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  • 251.
    Löfqvist, Dennis
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Världsarvet Höga Kusten: En studie på världsarvets som en turistisk drivkraft2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 252.
    Lööf, Jonatan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Turism, ett medel för lansbygdsutveckling?: Exemplet Sorsele kommun2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 253.
    Mahrs, Charlotta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Gårdsturism i Jämtlands län: En möjlighet för lantbrukare att nå hållbar framtidsutveckling?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 254.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    A review of: Heritage, Conservation and Communities. Engagement, Participation and Capacity Building, edited by Gill Chitty2018In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 575-577Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 255.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    A Review of “Tourism and oil: Preparing for the challenge” by Susanne Becken2018In: Journal of Tourism Futures, ISSN 2055-5911, E-ISSN 2055-592X, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 115-116Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 256.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    A Review of “Tourism and the Anthropocene”2016In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 458-459Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 257.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Commercialization of nature through tourism2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation contributes to developing knowledge on the commercialization of natural resources through tourism. This is achieved by means of understanding the main avenues through which natural resources are commercialized, and analyzing the operational setting of tourism firms. The focal area is nature-based tourism– a type of tourism, taking place incomparatively unmodified natural areas, which has emerged as a powerful gravitational force, integrating an increasing variety of natural resources into the commercial domain. The point of departure is the assumption that fornature-based tourism firms, nature is simultaneously the main object of commercialization and the operational setting, where this commercialization happens. The attention here is, therefore, on the supply side, i.e. on the smalland micro firms, acting as the agents of commercialization. The empirical data come primarily from a nation-wide survey among the nature-based tourism firms in Sweden, generating the most comprehensive information about this sector to date. Additional data come from in-depth interviews and observations among the nature-based tourism firms in Sweden, as well assecondary sources (official statistics on natural resources and a survey in Norway).

    This is a compilation thesis, i.e. it consists of a cover essay and five individual papers. The cover essay offers a bird’s eye view on all the papers, frames them theoretically and synthesizes all the findings into a coherent contribution. Papers I and II create the foundation, necessary for understanding the processes of nature commercialization and the operational setting of naturebased tourism firms, while Papers III, IV and V provide supplementary insights into these areas of inquiry. Paper I starts by building on existing knowledge in outdoor recreation to approach nature-based tourism. Paper II focuses on the operational setting, conceptualizes and explores its dimensions. Building on this, Paper III looks at how the presence of various amenities in the operational setting can explain the localization patterns of the firms on various geographical levels. Paper IV focuses on the operational setting dimensions omitted in the previous papers, i.e. the continuous efforts of the firms to negotiate the inherent uncertainty within the setting. Finally, Paper V looks at various characteristics of nature-based tourism firms to understand the specifics of sustainability strategies.

    The main findings in these five papers demonstrate that the nature-basedtourism is an active integrator of a wide variety of natural resources into the commercial domain, and approaching them from the supply perspective provides an additional understanding of the sector. This approach suggests that the nature-based tourism supply could be understood not only from the perspectives of tourist activities offered, but also from the perspective of operational setting preferences (e.g., the axes of high-low specialization, and high-low dependence on specific setting features), providing a new insight into the ways of nature commercialization through tourism. The operational setting itself becomes an important resource, being simultaneously part of the supply and the environment of a tourism system, bringing together a multitude of dimensions and actors. The resources nature-based tourism depends on defy ‘commercialization-friendly’ criteria, creating a context of uncertainty and demanding higher levels of creativity and agency on behalf of the firms. Commercialized nature experiences become important not only for specialized, skill- and equipment-intensive activities, but also for rather simple and relaxed ones, on both international and domestic markets. This suggests the growing importance of commercial nature-based tourism, linked to growing sustainability challenges. The sustainable resource use within the Scandinavian nature-based tourism context, however, is deeply entrenched inunique local specifics, and the entrepreneurial characteristics are not always compatible with market-based sustainability policies, suggesting the need for more fine-tuned approaches.

  • 258.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Nature as a commercial setting: the case of nature-based tourism providers in Sweden2018In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, Vol. 21, no 16, p. 1893-1911Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses variations in the operational setting in the context of nature-based tourism (NBT) and draws much needed attention to the supply side of this sector by segmenting the NBT service providers based on their setting preferences. This paper focuses on the setting of NBT as an important alternative avenue for understanding the operational context of NBT supply. This approach is subsequently empirically explored through a national survey among the NBT service providers in Sweden. The data analysis demonstrates that the companies can be rather clearly clustered based on the variations in the perceived importance and impact of NBT setting components. This study therefore helps in understanding the role of a commercial setting in explaining NBT supply, which has a potential to not only contribute to developing the research of this sector further but also help in avoiding possible conflicts with other natural resource users and improve its overall management.

