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  • 251.
    Ahokas, Essi K.
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Ihalainen, Johanna K.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Kyröläinen, Heikki
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Mero, Antti A.
    University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Effects of Water Immersion Methods on Postexercise Recovery of Physical and Mental Performance2019In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 1488-1495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 3 water immersion interventions performed after active recovery compared with active recovery only on physical and mental performance measures and physiological responses. The subjects were physically active men (age 20-35 years, mean ± SD 26 ± 3.7 years). All subjects performed a short-term exercise protocol, including maximal jumps and sprinting. Four different recovery methods (10 minutes) were used in random order: cold water immersion (CWI, 10° C), thermoneutral water immersion (TWI, 24° C), and contrast water therapy (CWT, alternately 10° C and 38° C). All these methods were performed after an active recovery (10-minute bicycle ergometer; heart rate [HR] 120-140 b·min, 60-73% from age-calculated maximum HR), and the fourth method was active recovery (ACT) only. Within 96 hours after exercise bouts, recovery was assessed through a 30-m maximal sprint test, maximal countermovement jump (CMJ), self-perceived muscle soreness and relaxation questionnaires, and blood lactate, creatine kinase, testosterone, cortisol, and catecholamine levels. The self-perceived feeling of relaxation after 60-minute recovery was better (p < 0.05) after CWI and CWT than ACT and TWI. Statistically significant differences were not observed between the recovery methods in any other marker. In the 30-m sprint test, however, slower running time was found in ACT (p < 0.001) and CWT (p = 0.005), and reduced CMJ results (p < 0.05) were found in ACT when the results were compared with baseline values. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that CWI and CWT improve the acute feeling of relaxation that can play a positive role in athletes' performance and well-being.

  • 252.
    Ahola, Paulina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Holm, Yvonne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    "Jag går inte och väntar på något mirakel, jag är väl zombie på mitt vis" - En kvalitativ studie om äldres syn på psykisk ohälsa och sin psykosociala situation2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 253.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    University of Tampere.
    Designing an Information System for Open Innovation – Bridging the Gap between Individual and Organisational Creativity2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    History shows that those companies that continue to invest in their innovative capabilities during tough economic times are often those that prosper when growth returns. Recently, information systems (IS) have been harnessed to support innovation. Even with IS support, innovation campaigns and suggestion management systems often end up in failure. Employees and customers are reluctant to share their best ideas. Individuals interests, motivation, creativity and life-long learning are seldom adequately supported by companies. In the information systems research area there is very little research on creativity and creativity has traditionally been studied mainly within the decision support systems (DSS) research area. This DSS area has focused on rather mechanistic idea-generation processes lacking a focus on individuals and their creativity. Even in the emerging open innovation paradigm, individual and group levels have come in for little research. From these starting points, we became interested in ways to improve existing information systems and innovation practices. The research question here is: How to design an artefact to support learning and creativity within the open innovation paradigm. Since we are interested in building new artefacts, we will utilise design research methods, particularly the Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM) process model. Our three artefacts are the results of our work. The first artefact, the Mobile Personal Development Plan, is focused on extending development talks between an employer and employees within human resource management to support innovation. Curiosity and emerging interests are seen here as idea seeds and future competences. The second artefact, the iPortfolio, extends this with a life-long learning and problem-solving focus. The third artefact, the Brokering Platform for Open Innovation, finally focuses on collaboration with customers and crowds. The software development was time consuming in our work and only the first artefact is demonstrated as a functional software prototype. Our pilot in an SME company illustrates practical requirements and usability issues related to the software. Additionally, a Delphi study with international open innovation experts served to identify future related requirements. Given the lack of creativity research in the IS field, we claim that our work makes an appropriate contribution. To the design research literature our input is new usage cases of the previously mentioned DSRM process model. Our results apply to organisations, where the employees work in dispersed teams and need an information system to communicate their emerging ideas and interests for more systematic problem-solving. The managers in our study reported that there are plenty of ideas available, but the challenge is to ensure the commitment of external resources to the actual innovation building. The integration of learning into the innovation and problem-solving activity should be motivational. We therefore discuss human resource management in relation to creativity and innovation. Surprisingly, in our pilots we noticed difficulties in time management in mobile settings and the current health risk debate gradually changed our artefact design, so this work also provides a critical view on mobility and on the access anytime, anywhere phenomenon. Finally, we suggest improvements to existing innovation practices in organisations.

  • 254.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Designing to archive open data – Case: ISERV e-services project.2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 255.
    Ahonen, Mikko
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Health and Safety, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Koppel, Tarmo
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Voltage transients measurements and power line communication2016In: 2016 57th International Scientific Conference on Power and Electrical Engineering of Riga Technical University (RTUCON), IEEE, 2016, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power line communication (PLC) connects energy producers with energy consumers. In the European Union stricter guidelines are under development to limit disturbances in the 2-150 kHz frequency range, because devices utilising PLC do not work. This study measured voltage transients in 22 locations and identified sources for noise. Home environments and public buildings were measured. Measurements were conducted in the frequency range of 150 kHz-500 kHz (according to EN 55011 to EN 55022) and in the lower frequency range of 3 kHz to 95 kHz. Results indicate that voltage transients are generated mostly by switching mode power supplies, pumps, rectifiers, inverters and even low quality smart meters. Several of these devices exceeded PLC standard level, 122 dBμV. Additionally we demonstrate that basic power quality recordings do not provide enough information to mitigate PLC problems occurring within microseconds and frequency specific voltage transient measurements are needed.

