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  • 251.
    Vesterlind, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Höglund, Hans
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Kolar, M
    Bergström, J
    Low Energy Birch CTMP in Bulky Paper Products2005In: Proceedings. International Mechanical Pulping Conference 2005, Oslo, Norway., 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of high pre-heating temperature (³ 140°C) of birch chips to produce high freeness CTMP have been investigated. The trials revealed that high pre-heating temperature lowers the energy consumption e.g. at 500 ml CSF an increase in temperature from 110°C to 160°C reduced the energy consumption by more than 40 %. Despite the lower energy input, shive content remained low or was even reduced and the internal bond strength, in terms of Scott-Bond, was well in comparison with Spruce CTMP. In summary, high pre-heating temperature can be used to manufacture low energy pulps with very high bulk.

  • 252.
    Walter, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Influence of acid hydrogen peroxide treatment on refining energy and TMP properties2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of using acid hydrogen peroxide under Fenton conditions to lower the electrical energy consumed during the production of Black spruce (Picea mariana) thermomechanical pulp (TMP) was investigated. The chemical system, which consisted of ferrous sulphate, hydrogen peroxide and optionally an enhancer (3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid or oxalic acid/sodium oxalate), was evaluated as an inter-stage treatment where the primary refiner was used as a mixer. The produced TMPs were thoroughly characterised in order to explain the effect of the chemical system on fibre development and to be able to propose a mechanism for the impact on refining energy reduction. The possibility to improve the optical properties by washing, chelating and sodium dithionite or hydrogen peroxide bleaching the treated pulps was evaluated.

     

    The results obtained in a pilot plant trial show that it is possible to significantly reduce the comparative specific energy consumption by approximately 20% and 35% at a freeness value of 100 ml CSF or a tensile index of 45 Nm/g by using 1% and 2% hydrogen peroxide respectively. The energy reduction is obtained without any substantial change in the fractional composition of the pulp, though tear strength is slightly reduced, as are brightness and pulp yield. No major differences between the reference pulp and the chemically treated pulps were found with respect to fibre length, width or cross-sectional dimensions. However, the acid hydrogen peroxide-treated pulps tend to have more collapsed fibres, higher flexibility, a larger specific surface area and a lower coarseness value. The yield loss accompanying the treatment is mainly a consequence of degraded hemicelluloses. It was also found that the total charge of the chemically treated pulps is higher compared to the reference pulps, something that may have influenced the softening behaviour of the fibre wall.

     

    A washing or chelating procedure can reduce the metal ion content of the chemically treated TMPs considerably. The amount of iron can be further reduced to a level similar to that of untreated pulps by performing a reducing agent-assisted chelating stage (QY) with dithionite. The discoloration cannot, however, be completely eliminated. The brightness decrease of the treated pulps is thus not only caused by higher iron content in the pulp, but is also dependent on the type of iron compound and/or other coloured compounds connected with the acid hydrogen peroxide treatment. Oxidative bleaching with hydrogen peroxide (P) is more effective than reductive bleaching with sodium dithionite in regaining the brightness lost during the energy reductive treatment. Using a QY P sequence, a hydrogen peroxide charge of 3.8% was needed to reach an ISO brightness of 75% for the chemically treated pulps. The corresponding hydrogen peroxide charge for the untreated TMP reference was 2.5%.

     

    The radicals generated in the Fenton reaction will probably attack and weaken/soften the available outer fibre wall layers. This could facilitate fibre development and consequently lower the electrical energy demand for a certain degree of refinement.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 253.
    Walter, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Paulsson, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Hellström, Pia
    Nilsson, Pär
    Energy efficient production of TMP by using acid hydrogen peroxide: Factors affecting the hydrogen peroxide consumption2011In: Proceedings of International Mechanical Pulping Conference 2011, 2011, p. 484-487Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 254.
    Walter, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Paulsson, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Wackerberg, Eva
    Energy efficient refining of Black spruce TMP by using acid hydrogen peroxide: Part 1. A pilot plant study2009In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 255-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of using acid hydrogen peroxide for lowering the

    electrical energy consumption during production of Black spruce (Picea

    mariana) thermomechanical pulp (TMP) was investigated. The chemical

    system, which consisted of ferrous sulphate, hydrogen peroxide and

    optionally an enhancer [ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (sodium salt),

    3,4-dimethoxybenzyl (veratryl) alcohol or oxalic acid/sodium oxalate],

    was evaluated as an inter-stage treatment where the primary refiner was

    used as a mixer. The approach has the advantage of minimising the

    capital investment needed for implementation, thus being directly

    applicable in a thermomechanical pulping process consisting of two or

    more refiners in series.

