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  • 251.
    Shehata, Adam
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Media Matter: The Political Influences of the News Media2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 252.
    Shen, Wei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    A Protocol Framework for Adaptive Real-Time Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-power and resource-constrained wireless technology has been regarded as an emerging technology that introduces a paradigm shift in a wide range of applications such as industrial automation, smart grid, home automation and so on. The automation industry has significant contributions to economic revenues, job opportunities and world-class research. The low-power and resource-constrained wireless technology has brought new opportunity and challenges for industrial automation. The solutions of such wireless technology offer benefits in relation to lower cost and more flexible deployments/maintenances than the wired solutions, and new applications that are not possible with wired communication. However, these wireless solutions have been introducing new challenges. Wireless links are inherently unreliable, especially in industrial harsh environment, and wireless interference makes the problem even worse. Low-power consumption is required and real-time communication is generally crucial in industrial automation applications.

    This research work addresses that industrial wireless sensor and actuator network (IWSAN) should even be designed to provide service differentiation for wireless medium access and adapt to link dynamics for scheduling algorithms on top of real-time services. Specifically, exceeding the required delay bound for unpredictable and emergency traffic in industrial automation applications could lead to system instability, economic and material losses, system failure and, ultimately, a threat to human safety. Therefore, guaranteeing the timely delivery of the IWSAN critical traffic and its prioritization over regular traffic (e.g. non-critical monitoring traffic) is a significant topic. In addition, the state-of-the-art researches address a multitude of objectives for scheduling algorithms in IWSAN. However, the adaptation to the dynamics of a realistic wireless sensor network has not been investigated in a satisfactory manner. This is a key issue considering the challenges within industrial applications, given the time-constraints and harsh environments.

    In response to those challenges, a protocol framework for adaptive real-time communication in IWSAN is proposed. It mainly consists of a priority-based medium access protocol (MAC) and its extension for routing critical traffic, a hybrid scheme for acyclic traffic, and adaptive scheduling algorithms. To the best of our knowledge, the priority-based MAC solution is the first priority-enhanced MAC protocol compatible with industrial standards for IWSAN. The proposed solutions have been implemented in TinyOS and evaluated on a test-bed of Telosb motes and the TOSSIM network simulator. The experimental results indicate that the proposed priority-based solutions are able to efficiently handle different traffic categories and achieve a significant improvement in the delivery latency. The hybrid scheme for acyclic traffic increases the throughput and reduces the delay compared to the current industrial standards. Numerical results show that the adaptive scheduling algorithms improve the quality of service for the entire network. They achieve significant improvements for realistic dynamic wireless sensor networks when compared to existing scheduling algorithms with the aim to minimize latency for real-time communication.

  • 253.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    On the Design, Characterization and Optimization of RFID Tag Antennas2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Remotely read electronic identification tags are establishing as the standard method of identifying objects in transport logistcs. They are referred to as RFID tags and with successful research and development they are likely to one day replace all of todays barcodes, found on a wide variety of items and objects. As RFID systems consist of many different parts spanning over just as many academic subjects, this thesis investigates some of the main issues regarding RFID tag antennas. Large focus is put on performance and cost optimization of relatively simple one‐layer antennas, suitable for mass production in commercial printing presses using electrically conductive ink. Examples of specially designed antennas include ones that can operate upon metallic objects and antennas that can be physicall bent. It is also shown how RFID tag antennas that will be widely exposed to the human eye can include a commercial value by letting heir geometric design originate from group insignias and company logos. The thesis also presents a solution of how pairs of ordinary low cost RFID tags can be used as remotely read moisture sensors.

  • 254.
    Silfver, Jeanette
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics.
    G-convergence and Homogenization Involving Operators Compatible with Two-scale convergence2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 255.
    Sjöberg, Jessica C
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    High Consistency Mechanical Treatment of Kraft Pulps under Steam Pressurised Conditions - Effects on Fibre and Sheet Properties2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 256.
    Sjöblom, Lena-Mari
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Närstående i den psykiatriska vården: En kvalitativ studie om erfarenheter av närståendes delaktighet2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 257.
    Sjöström, Rita
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Multidisciplinary rehabilitation in musculoskeletal disorders: Quantitative and qualitative follow-up studies2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this investigation was to evaluate a seven-week

    multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme, with emphasis on

    musculoskeletal disorders, for working-age people, by assessments at the

    start and end of the rehabilitation programme, and at follow-up

    examinations 6, 12 and 24 months after completion of the programme. A

    further aim was to explore the experiences of people not returning to work

    during a period of six years after participation in an extensive

    multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme.