  • 256. Ahonen-Jonnarth, U.
    et al.
    Van Hees, P.A.W.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Lundström, Ulla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Finlay, R.D.
    Organic acids produced by mycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris exposed to elevated aluminium and heavy metals concentrations2000In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 146, no 3, p. 557-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cultivation method was developed to enable exposure of ectomycorrhizal plants with intact extramatrical mycelium to solutions containing different concentrations of aluminium or heavy metals. Pinus sylvestris seedlings colonized by Suillus variegatus (two isolates), Rhizopogon roseolus or Paxillus involutus (two isolates) were used. Seedlings were transferred to Petri dishes containing glass beads and exposed to elevated concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, or Ni in two ways: immediately following transfer; and after allowing mycorrhizal seedlings to develop an extraradical mycelium that colonized the interface between the upper surface of the beads and the metal-containing solution. Production of organic acids in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal systems was measured by withdrawing samples from the solution and analyzing by HPLC. In most experiments, levels of oxalic acid were significantly higher in mycorrhizal treatments than in non-mycorrhizal controls. The measured levels of organic acids were variable, but the results obtained suggest that production of oxalic acid is stimulated by exposure to elevated Al in mycorrhizal seedlings colonized by S. variegatus and R. roseolus. Elevated Al concentrations also increased oxalic acid production by non-mycorrhizal seedlings significantly in two of four Al experiments performed, but the measured concentrations were significantly lower than in corresponding mycorrhizal treatments in both cases. Malonic acid was found in the culture solution of non-mycorrhizal had P. involutus-colonized seedlings, but only trace amounts were found in S. variegatus or R. roseolus-infected seedlings. Citric, shikimic, lactic, acetic, propionic, fumaric, formic, iso-butyric and butyric acid were found in variable concentrations. Production of oxalic acid by seedlings ColoniZed by S. variegatus BL or P. involutus was not stimulated by exposure to 0.44 μM Cd or 17 μM Ni. Exposure to 0.157 mM CU in two separate experiments using P. involutus 87.017 and two strains of S. variegatus (BL and 159) appeared to stimulate production of oxalic acid irrespective of mycorrhizal status or species.

  • 257.
    Ahrling, Jane
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    A Feminist Reading of  The House of the Spirits,  Song of Solomon,  and  One Hundred Years of Solitude                            2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 258.
    Ahrling, Jane
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    A Feminist Reading of  The House of the Spirits,  Song of Solomon,  and  One Hundred Years of Solitude                            2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 259.
    Ahrne, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet. Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson, Roine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Between Organizations1994In: Social organizations: Interaction inside, outside and between organizations, London: Sage Publications , 1994Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 260.
    Aimée Temahagari, Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    FAKTORER SOM PÅVERKAR VÅRDPERSONALENS UTFÖRANDE AV MUNVÅRD HOS ÄLDRE PÅ SÄRSKILT BOENDE: En litteraturöverskikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 261.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Roller skis' rolling resistance and grip characteristics: influences on physiological and performance measures in cross-country skiers2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate roller ski characteristics; classical and freestyle roller skis’ rolling resistance coefficients (μR) and classical style roller skis’ static friction coefficients (μS), and to study the influence of different μR and μS on cross-country skiers’ performance and both physiological and biomechanical indices. The aim was also to study differences in skiing economy and efficiency between recreational skiers, female and male junior and senior elite cross-country skiers.The experiments showed that during a time period of 30 minutes of rolling on a treadmill (warm-up), μR decreased significantly (p<0.05) to about 60-65 % and 70-75 % of its initial value for freestyle and classical roller skis respectively. Also, there was a significant influence of normal force on μR, while different velocities and inclinations of the treadmill only resulted in small changes in μR.The study of the influence on physiological variables of a ~50 % change in μR showed that during submaximal steady rate exercise, external power, oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate were significantly changed, while there were non-significant or only small changes to cycle rate, cycle length and ratings of perceived exertion. Incremental maximal tests showed that time to exhaustion was significantly changed and this occurred without a change in maximal power, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate and blood lactate, and that the influence on ratings of perceived exertion was non-significant or small.The study of classical style roller skis μS showed values that were five to eight times more than the values of μS reported from on-snow skiing with grip-waxed cross-country skis.The subsequent physiological and biomechanical experiments with different μS showed a significantly lower skiing economy (~14 % higher v̇O2), higher heart rate, lower propulsive forces coming from the legs and shorter time to exhaustion (~30 %) when using a different type of roller ski with a μS similar to on-snow skiing, while there was no difference between tests when using different pairs of roller skis with a (similar) higher μS.The part of the thesis which focused on skiing economy and efficiency as a function of skill, age and gender, showed that the elite cross-country skiers had better skiing economy and higher gross efficiency (5-18 %) compared with the recreational skiers, and the senior elite had better economy and higher efficiency (4-5 %) than their junior counterparts, while no differences could be found between the genders.

  • 262.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    The rolling resistances of roller skis and their effects on human performance during treadmill roller skiing2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern ski-treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers to test their physical performance in a laboratory environment using classical and freestyle techniques on roller skis. For elite athletes the differences in performance between test occasions are quite small, thus emphasising the importance of knowing the roller skis’ rolling resistance coefficient, µR, in order to allow correct comparisons between the results, as well as providing the opportunity to study work economy between different athletes, test occasions and core techniques.

    Thus, one of the aims of this thesis was to evaluate how roller skis’ µR is related to warm-up, mass, velocity and inclination of the treadmill. It was also necessary to investigate the methodological variability of the rolling resistance measurement system, RRMS, specially produced for the experiments, with a reproducibility study in order to indicate the validity and reliability of the results.

    The aim was also to study physiological responses to different µR during roller skiing with freestyle and classical roller skis and techniques on the treadmill as a case in which all measurements were carried out in stationary and comparable conditions.

    Finally, the aim was also to investigate the work economy of amateurs and female and male junior and senior cross-country skiers during treadmill roller skiing, i.e. as a function of skill, age and gender, including whether differences in body mass causes significant differences in external power per kg due to differences in the roller skis’ µR.

    The experiments showed that during a warm-up period of 30 minutes, µR decreased to about 60-65% and 70-75% of its initial value for freestyle and classical roller skis respectively. For another 30 minutes of rolling no significant change was found. Simultaneous measurements of roller ski temperature and mR showed that stabilized mR corresponds to a certain running temperature for a given normal force on the roller ski. The study of the influence on mR of normal force, velocity and inclination produced a significant influence of normal force on mR, while different velocities and inclinations of the treadmill only resulted in small changes in mR. The reproducibility study of the RRMS showed no significant differences between paired measurements with either classical or the freestyle roller skis.

    The study of the effects on physiological variables of ~50% change in µR,showed that during submaximal steady state exercise, external power, oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate were significantly changed, while there were non significant or only small changes to cycle rate, cycle length and ratings of perceived exertion. Incremental maximal tests showed that time to exhaustion was significantly changed and this occurred without a significantly changed maximal power, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate and blood lactate, and that the influence on ratings of perceived exertion was non significant or small.

    The final part of the thesis, which focused on work economy, found no significant difference between the four groups of elite competitors, i.e. between the two genders and between the junior and senior elite athletes. It was only the male amateurs who significantly differed among the five studied groups. The study also showed that the external power per kg was significantly different between the two genders due to differences in body mass and mR, i.e. the lighter female testing groups were roller skiing with a relatively heavier rolling resistance coefficient compared to the heavier testing groups of male participants.