  • 259.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fredman, Peter
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Bridging outdoor recreation and nature-based tourism in a commercial context: Insights from the Swedish service providers2017In: Journal of Outdoor Recreation, ISSN 2213-0780, E-ISSN 2213-0799, Vol. 17, no March 2017, p. 84-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how outdoor recreation demand is reflected in the commercial tourism supply. We bring together the demand and the supply perspectives as well as the domestic and international dimensions, i.e. linking outdoor recreation with nature-based tourism. The data is collected through a nation-wide survey among nature-based tourism providers, catering to both domestic and international markets in Sweden. Four major data-driven avenues of commercializing outdoor recreation are discussed (Winter/Nordic, Summer/Active, Summer/Relaxing and Extractive) and further profiled against external variables, such as types of business operations, international markets or seasonality. The findings offer a new insight into the patters of the commercial supply of nature-based tourism in Sweden, while also building on the previous research and history of outdoor recreation. Evident commercial importance and domestic popularity of such ordinary outdoor activities as cycling on roads, swimming, jogging, picnicking or hiking outside mountain areas are linked to changes in leisure and lifestyles noticed previously. Commercialization of outdoor recreation, a snapshot of which is presented in this study, is discussed as an ever-expanding and diversifying process, observed both in Sweden and globally.

  • 260.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Natural amenities and the regional distribution of nature-based tourism supply in Sweden2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 145-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nature-based tourism is often perceived as one of the easiest and readily-available tools for regional development and diversification of rural economies, and Sweden is not an exception. Successful tourism development, however, depends on various amenities, which vary with region. This article, based on a national survey among nature-based tourism service providers in Sweden, discusses general characteristic of Swedish nature-based tourism supply, reveals the most important natural amenities from the supply perspective and discusses the patterns of their regional variation. It is further investigated how distributions of various amenities is related to the density of nature-based tourism operations across regions. The scope of the analysis includes three levels: country, land and county. Results show that nature-based tourism in Sweden is a highly diversified sector, which demonstrates significant north-south variations, visible on the level of the three lands. On the level of counties, natural and human-made amenities are comparable in their power to predict distribution of NBT operations, suggesting that the border between NBT and other forms of tourism is not as distinct as is often imagined.

  • 261.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Fredman, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    The Supply of Nature-based Tourism in Sweden: A National Inventory of Service Providers2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 262.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Stensland, Stian
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
    Sustainable by nature? The case of (non)adoption of eco-certification among the nature-based tourism companies in Scandinavia2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 162, p. 559-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the factors associated with the (non)adoption of eco-certification among the nature-based tourism companies in the Scandinavian region. Previous research suggested that the popularity of tourism eco-certification schemes remained limited in the region due to socio-cultural, historical and other specifics. We revisit this query a decade later with the support of nation-wide data from two Scandinavian countries – Norway and Sweden. The quantitative results suggest that such factors as motivations for operating a nature-based tourism business, beliefs about eco-certification effects, economic and demographic characteristics, are associated with the eco-certification adoption. Qualitative insights shed more light on the existing barriers for this sustainability approach in the region. The results suggest that companies with strong beliefs in the positive context (i.e. beliefs that eco-certification is capable to generate higher income, more customers and provide marketing advantage), lifestyle and sustainability-oriented business goals together with favorable organizational context (larger size, higher income and having a female leader) are more likely to invest in an eco-certification scheme.

  • 263.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Wall-Reinius, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Commercializing the unpredictable: Perspectives from wildlife watching tourism entrepreneurs in Sweden2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While wildlife watching has primarily been associated with the ‘charismatic megafauna’ of the Global South, the attention to Europe’s own biodiversity and its tourist potential has been on the rise. Tourism companies, offering wildlife watching experiences and attracting tourists with glossy animal images, share a unique property: they build their business on a promise they have no guarantee of fulfilling. The factor of luck becomes important, as evident in the advertisement texts of wildlife watching tours, which are replete with ‘luck’, ‘hopefully’, ‘chance’, ‘occasionally’, ‘no guarantee’ and similar verbiage emphasizing uncertainty and unpredictability. Understanding commercialization of relatively uncontrollable natural phenomena (wild animals) in a similarly uncertain natural setting (wilderness) is the aim of our paper. In our study we look at the case of wildlife watching companies in Sweden. The species used in these wildlife watching arrangements include inter alia free ranging bear, Eurasian elk, wolf, roe-deer, beaver and seal. Through a series of interviews and participant observations we distill and elaborate on the following major themes, shedding more light into the specifics of this type of nature commercialization through tourism: lack of control as an inherent property of wildlife watching tourism; agency and continuous negotiation of the uncertainties within the operational setting (both naturogenic and anthropogenic); importance of guide performances and ‘secondary’ experiences; presentation of unpredictability as authenticity (authentic wilderness).