    The results obtained in a pilot plant trial revealed that is was

    possible to significantly reduce the specific energy consumption by

    approximately 20-and 35% to a freeness value of 100 ml CSF by using 1

    and 2% hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The energy reduction could be

    obtained without any substantial change in fibre length, fractional

    composition of the pulp or tensile strength of the paper. The tear

    strength was slightly reduced however, as was the pulp yield. The major

    drawback with the acid hydrogen peroxide system was a reduction in

    brightness by at least 6 brightness units. The addition level of

    ferrous sulphate was too high and the possibility to reducing the

    discoloration should be considerable when the chemical system is

    optimized.

     

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    Walter et al: Energy efficient refining of Black spruce using acid hydrogen peroxide Part 1. NPPRJ 2009 Vol 24 3 pp 255-265
  • 255.
    Walter, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Paulsson, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Wackerberg, Eva
    Eka Chemicals AB, Bohus, Sweden.
    Energy efficient refining of Black spruce TMP by using acid hydrogen peroxide: Part 2. Washing, chelating and bleaching studies2009In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 266-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acid hydrogen peroxide system has the potential to significantly

    reduce the specific energy consumption in the production of softwood

    thermomechanical pulps (TMPs). A drawback of the chemical system is

    discoloration of the pulp during refining. The work presented in this

    study evaluates the possibility to regain the lost brightness by

    washing, chelating and sodium dithionite or hydrogen peroxide bleaching

    of the treated pulps.

    A washing or chelating procedure can reduce the metal ion content of

    the chemically treated TMPs considerably, though brightness can be

    increased by a maximum of two ISO units. The amount of iron can be

    further reduced to a level similar to that of untreated pulps by

    performing a reducing agent-assisted chelating stage (Q(Y)) with

    dithionite. The discoloration cannot,, however, be completely

    eliminated. The brightness decrease-of the treated pulps is thus not

    only caused by higher iron content in the pulp, but is also dependent

    on the type of iron compound and/or other coloured compounds connected

    with the acid hydrogen peroxide treatment.

    Oxidative bleaching with hydrogen peroxide (P) is more effective than

    reductive bleaching with sodium dithionite in regaining the brightness

    lost during the energy reductive treatment. By using a Q(Y) P sequence,

    a hydrogen peroxide charge of 3.8% was needed to reach an ISO

    brightness of 75% for the chemically treated pulps. The corresponding

    hydrogen peroxide charge for the untreated TMP reference was 2.5%.

     

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    Walter et al: Energy efficient refining of Black spruce using acid hydrogen peroxide: Part 2. NPPRJ 2009 Vol 24 issue 3 pp266-272
  • 256.
    Walter, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Paulsson, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Wackerberg, Eva
    Energy efficient refining of Black spruce TMP by using acid hydrogen peroxide: Part 3. Chemical and morphological characterisation2010In: Journal of Pulp and Paper Science (JPPS), ISSN 0826-6220, Vol. 36, no 1-2, p. 2-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 257.
    Walter, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Paulsson, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Wackerberg, Eva
    Energy-efficient refining of Black spruce TMP using acid hydrogen peroxide2009In: Proceedings - 2009 International Mechanical Pulping Conference, IMPC 2009, Stockholm: SPCI , 2009, p. 286-291Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By using Fenton chemistry (hydrogen peroxide, ferrous iron, pH<4) as an inter-stage treatment during production of Black spruce thermomechanical pulp, the specific energy consumption can be reduced by at least 20% to a constant tensile strength. The energy reduction can be achieved with preserved fibre length and cross-sectional dimensions. However, the fibre cross-sectional shape is affected, and fibres of the chemically treated pulps had the highest collapse index. A drawback with the acid hydrogen peroxide system is a decrease in pulp yield and a reduction in brightness. Different approaches for lowering the iron content of the chemically treated pulps prior to bleaching are presented. The discoloration is advantageously reduced (but not completely eliminated) by hydrogen peroxide bleaching.

