal, ISSN 0260-1060, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 133-141Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to study the postprandial responses of glucose, insulin and triglycerides to meal intake at different clock times during night work. Eleven night shift working nurses participated. Identical test meals were ingested at 19:30, 23:30 and 03:30, and contained 440 kcal/1,860 kJ of energy (33 E% fat, 51 E% carbohydrate, 16 E% protein). The food intake was standardized three days before the first test meal. Blood samples were drawn just before the test meals were ingested and thereafter at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 minutes. The postprandial responses were estimated as the total area under the curve (AUC) and significance testing was done using repeated measures ANOVA. The highest insulin level was found after meal intake at 23:30, and the lowest after meal intake 03:30. The glucose response showed the same pattern. The insulin response to food intake in night working nurses is more pronounced in the night compared with morning and evening. The results would have implications for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in night workers.

  • 293.
    Knutsson, Anders
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Kempe, Anders
    Health Centre of Söråker, Timrå, Sweden.
    Shift work and diabetes - A systematic review2014Inngår i: Chronobiology International, ISSN 0742-0528, E-ISSN 1525-6073, Vol. 31, nr 10, s. 1146-1151Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, which has an increasing trend all over the world. Type 2 diabetes constitutes 90% of all diabetes. It is associated with weight gain and insulin resistance. Research during recent years has suggested that shift work could be a risk factor of type 2 diabetes. Since shift work is becoming more common, it could contribute to the increasing trend of diabetes. In this systematic review, we have studied the potential association between shift work and type 2 diabetes. We have also reviewed studies on control of diabetes in relation to shift work.

  • 294. Knutsson, Anders
    et al.
    Luepker, Russel V
    Sprafka, J. Michael
    Virnig, Beth
    Prevalence and trends of cigarette smoking in different occupational groups: Results of the Minnesota Heart Survey 1980-1982 and 1985-19871996Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 67-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 295. Knutsson, Anders
    et al.
    Nilsson, T
    Job strain in shift and daytime workers1997Inngår i: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, ISSN 1232-1087, Vol. 3, s. 78-81Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 296. Knutsson, Anders
    et al.
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in relation to certain work characteristics1998Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, ISSN 0300-8037, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 183-189Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 297. Knutsson, Anders
    et al.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    The healthy-worker effect: Self-selection among Swedish shift workers1992Inngår i: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 163-167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a study on the 'healthy-worker effect' related to shift work. The study sample comprised 53 male applicants for blue-collar jobs. The subjects who applied for shift work (m = 30) did not differ from those who applied for day work (n = 23) regarding previous illnesses or current symptoms. However, data on self-reported sleep behaviour indicated that a higher percentage of prospective shift workers had a less rigid sleep pattern than did prospective day workers. The results suggest that there might be a self-selection to shift work by individuals with specific sleep behaviours that might facilitate future coping with odd work hours.

  • 298. Knutsson, Anders
    et al.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Jonsson, B. G.
    Prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery disease among day and shift workers1988Inngår i: Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, ISSN 0355-3140, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 317-321Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several recent studies have indicated that shift work is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. In this cross-sectional study 361 shift workers were examined with respect to some major risk factors for coronary artery disease; 240 day workers constituted the reference group. A higher proportion of shift workers smoked (54 versus 39%). Shift workers also had significantly higher levels of serum triglycerides (1.61 versus 1.43 mmol/l). Body mass index and the blood pressure and total cholesterol levels did not differ between the groups. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that shift work was significantly related to serum triglyceride levels also when age, smoking, body mass index, and other variables were controlled for. It was concluded that shift work is associated with several risk factors for coronary artery disease.

  • 299. Knutsson, Anders
    et al.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Jonsson, B G
    Orth-Gomer, Kristina
    Increased risk of ischemic heart disease in shift workers1986Inngår i: Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, Vol. 2, nr 8498, s. 89-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    504 papermill workers were followed up for 15 years and the incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in shift workers was compared with that in day workers. The relative risk (RR) of IHD rose with increasing duration of reported exposure to shift work. A significant risk of IHD was associated with an exposure of 11 - 15 years (RR = 2.2, p less than 0.04) and of 16 to 20 years (RR = 2.8, p less than 0.03. The association was independent of age and smoking history. The RR of IHD fell sharply after 20 years of shift work. This was ascribed to the pronounced positive selection that had taken place in this group.

  • 300.
    Konrad, Jennie
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Friskfaktorer på arbetsplatsen- de anställdas perspektiv2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
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