  • 264.
    Margaryan, Lusine
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Wall-Reinius, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Commercializing the Unpredictable: Perspectives From Wildlife Watching Tourism Entrepreneurs in Sweden2017In: Human Dimensions of Wildlife, ISSN 1087-1209, E-ISSN 1533-158X, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 406-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism companies that offer wildlife watching experiences share a unique property—they build their business on a promise they have no guarantee of fulfilling (showing wild animals). The factor of luck becomes important, as evident in the advertisement texts of wildlife watching tours. Understanding commercialization of uncontrollable natural phenomena (wild animals) in a similarly uncertain natural setting (wilderness) is the aim of our article. In this illustrative case study, we examine wildlife watching companies in Sweden, focusing on free ranging bear, moose, wolf, roe-deer, beaver, and seal. Through interviews and participant observations with eight wildlife watching entrepreneurs, we elaborate on the following major themes that help understand specific challenges associated with these businesses: lack of control as an inherent property of wildlife watching tourism, agency and continuous negotiation of uncertainties within the operational setting, importance of guide performances and “secondary” experiences, and using uncertainty as a way of enhancing authenticity.

  • 265.
    Mariani, Marcello
    et al.
    University of Reading.
    Baggio, Rodolfo
    Bocconi University, Italy.
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Höpken, Wolfram
    Universtiy of Applied Sience, Weingarten-Ravensburg, Germany.
    Business intelligence and big data in hospitality and tourism: A systematic literature review2018In: International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, ISSN 0959-6119, E-ISSN 1757-1049, Vol. 30, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study examines the extent to which Business Intelligence and Big Data feature within academic research in hospitality and tourism published until 2016, by identifying research gaps and future developments and designing an agenda for future research.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study consists of a systematic quantitative literature review of academic articles indexed on the Scopus and Web of Science databases. The articles were reviewed based on the following features: research topic; conceptual and theoretical characterization; sources of data; type of data and size; data collection methods; data analysis techniques; data reporting and visualization.

    Findings – Findings indicate an increase in hospitality and tourism management literature applying analytical techniques to large quantities of data. However, this research field is fairly fragmented in scope and limited in methodologies and displays several gaps. A conceptual framework that helps to identify critical business problems and links the domains of Business Intelligence and Big Data to tourism and hospitality management and development is missing. Moreover, epistemological dilemmas and consequences for theory development of big data-driven knowledge are still a terra incognita. Last, despite calls for more integration of management- and data-science, cross-disciplinary collaborations with computer and data scientists are rather episodic and related to specific types of work and research.

    Research limitations/implications – This work is based on academic articles published before 2017; hence, scientific outputs published after the moment of writing have not been included. A rich research agenda is proposed.

    Originality/value – This study contributes to explore in depth and systematically to what extent hospitality and tourism scholars are aware of and working intendedly on Business Intelligence and Big Data. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first systematic literature review within hospitality and tourism research dealing with Business Intelligence and Big Data.

  • 266.
    Mbiyu, Milka
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Analysis of Destination Image Formation among Foreign Travel Intermediaries: The Case of Terrorism Events in Kenya2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism is a social phenomenon that relies on the positive destination images. Destination images are mental representations held by individuals of places and defer depending on the information received or actual visits by individuals. Events such as terrorism, war, political instability and natural disasters have negative impacts on destinations. They contribute to formation of negative destination images among potential visitors and tourist stakeholders. Interpretations of events by individuals depend on several factors such as the socio-demographic characteristics, cultural and historical backgrounds. In this study, the formation of destination images among the foreign tour operators and the travel agents after exposure to terrorism events in Kenya was explored. The main objective of this study was to find out how the foreign travel agents interpreted the images of destinations after exposure to terror attacks by studying the case of Kenya. A qualitative approach was utilised to find out how the tour operators and the travel agents interpreted the destination originated information agents, information from the media and guided by their socio-demographic characteristics formed the overall image of Kenya and how they reacted towards the new images. Semi-structured interviews and open-ended questionnaires were utilised for data collection. Four themes emerged, the initial image of Kenya, the cognitive/perceptual and the affectual attributes, the overall images and finally the reactions of the tour operators after formation of the new images.