     

     

  • 258.
    Wiklund, Hanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Lattice Boltzmann simulations of two-phased flow in fibre network systems2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-phase flow in microfluidic systems is of great interest for many scientificand engineering problems. Especially in the pulp and paper area, the problems spanfrom fibre-fibre interactions in the consolidation process of papermaking to edgewickingin paper board during the aseptic treatment of liquid packaging.The objective of this thesis is to gain a fundamental understanding of the microfluidicmechanisms that play a significant role in various problems of two-phaseflow in fibre networks. To achieve this objective a new method for the treatment ofwetting boundary conditions in the lattice Boltzmann model has been developed.The model was validated and compared with the previous treatments of wettingboundary conditions, by using two test cases: droplet spreading and capillary intrusion.The new wetting boundary condition was shown to give more accurate resultsfor a wider range of contact angles than previous methods, and capillary intrusioncould be simulated with higher accuracy even at a relatively low resolution.As an application of the developed method, two examples of two-phase flowproblems in fibre networks are taken: the shear resistance of liquid bridges, as relatedto the wet web strength, and liquid penetration into porous structures, as related toedge-wicking in paper board. The shear resistance force was shown to depend verylittle on surface tension and contact angle. Instead, the shear resistance is a dynamicforce and a major contributing factor is the distortion of the flow field caused bythe presence of interfaces. This distortion of the flow field is size-dependent: thesmaller the bridge, the larger the proportion of the distorted flow field and thus alarger shear resistance force per unit width. In other words, multiple small bridgeshave an enhancement effect on shear resistance. The results from the simulations ofliquid penetration into porous structures showed that the discontinuities in the solidsurfacecurvature, as are present in the formof corners on the capillary surfaces, havestrong influences on liquid penetration through their pinning effects and also theirinteractions with local geometry. The microtopography can therefore, accelerate,decelerate and, in some cases, even stop the liquid penetration into random porousmedia.

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    Doctoral Thesis 130
  • 259.
    Wiklund, Hanna S.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Uesaka, Tetsu
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Microfluidics of imbibition in random porous media2013In: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, ISSN 1539-3755, E-ISSN 1550-2376, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 023006-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A free-energy lattice Boltzmann approach has been used to perform simulations of liquid penetration into random porous media. We focus our study on the effects of microstructures, particularly microtopography, on liquid penetration driven by capillary force and external pressure. For this purpose we set up a model structure that consists of a network of interconnected capillaries with varying pore geometries. The results showed that the discontinuities in the solid-surface curvature, as are present as corners on the capillary surfaces, have strong influences on liquid penetration through their pinning effects and interactions with local geometry. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.87.023006

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    Wiklund_microfluidics
  • 260.
    Wiklund, Hanna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Uesaka, Tetsu
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Edge-wicking: Micro-fluidics of two-dimensional liquid penetrationinto porous structures2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 403-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have performed free-energy-based two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann simulations of the penetration of liquid into the edge of a porous material. The purpose was to gain further insight into possible mechanisms involved in the penetration of liquid into the unsealed edges of paper and paper board. In order to identify the fundamental mechanisms we have focused on a model structure that consists of a network of interconnected capillaries. Two different mechanisms were identified: pinning at corners of solid surfaces and increased pressure in dead-end pores. These mechanisms significantly decelerate or even stop the liquid penetration into the porous structures.

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    Wiklund_Edge-wicking
  • 261.
    Wiklund, Hanna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Uesaka, Tetsu
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Micro-fluidics of "water bond"2011In: Progress in Paper Physics Seminar, Graz, Austria: Verlag der Technischen Universität Graz , 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 262.
    Wiklund, Hanna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Uesaka, Tetsu
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics.
    Microfluidics of wicking in random porous mediaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 263.
    Wågberg, Lars
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Polyelectrolyte adsorption onto cellulose fibres - A review2000In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 586-597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review focuses upon the following questions: a) Why are the polyelectrolytes adsorbed onto cellulosic fibres? The easiest way to describe the adsorption is as an interaction between the charges on the fibres and the charges on the polyelectrolytes. However the entropy gain upon the release of counterions to the charges on the fibres and the polyelectrolytes gives a much larger contribution to the adsorption energy than the charge interaction. There are some investigations which clarify the influence of certain basic parameters on the fibres and the surfaces and these investigations will be reviewed. An attempt will also be made to create a link between published adsorption data and the Scheutjens-Fleer theory for polyelectrolyte adsorption. Another important question is how the polyelectrolytes are adsorbed on the fibres, i.e. are the segments only found in trains on the surface or will there be some loops and/or tails protruding into the solution? Very little is known about this but the topic will be discussed in some detail. b) Where are the polyelectrolytes adsorbed - on the external surfaces of the fibres or within the fibre wall and how is this related to the molecular properties of the polyelectrolytes? There are a lot of definitions in the literature about fibre surfaces, external surfaces etc. but it is important to link the adsorption to molecular properties and the work in this area will be reviewed. The influence of fines will also be discussed. c) What controls the kinetics of polyelectrolyte adsorption and are there models to describe this adsorption? It is still not entirely known how polymers that adsorb onto the internal surfaces of the fibres are then transported through the fibre wall. The work conducted in this area will be reviewed, It is also important to know the kinetics of the reconformation of the polymer on the fibre surface and this topic will also be discussed in detail. Finally the kinetics of desorption will be treated.