    Sixty participants, 40 women and 20 men (mean age 46.8 ± SD 7.9), with

    musculoskeletal disorders, mainly neck and back pain, participated in a 7-

    week rehabilitation programme which was based on a combination of

    theoretical and practical education, physical activities, relaxation and

    individual guidance. Before and after the programme and at the follow-up

    occasions all participants were evaluated with the Global Self-Efficacy

    Index (GSI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD), and Stress test

    (Study I). A group of participants who were still full-time sick-listed (Group

    I) at the end of the study period were compared with participants who were

    part-time or not sick-listed (Group II) at the end of the study period (II, III,

    IV). They were evaluated with the Disability Rating Index (DRI), with the

    Pain Intensity Rating Index on a visual analogue scale (VAS) (II, III)),

    mobility tests (III), GSI (III), HAD, and a stress test (IV). Seven women

    (median age 48 years) and three men (53 years) (Group I) were interviewed

    and the interviews were analysed by manifest content analysis (V).

    At the 2-year follow-up full-time sick leave, anxiety, depression and selfexperienced

    stress had decreased in both sexes. They also showed increased

    quality of life (QoL) (I). In participants with full-time sick leave (Group I),

    self-experienced physical disability and pain ratings were high and showed

    no decrease up until the 2-year follow-up. In participants with part-time or

    no sick leave (Group II), physical disability and pain ratings decreased

    gradually throughout the 2-year follow-up period (II). Cervical and

    thoracolumbar spine range of motion (ROM) was lower in Group I than in

    Group II from the start of rehabilitation to a 2-year follow-up. Only Group

    II showed a temporal improvement in ROM. No changes in DRI, VAS or

    GSI were found in parallel with corresponding temporal changes in any of

    the ROM (III). Group I experienced no change in anxiety or depression

    during the study period, in contrast to Group II, in which this decreased.

    Decreased stress was found in both groups (IV). Group I described

    perceived barriers to and possibilities of returning to work, and also gave

    information on what strategies they used, to cope with everyday life (V).

    The majority of the participants improved and they continued to be

    physically active, their QoL improved, and most participants returned to

    work. Ten of the participants, however, were on full-time sick leave

    throughout the whole study period, with high self-experienced physical

    disability, high pain rating and no improvement in anxiety and depression.

    They experienced barriers to re-entering the labour market as consequences

    of physical symptoms and fatigue. But they also believed in possibilities of

    returning to work if they could get a modified job adapted to their own

    capacity.

    Thus, persons with severe disability and pain did not improve by

    rehabilitation in this project. New methods of treatment have to be

    developed for improvement of symptoms resulting in reduction of

    functional impairment and a consequent need for sick leave.

  • 258.
    Skoog Waller, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Estimation of Speaker Age: Effects of Speech Properties and Speech Material2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate factors related to accuracy in estimation of speaker age and the role of certain speech properties in perception and manipulation of speaker age, as well as their interaction with the speech material that the age estimates were based on. This thesis consists of three studies.

    In Study 1 the aim was to investigate the role of speech rate as well as the level of accuracy in estimation of speaker age, depending on linguistic variation in the speech material (read versus spontaneous speech). In two experiments, one using read speech from 36 female and male speakers in three age groups (younger: 20-25 years, middle aged: 40-45 years and older:60-65 years old) as stimuli, and the other using spontaneous speech from the same speakers, we investigated how changes in speech rate influenced listeners’ age estimates of young adult, middle aged and older speakers. The results revealed that listeners estimated the speakers as younger when speech rate was faster than normal and as older when speech rate was slower than normal. This speech rate effect was slightly greater in magnitude for older speakers in comparison with younger speakers, suggesting that speech rate may gain greater importance as a perceptual age cue with increased speaker age. This pattern was more pronounced in Experiment 2, in which listeners estimated age from spontaneous speech. Faster speech rate was associated with lower age estimates, but only for older and middle aged speakers. Taken together, speakers of all age groups were estimated as older when speech rate was decreased, except for the youngest speakers in Experiment 2. The absence of a linear speech rate effect in estimates of younger speakers, for spontaneous speech, implies that listeners use different age estimation strategies or cues (possibly vocabulary) depending on the age of the speaker and the spontaneity of the speech.