  • 267.
    McPherson, Niclas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Arbetsmiljö och fast antställda: Fem röster från turistnäringen i Åre2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 268.
    Mellström, Rebecka
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Stuguby, Matilda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Säsongsproblematiken på svenska fjälldestinationer: Destinationernas arbete med att skapa en fungerande sommarsäsong2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Svenska fjälldestinationer är starkast kopplade till vinterturism med alpin utförsåkning som den vanligaste aktiviteten. Destinationerna har länge präglats av säsongsproblematiken och det har endast funnits ett produktutbud för att anläggningarna ska kunna ha öppet vintertid. Dock på senare tid har det märkts hur sårbar skidindustrins ekonomiska hållbarhet är för globala klimatförändringar eftersom allt mildare vintrar med låg nederbörd minskar direkt längden på vintersäsongen. Fjälldestinationer börjar nu inse att det finns en möjlighet att ha öppet även på sommaren och arbetar för att inte hindras av säsongsproblematiken. Hur arbetar de då med att övervinna säsongsproblematiken för att skapa en fungerande sommarturism? För att ta reda på hur svenska fjälldestinationer jobbar med utveckling av sommarturismen har tre studieområden tagits fram: Funäsfjällen, Idre Fjäll och Åre. En kvalitativ studie har genomförts med hjälp av semi-strukturerade intervjuer via telefon och epost med sju olika aktörer. I studien framkom det att alla destinationer arbetar med utveckling av sommarprodukten, även om det inte ger samma ekonomiska vinning som vinterprodukten. Sommarprodukten består till störst del av tre basprodukter – vandring, cykling (downhill och cross country) och fiske och det är det existerande produktutbudet som destinationerna arbetar med att utveckla. Det finns stor potential för att få fler turister att besöka destinationerna under sommartid men för att det ska ske är det nödvändigt att destinationerna arbetar tillsammans för att skapa ett allmänintresse för att spendera sommaren på fjället.

  • 269.
    Menner, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Weingarten-Ravensburg.
    Höpken, Wolfram
    University of Weingarten-Ravensburg.
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Lexhagen, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Topic detection – identifying relevant topics in tourism reviews2016In: Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2016: Proceedings of the International Conference in Bilbao, Spain, February 2-5, 2016 / [ed] A. Inversini, R. Schegg, Springer-Verlag New York, 2016, p. 411-423Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past few years, user generated content (UGC) has been taking an increasingly important role in tourism. Traveller’s experiences and opinions about destinations and tourism services support potential customers in their booking decisions. Sentiments can be extracted automatically from UGC and be used as valuable input for managerial decisions. An important subtask of sentiment analysis is the task of topic detection, thus, identifying the topics or product features, like room, service, or food & drink in case of hotel reviews, the review is about. The paper presents an overall approach for extracting topics from touristic UGC, making use of different data mining techniques. The applied data mining techniques are compared and evaluated on the base of hotel reviews regarding the Swedish mountain tourism destination Åre.

