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  • 251. Campadello, Stefano
    et al.
    Coutand, Olivier
    Ebben, Peter
    van Eijk, Ronald
    Hjelm, Johan
    Holtmanns, Silke
    Kanter, Theo
    Ericsson Research.
    Privacy, Trust and Group Communications2007In: Enabling Technologies for Mobile Services: The MobiLife Book, John Wiley & Sons, 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 252.
    Campbell, M.
    et al.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Alozy, J.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Ballabriga, R.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Fröjdh, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Heijne, E.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Llopart, X.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Poikela, T.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Tlustos, L.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Valerio, P.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Wong, W.
    CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
    Towards a new generation of pixel detector readout chips2016In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 11, no 1, article id C01007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Medipix3 Collaboration has broken new ground in spectroscopic X-ray imaging and in single particle detection and tracking. This paper will review briefly the performance and limitations of the present generation of pixel detector readout chips developed by the Collaboration. Through Silicon Via technology has the potential to provide a significant improvement in the tile-ability and more flexibility in the choice of readout architecture. This has been explored in the context of 3 projects with CEA-LETI using Medipix3 and Timepix3 wafers. The next generation of chips will aim to provide improved spectroscopic imaging performance at rates compatible with human CT. It will also aim to provide full spectroscopic images with unprecedented energy and spatial resolution. Some of the opportunities and challenges posed by moving to a more dense CMOS process will be discussed.

  • 253. Campbell, M
    et al.
    Chefdeville, M
    Colas, P
    Colijn, A P
    Fornaini, A
    Giomataris, Y
    van der Graaf, H
    Heijne, E H M
    Kluit, P
    Llopart Cudié, Xavier
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Schmitz, J
    Timmermans, J
    Visschers, J L
    Detection of single electrons by means of a Micromegas-covered Medipix2 pixel CMOS readout circuit2005In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 540, no 2-3, p. 295-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A small drift chamber was read out by means of a MediPix2 readout chip as a direct anode. A Micromegas foil was placed above the chip, and electron multiplication occurred in the gap. With a He/isobutane 80/20 mixture, gas multiplication factors up to tens of thousands were achieved, resulting in an efficiency for detecting single electrons of better than 90%. We recorded many frames containing 2D images with tracks from cosmic muons. Along these tracks, electron clusters were observed, as well as δ-rays.

  • 254.
    Cao, Cao
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Asynchronous Modules for the Mixed Synchronous/Asynchronous State Memory in FSM Low-Power PartitioningManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 255.
    Cao, Cao
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Automatic Synthesis of Partitioned FSMs Based on Mixed Synchronous/Asynchronous State Memory2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 256.
    Cao, Cao
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Automatic synthesis of partitioned FSMs based on mixed synchronous/asynchronous state memory2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 257.
    Cao, Cao
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Area-Power Trade-Off in FSM Partitioning2006In: ICSES'06 - International Conference on Signals and Electronic Systems, Proceedings, 2006, p. 349-352Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finite State Machine (FSM) partitioning together with a Dynamic Power Management (DPM) scheme is an efficient method for low-power FSM design. Taking both power and area into account at an early stage of FSM partitioning is important for choosing an efficient partitioning in terms of both power and area. There are certain FSMs that a partitioning solution with the lowest power has a big area overhead. For them, exploring the area-power trade-off is especially helpful for finding an alternative partitioning with slightly higher power consumption but much lower area. In this paper, we explore the area-power trade-off in FSM partitioning and propose the area cost functions that are verified by correlation coefficient. A relative comparison of the estimated area cost among the partitioning solutions gives the user more freedom to trade power for area. Since the gate-level implementation is unknown, the area constraint should be given in relative terms, not as the specific percentage of area increase allowed

  • 258.
    Cao, Cao
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Mixed Synchronous/Asynchronous State Memory for Low Power FSM Design2004In: Proceedings of EUROMICRO Symposium on Digital System Design / [ed] Selvaraj, H, IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2004, p. 363-370Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finite state machine (FSM) partitioning proves effective for power optimization. In this paper we propose a design model based on mixed synchronous/asynchronous state memory that results in implementations with low power dissipation and low area overhead for partitioned FSM.s. The state memory here is composed of the synchronous local state memory and asynchronous global state memory, where the former is used to distinguish the states inside a sub-FSM, and the latter is responsible for controlling sub-FSM communication. The input and output behaviour of the decomposed FSM is cycle by cycle equivalent to the undecomposed synchronous FSM. Together with clock gating technique, substantial power reduction can be demonstrated.

  • 259.
    Cao, Cao
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    State-Encoding for Partitioned FSMs with Mixed Synchronous/Asynchronous State MemoryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 260.
    Cao, Cao
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The Analysis of Power-Related Characteristics of FSM Benchmarks2007In: 2007 50TH MIDWEST SYMPOSIUM ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOLS 1-3, New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 787-790Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Benchmarking is a common way to evaluate the effectiveness of finite state machine (FSM) low-power methodologies. The serious problem in the existing standard benchmarks is that power-related characteristics are not provided, and therefore these benchmarks are not complete for reliable evaluation and comparison of low-power methods and tools. To address this problem, this paper introduces the coefficient of variation, which is very useful for quantitative analysis of power-related features of an FSM, and for indicating the power optimization opportunity of the corresponding circuit. Based on the coefficient of variation, input-sensitivity analysis of the whole standard benchmark set is conducted. It reveals that the benchmark set is input-data dependant, and the set is insufficient for low-power FSM researches due to the limited coverage of power-related characteristics.