    Study 2 investigated how speakers spontaneously manipulate two age related vocal characteristics (fundamental frequency and speech rate) in attempts to sound younger versus older than their true age, and if the manipulations correspond to actual age related changes in fundamental frequency (F0) and speech rate. The study also aimed at determining how successful vocal age disguise is by asking listeners to estimate the age of generated speech samples and to examine whether or not listeners use F0 and speech rate as cues to perceived age. Participants from three age groups (20–25, 40–45, and 60–65 years) agreed to read a short text under three voice conditions. There were 12 speakers in each age group (six women and six men). They used their natural voice in one condition, attempted to sound 20 years younger in another and 20 years older in a third condition. Sixty listeners were exposed to speech samples from the three voice conditions and estimated the speakers’ age. Each listener was exposed to all three voice conditions. The results indicated that the speakers increased F0 and speech rate when attempting to sound younger and decreased F0 and speech rate when attempting to sound older. The voice manipulations had an effect on age estimation in the sought-after direction, although the achieved mean effect was only 3 years, which is far less than the intended effect of 20 years. Moreover, listeners used speech rate, but not F0, as a cue to speaker age. It was concluded that age disguise by voice can be achieved by naïve speakers even though the perceived effect was smaller than intended.

    In Study 3 the aim was to study confidence and accuracy in estimates of speaker age and whether confidence can serve as an indicator of estimation accuracy. Two experiments were performed investigating accuracy in estimation of speaker age, as well as the listeners’ confidence that their estimates were correct. In Experiment 1 listeners made age estimates based on spontaneous speech while in Experiment 2 the estimates were based on read speech. The purpose of the study was to explore differences in accuracy and confidence depending on speech material, speaker characteristics (gender and age) and listener gender. Another purpose was to examine the realism in the listeners’ confidence ratings in estimations of spontaneous versus read speech. No differences in accuracy or confidence were found due to speech material type. Although accuracy was higher in estimates of male speakers, confidence was higher in estimates of female speakers. As the correlation between confidence and accuracy was weak, it was concluded that confidence should not be relied on as an indicator of accuracy in estimation of speaker age.