  • 270.
    Meyer, Volker
    et al.
    University of Ravensburg-Weingarten.
    Höpken, Wolfram
    University of Ravensburg-Weingarten.
    Fuchs, Matthias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Lexhagen, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Integration of data mining results into multi-dimensional data models2015In: Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2015 : Proceedings of the ENTER Conference 3-6 February 2015 (Lugano, Switzerland), Springer-Verlag New York, 2015, p. 155-168Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 271.
    Moberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Pettersson, Fanny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Externa etableringars påverkan på stadskärnan: En fallstudie av Östersunds stadskärna2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 272.
    Månsson Gran, Caroline
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Kompetensförsörjning inom besöksnäringen och dess betydelse för Jämtlands regionala utveckling 2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 273.
    Müller, D. K.
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Dynamic development or destined to decline?: The case of arctic tourism businesses and local labour markets in Jokkmokk, Sweden2014In: Tourism Destination Development: turns and tactics / [ed] Viken, A; Granås, B, Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2014, p. 227-244Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 274.
    Müller, Viktoria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Everything from a Single Source – A Model to Create Environmentally Sustainable Development in Winter Sports Destinations?: A comparative case study of the business models of the Swiss destination Laax/Flims/Falera and the Swedish destination Åre 2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Winter sports destinations base their attractiveness for tourism mainly on the existing environment that enables different kinds of winter sports as leisure activities. Accordingly, environmentally sustainable management is one of the main challenges for future oriented winter sports destinations. This thesis sets out to explore the interdependency between the achievement of an environmentally-sensitive development and the organizational structure of the destination management. Therefore, the antithetic models of corporate vs. community model form the frame for the qualitative research. To obtain partial answers to the question whether the concept 'everything from a single source' improves environmentally sustainable development in winter sports destinations, the Swiss destination Laax/Flims/Falera - under the management of the Weisse Arena Gruppe - and the Swedish destination Åre - operated by SkiStar - are analyzed within two case studies regarding their management structure and their environmentally-sensitive development. The characteristics of several intermediate variables - namely the DMO structure as well as innovation, change and strategic management - are examined under consideration of knowledge requirements for the achievement of environmentally-sensitive development. Based on these findings, we can define what sets destinations with a big leading corporation apart from other destinations while taking into account the roles of different stakeholders. Findings suggest that winter sports destinations with a big leading ski corporation are more likely to achieve an environmentally-sensitive destination development. Additionally, an outstanding role can be assigned to the DMO as organizational and strategic hub for destination management and development in general and for environmentally-sensitive destination development in specific. A new theoretical construct related to this analysis of corporate models in winter sports destinations - 'towards a new management structure' - provides a framework for further research on what kind of management structure in winter sports destinations will lead to a superior performance in terms of environmentally-sensitive development.

     

  • 275.
    Ngarachu, Caroline
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Product Offering Diversification: A Qualitative SWOT Analysis on Wedding Tourism in Kenya2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 276.
    Nilsson Björklund, Petra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Gräftåprovet i startblocken: Möjligheter för rurala turistdestinationer att uppnå positiv marknadsföring och attraktionskraft genom evenemang2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 277.
    Nilsson, Matilda
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Svärd, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Konsten att bedriva turismverksamhet i ett skyddat landskap: En fallstudie av Fulufjällets nationalpark 2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 278.
    Nordin, Sara
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography. Department of Social and Economic Geography, Uppsala University.
    Hjalager, Anne-Mette
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Doing, Using, Interacting: Towards a New Understanding of Tourism Innovation Processes2017In: Driving tourism through creative destinations and activities / [ed] A. Kiralova (Ed.), IGI Global, 2017, p. 165-180Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation is a critical factor for long-term economic development, also in tourism. Based on two commonly referred to modes of innovation (Jensen et al., 2007), that is, two types of innovation processes: Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) and Doing, Using and Interacting (DUI), this chapter examines the processes that lead to new products and services in a tourism context. Based on this, DUI seems to capture the essence of innovation in tourism enterprises better than STI, as it acknowledges the intrinsic nature of services and the typical size and working modes of touristic actors. The case study of Icehotel furthermore, illustrates how working in partnerships and in close cooperation with customers enhances the advantages of the DUI model. The handling of externally induced events and difficulties and the critical partnerships are better understood through the DUI than the STI lens. The DUI-framework leads to a more correct picture of tourism innovation, and could also provide a better guidance for policy processes in the field. 

  • 279.
    Nordin, Sara
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography. Uppsala University.
    Hjalager, Anne-Mette
    University of Southern Denmark.
    Är turistnäringen mer innovativ än vi tror?2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns stora skillnader mellan serviceproducerande företag och tillverkande industri, men ändå fortsätter vi många gånger att analysera servicesektorn – och däribland turistnäringen – utifrån den tillverkande industrin premisser. Risken är att resultatet leder till felaktiga slutsatser.

    Turistnäringen beskrivs ofta som en eftersläntrare när det gäller innovationskapacitet. Men kan vi verkligen säga hur stor innovationsförmågan faktiskt är, när de modeller och analysverktyg som ofta används inte passar in på grund av turistföretagens storlek, karaktärsdrag och arbetsmetoder.

    I den här populärvetenskapliga rapporten visar Sara Nordin och Anne-Mette Hjalager på andra sätt att identifiera, analysera och stödja innovationsprocesser i turistnäringen. Rapporten bygger på exempel från Icehotel. 