  • 263.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Roller ski rolling resistance and its effects on elite athletes’ performance2008In: ENGINEERING OF SPORT 7, VOL 2, 2008, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 393-400Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern ski-treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers to test their physical fitness in a laboratory environment whilst performing classical and freestyle (skating) techniques on roller skis. For elite athletes the differences in performance between test occasions are quite small, thus emphasising the importance of knowing the roller skis’ rolling resistance in order to allow the correct comparison between the results of different test occasions. In this study the roller skis’ rolling resistance has been measured using equipment on the ski-treadmill. The study investigates the influence of significant changes in rolling resistance on physiological variables. The results show that during submaximal exercise, heart rate, blood lactate, power and oxygen uptake are significantly changed by different rolling resistances, while there are no significant or only small changes to cycle rate, cycle length and ratings of perceived exertion. Incremental maximal tests show that time to exhaustion is significantly changed by different rolling resistances and this occurred without significant changes in maximal oxygen uptake and heart rate, and the influence on maximal power and ratings of perceived exertion were insignificant or small.

  • 264.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Roller ski rolling resistance and its effects on elite athletes’ performance2009In: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 143-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern ski-treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers to test their physical fitness in a laboratory environment whilst performing classical and freestyle (skating) techniques on roller skis. For elite athletes, the differences in performance between test occasions are quite small, thus emphasising the importance of knowing the roller skis’ rolling resistance in order to allow the correct comparison between the results of different test occasions. In this study, the roller skis’ rolling resistance was measured on the ski-treadmill’s surface using a roller ski rolling resistance measurement system specially produced for this purpose. The study investigated the influence of significant changes in rolling resistance on physiological variables. The results showed that during submaximal exercise, power, oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate were significantly changed by different rolling resistances, while there were no significant or only small changes to cycle rate, cycle length and ratings of perceived exertion. Incremental maximal tests showed that time to exhaustion was significantly changed by different rolling resistances and this occurred without significant changes in maximal power, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate and blood lactate, and that the influence on ratings of perceived exertion were insignificant or small.

     

  • 265.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Rolling resistance for treadmill roller skiing2008In: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 23-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern treadmills allow cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers to test their physical performance under laboratory conditions using classical and freestyle techniques on roller skis. The differences in performance between tests are quite small for elite athletes, and it is therefore of great importance to control the rolling resistance of the roller skis. Otherwise different physiological tests cannot be accurately compared.

    This study shows that during a warm-up period of  30 minutes the coefficient of rolling resistance (µR) decreases to about 60-65% and 70-75% of its initial value for freestyle and classical roller skis respectively.

    Simultaneous measurements of temperature and µR shows that stabilized rolling resistance corresponds to a certain running temperature for a given normal force on the roller ski.

    Tests were also performed on the influence on µR of normal force, velocity and inclination. Normal forces produced significant influence on µR , while different velocities and inclinations of the treadmill only resulted in small changes in µR.

  • 266.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Laaksonen, Marko
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Work economy of amateur and elite cross-country skiers during treadmill roller skiing2009In: 4th Asia Pacific Congress on Sports Technology, APCST2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on the work economy of cross-country skiers during treadmill roller skiing in the perspectives; skill, age and gender. The study was investigating the external power output from elevating the transported mass against gravity and overcoming the roller skis rolling resistance, and the internal power from measured oxygen uptake and energy consumption. The roller skis rolling resistance was measured with a fixture on the ski-treadmill and the results showed a significant correlation between normal force and rolling resistance. The results also showed that it was only the amateur skiers who significantly differed in work economy among the five studied groups.

  • 267.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Laaksonen, Marko S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    The influence of grip on oxygen consumption and leg forces when using classical style roller skis2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 301-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of classical style roller skis' grip (static friction coefficients, μ S) on cross-country skiers' oxygen consumption and leg forces during treadmill roller skiing, when using the diagonal stride and kick double poling techniques. The study used ratcheted wheel roller skis from the open market and a uniquely designed roller ski with an adjustable camber and grip function. The results showed significantly (P≤0.05) higher oxygen consumption (∼14%), heart rate (∼7%), and lower propulsive forces from the legs during submaximal exercise and a shorter time to exhaustion (∼30%) in incremental maximal tests when using roller skis with a μ S similar to on-snow skiing, while there was no difference between tests when using different pairs of roller skis with a similar, higher μ S. Thus, we concluded that oxygen consumption (skiing economy), propulsive leg forces, and performance time are highly changed for the worse when using roller skis with a lower μ S, such as for on-snow skiing with grip-waxed cross-country skis, in comparison to ratcheted wheel roller skis with several times higher μ S.

  • 268.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    A portable roller ski rolling resistance measurement system2013In: The Impact of Technology on Sport V: Procedia Engineering / [ed] Subic A, Fuss FK, Clifton P, Chan KM., Elsevier, 2013, p. 79-83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roller skis are used by cross-country skiers, biathletes and ski-orienteers for their snow-free training and in roller ski competitions. Additionally, much of the current sports research into the physiology and biomechanics of crosscountry skiing is conducted indoors on treadmills using roller skis. For elite athletes, the differences in performance are quite small, thus emphasising the importance of knowing the roller skis' rolling resistance coefficient, especially in connection to research and roller ski competitions. The purpose of this study was to develop a roller ski rolling resistance measurement system (P-RRMS) that is portable and therefore useful in different contexts and locations. The P-RRMS was designed as a small treadmill, equipped with roller ski stabilizing lateral supports and a screwed bar for applying different vertical loads on the roller ski. The design uses only one force sensor, with possible measurements of three directions of force and torque around three axes. The weight of the P-RRMS is 100 kg and it is equipped with wheels to facilitate transportation.

  • 269.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    An experimental study to compare the grip of classical style roller skis with on-snow skiing2013In: Sports Engineering, ISSN 1369-7072, E-ISSN 1460-2687, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 115-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-country skiers use roller skis for their snow-free training with the aim of imitating skiing on snow. Also, exercise laboratories evaluate the biomechanics and physiology of cross-country skiing using roller skis on a treadmill. The roller skis on the market that are constructed for use in the classical style are equipped with a front and a back wheel, one of which has a ratchet to enable it to grip the surface when diagonal striding and kick double poling (static friction). The aim of this study was to investigate static friction coefficients (μS) of ratcheted wheel roller skis, and compare the results to the μS reported from skiing on snow with grip-waxed cross-country skis. Also, a new type of roller ski with a camber and adjustable grip function was evaluated. The results showed that ratcheted wheel roller skis, on a treadmill rubber mat and on dry and wet asphalt surfaces, reached μS values that were five to eight times greater than the values reported from on-snow skiing with grip-waxed cross-country skis. For the roller skis with a camber and adjustable grip function, the μs could be varied from no grip at all up to the level of the tested ratcheted wheel roller skis.