    The three studies in this thesis provide some insight into different aspects of perception of speaker age. Possible implications of the results and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  • 259.
    Skotnes, Liv Heidi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Forstyrrelser i de nedre urinveier hos gamle på sykehejm: urininkontinens, residualurin, urinveisinfeksjon, samt inkontinenspleie2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to get an overview over different dysfunction in the lower urinary tract in the elderly. Also, we wanted to describe the perceptions and barriers that influence the nursing staff`’s ability to provide appropriate incontinence care in nursing home residents. The thesis includes one quantitative study (paper I, II, III), and one qualitative study (paper IV). Paper I was a cross-sectional study. Paper II and III were a prospective surveillance with a follow-up period of 1 year. 183 residents from six Norwegian nursing homes participated. In paper I, the prevalence of urinary incontinence in Norwegian nursing home residents was evaluated. The factors possibly associated with urinary incontinence were also studied. In paper II, we investigated whether residual urine was a risk factor for developing urinary tract infections in the elderly in nursing homes. In paper III, the objective was to determine whether pads per day usage is a reliable measure of urinary incontinence in nursing home residents. Furthermore, we wanted to study the association between urinary tract infections, pads per day usage and fluid intake. In the qualitative study, the aim was to identify perceptions and barriers that influence the ability of nursing staff to provide appropriate incontinence care. Five charge nurses, five registered nurses and five certified nursing assistants participated in the focus group interviews.The analysis in paper I, showed that 122 (69 %) of the resident were incontinent for urine and 144 used absorbent pads (83 %). 14 % of residents used absorbent pads ‘just to make sure’. They did not have a history of urinary incontinence. Low ADL score, dementia and urinary tract infection were significantly associated with incontinence for urine (P = <0.01). In paper II, 93 of the residents (65.3 %) had postvoid residual urine (PVR) < 100 mL and 52 residents (34.7 %) had a PVR 100 mL. During the follow-up period, 51 residents (34.0 %) had one or more urinary tract infections (UTI). The prevalence of UTI among females was higher than among men (40.4 % versus. 19.6 %; P = 0.015). There was no significant difference in mean PVR among residents that did or did not develop UTI (79 mL versus 97mL; P = 0.26). A PVR 100 mL was not associated with an increased risk of developing UTI`s (P = 0.59).In paper III, 118 (77 %) used absorbent pads. Residents that used absorbent pads were at increased risk of developing UTIs compared to residents that did notviiiuse pads (41 % versus 11 %; P = 0.001). Daily fluid intake was not associated with UTIs (P = 0.46). The number of pad shifts had no relation with the risk of developing UTIs (P = 0.62). Residents with a given pad per day (PPD) presented a wide range of incontinence volumes.In paper IV, three topics and eight categories were identified. The first topic, Perceptions and barriers associated with residents, consisted of one category: ‘physical and cognitive problems’. The second topic, Perceptions and barriers associated with nursing staff, consisted of three categories: ‘lack of knowledge’, ‘attitudes and beliefs’ and ‘lack of accessibility’. The third topic, Perceptions and barriers associated with organizational culture, consisted of four categories: ‘rigid routines’, ‘lack of resource’, ‘lack of documentation’ and ‘lack of leadership’.The results of the thesis show that the prevalence of urinary incontinence in nursing homes is high. Absorbent products are frequently used without a history of urinary incontinence. Physical impairment, dementia and urinary tract infections are associated with urinary incontinence. is common in nursing home residents. No association between PVR and UTI was found. The use of absorbent pads is associated with an increased risk of developing UTIs. PPD and daily fluid intake are not correlated with the risk of developing UTIs. PPD is an unreliable measure of urinary incontinence in nursing home residents. The findings from the qualitative study shows that there are many barriers that might influence the possibilities of nursing staff to provide appropriate incontinence care to residents in nursing homes. However, it can nevertheless seem like opinions and the attitude of nursing staff, together with a lack of knowledge about urinary incontince, are the most important barriers to provide appropriate incontinence care.

  • 260.
    Solum Myren, Gunn Eva
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Dagaktivitetstilbud for personer med demens som bor hjemme: ”Dagen i dag den kan bli vår beste dag”2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis was to examine how persons with dementia in who live at home experience day care services and what the services mean to them, their relatives and care staff. For persons with dementia, everyday life often lacks social and sensory stimuli, and research has shown that their relatives experience a burden of care that strains their quality of life. In response, more knowledge is necessary about how municipal services in should be designed to ensure that persons with dementia can stay at home for as long as possible. From 2020, municipalities in Norway, will have a statutory duty to offer day care services to persons with dementia. The thesis is based on four qualitative studies. In study I, fieldwork comprised observations and informal conversations with persons with dementia (participants) who receive care from two day care services and staff. Study II involved semi-structured interviews and study III, narrative interviews with relatives, whereas study IV involved semi-structured interviews with care staff. In study I, results revealed that location and buildings affected the inclusion of participants in activities. Where as homey, familiar environments contributed to greater activity among participants, institutional environments contributed to greater passivity, at least from the perspective of participants and staff. In turn, the meaningfulness of participants’ everyday lives depended on staff adaptiveness in exercising person-centred care. In study II, relatives of persons with dementia reported that the pre- and post-diagnosis periods were challenging for them and that the day care services, especially the daily routines that they established, were thus exceptionally meaningful. The relatives reported not only that could they afford to rest on days when the persons with dementia received day care services but that the participants experienced those days to be meaningful as well. At the same time, they reported struggling with deciding for how long it would be reasonable for the persons with dementia to live at home. In study III, results revealed that living with persons with dementia affected the everyday lives of spouses and cohabitants, who had to assume new roles and adapt to living lives full of commitment, singularity, anxiety and oneliness. Spouses and cohabitants not only sought to optimally manage their domestic arrangements but also conceal from others how they felt or thought about their situations. To those ends, day care services therefore helped them to persevere in caring for and living with their loved ones, as well as afforded them time to pursue their personal interests. Being visited by day care staff prevented them from having to ask for help because staff members were there to offer it instead.…Last, during study IV, staff reported striving to implement person-centred care by ensuring the dignity of participants and their relatives and facilitating meaningful activities according to individual needs. However, staff also reported facing various barriers in realising person-centred care, including staff shortages, different levels of functioning among participants and limitations in the design of spaces and their location. When developing day care services, it is important to consider both the physical design and location of buildings in which care will be offered. Person-centred care can guide the organization of adequate, tailored day care services able to afford persons with dementia meaningful everyday lives.