  • 261.
    Cao, Cao
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A Tool for Low-Power Synthesis of FSMs with Mixed Synchronous/Asynchronous State Memory2004In: 22ND NORCHIP CONFERENCE, PROCEEDINGS, IEEE , 2004, p. 199-202Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient way to obtain Finite-State Machines (FSMs) with low power consumption is to,partition the machine into two or more sub-FSMs and use dynamic power management, where all sub-FSMs not active are shut down, to reduce dynamic power dissipation. In this paper we focus on FSM partitioning algorithms and RT-level power estimation functions that are the key issues in the design of a CAD tool for synthesis of low-power partitioned FSMS. We target an implementation architecture that is based on both synchronous and asynchronous state memory elements that enables larger power reductions than fully synchronous architectures do. Power reductions of up to 77% have been achieved at a cost of an increase in area of 18%.

  • 262.
    Cao, Cao
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Synthesis tool for low-power finite-state machines with mixed synchronous/asynchronous state memory2006In: IEE Proceedings - Computers and digital Techniques, ISSN 1350-2387, E-ISSN 1359-7027, Vol. 153, no 4, p. 243-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient way to obtain finite-state machines (FSMs) with low-power consumption is to partition the machine into two or more sub-FSMs and then use dynamic power management where all sub-FSMs not active are shut down, with the effect of reducing dynamic power dissipation. Thus, FSM partitioning algorithms and register-transfer-level power estimation functions are the main focus of the paper as these are key issues in the design of a computer-aided design tool for synthesis of low-power partitioned FSMs. An implementation architecture is targeted, which is based on both synchronous and asynchronous state memory elements that enable larger power reductions than fully synchronous architectures do. Power reductions of up to 77 have been achieved at a cost of an 18 increase in area.

  • 263. Carle, Fredrik
    et al.
    Koptioug, Andrei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Portable rescue device and a method for locating such a device2007Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A portable rescue device and a method for locating, by means of a first rescue device set in a search mode, a second rescue device set in a distress mode. In the method, a distress signal carrying a device identification is received from said second rescue device. A first bearing and a second bearing to the second rescue device are obtained. The first and second bearings are taken from a first and a second position, respectively. A distance between these positions is determined. A current distance and a current bearing to the second rescue device are determined on basis of the first and second bearings and the distance. The current bearing and the current distance are communicated to a user of the first rescue device. The portable rescue device is used for performing the method and for that purpose it includes a first communication unit for distress signal transmission and reception; a compass; a processor; a user interface; and a mode switch for switching between a search mode and a distress signal mode. The first communication device has an antenna structure that provides directional capability.

  • 264.
    Caro, D. Di
    et al.
    Univ. of Salerno.
    Liguori, Consolatina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Univ. of Salerno.
    Pietrosanto, A.
    Univ. of Salerno.
    Sommella, P.
    Univ. of Salerno.
    Hazelnut Oil Classification by NMR Techniques2017In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 66, no 5, p. 928-934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been widely used in chemical analysis and medical diagnosis. In recent years, thanks to the development of the NMR instrumentation and the software for data analysis, it is becoming a useful tool for quality control in the food industry. In this field, several applications have been developed related to the compositional and structural analysis, authentication, packaging, and on-line monitoring. This paper highlights the capability of NMR to discern between the oil extracted from healthy and unhealthy hazelnuts, as a preliminary step toward the automatic detection of the hidden defects in full hazelnuts. Different processing techniques are analyzed on the CPMG response in order to set up the final measurement system.

  • 265.
    Caro, D. Di
    et al.
    Univ. of Salerno.
    Liguori, Consolatina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Univ. of Salerno.
    Pietrosanto, A.
    Univ. of Salerno.
    Sommella, P.
    Univ. of Salerno.
    Using a SVD-based algorithm for T2 spectrum calculation in TD-NMR application to detect hidden defects in hazelnuts2017In: 2017 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC), 2017, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hazelnuts are widely used into the confectionary industry for their flavour and taste. Nondestructive techniques are required to detect the quality of the nuts in shell with the aim of avoiding putting a poor product into the market chain. In this work, Time Domain - NMR (TD-NMR) has been employed to detect hidden defects in hazelnuts in shell. In particular, the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) technique has been used to evaluate the transverse relaxation times, T<sub>2</sub>, for healthy and unhealthy hazelnuts, highlighting the differences between them. An index that takes in account the different time constants of the transverse relaxation curve has been defined to establish a classification method for the hazelnuts. The results of this work provide a basis for the development of a measurement system for inline inspection of hazelnuts in shell.

  • 266.
    Carratu, Marco
    et al.
    University of Salerno, Italy.
    Liguori, Consolatina
    University of Salerno, Italy.
    Pietrosanto, Antonio
    University of Salerno, Italy; SPRING OFF srl, Italy.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Lundgren, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Data Fusion for Timber Bundle Volume Measurement2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 267.
    Casselgren, Johan
    et al.
    Lulea Univ Technol, Div Fluid & Expt Mech, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden.
    Rosendahl, Sara
    Lulea Univ Technol, Div Fluid & Expt Mech, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå Univ Technol, Div Fluid & Expt Mech, S-97187 Luleå, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Road condition analysis using NIR illumination and compensating for surrounding light2016In: Optics and lasers in engineering, ISSN 0143-8166, E-ISSN 1873-0302, Vol. 77, p. 175-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation of a NIR camera system for road surface classification has been conducted for several road conditions. The surfaces were illuminated with three wavelengths, 980 nm, 1310 nm and 1550 nm and a halogen lamp, to simulate a real environment application with surrounding light. A measuring scheme to deal with surrounding light has been implemented enabling road condition classification from NIR images in a real environment. The retrieved camera images have been analyzed and an RGB representation of the different surfaces has been created to classify the different road conditions. The investigation shows that it is possible to distinguish between dry, moist, wet, frosty, icy and snowy road surfaces using a NIR camera system in a disturbed environment. (c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 268.
    Castleton, C W M
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Mirbt, S
    Condensed Matter Theory, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ab initio study of neutral vacancies in InP using supercells and finite size scaling2003In: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, Vol. 340, p. 407-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation energies and relaxed structures of the neutral vacancies in InP are calculated by planewave density functional theory, using supercells of 8, 64, 216 and 512 atoms together with finite size scaling. The effects of electrostatic defect-defect interactions and the truncation of elastic relaxations by the finite supercell are examined. The unrelaxed formation energies are 4.95+/-0.10 and 3.00+/-0.10eV for V-In(+0) and V-P(+0) respectively, and the relaxed formation energies are 4.20+/-0.05 and 2.35+/-0.15 eV. When relaxed, V-In(+0) remains very nearly symmetric with a 40% volume reduction, V-P(+0) on the other hand develops a double dimerized structure, with an similar to12% Jahn-Teller distortion and a 45% volume reduction. It is shown that finite size scaling sometimes reveals that energies are not converged even in the 512 atom supercell, and can thus be important tool in theoretical studies of defects in semiconductors, if sufficient care is taken with strongly Jahn Teller active defects.