  • 270.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Classical style constructed roller skis and grip functionality2011In: Procedia Engineering: The Impact of Technology on Sports IV / [ed] Subic A., Fuss F.K., Alam F., Clifton P., Elsevier, 2011, p. 4-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roller skis are used by cross-country skiers for snow-free training, with the aim of imitating skiing on snow. The roller skis on the market that are constructed for use in the classical style are equipped with a front and a back wheel, one of which has a ratchet to enable it to grip the surface when diagonal striding and kick double poling.

    A new type of roller ski was constructed with a function which makes it necessary to use the same kick technique as that used on snow, i.e. the ski has a camber that must be pushed down to obtain grip. Its stiffness can be adjusted based on factors that influence grip, i.e. the skier’s bodyweight and technical skiing skills.

    Thus, our aim was to make comparative measurements as regards grip between ratcheted roller skis and the roller ski with a camber and compare with previous published results for grip waxed skis during cross-country skiing on snow.  The measurements were carried out using specially developed equipment, with a bottom plate and an overlying rubber mat of the same type as used on many treadmills and a function for applying different loads and generating traction on the back of the roller ski.

  • 271.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    Rolling resistance for treadmill roller skiing: Presented at International Congress on Science and Nordic Skiing 2006, June 18-20, 2006, Vuokatti, Finland2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 272.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Laaksonen, Marko S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Skiing economy and efficiency in recreational and elite cross-country skiers2013In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 1239-1252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare skiing economy and gross efficiency in cross-country skiers of different performance levels, ages and genders; male recreational skiers and elite senior and junior cross-country skiers of both genders. The skiers performed tests involving roller skiing on a treadmill using the gear 3 and diagonal stride techniques. The elite crosscountry skiers were found to have better skiing economy and higher gross efficiency (5-18%) compared with the recreational skiers (p < 0.05) and the senior elite had better economy and higher efficiency (4-5%) than their junior counterparts (p < 0.05), whereas no differences could be found between the genders. Also, large ranges in economy and gross efficiency were found in all groups. It was concluded that, in addition to v̇O2peak, skiing economy and gross efficiency have a great influence on the differences in performance times between recreational and junior and senior elite cross-country skiers, as well as between individual skiers within the different categories. Thus, we recommend crosscountry skiers at all performance levels to test not only v̇O2peak, but also skiing economy and efficiency.

  • 273.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Jensen, Kurt
    Syddansk Universitet, Odense, Danmark.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Stockholm.
    Breathing resistance in automated metabolic systems is high in comparison with the Douglas Bag method and previous recommendations2018In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1754-3371, Vol. 232, no 2, p. 122-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the resistance (RES) to breathing in metabolic systems used for the distribution and measurement of pulmonary gas exchange. A mechanical lung simulator was used to standardize selected air flow rates ( , L/s). The delta pressure (∆p, Pa) between ambient air and the air inside the equipment was measured in the breathing valve’s mouthpiece adapter for four metabolic systems and four types of breathing valves. RES for the inspiratory and expiratory sides was calculated as RES = ∆p / , Pa/L/s. The results for RES showed significant (p < 0.05) between-group variance among the tested metabolic systems, as well as the breathing valves and between most of the completed . The lowest RES among the metabolic systems was found for a Douglas Bag system, with approximately half of the RES compared to the automated metabolic systems. The automated systems were found to have higher RES already at low  in comparison to previous recommendations. For the hardware components, the highest RES was found for the breathing valves while the lowest RES was found for the hoses. Conclusion: The results showed that RES in metabolic systems can be minimized through conscious choices of system design and hardware components. 

  • 274.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Jonsson, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Drag Area, Frontal Area and Drag Coefficient in Cross-Country Skiing Techniques2018In: Proceedings, Volume 2, ISEA 2018 / [ed] Hugo Espinosa, David Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd, David Thiel, MDPI, 2018, Vol. 2, article id 313Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the air drag, frontal area and coefficient of drag of cross-country skiing classical and free style techniques. One highly skilled cross-country skier performed skiing-like classical and free style techniques on a force plate in a wind tunnel. The skier was also photographed from the front in order to analyze the projected frontal area, which was determined from digital images using Matlab. From the results of the air drag and the frontal area measurements, the drag coefficient was also calculated. The results can be used by researchers to calculate the theoretical effect of air drag on cross-country skiing performance.

  • 275.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    The multi functional roller ski2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 276.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Rännar, Lars-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Tinnsten, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    The multifunctional roller ski2013In: Science and Nordic Skiing II / [ed] Hakkarainen A, Linnamo V, Lindinger S, University of Salzburg, University of Jyväskylä , 2013, p. 253-261Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 277.
    Ainegren, Mats
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Tuplin, Simon
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Render, Peter
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Design and development of a climatic wind tunnel for physiological sports experimentation2019In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1754-3371, Vol. 233, no 1, p. 86-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to develop a wind tunnel that enables the study of human performance during various types ofsports and physical activities by examining the influence of aerodynamic drag, precipitation, frictional forces and gravitationalforces on uphill and downhill travel on a moving substrate. An overall design for a wind tunnel and working section containinga large treadmill was drafted, followed by computational fluid dynamics simulations of flow conditions to assess thedesign’s feasibility and select from different geometries prior to its construction. The flow conditions in the completed windtunnel were validated using different flows, speeds and treadmill inclinations. Pilot experiments were carried out using across-country skier to investigate the effect of aerodynamic drag on oxygen uptake during double poling and the maximalachieved speed when rolling on a declined treadmill. The purpose was to validate the usefulness of the tunnel. The resultsshowed that flow conditions are acceptable for experiments even in worst-case scenarios with maximal inclined and declinedtreadmill. Results also showed that aerodynamic drag has a significant impact on the skier’s energy expenditure.