  • 261.
    Sparf, Jörgen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Tillit i samhällsskyddets organisation: Om det sociala gränssnittet i risk- och krishantering mellan kommunen och funktionshindrade2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish system for civil protection and preparedness has undergone fundamental shifts in legislation, organisation, and responsibility since the 1990s. Most prominently, the responsibility for municipals has increased and the system has become more dependent on actors in the local community. Individuals have also become integral actors in the system with increased responsibility. The guiding principles for this system, formulated by the national authorities, are responsibility, similarity, and proximity. These principles prescribe that disruptions in any regular operations shall be handled by the structure already in place. This means that disturbances or crises, for instance within the local healthcare, should be solved by the regular personnel. The combination of the new location of responsibility and the guiding principles locate the issues of safety and security at the interface between the single individual and the organisation. The aim of this dissertation is to gain knowledge about the relationship between people with disability and the municipal administrative function for civil protection and preparedness regarding safety and security. Four empirical investigations from Sweden are included. The first is a quantitative study investigating the risk perception among disabled people and whether this perception can be explained by their disability. The three remaining studies are qualitative, studying respectively: how risk and vulnerability are manifested, experienced, and managed in everyday life by disabled persons; how local authorities arrange civil protection and preparedness at the local level, and how an uncertain, adverse event was managed at different levels of the local health care. The two studies with disabled persons shows that trust is central to understand how risk perception is shaped and that the safety in everyday life is important. Individuals develop certain strategies in order to deal with vulnerability. The strategies include avoiding certain situations; to show or not to show their needs, and being accustomed to everything taking a long time. These strategies form a framework for interpretation of safety and security where the body is objectified as a social representation. The body thus is comparable to any other social representation and can be subject for defence, mitigation or damage reduction. The first study of local administrations shows that the local civil protection and preparedness is arranged in the same manner all over the country. However, the administrative function for safety and security must deal with distinctly different characteristics in organisational relationships. The relationship with the local administration in general is labyrinthine because of rationality problems regarding adaptation, aims and objectives, assessment and evaluation, and with the allocation of responsibility. The relationship with the different departments within the authority suffers from problems with hierarchy in that the function lacks an authoritative centre, legitimacy, and executive power. The relationship with external entities exhibits problems with organisational identity due to a lack of resources, a distinct organisational character, and autonomy. The second study of local administrations shows that the temporal-spatial framing of a disturbance in the local fresh water system differed between the different organisational levels. Primarily the human agency in terms of trust and a pre-established sphere for action of the personnel was decisive in managing the disturbance. Theories of trust are used to conduct the analysis of the four studies. While the former system for civil protection and preparedness was characterized by an instrumental trust signified by vertical power and expectations of solving concrete problems the present system is more dependent on a so called humanitarian trust signified by horizontal division of power and expectations of managing vulnerability. The conclusion is that at the local level authenticity, legitimacy, and transparency can reduce the three forms of vulnerability: dependency, unpredictability, and irreversibility respectively. This type of trust fits better with the individual-organisation interface in which much of the responsibility for safety and security is allocated today

  • 262.
    Stenström, Nils
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sprutbyte vid Intravenöst Narkotikamissbruk: En longitudinell studie av deltagarna i sprutbytesprogrammet i Malmö2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to describe the users visiting the syringe exchange clinic in Malmö with respect to what characterises the group, how they utilize the services of the clinic and how their patterns of participation relate to risk behaviour, physical and mental health and social development. The heterogeneity of the group has been captured by the use of Stimsons dimensions “integration in majority society” and “involvement in sub-culture”, yielding four different groups of syringe exchangers: “stables”, “loners”, “two-worlders” and “junkies”. The study rests on two sources of data: a register from the clinic including all syringe exchangers that have visited the clinic between 1989 and 2003, altogether 3660 individuals, and an interview of visitors at the clinic during 1995, including 496 persons.