  • 280.
    Nordvall, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Organizing Periodic Events: A Case Study of a Failed Christmas Market2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 442-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Periodic events are under constant threat of failure yet research onevent failure is limited – even if often highlighted as a researchpriority. The destination management organization in themountain resort of Åre sought to establish a new ChristmasMarket to increase the number of visitors in the winter pre-seasonbut the event was not a success and the destination failed in itsambition to establish a periodic event. The Market was studiedduring its first three years using action research, interviews anddirect observation and provided insights into the organization ofperiodic events. In order to understand the failure of the Market,empirical data were analyzed using concepts related to twodiscrete organizational types: permanent and temporary. Theresults show that the failure in Åre cannot be explained throughthe use of a single conceptual model, but can be understoodwhen both models are utilized. The conclusion is that periodicevents can be understood as phenomena that are characterizedby permanent as well as temporary organization.

  • 281.
    Nordvall, Anders
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University.
    Understanding hallmark event failure: A case study of a Swedish music festival2017In: International Journal of Event and Festival Management, ISSN 1785-2954, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 172-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Hallmark events can be very beneficial for host communities, not least due to their potential in attracting tourists. The Peace & Love music festival was the hallmark event of the Swedish city Borlänge. In 2013, the event organization declared bankruptcy and canceled the forthcoming festival. The purpose of this study is to identify and discuss the factors that caused the failure of the 2013 Peace & Love festival.

    Design/methodology/approach - The case of the Peace & Love festival is analyzed using three data sources: interviews with former members of the event organization; secondary data describing the Swedish festival industry; and festival visitors’ perspectives represented by comments on social media. An organizational ecology perspective frames the analysis.

    Findings - The results of the study reveal that the failure of the event can be understood by a combination of three components: an organization in a vulnerable position, a strong new competitor entering the Swedish festival market, and uncertain visitors searching for the new place to be.

    Originality/value - Very few studies have researched event failure, although the subject is a recommended priority within the field of festival studies. This study presents a thorough examination of a hallmark event failure, which contributes to this area of knowledge and provides relevant information for organizations and host cities

  • 282.
    Nordvall, Anders
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Pettersson, Robert
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Svensson, Bo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Brown, Steve
    Department of Tourism, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia .
    Designing events for social interaction2014In: Event Management, ISSN 1525-9951, E-ISSN 1943-4308, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 127-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socialization motivates people to visit events and social interactions between event visitors influence their experience of the event. Consumer-to-consumer interactions in service settings and leisure activities have received increased attention in research; however, very few studies have focused on and analyzed the impact of other visitors on an individual’s event experience. The purpose of this study is to explore how interaction between event visitors influences the individual’s total event experience and how events can be designed in respect to such social interactions. The conclusions are based on a literature review and empirical data collected at a Swedish music festival. The research found that social interactions between event visitors are an important part of the event experience and the level of satisfaction for the individual attending an event. Social interactions consist of three main types: known-group socialization; external socialization; audience socialization. Every part of the event (theme and program, setting, consumables, service) can be designed to facilitate positive experiences and to constrain negative experiences related to such interactions.

  • 283.
    Nordvall, Anders
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Wallstam, Martin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Utvärdera festivalbesökare och deras upplevelser2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 284.
    Olausson, Pär M.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Petridou, Evangelia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Seeking resilience through tourism in Greenland: A cautious outlook in the risky era of climate change2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the malaise associated with climate change, in Polar Regions (e.g., Greenland and Northern Canada) many have cautiously argued that the general upswing in ocean temperatures can be deemed positive because it presents the opportunity for introducing new economic activities. In the case of Greenland, Motzfeldt (quoted in Nutall 2008: 46) has argued that though hunting activities may be negatively affected because of ice melting in coastal region, conditions are favourable for activities such as fishing or tourism. Greenland itself constitutes an interesting case study of the effects of global climate change on polar regions given its increasing autonomy from Denmark (Home Rule), however, the issue that emerges is whether the present growth-oriented development path with its emphasis on extractive activities (e.g., aluminium and goal mining) in the island’s interior and tourism especially in coastal areas constitutes a knee-jerk reaction. Furthermore, is this part of a bouncing forward process (Davoudi, 2012) increasing community resilience, and if so, whose resilience is actually increased? In this paper we focus on the tourism sector though we recognize that parallel investigations should also be conducted relating to the mining and other related activities. Using an evolutionary economic geography (EEG) lens we argue that the tourism sector is being introduced as a substitute to traditional activities (e.g., fishing and hunting). However, in order to fully comprehend the dynamics of this strategy, it is important to pursue a relational approach recognizing, for instance, historic forces as well as the political/institutional context (Carson and Carson 2016). Effectively, the current growth rhetoric focuses overwhelmingly on exogenously-controlled interests (e.g., multinational tour operators and cruise companies) at the expense of indigenous businesses. Our argument is that though effectively what is happening in Greenland could be summarized as an adaptation to vulnerability imposed by climate change the overall resilience of a locally spun tourism sector is severely compromised by the current rhetoric.