  • 278.
    Ajax, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Yousif, Sandra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Krisövningar- det man övar på blir man bra på: En fallstudie om hur Räddningstjänsten ser på lärdomar och erfarenheter genom krisövningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 279.
    Akambih Tajam, Joseph
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    SMALL SCALE IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATIONOF DIESEL CONTAMINATED SOIL –SCREENING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE2010In: ECO-TECH´10, 22-24 November 2010, Kalmar, Sweden: International Conference on Natural Sciences and Technologies for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Remediation, Emissions Related to Climate, Environmentaland Economic Effects / [ed] FABIO KACZALA, SANDRINE ARZUR, IDA TJÄDER WILLIAM HOGLAND, 2010, p. 827-835Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spillage of diesel oil and other petroleum products is a commonly creating need for siteremediation of contaminated soils. In Sweden the most common remediation action isexcavation of the contaminated soil and off site biological treatment by composting.However, a number of small sites spread out in rural areas end up low on priority lists, andwill not be attended to within foreseeable future if ever. For such areas a low cost, easy toapply remediation techniques would be of interest. Enhanced bioremediation of dieselcontaminants in soil by whey addition has been demonstrated in lab scale. Whey is a byproductfrom cheese production. A first pilot remediation trial on an actual site in Gäddede,County of Jämtland, was started the summer of 2010. Using this site as a case study ascreening life cycle assessment model has been set up. The goal of the study was toinvestigate the environmental performance of the whey method, to benchmark the wheymethod toward the excavation and composting practice and to identify environmental hotspots in the whey treatment life cycle. The study aims at establishing if further work shouldbe put into developing the method, or if the environmental performance is such that the wheymethod should be abandoned. It should be noted that even with a slightly worseenvironmental performance compared to other remediation alternatives whey treatment couldstill be of interest, since the small scale sites in rural areas we talk about here otherwise mostoften would not be attended to.Results from the screening life cycle assessment indicate a rather good environmentalperformance of the whey method, partly depending on impact category considered. For thewhey method, impacts from farming activities in the milk production chain allocated to thewhey give significant contributions. Transportation gives important impacts from both thewhey method and the excavation and off site composting, thus logistics should always beconsidered and optimized. The whey on-site treatment could be an interesting alternative forbioremediation especially at sites that would not otherwise be treated, due to small size orremote location.

  • 280.
    Akbar, Adnan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Influencing Factors on Quality of Experience (QoE) in Mobile Computing2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Applications that can change their behaviour based on the user’s contextual appearance are called context-aware applications. Applications developed for smart phones, which carry a multitude of different sensors, and actuators have gained a huge penetration within the market. Frequent usage of mobile applications such as home automation, friend finder, car accident notification and tracking etc; have seen an increased growth from the user’s perspective. However, for such applications, it is necessary to have knowledge of the performance and cost parameters, which directly affect the QoE of the application users.  This thesis investigates possible context aware behaviours in real time situations and measures the Quality of Experience (QoE) as well as identifying the Packet Delay Variation (PDV). The background and some state-of-the-art technologies are studied, and based on these studies, three scenarios are designed and implemented and based on their QoE, results and conclusions are presented, with the  results obtained  shown by means of   graphical representations of the QoE and PDV values. 

  • 281.
    Akbari, Sadia
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Yildiz, Günay
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Arbetsrelaterad stress inverkan på sjuksköterskan ochpatientsäkerheten: – Känsla av sammanhang på arbetet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Idag präglas sjuksköterskeyrken av en ökad arbetsbörda, ökade krav påkompetens, brister i organisationen samt psykosociala faktorer som leder till otrivsel.Stressen uppstår då det finns en obalans mellan krav och förmågan att hantera kraven. Denarbetsrelaterade stressen kan bli ett hinder för sjuksköterskan som kan påverkapatientsäkerheten negativt. Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturöversikt är att granska ochsammanställa forskningsresultat som beskriver hur arbetsrelaterad stress påverkar bådesjuksköterskor och patientsäkerheten. Metod: Litteraturstudien baserades på femtonkvantitativa studier, två kvalitativa studier, en studie med mixad metod och en longitudinellstudie. Artiklarna kvalitetsgranskades och en innehållsanalys genomfördes. Resultat:Resultatet av litteraturöversikten framkom att sjuksköterskor upplever ökad stress knutnatill sex kategorier; betydelsen av en god arbetsmiljö, ett bra ledningsansvar, högarbetsbelastning och bristande kontroll, tidspress i arbetet, bristande kommunikation ochsamarbete samt hinder för arbetstillfredsställelse som kunde påverka sjuksköterskansarbetssituation negativt, vilket vidare mynnar ut i effekter på patientsäkerheten. Faktorersom ger upphov till stress är bland annat underbemanning, tidsbrist, höga förväntningar,dålig arbetsmiljö, då sjuksköterskorna upplevde sig inte kunna ge en god och säkeromvårdnad. Slutsats: Huvudresultatet visade att den arbetsrelaterade stressen påverkarbåde sjuksköterskan och patientsäkerheten negativt. Arbetsrelaterad stress är ett allvarligtproblem som förekommer i stora delar av världen, och därför är behovet stor för vidareforskning om stress på arbetsplatsen.

  • 282.
    Akdag, Berfin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Bandeily, Soraya
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Att vårdas för MRSA-En litteraturöversikt av patienters upplevelser2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 283.
    Akindele, Hawawu
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Wahib, Khouloud
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    The Speed of Internationalization among Born-Global SMEs: A Case Study of High Teck SMEs2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 284.
    Akner, Corina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Industrial Design.
    Labyrinternet: Vilken plats tar internet i ditt liv?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Internetifieringen i vårt samhälle går rasande fort och vi blir mer och mer uppkopplade.Detta projekt handlar om att upplysa betraktaren om mötet med internet och skapa enpersonlig relation till det fenomen som internet är. Genom ett synliggörande med aktiv interaktionligger projektet i gränslandet mellan kritisk design, interaction design och industridesign med fokuspå 'Design För Alla' frågor för alla.’Design För Alla’ är en innovationsmetod som innebär att frågeställningar ställs på sin spets ochatt man utgår från och testar sina idéer tillsammans med dem som ställer högst krav och harstörst behov. ’Design För Alla’ gör att man kan ifrågasätta gammal praxis och existeradereferensramar för standardlösningar och istället angripa en frågeställning utifrån nyaassociationsbanor och inspirationsingångar som gör researchen mer tillåtande och spännande.Ett av projektets viktigaste moment var en workshop med en grupp kognitivt nedsatta ungdomarfrån Höghammarskolan. Att blanda in personer med kognitiv funktionsnedsättning lägger fokuspå andra frågor än en “normalstörd” studiegrupp skulle ha gjort. Dessa ungdomar lever under en”disorienterad norm” där de med sin funktionsnedsättning lärt sig hitta vägar runt sinaproblem och ofta går problemlösning till mötes mer ”rakt på” och intuitivt. ’Design För Alla’ har berikatmin process genom att jag försökt anamma deras ”hands on” och lekfulla sätt för att förberedamig för workshopens laborativa moment kring färg, ljud, form, material, rörelse ochsemiotiska funktioner kring framför allt på och avstängning. Det har gjort att jag sökt efter merintuitiva och basala kroppsliga uttryck för interaktion och kommunikation med mitt internetkoncept.För hur lever och upplever vi något som är osynligt? Resultatet är Labyrinternet; ett homage tillinternet i form av en el&internet-station som också agerar plattform för debatten kring frågan”Vilken plats tar internet i vår vardag och i våra liv?”