    The results show that syringe exchangers, compared to other persons with severe addiction in Malmö, to a larger extent use amphetamine as their drug-of-choice, are older and inject more irregularly. The population visiting the clinic is heterogeneous with respect to integration in society and involvement in sub-cultures. The group classified as junkies do, as expected, display the highest inclination to share syringes and needles with other and hence have the most advanced risk behaviours. As to utilization of the programme, the results show that the longer the syringe exchangers stay in the programme, the more frequent they visit it. Also with respect to utilization-patterns, we find substantial variations within the studied group. Five categories are discernible: drop-in visitors with only one or two visits, sporadic visitors who in spite of contacts over a number of years never really establish a regular contact, intermittent visitors who have had contact over several years but display a very irregular visiting pattern, regular visitors who relatively fast establish a consistent contact with visits between uniform time intervals and frequent visitors who tend to stay longer than others and visit the clinic more often. Another aspect of utilization is to what extent the distribution of needles and syringes cover the needs of the visitors. With a strict definition of need, only a minority manages to cover their needs, but if we accept a more extensive individual re-use, around 90 percent of the average need is covered. Data also reveals that a very high proportion of the users on at least one occasion have visited the programme without syringe exchange taking place or any complementary service delivered. Basically these visits seem to be of a more social nature, reinforcing the contacts between the staff and the visitors.

    Data do not give any clear support for the basic assumption that syringe exchange reduce the incidence of HIV or hepatitis. Recent sharing of utensils or low coverage of syringe need through the programme do not predict a higher infection risk. Instead we find that the social contacts with the staff (without syringe exchange) function as a predictor of lower incidence. This indicates that the mechanisms may be more complex than just related to the provision of clean needles and syringes. The result shows that integration increase over time while sub-cultural involvement decreases. However, the patterns for different groups are very diverse and we find no evidence that more frequent contacts as such are related to increased integration. There is however, some evidence that social visits are positively related to increased integration. No support could be found for the assumption that the programme increases the number of severe addicts.

  • 263.
    Strand, Susanne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Violence risk assessment in male and female mentally disordered offenders: differences and similarities2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When assessing the risk of violence, increasing interest has been shown in bringing science and practice closer together. Moving from clinical intuition in the first generation of risk assessment via actuarial scales in the second generation to the structured professional judgments where risk assessments are today produces better, more valid results when assessing the risk of violence. One of the best predictors of violence is gender. Approximately 10% of the violent criminality can be attributed to women; even so, it is increasing, especially among young women. It is therefore important to examine risk assessments from a gender perspective. Another important factor when assessing the risk of violence is psychopathy and there are indications that there might be gender differences in this diagnosis. Thus, a special interest has been focused on psychopathy in this thesis. The purpose with this work is to explore the similarities and differences in assessing risk for violence in male and female mentally disordered offenders, while the overall aim is to validate the violence risk assessment instrument HCR-20 for Swedish offender populations. The risk assessments for all six studies in this thesis were made by trained personnel using the HCR-20 instrument, where psychopathy was diagnosed with the screening version of the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL:SV). The study populations were both male and female mentally disordered offenders in either the correctional or the forensic setting.

    The findings show that both the validity and the reliability of the HCR-20 and the PCL:SV were good and the clinical and risk management subscales were found to have better predictive validity than the historical scale. Another finding was that there were more similarities than differences between genders in the HCR-20, while the opposite applied to the PCL:SV, where the antisocial behavior was performed in a different manner. Moreover, it was found that the gender of the assessor might be a factor to take into account when

    assessing the risk of violence in women, where the recommendation was that at least one assessor should be female. The conclusions were that the HCR-20 and the PCL:SV can be used In Swedish offender populations with valid results. For female offenders, there are differences in the antisocial behavior that is assessed in order to diagnose psychopathy and these differences tend to underestimate psychopathy among female offenders. Furthermore, the gender of the assessor might be of greater importance than has previously been realized. The overall conclusion was that this thesis supports the structural professional judgment method of making risk assessments in order to prevent violence in the community.