  • 269.
    Castleton, C W M
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Mirbt, S
    Finite-size scaling as a cure for supercell approximation errors in calculations of neutral native defects in InP2004In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 70, no 19, p. 195202-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relaxed and unrelaxed formation energies of neutral antisites and interstitial defects in InP are calculated using ab initio density functional theory and simple cubic supercells of up to 512 atoms. The finite-size errors in the formation energies of all the neutral defects arising from the supercell approximation are examined and corrected for using finite-size scaling methods, which are shown to be a very promising approach to the problem. Elastic errors scale linearly, while the errors arising from charge multipole interactions between the defect and its images in the periodic boundary conditions have a linear plus a higher order term, for which a cubic provides the best fit. These latter errors are shown to be significant even for neutral defects. Instances are also presented where even the 512 atom supercell is not sufficiently converged. Instead, physically relevant results can be obtained only by finite-size scaling the results of calculations in several supercells, up to and including the 512 atom cell and in extreme cases possibly even including the 1000 atom supercell.

  • 270.
    Chen, Hao
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Priority-based THVRG in Industrial Wireless Sensor Network2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the constant expansion of the industrial monitoring system, there is an urgent requirement to reduce investment and operating costs for the development of industrial communication technology. For industrial real-time monitoring systems, wireless technology can be used in a practical industrial production to take advantages of its flexibility and robustness. As wireless sensor networks have many advantages such as low investment costs, flexible structure and ease of transformation, it has become the focus with regards to industrial areas. THVRG is a routing algorithm that selects the routing path based on two-hop information. Since different information sensed by the sensors may have different requirements in order to reach the sink, a priority-based routing algorithm is required in order to adapt to this kind of situation. This thesis has proposed a priority routing algorithm based on the THVRG (Priority-based THVRG). In addition, a simulation of this algorithm was performed in OPNET. Finally, the report provides an evaluation of the proposed algorithm in industrial wireless sensor networks.

  • 271.
    Chen, Jian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Maintaining Stream Data Distribution Over Sliding Window2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In modern applications, it is a big challenge that analyzing the order statistics about the most recent parts of the high-volume and high velocity stream data. There are some online quantile algorithms that can

    keep the sketch of the data in the sliding window and they can answer the quantile or rank query in a very short time. But most of them take the

    GK algorithm as the subroutine, which is not known to be mergeable. In this paper, we propose another algorithm to keep the sketch that maintains the order statistics over sliding windows. For the fixed-size window, the existing algorithms can’t maintain the correctness in the process of updating the sliding window. Our algorithm not only can maintain the correctness but also can achieve similar performance of the optimal algorithm. Under the basis of maintaining the correctness, the insert time and query time are close to the best results, while others can't maintain the correctness. In addition to the fixed-size window algorithm, we also provide the time-based window algorithm that the window size varies over time. Last but not least, we provide the window aggregation algorithm which can help extend our algorithm into the distributed system.

  • 272.
    Cheng, Peng
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Applications of embedded sensors in loader crane positioning and rotor RPM measurement2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, two novel applications involving embedded sensors arestudied, one dealing with loader crane positioning and the other involving rotorRevolutions Per Minute (RPM) measurement. The thesis presents a generalintroduction to the embedded sensor, its architecture and its use in mechanicalindustry, and provides the reader with an overview of conventional sensortechnologies within the fields of angle sensors and angular speed sensors, coveringtheir working principles, features, advantages and disadvantages and typicalapplications. The particular problems associated with the use of conventionalsensors in both loader crane positioning and rotor RPM measurement aredescribed and these problems provided the motivation for the designs of theembedded sensor systems developed in this thesis.In the case of the loader crane positioning, the origins of the project and thespecial requirements of the application are described in detail. In addition, apreliminary study is conducted in relation to the idea of a contactless joint angularsensor using MEMS inertial sensors in which four different methods, namely, theCommon-Mode-Rejection with Gyro Integration (CMRGI), Common-Mode-Rejection (CMR), Common-Mode-Rejection with Gyro Differentiation (CMRGD)and Distributed Common-Mode-Rejection (DCMR), are conceived, modeled andtested on a custom-designed prototype experimental setup. The results gatheredfrom these four methods are compared and analyzed in order to identify thedifferences in their performances. The methods, which proved to be suitable, arethen further tested using the prototype sensor setup on a loader crane and theperformance results are analyzed in order to make a decision in relation to the twomost suitable methods for the application of the loader crane positioning. Theresults suggested that the two most suitable were the CMRGD and the DCMR. Thepractical design issues relating to this sensor system are highlighted andsuggestions are made in the study. Additionally, possible future work for thisproject is also covered.In the first case for the rotor RPM measurement, the thesis presents themodeling and simulation of the stator-free RPM sensor idea using the Monte Carlomethod, which demonstrated the special features and performance of this sensor.The design aspects of the prototype sensor are described in detail and theprototype is tested on an experimental setup. The conclusions for the stator-freeRPM sensor are then made from the analysis of the experimental results and futurework in relation to this sensor is also proposed.In the second case of the rotor RPM measurement, the thesis presentsanother idea involving the laser mouse RPM sensor and the main focus of thestudy is on the performance characterization of the laser mouse sensor and theverification of the RPM sensor idea. Experiments are conducted using the test setup and results are gathered and analyzed and conclusions are drawn.Possibilities in relation to future work for this laser mouse RPM sensor are alsoprovided.The summary and the conclusion form the final chapter of the thesis andseveral important aspects of the designs relating to both the loader cranepositioning project and the rotor RPM measurement project are discussed.