  • 285.
    Akpalu, Wisdom
    et al.
    United Nations University - WIDER.
    Stage, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Connectivity at a cost: The economic dynamics of connectivity restoration2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecological literature shows that there is a species-area relationship between habitat size and the equilibrium number of species that will thrive in a habitat. There is also a literature on habitat fragmentation showing that, if a larger habitat is broken up into smaller fragments, the long run equilibrium species number will decline in each of the remaining fragments according to the same relationship. Both in the United States and in Europe there is ongoing work on reversing habitat fragmentation in river systems, with fish ladders and other measures being introduced to restore connectivity in river systems that have previously been subdivided into smaller habitats by hydropower and other developments. However, even if connectivity is restored, the new and higher equilibrium species number will be reached only after extended periods of time. This means that measures to restore connectivity entail incurring one-time investment costs (and possibly continuous long run increases in maintenance costs as well) in order to gain habitat improvements that will generate increasing value over time upto the point where the new, better equilibrium is reached. In this paper, we set up a theoretical model to investigate what the conditions are for such an investment to be socially profitable, and link the model to empirical data from measures to restore river system connectivity which show how quickly this recovery tends to occur in practice. We find that even in cases where it would have been socially preferable not to build a hydropower installation in the first place, connectivity-restoring measures affecting the installation are not necessarily socially profitable. Under a wide range of plausible assumptions about discount rates, investment costs and productivity losses, decommissioning the hydropower plant once its economic lifespan is past is a better option, from the social planner’s perspective, than carrying out measures while the plant is still economically viable.

  • 286.
    Akram, Hoger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Hur påverkar ledares beteende medarbetares arbetstillfredsställelse och arbetsmotivation?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The employee's job satisfaction has received increasing attention from both researchers and employers. The majority of nowadays organizations executing continuously various surveys to find out how satisfied employees are with their tasks, work environment and development opportunities. Although that there are not many research studies that specifically show how leadership behaviours can affect employees job satisfaction, there is many studies that indicates there is a correlation between them.

     

    The purpose of this study is, to contribute to a better understanding of how different leadership behaviours can affect employee’s satisfaction and work motivation at the work. The quantitative research method has been applied, to address the relation between these subjects. Furthermore, the study has been carried out using a selection method known as snowball selection. The selection method has been an effective method for achieving many participants, which is an important parameter for statistical analysis. Total 306 employees from different companies with different work roles participated in the survey. However, the result of the study is based on 301 employees, since five of the participants were excluded during the analysis due to a lack of answers in the survey.

    The result of this study shows that leadership behaviours which concern employee participation, positive communication, employee development, social responsibility and empathy covary with employees work satisfaction and motivation. This means leadership behaviours have a significant impact on employees job satisfaction, which in turn impact employee work motivation.

  • 287.
    Al Haddad, Zahra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Turkia, Jessie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    ”Att ha möjligheten till att tala sitt modersmål är grunden för att uppehålla sin identitet som finländare”.: En studie om språkets betydelse för äldre med finsk modersmål2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med att Sveriges befolkning ökar så ökar även invånare med utländsk bakgrund. När dessa invånare blir äldre medför detta att språkets betydelse inom äldreomsorgen kommer i fokus, då många individer önskar vård på sitt modersmål. Äldre med finska som modersmål är den enskilt största minoritetsgruppen i Sverige och de har idag enligt lag rätt till äldreomsorg på finska. Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka språkets betydelse för välbefinnandet hos äldre med finska som modersmål inom äldreomsorgen. Arbetet är en kvalitativ studie baserad på kvalitativa intervjuer med äldreboende i kommuner där de äldre har rätt till finsk äldreomsorg. Samtliga personer hade finska som modersmål. Resultatet visar att språket, i form av att kunna tala sitt modersmål, har betydelse inom äldreomsorgen för att minska oro, för att kunna uttrycka tankar och behov och för att känna trygghet och gemenskap på äldreboendet.

  • 288.
    Al Harbiti, Cherin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Woldner, Liza
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Betydelsen av stöd bland individer med kronisk obstruktiv lungsjukdom2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 289. Al Khatib, I.
    et al.
    Maguire, G.Q.
    Ayani, R.
    Forsgren, Daniel
    Wireless LAN Access Point Modeling as a Queuing System2002In: Proceedings of The Communications and Computer Networks 2002 Conference (CCN 2002), MIT, Cambridge, USA, November 4-6, 2002, 2002, p. 463-468Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a research study of wireless LAN access points for IEEE 802.11b, where we seek to model the access point as a queuing system. The model can be used to compare performance metrics of different wireless LAN access points and to investigate the QoS of specific applications in the presence of a wireless LAN access point. In this paper, we focus on two parameters: the delay introduced by a wireless LAN access point and the average service time required to serve a packet passing through an access point. A major result is an analytic solution for the average service time of a packet in relationship to payload.

  • 290. Al Khatib, I.
    et al.
    Maguire, G.Q.
    Ayani, R.
    Forsgren, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Wireless LAN Access Points as Queuing Systems: Performance Analysis and Service Time2003In: Mobile Computing and Communications Review, ISSN 1559-1662, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 28-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the approval of the IEEE 802.11b by the IEEE in 1999, the demand for WLAN equipment and networks has been growing quickly. We present a queuing model of wireless LAN (WLAN) access points (APs) for IEEE 802.11b. We use experimentation to obtain the characteristic parameters of our analytic model. The model can be used to compare the performance of different WLAN APs as well as the QoS of different applications in the presence of an AP. We focus on the delay introduced by an AP. The major observations are that the delay to serve a packet going from the WLAN medium to the wired medium (on the uplink) is less than the delay to serve a packet, with identical payload, but travelling from the wired medium to the WLAN medium (on the downlink). A key result is an analytic solution showing that the average service time of a packet is a strictly increasing function of payload.