  • 264.
    Wågberg, Lars
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Westerlind, Christina
    SCA.
    Spreading of droplets of different liquids on specially structured papers2000In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 598-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spreading kinetics of drops of different liquids (water, glycerol and ethylene glycol) on different types of model papers have been investigated. In the first part of the investigation single ply and two-ply papers, made from pulps with different degrees of beating, were investigated. The results show that is very common the surface layer of the paper had a much larger influence on the spreading than the bottom ply. By normalising the data showing the drop radius as a function of time with the viscosity and surface tension of the liquids all data collapse onto a master curve. The results from the first part of the investigation also show that in order to determine a contact angle between the liquid and the paper the drop volume should remain constant and the contact angle should be determined when the drop has reached its equilibrium volume. In the second part of the investigation the influence of surface topography and surface energy of the papers on the spreading kinetics was determined. The results show that when the pattern of use, the avails on the surface creates fine capillaries the contact angle is decreased compared to the situation with a flat surface. For papers with a higher roughness the uneven structure creates barriers against the spreading which increases the contact angle compared to the situation with a flat surface. A simple attempt to fit the data to a power law based on a hydrodynamic approach was also conducted. The results from this treatment show that it is possible to get a good match for the sheets with virtually only surface spreading. The constants achieved in this treatment can be used to rationalise the spreading data to be compared with other investigations.

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  • 265. Yang, S
    et al.
    Isaksson, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Mechanical modeling of boron carbide. Part III: Contact force and displacement analysis1996Report (Other academic)
  • 266. Zhang, Jin
    et al.
    Pelton, Robert
    Wågberg, Lars
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Rundlöf, Mats
    The effect of charge density and hydrophobic modification on dextran-based paper strength enhancing polymers2000In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 440-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dry tensile strengths of bleached kraft pulp handsheets were measured as functions of the cationic charge density and hydrophobic substituents on 2 million Dalton dextran adsorbed onto the fibers before sheet making. The charge density controlled the maximum amount of dextran that could be adsorbed by the fibers which, in turn, influenced tensile strength. The lower the charge density, the higher were both the dextran adsorption capacity of fibers and the tensile strength of the resulting paper. Butanoic and hexanoic acid when condensed onto dextran gave hydrophobic domains which lowered paper strength linearly with hydrophobic content. An extension to the Page equation gave a semi-empirical model which predicted the major effects of hydrophobic substitution on paper strength.

  • 267.
    Zhao, Yadong
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Moser, Carl
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology och Valmet AB .
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lindström, Mikael E.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Li, Jiebing
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Cellulose Nanofibers from Softwood, Hardwood, and Tunicate: Preparation-Structure-Film Performance Interrelation2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 15, p. 13508-13519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reveals the structural variations ofcellulose nanofibers (CNF) prepared from different cellulosesources, including softwood (Picea abies), hardwood (Euca-lyptus grandis × E. urophylla), and tunicate (Ciona intestinalis),using different preparation processes and their correlations tothe formation and performance of the films prepared from theCNF. Here, the CNF are prepared from wood chemical pulpsand tunicate isolated cellulose by an identical homogenizationtreatment subsequent to either an enzymatic hydrolysis or a2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxi-dation. They show a large structural diversity in terms ofchemical, morphological, and crystalline structure. Amongothers, the tunicate CNF consist of purer cellulose and have a degree of polymerization higher than that of wood CNF.Introduction of surface charges via the TEMPO-mediated oxidation is found to have significant impacts on the structure,morphology, optical, mechanical, thermal, and hydrophobic properties of the prepared films. For example, the film density isclosely related to the charge density of the used CNF, and the tensile stress of the films is correlated to the crystallinity index ofthe CNF. In turn, the CNF structure is determined by the cellulose sources and the preparation processes. This study providesuseful information and knowledge for understanding the importance of the raw material for the quality of CNF for various typesof applications.