  • 273.
    Cheng, Peng
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Linnarsson, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Joint Angular Sensor Based on Distributed Biaxial MEMS Accelerometers2007In: IECON 2007: 33RD ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY, VOLS 1-3, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 2242-2247Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the analysis for joint angle measurement on rigid body that is based on distributed biaxial MEMS accelerometers. It focuses on two methods, one called CMR and another DCMR, and utilizes the property of rigid body kinematics to explain their advantages and weaknesses. Unlike CMR method, DCMR method has no requirement on placing the sensors close to the joint center. This provides greater flexibility for the sensor installation. On the basis of the error model of CMR method, we give an analysis outlining the advantage of theoretically error-free DCMR method. The sensor calibration and alignment is described and both methods are characterized on a rigid body robot arm model. The experiment shows the angular error up to 0.4rad from CMR method whereas just 0.03rad from DCMR method. The noise level from both methods is also compared and analyzed. The result reveals a larger but tunable noise for DCMR method.

  • 274.
    Cheng, Peng
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Nazar Ul Islam, Muhammad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Torque Sensor Based on Differential Air Pressure Using Volumetric Strain2017In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 17, no 11, p. 3269-3277, article id 7902159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a torque sensor based on the differential air pressure measurement method using the volumetric strain of a mechanical sensing structure. A model of the measurement system based on the differential air pressure from the volumetric strain of the mechanical sensing structure is proposed and theoretically discussed. The error sources are identified and an error propagation model is presented for the proposed torque measurement method. Considering these error sources, a prototype torque sensor is presented as a case study for the method verification. Both the mechanical and readout electronics designs are discussed and analyzed. The mechanical sensitivity, resolution, and maximum stresses are analyzed using finite-element modeling. Based on the results from the simulation, a prototype torque sensor is manufactured and experimentally verified using a readout electronics design. For verification, the sensor prototype is measured under static torque to have a sensitivity of 0.04272V/N. m and a range of +/- 117N . m. Compared with the nominal mechanical sensitivity result from the FEM simulation, this measured sensitivity has a difference less than 6%. The noise analysis of the designed readout electronics shows that the resolution of 0.006% can be achieved with this design. Furthermore, hysteresis analysis shows an error of 0.012% of full scale. From these results, it is also shown that the actual performance of the sensor is mainly limited by the differential pressure sensor and the readout electronics design and is not by the mechanical design of the sensor.

  • 275.
    Cheng, Peng
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Joint-angle Measurement Using Accelerometers and Gyroscopes: A Survey2010In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 404-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an analysis of rigid-body joint-angle measurement based on microelectromechanical-system (MEMS) biaxial accelerometers and uniaxial gyroscopes. In comparison to conventional magnetic and optical joint angular sensors, this new inertial sensing principle has the advantages of flexible installation and true contactless sensing. This paper focuses on the comparison of four different inertial-sensor combination methods that are reported in reference papers and utilizes the theory of rigid-body kinematics to explain and analyze their advantages and weaknesses. Experiments have also been conducted to further verify and strengthen the arguments put forward in the analysis. All experiments in this paper took place on a custom-built rigid-body robot arm model that can be manipulated by hand. Sensor calibration and accelerometer alignment issues are also described, and their details are discussed. The experiment results presented in this paper show significant differences with reference to the achieved angular accuracy for various situations when using the four different sensor combination methods. In some cases, the angular error based on one method is more than 0.04 rad, while that from another method is within +/-0.005 rad. The noise levels of angular readings from different methods are also experimentally compared and analyzed. The conclusion drawn serves to guide readers toward a suitable method for their particular application.

  • 276.
    Cheng, Peng
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Linnarsson, Fredrik
    Cargotec Sweden AB, S-82450 Hudiksvall, Sweden.
    A Local Positioning System for Loader Cranes Based on Wireless Sensors-A Feasibility Study2011In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 60, no 8, p. 2881-2893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a feasibility study that deals with a local positioning system for a loader crane based on battery-powered wireless sensors and consists of two joint angular sensors and one telescopic boom length ranger. The practical challenges associated with using conventional sensors are described in order to provide the motivation behind the choice to use the sensing methods proposed in this paper. A novel method is tested using microelectromechanical system inertial sensors mounted around the crane joints to indirectly measure the joint angles, as well as an ultrasound time-of-flight ranging method to measure the telescopic boom length. The local positioning system's wireless sensor prototype designs are described in detail. Data from the angular sensor experiments conducted on a loader crane and the ultrasound ranging experiments conducted both in the laboratory and on the loader crane are presented and analyzed. The preliminary results from these experiments show that the performance of the new sensors is promising. The conclusion is drawn from the experimental results, and future work for this local positioning system is also described.