  • 291.
    Alajoutsijärvi, Kimmo
    et al.
    Univ Oulu, Sch Business, Dept Mkt, POB 4600, Oulu 90401, Finland .
    Klint, Mats B.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Tikkanen, Henrikki
    Customer relationship strategies and the smoothing of Industry-Specific Business Cycles: The Case of the Global Fine Paper Industry2001In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 487-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to argue for the importance of customer relationship strategies in smoothing industry-specific business cycles. We use the global fine paper industry as an example of an industry renowned for its drastic, seemingly uncontrollable business cycles. As in so many other global industries producing upstream, commodity products such as steel, copper, or sawn goods, dramatic price fluctuations are a reality for managers in both supplying and buying organizations in the fine pager industry. In this article, a representative case of one business cycle is described and analyzed to illustrate the empirical phenomenon in a real-life setting. We use some specific concepts and frameworks developed in industrial marketing research to further understanding of the underlying logic behind business relationships that enhances cyclicality in the industry. Furthermore. these concepts also give insights into the smoothing of industry-specific business cycles through the application of more explicit, cooperative customer relationship strategies. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 292. Ala-Juusela, M.
    et al.
    Paiho, S.
    Tommerup, H.
    Svendsen, S.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Haavik, T.
    Aabrekk, S.
    Successful sustainable renovation business for single-family houses2010In: SB10, Sustainable Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 293.
    Alam, Anzar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thim, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lindgren, Johan
    Iggesund Paperboard AB, Iggesund, Sweden.
    Lidén, Joar
    SCA Ortviken AB, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Online surface roughness characterization of paper and paperboard using a line of light triangulation technique2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 662-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within both the paper and paperboard industries, real time monitoring and measurement of surface roughness of a paper moving at high velocities is an important and challenging area of research. The uniform surface, for an entire production, can be effectively achieved by monitoring and controlling the paper surface roughness, in real time during the manufacturing steps. Presently the majority of paper industries rely on traditional laboratory profilometers. The obvious limitations of lab profilometers are that these are slow, do not measure the quality of entire reels but rather deal with only a few small pieces of samples taken from the end of the reels and it is difficult to make any possible correction in the productionlines without knowing the online roughness data. To eradicate the disadvantages associated with conventional measurements, an online prototype instrument has been developed that measures the surface roughness during the manufacturing steps, and is based on a line of lighttriangulation technique. The prototype technique will be of assistance in ensuring tight process control in order to maintain both a better and auniform quality throughout the entire production. It measures the whole reel, meter by meter, in traditional units of roughness and is also capable of characterizing the topography in a wide range of wavelength spectra. The article presents the online analyses results obtained from the developed prototype. The real time measurements, in a paperboard pilot mill, have successfully characterized and distinguished 16 different grades of newspaper and paperboard reels including reels which have the same family of quality grades and materials.

  • 294.
    Alam, Anzar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thim, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Lindgren, Johan
    Iggesund Paperboard AB, Iggesund, Sweden.
    Lidén, Joar
    SCA Ortviken AB, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Online surface characterization of paper and paperboards in a wide-range of the spatial wavelength spectrum2012In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 258, no 20, p. 7928-7935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the paper industry, surface topography is the essence of both paper and paperboard, and accurate topographical measurements are equally essential in order to achieve a uniform smooth surface. The traditional laboratory methods measure only a few samples from the entire tambour and there are other obvious limitations to this approach. Online measurements may be of significant value to improve the surface quality throughout the production. Roughness is one of the topography components and the majority of techniques measure paper by means of a single predictor of average roughness, R a which is inadequate in providing a comprehensive characterization of the surface. Measurements, in a wide range ofwavelengths, can characterize topography components such as roughness, waviness, cockling, etc. Online measurements were taken for various grades of 8 paper reels, containing the wireside and topsides for newspaper, and uncoated and coated sides of paperboards. Their surfacecharacterization, in the spatial wavelength spectrum, from 0.1 to 10 mm was obtained. This article presents the online characterizationresults which have efficiently distinguished the surfaces of same family materials including the edge and the middle position reels of fine coatedpaperboard. Online measurements were taken, at Iggesund Paperboard Pilot Coater in Sweden, by using a recently developed OnlineTopography (OnTop) device which is based on the principle of light triangulation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 295.
    Alam, Mohammad Anzar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Online optical method for real-time surface measurement using line-of-light triangulation2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Real time paper surface-web measurement is one of the challenging research fields. The traditional laboratory method has many limitations and is unable to measure the entire tambour during the manufacturing process. It has been necessary to develop an online technique that could measure the surface topography in real time. An optical technique was developed, based on laser triangulation, and is applied to develop a new prototype device, which characterizes high speed paper-web surfaces over a wide scale of spatial wavelengths spectrum and computes the surface roughness in real time. The used multi channel pulsed laser diode, source of illumination onto the paper-web, is of benefit due to its low coherence length and is capable to deliver a powerful burst of light beam over a 1 µs duration, which delivers energy of 100 µJ per pulse. The short exposure time avoids blurriness in the acquired images which could possible due to the high speed and vibrations on the paper-web.

    The laser beam is shaped into a narrow line-of-light using cylindrical lenses and is projected onto a paper-web surface, which covers a physical length of about 210 mm. The created line-of-light cross section full width at half maximum, FWHM Gaussian distribution, is 2-3 pixels on the image. The line-of-light is projected onto the paper-web perpendicular to the plane of the surface. The low angled, low specular, reduced coherence length, scattered reflected laser line is captured by the 3 CCD sensors, which are synchronized with the laser source. The low specular light ensures to avoid saturation of the imaging sensors if the surface is very smooth, and obliquely captures the z-directional fine feature of the surface.

    The scattered phenomenon of the reflected light is responsible for the surface irregularity measurements. The basic image processing algorithm is applied in order to remove noise and cropped the images widthwise so that only pixels above a preset threshold gray level can be processed, which enables efficient real time measurement. The image is transformed into a 1D array using the center of gravity, COG. The accuracy and precision of the COG depends on the line-of-light FWHM, which, in turn, is responsible for the accuracy, noise and the resolution of the developed technique. The image subpixel resolution achieved is 0.01 times a pixel and uuncertainty in the raw data is 0.43 µm while it is 0.05 µm in the rms roughness.