  • 268. Zou, Xuejun
    et al.
    Gurnagul, Norayr
    Uesaka, Tetsu
    THE ROLE OF LIGNIN IN THE MECHANICAL PERMANENCE OF PAPER .1. EFFECT OF LIGNIN CONTENT1993In: Journal of Pulp and Paper Science (JPPS), ISSN 0826-6220, Vol. 19, no 6, p. J235-J239Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 269. Zou, Xuejun
    et al.
    Uesaka, Tetsu
    Norayer, Gurnagul
    Prediction of paper permanence by accelerated aging .1. Kinetic analysis of the aging process1996In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 243-267Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 270.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schuppert, Anna
    Schoeller Technocell GmbH & Co KG, D-49086 Osnabruck, Germany.
    Andres, Britta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Forsberg, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schmidt, Wolfgang
    Schoeller Technocell GmbH & Co KG, D-49086 Osnabruck, Germany.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Assisted sintering of silver nanoparticle inkjet inks on paper with active coatings2015In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 5, p. 64841-64849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inkjet-printed metal films are important within the emerging field of printed electronics. For large-scale manufacturing, low-cost flexible substrates and low temperature sintering is desired. Tailored coated substrates are interesting for roll-to-roll fabrication of printed electronics, since a suitable tailoring of the ink-substrate system may reduce, or remove, the need for explicit sintering. Here we utilize specially designed coated papers, containing chloride as an active sintering agent. The built-in sintering agent greatly assists low-temperature sintering of inkjet-printed AgNP films. Further, we examine the effect of variations in coating pore size and precoating type. Interestingly, we find that the sintering is substantially affected by these parameters.

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  • 271.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Schuppert, Anna
    Institut Charles Gerhardt de Montpellier, France.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Inkjet Fabrication of Copper Patterns for Flexible Electronics: Using Paper with Active Precoatings2015In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 7, no 33, p. 18273-18282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-cost solution-processing of highly conductive films is important for the expanding market of printed electronics. For roll-to-roll manufacturing, suitable flexible substrates and compatible postprocessing are essential. Here, custom-developed coated papers are demonstrated to facilitate the inkjet fabrication of high performance copper patterns. The patterns are fabricated in ambient conditions using water-based CuO dispersion and intense pulsed light (IPL) processing. Papers using a porous CaCO3 precoating, combined with an acidic mesoporous absorption coating, improve the effectiveness and reliability of the IPL process. The processing is realizable within 5 ms, using a single pulse of light. A resistivity of 3.1 ± 0.12 μΩ·cm is achieved with 400 μm wide conductors, corresponding to more than 50% of the conductivity of bulk copper. This is higher than previously reported results for IPL-processed copper.

  • 272.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Alfthan, Elisabeth
    Hägglund, Jan-Erik
    Paper for high speed inkjet: a study on dimensional stability and print quality2012In: Conference proceedings International Paper Physics Conference, Innventia AB, 2012, p. 129-130Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inkjet printing technology has developed in recent years, and inkjet machines for print production are now on the market. Inkjet printing at high speed puts new demands on the paper. In this work, pilot papers with known content were produced in a pilot paper machine. Inkjet printing was carried out with waterbased inkjet ink and dimensional stability and print quality were evaluated.

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  • 273.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Öhlund, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Niga, Petru
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Makeen, Khalid
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Print quality issues concerning inkjet printing of colour and electronics on paper2012In: PTS Symposium: Paper and Imaging 2012, Munich, Germany, 2012, p. 251-263Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The market value of the digital printing technologies electrophotography and inkjet is expected to grow during this decade. The introduction of multicolour high speed inkjet machines in recent years has again turned print quality into an important issue. In addition, the combination of digital printing and traditional printing technologies for variable data print production requires paper and ink which gives good and comparable print quality using different printing technologies. Printed electronics, most commonly utilizing the printing technologies screen, gravure, flexography or inkjet, is forecasted a bright future. The interest in paper as print media for printed electronics and flexible electronics has recently increased, mainly due to the widespread usage of paper, the low cost of paper, and due to the fact that paper is produced mainly from natural renewable resources. The requirements on the print concern here not primarily the visual impression, but rather the functionality, for example the conductivity of printed tracks.

    We have studied the effect of surface treatment of paper on inkjet print quality; we have looked more closely at the effect of different paper surface parameters, and shown that these parameters can have a large impact on both chroma and detail reproduction when printing with pigmented inkjet inks. Combination of inkjet with traditional printing technologies can give good print quality when carefully combining printing technology, ink and print media. Moreover, some knowledge concerning printing of colour may be transferred to the field of printed electronics, although the prerequisites on the print products are quite different. We have studied how the surface properties of coated paper affects the electrical conductivity and the print quality of inkjet printed electronics. In addition, coating of paper surfaces by laboratory methods and evaluation of functionality has been performed. The work is a base for our ongoing research on adding of functionalities to paper and packaging in a flexible and cost efficient way by utilization of printing technologies and novel materials.

  • 274. Östlund, Sören
    et al.
    Niskanen, KaarloMid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering. KTH.
    Mechanics of Paper Products: 2nd, expanded edition2021Collection (editor) (Other academic)
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