  • 277.
    Cheng, Peng
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sobh, Mohamed
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Contactless Rotor RPM Measurement Using Laser Mouse Sensors2012In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 740-748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experimental study using laser mouse sensors for the contactless revolutions per minute (RPM) measurement of a rotating shaft. The sensor performance characterization experiment is firstly conducted under different parameter setups. After the optimal parameter value has been found, the rotor RPM experiment is then conducted with a speed sweep from 500 to 3800 rpm, and data are gathered at 30 different speeds and processed using two different methods to convert the sensor readings into the RPM of the rotating shaft; the results are then displayed. The performance differences between the two methods are compared, and the observation is that both the linearity and the signal-to-noise ratio of the frequency correlation method are several times better than those for the amplitude correlation method. The conclusion summarizes the experimental results and the advantage associated with this new RPM sensing method and provides the motivation for its potential applications and its future works.

  • 278.
    Cheng, Peng
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Szewczyk, Roman
    Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements, Warsaw, Poland.
    Modified description of magnetic hysteresis in Jiles-Atherton model2018In: Automation 2018: Advances In Automation, Robotics And Measurement Techniques, Springer, 2018, Vol. 743, p. 648-654Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper presents new idea of modelling the magnetic hysteresis in the Jiles-Atherton model. Presented approach considers physical principles of magnetisation process and main assumptions of Jiles-Atherton model. As a result modified differential equation stating the model was proposed. This equation was verified on the base of magnetic hysteresis loops of non grain oriented electrical steel. Presented results indicate, that proposed approach to modelling the magnetic hysteresis loops well correspond with results of experimental measurements. 

  • 279.
    Cheng, Peng
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Yang, Yan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Design and Implementation of a Stator-Free RPM Sensor Prototype Based on MEMS Accelerometers2012In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 775-785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a prototype of a stator-free revolutions-per-minute (RPM) sensor based on two microelectromechanical-system uniaxial accelerometers. This paper first introduces the operating principle of the stator-free RPM sensor. It then discusses the associated architecture and design issues of this new sensing method. It then describes the detail of the prototype sensor hardware and software design of the common-mode rejection method and its signal processing. Experiments using the prototype sensor have been also conducted to further verify and strengthen the arguments put forward in the previous discussion. All experiments in this paper took place on a lathe machine in a laboratory. Sensor calibration under a MATLAB environment is also described. Experimental results confirm the interesting property of this sensor, namely, that it provides higher precision at higher RPM. The conclusion summarizes the design considerations, the experimental results, and the motivation in relation to future works for this stator-free RPM sensing method.

  • 280.
    Cheng, Peng
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Yang, Yan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Stator-free RPM Sensor Using Accelerometers - A Statistical Performance Simulation by Monte Carlo Method2011In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 11, no 12, p. 3368-3376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an statistical performance simulation for rigid-body revolutions per minute (RPM) measurement based on two uni-axial accelerometers mounted on rotor. In comparison with other existing sensing methods that are based on two coupled parts, namely stator and rotor and which include conventional electro-magnetic RPM sensors and photo-electric RPM sensors, this new stator-free inertial sensing principle has the advantage of high bandwidth at low RPM, true contact-free sensing and flexible installation. The paper first focuses on the description of the operating principle and the common mode rejection (CMR) method of the stator-free RPM sensor, and then its error model is developed and the error sources are statistically simulated based on Monte Carlo method. The simulation result presents a most interesting property of this sensor, that is, it gives lower precision at lower RPM and higher precision at higher RPM. The conclusion summarizes the modeling analysis result and motivates potential application for this new RPM sensing method.

  • 281.
    Cheng, Xin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hardware centric machine vision for high precision measurement of reference structures in optical navigation2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 282.
    Cheng, Xin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Abdul Waheed, Malik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thörnberg, Benny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Color Symbol Design and Its Classification for Optical NavigationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We explored the color symbol design and its recognition in image as reference structure for optical navigation. A colors pair was first determined as foreground and background from HSI color palette and then a color symbol was designed as reference structure. The advantage of using this selected color symbol is a significant reduction, up to 97%, of segmented image components as compared to the grey scale image used. The reduction of segmented components in image will result in saving the hardware resources e.g. memory and processing power which are very important constraint for embedded platforms. A color symbol pattern was designed, comprising of three concentric circles with selected color pair. Inside the inner most circle is the Area Of Interest (AOI), the contents of AOI depends on the particular application. A hardware centric image analysis algorithm is developed for easy and robust recognition. Image components are identified after preprocessing, segmentation and labeling. The color symbol can be recognized at a classification step. Evaluating a variety of viewing angles and reading distances ranging from 30 to 150 degrees and from 1 to 10 meters gives a classification success rate of 72 percent of the positions.

  • 283.
    Cheng, Xin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thörnberg, Benny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Abdul Waheed, Malik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Optimized Color Pair Selection for Label Design2011In: Proceedings Elmar - International Symposium Electronics in Marine, Zadar, Croatia: IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, p. 115-118Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present in this paper a technique for designing reference labels that can be used for optical navigation. We optimize the selection of foreground and background colors used for the printed reference labels. This optimization calibrates for individual color responses among printers and cameras such that the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) is maximized. Experiments show that we get slightly smaller SNR for the color labels compared to using a monochrome technique. However, the number of segmented image components is reduced significantly by as much as 78 percent. This reduction of number of image components will in turn reduce the memory storage requirement for the computing embedded system.