  • 285.
    Olsson, Jenny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Regional utveckling i glesbygden genom turism och samverkan: En fallstudie av Ragunda kommun2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 286.
    Palmquist, Simon
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Siebers, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Hur påverkar evenemang Åres Lågsäsong2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 287.
    Petridou, Evangelia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Creative serendipity: when art and public entrepreneurship revitalize a downtown2013In: Regioner, regionalism och entreprenörskap / [ed] Pär Olausson and Jon Nyhlén, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2013, p. 120-138Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 288.
    Petridou, Evangelia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Ioannides, Dimitri
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Konstgödning: Co-producing art in the outskirts of the world2016Report (Other academic)
  • 289.
    Pihlqvist, Filip
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Stamming, Simon
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Generation Y:s attityder och handlande kring utlämnande av personlig identifierbar information: En kvantitativ studie i en turistisk värld 2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 290.
    Pinthal, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Guest engagement in the context of hotel management responses: a service-dominant logic approach2015Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 291. Prince, D
    et al.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Cultural Tourism in Regions in Transition2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 292.
    Prince, Solene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    A Review of "The making of a cultural landscape the English Lake District as tourist destination, 1950-2010"2015In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 168-169Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 293.
    Prince, Solene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Book Review Practical Tourism Research (2nd edition)2018In: Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, ISSN 1476-6825, E-ISSN 1747-7654, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 332-333Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 294.
    Prince, Solene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Book Review: The rise of thana-capitalism and tourism2018In: Annals of Leisure Research, ISSN 1174-5398, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 257-258Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 295.
    Prince, Solene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Cohen's Model of Typologies of Tourists2017In: The SAGE International Encyclopedia of Travel and Tourism / [ed] Linda L. Lowry, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2017, p. 280-282Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 296.
    Prince, Solene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Craft-art in the Danish countryside: reconciling a lifestyle, livelihood and artistic career through rural tourism2017In: Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, ISSN 1476-6825, E-ISSN 1747-7654, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 339-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To contribute new insight related to the entrepreneurial strategies adopted by local actors involved in rural tourism, this article explores the array of dynamics and complexities faced by the members of the Arts and Crafts Association Bornholm, Denmark. Besides juggling a livelihood with a desired lifestyle, artists pursue the ambition of professional success, which adds a new and interesting dimension to the conceptualization of individual and collective strategies related to lifestyle entrepreneurship, rural identities, the commercialization of rural symbols and products, and new modes of production in the countryside. In their search for customers and spectators, these craft-artists have created a professional brand and work individually on various entrepreneurial strategies, allowing them to benefit from the short but intensive tourist season on their rural island. These strategies blur the line not only between their lifestyle aspirations, career ambitions and livelihood necessities, but also between the commercial, professional and rural nature of the space they present to tourists. This qualitative study was primarily conducted through open-ended interviews with members of the association. It is discussed lastly that these artists consequently create for themselves a hybrid space, strategized and redefined in relation to the complexities of residing in a countryside integrated within a global system.

  • 297.
    Prince, Solene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Dwelling in the tourist landscape: Embodiment and everyday life among the craft-artists of Bornholm2018In: Tourist Studies, ISSN 1468-7976, E-ISSN 1741-3206, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 63-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-representational theories have gained popularity in the last decades, encouraging social scientists to study the production of everyday life. Inspired by Ingold’s (2011) dwelling perspective, I present my qualitative research on the arts and craft community on Bornholm, Denmark by exploring some of the bodily movements and mundane practices that shape a taskscape into a tourist landscape. This analysis defines the material and corporeal relations of Bornholm’s craft-artists with their island’s tourist season, and aims to contribute to the application of non-representational landscape theory in tourism scholarship. The everyday practices and embodied movements of these craft-artists fashion the emergence of a realm of dwelling, rather than an exotic site. The tourist landscape is the product of the skills and techniques these craft-artists have developed over time to work with their different materials, and of the creative spaces which they have built to pursue their art. The materials, techniques and creative spaces used by these craft-artists mediate their interactions with tourists, but also, these encounters mediate the craft-artists’ interactions with their materials, techniques and spaces. I ultimately argue that the taskscape, as a realm of mundane embodied practices, cannot be detached from the landscape the tourists encounter. I propose scholars can use the dwelling perspective in their analysis of tourism to embed local people in their cultural landscape.