    The signal processing steps combining the B-Spline filter and the filter in the spatial frequency domain were employed in order to separate roughness, waviness, and form and position error in the raw profile. The prototype is designed to measure online surface roughness and to characterize surface in a spatial wavelength spectrum from 0.09 to 30 mm, which is extendable to any required spatial range in order to cover a wide scale surface feature such as micro roughness, macro roughness and waviness. It is proven that exploitation of a simple laser triangulation technique could lead to an improvement in the overall quality and efficiency in the paper and paperboard industries and it can also be of potential interest for the other surface characterization problems.

  • 296.
    Alam, Mohammad Anzar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Online Surface Topography Characterization Technique for Paper and Paperboard using Line of Light Triangulation2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 297.
    Alam, Mohammad Anzar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thim, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Real time surface measurement technique in a wide range of wavelengths spectrum2014In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 285-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real time surface topography measurement in the paper and paperboard industries is a challenging research field. The existing online techniques measure only a small area of paper surface and estimate topographical irregularities in a narrow scale as a single predictor. Considering the limitations and complications in measuring the surface at high speed, a laser line triangulation technique is explored to measure surface topography in a wide scale. The developed technique is new for the paper and paperboard application that scans a line onto the paper-web surface up to 210 mm in length in the cross machine direction. The combination of a narrow laser linewidth imaging, a subpixel resolution, and the selection of a unique measurement location has made it possible to measure roughness and simultaneously characterize paper surface topography from 0.1 to 30 mm spatial wavelength. This spatial range covers wide scale surface properties such as roughness, cockling, and waviness. The technique clearly distinguishes and characterizes the surface of newspaper, and lightweight coated, coated, and uncoated paperboard in real time during the paper manufacturing process. The system temporal noise for the average roughness is estimated as 37 dB. The signal to noise ratio found is from 5.4 to 8.1 in the short spatial wavelength up to 1 mm, whereas it is more than 75 in the long spatial wavelength from 5 to 10 mm.

  • 298.
    Alam, Mohammad Anzar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thim, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Westerlind, Christina
    Performance and Prototyping Laboratory, SCA AB, Research and Development Centre, Sundsvall 852 37, Sweden .
    Limitation of a line-of-light online paper surface measurement system2014In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 2715-2724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new prototype device has been developed based on a laser triangulation principle to measure online surface topography in the paper and paperboard industries. It characterizes the surface in a wide spatial scale of topography from 0.09-10 mm. The prototype's technique projects a narrow line-of-light perpendicularly onto the moving paper-Web surface and scattered reflected light is collected at a low angle, low specular, and reduced coherent length onto the CCD sensors synchronized with the laser sources. The scattering phenomenon determines surface deviations in the z-direction. The full-width, at half-maximum of a laser line in cross section is sensitive in computation of the surface topography. The signal processing aspect of the image processing, for example, threshold and filtering algorithms are also sensitive in estimating the accurate surface features. Moreover, improper light illumination, intensity, reflection, occlusion, surface motion, and noise in the imaging sensor, and so forth, all contribute to deteriorate the measurements. Optical techniques measure the surface indirectly and, in general, an evaluation of the performance and the limitations of the technique are both essential and challenging. The paper describes the accuracy, uncertainty, and limitations of the developed technique in the raw profiles and in terms of the rms roughness. The achieved image subpixel resolution is 0.01 times a pixel. Statistically estimated uncertainty (2σ) in the laboratory environment was found 0.05 μm for a smooth sample, which provides a 95% confidence level in the rms roughness results. The depth of field of the prototype is ~2.4 mm.

  • 299.
    Alam, Mohammad Anzar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Thim, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Manuilskiy, Anatoliy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Westerlind, Christina
    SCA R&D Centre, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Johan
    Iggesund Paperboard AB, Iggesund, Sweden.
    Lidén, Joar
    SCA Ortviken AB, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Investigation of the surface topographical differences between the Cross Direction and the Machine Direction for newspaper and paperboard2011In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 468-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper and paperboard surface quality is constantly being improved by the industry. This improvement work deals with the essential fact that the surface topography must be measured, both in relation to offline and online measurements for the manufactured products. Most measurements relating to surface topography (especially online) are performed either in the machine direction (MD) or in the cross direction (CD). It has been the opinion of SCA Ortviken AB and Iggesund Paperboard AB that the surface topography amplitudes are almost always higher in the CD than in the MD, for their products which consist of newspaper and paperboard. This article aims to investigate the rela-tionship between the CD and the MD surface topography amplitudes for a wide range of spatial wavelength for both newspaper and paperboard. The tests and investiga-tions have been conducted using an FRT Microprof profilometer within the range 20 μm up to 8 mm, and the results confirm that the surface topography amplitudes are higher in the CD for most of the shorter spatial wavelength within this range. The results also show significant differences between measurements for different paper qualities, suggesting a requirement to investigate the relationship between the CD and the MD topography for all paper and paperboard qualities of interest for a paper or paperboard mill, before a decision is made in relation to a measurement method.

  • 300.
    Alamattila, Emma
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Larsson, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Kommunikation vid afasi - hinder och möjligheter: -En litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I Sverige drabbas årligen cirka 12 000 personer av afasi. Afasi kan uttrycka sig i olika former såsom expressiv, impressiv och global afasi. De kommunikationssvårigheter som patienten lider av kan leda till känsla av meningslöshet och frustration. Syfte: Syftet med litteraturöversikten var att belysa förhållanden som påverkar kommunikationen med patienter med afasi ur vårdpersonalens perspektiv Metod: Litteraturöversikt baserad på tretton vetenskapliga artiklar med kvalitativ (n=8), kvantitativ (n=2) och mixad (n=3) metod. Resultat: Litteraturöversikten var uppdelad i två huvudkategorier där det första kategorin ”Omständigheter som underlättar kommunikationen” belyser omständigheter som bidrog till en framgångsrik kommunikation. Det andra kategorin ”Omständigheter som begränsar kommunikationen” belyser faktorer som begränsar möjligheterna att uppnå en lyckad kommunikation mellan vårdpersonal och patienter med afasi. Diskussion: Kommunikationens förutsättningar och hinder återfinns även hos patienter. Kommunikationen påverkar den vård som patienten får, att vårdpersonalen har möjligheterna att få till en fungerande kommunikation bl.a ge tid till patienten och skapa en lugn miljö. Slutsats: Det krävs att vårdpersonalen har god kunskap kring hur de på bästa möjliga sätt kan kommunicera med patienter med afasi. Framtida forskning bör fokuseras på att öka kunskapsnivån i fenomenet ytterligare genom att forska mera kring kommunikationsstrategier.

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