  • 284.
    Cheng, Xin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thörnberg, Benny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Malik, Waheed
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lawal, Najeem
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hardware Centric Machine Vision for High Precision Center of Gravity Calculation2010In: PROCEEDINGS OF WORLD ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, 2010, p. 736-743Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a hardware oriented method for real-time measurements of object’s position in video. The targeted application area is light spots used as references for robotic navigation. Different algorithms for dynamic thresholding are explored in combination with component labeling and Center Of Gravity (COG) for highest possible precision versus Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). This method was developed with a low hardware cost in focus having only one convolution operation required for preprocessing of data.

  • 285.
    Chmeissani, M
    et al.
    IFAE Barcelona .
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Gal, O
    CEA France.
    Llopart, X
    CERN.
    Ludwig, J
    Albert-Ludwigs-Universität-Freiburg.
    Ponchut, C
    ESRF.
    Russo, P
    INFN, Italy.
    Tlustos, L
    CERN.
    First experimental tests with a CdTe photon counting pixel detector hybridized with a Medipix2 readout chip2004In: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, ISSN 0018-9499, E-ISSN 1558-1578, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 2379-2385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present preliminary tests of hybrid pixel detectors consisting of the Medipix2 readout chip bump-bonded to a 1-mm-thick CdTe pixel detector. This room temperature imaging system for single photon counting has been developed within the Medipix2 European Collaboration for various imaging applications with X-rays and gamma rays, including dental radiography, mammography, synchrotron radiation, nuclear medicine, and radiation monitoring in nuclear facilities. The Medipix2 + CdTe hybrid detector features 256 × 256 square pixels, a pitch of 55 μm, a sensitive area of 14×14 mm2. We analyzed the quality of the detector and bump-bonding and the response to nuclear radiation of the first CdTe hybrids. The CdTe pixel detectors, with Pt ohmic contacts, showed an ohmic response when negatively biased up to less than 60 V (electrons collection mode). Tests were also performed in holes collection mode, where a nonresistive behavior was observed above +15 V. We performed a series of imaging tests at low voltage bias with gamma radioactive sources and with an X-ray tube. Under uniform irradiation, we observed for all detectors the presence of numerous, stable structures in the form of small circles of about 200 μm diameter, with the central pixels showing a reduced counting efficiency with respect to the periphery (in electrons counting regime). Also long filament structures have been observed. Further investigations will reveal whether they are due to an intrinsic detector response (e.g., due to Te inclusions) or to the bump-bonding process.

  • 286.
    Christensen, M. J.
    et al.
    European Spallat Source, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Shelly, M.
    European Spallat Source, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nilsson, J.
    European Spallat Source, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mukai, A.
    European Spallat Source, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Al Jebali, R.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund; Glasgow Univ, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Khaplanov, A.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Lupberger, M.
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Messi, F.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund; Lund Univ, Lund.
    Pfeiffer, D.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund; CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Piscitelli, F.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Blum, T.
    Niels Bohr Inst, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sogaard, C.
    Niels Bohr Inst, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Skelboe, S.
    Niels Bohr Inst, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Richter, T.
    European Spallat Source ERIC, Lund.
    Software-based data acquisition and processing for neutron detectors at European Spallation Source-early experience from four detector designs2018In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, no 11, article id T11002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European Spallation Source (ESS) will deliver neutrons at high flux for use in diverse neutron scattering techniques. The neutron source facility and the scientific instruments will be located in Lund, and the Data Management and Software Centre (DMSC), in Copenhagen. A number of detector prototypes are being developed at ESS together with its European in-kind partners, for example: SoNDe, Multi-Grid, Multi-Blade and Gd-GEM. These are all position sensitive detectors but use different techniques for the detection of neutrons. Except for digitization of electronics readout, all neutron data is anticipated to be processed in software. This provides maximum flexibility and adaptability and allows deep inspection of the raw data for commissioning which will reduce the risk of starting up new detector technologies. But it also requires development of high performance software processing pipelines and optimized and scalable processing algorithms. This report provides a description of the ESS system architecture for the neutron data path. Special focus is on the interface between the detectors and DMSC which is based on UDP over Ethernet links. The report also describes the software architecture for detector data processing and the tools we have developed, which have proven very useful for efficient early experimentation, and can be run on a single laptop. Processing requirements for the SoNDe, Multi-Grid, Multi-Blade and Ge-GEM detectors are presented and compared to event processing rates archived so far.

  • 287.
    Chuanliang, Xie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Finite Element Analysis of PZT-based Air Flow Sensor2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis proposes a novel air flow sensor based on PZT material which is used to measure air velocity in an experimental tunnel or indoor ventilation. The work focuses on designing and verifying the sensor model through finite element analysis (FEA) simulation using COMSOL Multiphysics software.

    This thesis is devoted to developing a sensor model with a focus on a low-velocity range up to 2 m/s and high sensitivity. The design of the sensor should be robust and reliable for different flow patterns, temperature, and atmospheric pressure variation. The sensor model consists of a fixed cylinder which connects with a bilayer cantilever made of PZT and PDMS material. The laminar flow from the sensor inlet is transformed into the turbulent flow when passing by the fixed cylinder. This structure of bilayer cantilever is designed to generate self-induced oscillation on PZT to overcome the charge leakage over the sensor impedance. Resonance optimization of the sensor structure is investigated to obtain better SNR and performance by adjusting the dimension of the cantilever.

    From the conducted simulation results, the relationship between the dominant frequency of output voltage generated by PZT and air velocity can be described linearly. In conclusion, it is shown that proposed sensor has a sensitivity of 0.1 m/s and a range of 0.2 to 2 m/s.