  • 298.
    Prince, Solene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Imagining Tourist Spaces as Living Spaces: Towards a Relational Approach to Alternatives and Morals in Tourism2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many actors are taking advantage of the flexible barriers to entry of the tourist industry to engage in the production of varied forms of tourism closely related to their lifestyle, professional and communal ambitions. With the increased popularity of forms of tourism bringing the guest close to the host, it becomes relevant to ask questions related to lived experiences and close encounters in tourism scholarship. This is a moral conviction that the plurality of human experiences and critical reflexivity matter in the conception of tourist spaces and their management. In this thesis, I look for new ways to conceptually embed local people in their living spaces by approaching forms of tourism displaying non-economic elements as phenomena that create new and complex relations imbued with various implications. Tourism geography highlights the negotiated and fragmented nature of tourism, and its performative and embodied character. I apply relational geography to apprehend the multiple relations that make up local spaces and identities. With its post-structural character, relational geography uncovers voices once neglected in research, and proposes new ways of being in the world. My two qualitative case studies reflect my interest in exploring the northern European context. Firstly, I investigate craft-artists on Bornholm, Denmark and their relation to the tourist season. I do this through interviews and narrative analysis. My second case study, a focused ethnography at Sólheimar eco-village, Iceland, centres on the management of host and guest interactions.  In terms of spatial formation, results show that local actors have the agency to form networks and redefine their identities in the wake of tourism development. They form a hybrid space by fulfilling goals related to their lifestyle, livelihood and professional ambitions simultaneously. Moreover, mundane practices are presented as an integral part of a tourist landscape. In terms of management, results show that the various spatial complexities faced by communities exacerbate host and guest relations. This will require a commitment from local coordinators and managers to promote a reflexive and critical exchange during these close encounters. I ultimately argue for the imagination of tourist spaces as living spaces, where I conceptualize tourism as a mundane, yet complex, material and social experience for those living in tourist spaces. I propose two new discursive anchors that reflect the metaphor of the living space: dwelling in the tourist landscape, and sincere encounters. I contend that researching living spaces finds its moral grounds in its openness to the various ways local people dwell and encounter during tourism, and to the diverse ways researchers make sense of these practices, and of their own.

  • 299.
    Prince, Solene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Rural Authenticity and Agency on a Cold-Water Island: Perspectives of contemporary craft-artists on Bornholm, Denmark2017In: Shima : The International Journal of Research into Island Cultures, ISSN 1834-6049, E-ISSN 1834-6057, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 102-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bornholm, Denmark is a small, cold-water island home to a cluster of craftartists whose practices and ambitions contribute to the idyllic rural image of the island. These craft-artists formed an association in the wake of rural tourism development and its process of commercialisation to preserve values of professionalism, quality and rural authenticity in their crafts. This article discusses how the high standards of quality in their association gives them agency to define their interactions with tourists in a way to simultaneously preserve their artistic integrity and make profit from their industry. These actors thereby harness tourism to their advantage, contributing to the redefinition of their island’s rural authenticity. During two periods of fieldwork on Bornholm, 19 local craftartists were interviewed and participant observations were carried out. This article provides insight into aspects of perceived spatial identity and agency in the context of cold-water islands with rural landscapes.

  • 300.
    Prince, Solene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Science and Culture in the Kerguelen Islands: a relational approach to the spatial formation of a subantarctic archipelago2018In: Island Studies Journal, ISSN 1715-2593, E-ISSN 1715-2593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kerguelen Islands are devoid of a permanent population, but are nonetheless interlinked to past and current human activities that have shaped their subantarctic landscape. In the past decades, the archipelago has become a French outpost for scientific research where scientists, support staff, research assistants, and travelers assemble during temporary missions. In this article, I present the spatial formation of islands as relational in order to explore how the material and the cultural converge to make the Kerguelen Islands a place of both mundane practice and global interconnection. These spatialities intertwine the features of the landscape with pre-departure preparations, animal encounters, scientific rigour, daily routines, and past human activities. I advance these narratives by analyzing 18 blogs of French sojourners who have spent extensive time on the Kerguelen Islands. I ultimately give islands without a permanent population a character unlike that of isolation and contemplation as is usually attributed to cold-water islands of the (sub) polar seas.

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