  • 288. Chunjiang, Y
    et al.
    Tabikl, A
    Leckner, Bo
    Zhang, Wennan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Modeling of deposition and emission of alkalis in boiler systems: Mid-term reporting for project JOR3CT980306 of 4th EU-framework Programme2000Report (Other scientific)
  • 289. Ciamulski, T.
    et al.
    Hjelm, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sypniewski, M.
    Custumisation of FDTD simulator kernel for parallel computing in advanced applications2006In: ICSES'06 - International Conference on Signals and Electronic Systems, Proceedings, 2006, p. 649-652Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A commercial FDTD simulation software is the basis of an ongoing parallelization project. In the first phase of the project the work is aiming at optimization of the program on shared memory computers. In this paper we present the initial methods of parallelization with the achieved performance on a Sun Fire 15K NUMA computer. The achieved results are discussed, together with the possible paths to improve the speedup.

  • 290. Ciamulski, T
    et al.
    Sypniewski, M
    Wieckowski, A
    Hjelm, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Parallel FDTD Processing on Shared Memory Computers2007In: The 23rd annual review of Progress in Applied computational electromagnetics: March 19-23, 2007 Verona, Italy, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An ongoing European project on customization of electromagnetic simulation tool is ready to present significantly improved performance of parallel version of a professional FDTD simulator. The first stage of the work is concentrated on solution for computers with the shared memory architecture. The relevance and feasibility study of the solution for contemporary computers is shown. Possible ways to reach further performance improvements as well as solutions for distributed memory machines are discussed.

  • 291.
    Ciamulski, Tomasz
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Hjelm, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sypniewski, Maciej
    Parallel FDTD calculation efficiency on computers with shared memory architecture2007In: 2007 WORKSHOP ON COMPUTATIONAL ELECTROMAGNETICS IN TIME-DOMAIN, New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 33-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast parallel processing of the FDTD method is becoming very important, and its efficiency on different multiprocessor computer architectures should be carefully examined. Is it possible to have the same versatile parallel FDTD simulator working efficiently on a set of very different computer architectures? In contrast to distributed memory systems, shared memory systems can be built with a variety of memory configuration types (and subtypes) as well as combined with distributed memory systems. The paper focuses on viability of different shared memory architectures for parallel FDTD processing. Our analysis concerns the processing method suitable for both shared and distributed memory systems. The results of experiments comparing parallel processing efficiency on different shared memory machines are presented.

  • 292.
    Ciamulski, Tomasz
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sypniewski, M
    Warsaw University of Technology, Radioelectronics, 00 665 Warsaw, Poland.
    Different implementations of parallel processing for FDTD simulator2008In: 2008 17th International Conference on Microwaves, Radar and Wireless Communications, MIKON 2008, New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2008, p. 641-643, article id 4630317Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parallel processing in FDTD as well as other electromagnetic simulation methods is growing in importance. It allows not only to calculate faster but also to cope with large structures. Parallel processing can be implemented in different ways. The implementation depends mainly on computer architecture and programming libraries under different operating systems. Usually, different approach has to be taken also for a newly created program in contrary to rebuilding, existing serial program into a parallel version. A European project for development of a parallel version of existing, professional FDTD simulator is presented The simulator was principally designated for serial execution Consecutive steps of code transition from serial into versatile parallel version are described

  • 293.
    Ciamulski, Tomasz
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Sypniewski, M
    Linear and superlinear speedup in parallel FDTD processing2007In: IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, AP-S International Symposium (Digest), IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 4448-4451Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 294.
    Coates, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Standardization: A practical study of industry standards and their applications.2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis project is to apply programming standardization to a practical PLC project. The practical programming task was carried out at ÅF Sundsvall. Two industry standards were chosen for analysis; IEC 61131-3 for PLC Programming, and SSG 5262 for HMI design. The project is programmed in TIA Portal V14, and hardware includes a Siemens 1200 series CPU, and TP700 Comfort HMI panel. The practical task involved in this project is to program and be able to simulate a sewage pump station. Both the PLC logic and HMI will use code which is scavenged from previous ÅF projects. This code was analyzed from a perspective of the chosen standards and certain incompatibilities were mentioned. In order for the code to satisfy the standards, modifcation was made to remedy the incompatibilities. Further, certain changes were made to the existing code in regards to general modernization. The station was successfully simulated based on the requirements placed on it and process information was presented in an efective manner.

  • 295. Colas, P
    et al.
    Colijn, A P
    Fornaini, A
    Giomataris, Y
    van der Graaf, H
    Heijne, E H M
    Llopart Cudié, Xavier
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Schmitz, J
    Timmermans, J
    Visschers, J L
    The readout of a GEM or Micromegas-equipped TPC by means of the Medipix2 CMOS sensor as direct anode2004In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 535, no 1-2, p. 506-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have applied the Medipix2 pixel CMOS chip as direct anode readout for a TPC. For the gas amplification two options have been investigated: (i) a three-stage GEM system and (ii) a Micromegas mesh. The structure of the cloud of primary electrons, left after interactions of 55Fe quanta with the gas is visible with unprecedented precision. This proof-of-principle is an essential step in our project to realize a monolithic pixel sensor with integrated Micromegas, to be developed specially for the readout of TPCs, and applicable for drift chambers in general.

  • 296.
    Comstedt, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Effect of additional compression features on h.264 surveillance video2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In video surveillance business, a recurring topic of discussion is quality versus data usage. A higher quality allows for more details to be captured at the cost of a higher bit rate, and for cameras monitoring events 24 hours a day, limiting data usage can quickly become a factor to consider. The purpose of this thesis has been to apply additional compression features to a h.264 video steam, and evaluate their effects on the videos overall quality. Using a surveillance camera, recordings of video streams were obtained. These recordings had constant GOP and frame rates. By breaking down one of these videos to an image sequence, it was possible to encode the image sequence into video streams with variable GOP/FPS using the software Ffmpeg. Additionally a user test was performed on these video streams, following the DSCQS standard from the ITU-R recom- mendation. The participants had to subjectively determine the quality of video streams. The results from the these tests showed that the participants did not no- tice any considerable difference in quality between the normal videos and the videos with variable GOP/FPS. Based of these results, the thesis has shown that that additional compression features can be applied to h.264 surveillance streams, without having a substantial effect on the video streams overall quality.

  • 297.
    Conti, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Soares, Luis Ducla
    University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Nunes, Paulo
    University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Perra, Cristian
    University of Cagliari, Italy.
    Assunção, Pedro Amado
    Institute de Telecomunicacoes and Politecenico de Leiria, Portugal.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Li, Yun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Light Field Image Compression2018In: 3D Visual Content Creation, Coding and Delivery / [ed] Assunção, Pedro Amado, Gotchev, Atanas, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 143-176Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 298.
    Crema, C.
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Depari, A.
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Flammini, A.
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Haslwanter, T.
    University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Linz, Austria.
    Salzmann, S.
    University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria, Linz, Austria.
    IMU-based solution for automatic detection and classification of exercises in the fitness scenario2017In: SAS 2017 - 2017 IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium, Proceedings, IEEE, 2017, article id 7894068Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Causal relationship between physical activity and prevention of several diseases has been known for some time. Recently, attempts to quantify dose-response relationship between physical activity and health show that automatic tracking and quantification of the exercise efforts not only help in motivating people but improve health conditions as well. However, no commercial devices are available for weight training and calisthenics. This work tries to overcome this limit, exploiting machine learning technique (particularly Linear Discriminant Analysis, LDA) for analyzing data coming from wearable inertial measurement units, (IMUs) and classifying/counting such exercises. Computational requirements are compatible with embedded implementation and reported results confirm the feasibility of the proposed approach, offering an average accuracy in the detection of exercises on the order of 85%.

  • 299.
    Crema, Claudio
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Depari, Alessandro
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Flammini, Alessandra
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Vezzoli, Angelo
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Bellagente, Paolo
    University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Virtual Respiratory Rate Sensors: An Example of A Smartphone-Based Integrated and Multiparametric mHealth Gateway2017In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 66, no 9, p. 2456-2463, article id 7949106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few years, several wearables appeared in the market, for fitness and healthcare applications. Such smart devices have been proposed as a possible solution for lowering the costs of healthcare, leading to the mHealth revolution. In the typical scenario, each wearable, embedding sensors, processing units and communication modules, adopts a smartphone for data collection, data displaying, and remote communication. In this paper, authors modify this paradigm simplifying the wearables (e.g., relying only on simple analog front ends and communication interfaces) and exploiting the (relatively large) computational capability of the smartphone, not only for implementing gateway features but also for processing raw biosignals as well. Several experiments verify the feasibility of the proposed approach and demonstrate that 'local' biosensor virtualization is possible, expanding possibilities of mHealth. In particular, tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance of hearth rate computation and respiratory rate virtual sensor, starting from a single-lead electrocardiogram signal. 

  • 300.
    Croci, Gabriele
    et al.
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy; CNR, Milan, Italy; INFN, Milan, Italy.
    Muraro, Andrea
    CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Cippo, Enrico Perelli
    CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Tardocchi, Marco
    CNR, Milan, Italy.
    Grosso, Giovanni
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Albani, Georgia
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Milan, Italy.
    Angella, Giuliano
    CNR, IENI, Milan, Italy.
    Defendi, Ilario
    Tech Univ Munich, Heinz Maier Leibnitz Zentrum MLZ, Lichtenbergstr 1, Garching, Germany.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. ESS, ERIC, Lund.
    Höglund, Carina
    ESS, ERIC, Lund; Linköping Univ, Linköping.
    Raspino, Davide
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, ISIS Facil, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Rhodes, Nigel
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, ISIS Facil, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Robinson, Linda
    ESS, ERIC, Lund.
    Schmidt, Susan
    ESS, ERIC, Lund.
    Schooneveld, Erik
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, ISIS Facil, Didcot, Oxon, England.
    Zeitelhack, Karl
    Tech Univ Munich, Heinz Maier Leibnitz Zentrum MLZ, Lichtenbergstr 1, Garching, Germany.
    Gorini, Giuseppe
    CNR, IFP, Milan, Italy; ESS, ERIC, Lund.
    A high-efficiency thermal neutron detector based on thin 3D (B4C)-B-10 converters for high-rate applications2018In: Europhysics letters, ISSN 0295-5075, E-ISSN 1286-4854, Vol. 123, no 5, article id 52001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    new position-sensitive thermal neutron detector based on boron-coated converters has been developed as an alternative to today's standard He-3-based technology for application to thermal neutron scattering. The key element of the development is a novel 3D (B4C)-B-10 converter which has been ad hoc designed and realized with the aim of combining a high neutron conversion probability via the B-10(n, alpha)(7) Li reaction together with an efficient collection of the produced charged particles. The developed 3D converter is composed of thin aluminium grids made by a micro-waterjet technique and coated on both sides with a thin layer of( 10)B(4)C. When coupled to a GEM detector this converter allows reaching neutron detection efficiencies close to 50% at neutron wavelengths equal to 4 angstrom. In addition, the new detector features a spatial resolution of about 5 min and can sustain counting rates well in excess of 1 MHz/cm(2). The newly developed neutron detector will enable time-resolved measurements of different kind of samples in neutron scattering experiments at high flux spallation sources and can find a use in applications where large areas and custom geometries of thermal neutron detectors are foreseen. 

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