  • 264.
    Sundberg, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Problems in public e-service development2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the general problem of integration and co-operation between business and IT organisations, and on the specific problem of co-ordinating the development process across stovepiped departments that do not collaborate cross-functionally. The purpose is to increase knowledge and understanding about public organisations’ difficulties in meeting their customers’ and the organisation’s needs for electronic services. The thesis also presents a model showing the relationships between factors of importance for understanding public organisations’ difficulties in implementing cross-functional or inter-departmental electronic services. The research is based on case studies of public and private organisations, and results show that public organisations attempting e-government will face large problems if they are unable to solve their internal stovepipe problems. On the other hand, they cannot expect the stovepipe problems to be solved without increasing customer orientation. Many private organisations have increased their speed in e-services, customer orientation and organisational changes, and have faced economic pressure early, while the public organisations are impeded by the role of law, complex goal structures, lack of collaboration and culture. But at the same time the public organisations are following a similar path to that of the private, and areas have been found where there are little differences (e.g. development processes and purchaser-contractor relationships). Furthermore, the thesis has identified a large potential in the use of enterprise architecture for improving co-operation between business and IT organisations and in the purchaser-contractor relations. An architecture is an important prerequisite for dealing with the growing complexity in describing an enterprise and its business, information, applications and technology.

  • 265.
    Sundberg, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    The Relation Between Digital Technology and Values: Thinking Through Multiple Technologies2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses two topics: technology and values. More specifically, the studied technology is an ensemble of digital technologies that is often referred to as “digitalization,” and the values are gathered from empirical material from the Swedish (digital) government. The purpose of the thesis is to generate an enhanced understanding of the relation between digital technology and values. The study is motivated by, a) a need to theorize digital government research, b) a need to establish a link between narratives of technology and research on values, and c) a need to disclose how investments in digital technology are legitimized. The research question of this thesis is, “how can we understand the relation between digital technology and values?” To answer this question, theoretical concepts that are rooted in philosophy of technology are used: polytechnics and monotechnics, externalism, and internalism. Moreover, a theory of four value positions, namely professionalism, efficiency, service, and engagement is used. The thesis revolves around five papers, and its methodological approach is characterized by pragmatism. Data were gathered from relevant literature and document studies, an analysis of expert groups, and survey results from national and local government entities. The findings from the papers were subject to a narrative analysis. This analysis generated three conclusions, which constitute the theoretical contribution of the thesis. The relation between digital technology and values can be understood from these three key conclusions:

    The first regards convergence, and incorporates two narratives of digital technology: as a polytechnic tool, and as a monotechnic force: a machine. Digital technology is pluralistic in the sense that it may enable several values through multiple technological frames. In parallel, it relies on uniformity and standardization. The technology is therefore subject to several tensions. The story of the machine tends to become dominant through calls for action: it emphasizes the need for rapid adaptation of both individuals and society. In digital government, such adjustment would include an uncertain transformation of professionalism values. The legitimacy of this transformation is highly dependent on which story of technology it is based on.

    The second conclusion concerns technology as a paradigm. The digital paradigm, as studied in this thesis, is characterized by a story about a technological society for everyone. However, this story stems from a narrow range of actors with respect to educational and geographical context. A broadened view of digital technology and values would require a more symmetrical range of norms, since how values manifest themselves is dependent on the properties of the paradigm.

    The third and final conclusion regards congruence and divergence. The relation between digital technology and values is shifting between value congruence, and value divergence. When digital technology becomes associated with a narrative of progress that suggests that its value lies in the future while the present is ”transformative,” it can develop in a seemingly self-augmented and autonomous manner. Contrasting stories of value divergence can be found in evaluations from practice. However, this divergent narrative is repositioned as a story of “barriers”, which tells us that values can be realized if society adapts. The interplay between these narratives has implications for how we perceive value realization.

    The thesis concludes with the following summarizing contributions. Theoretically, it produces an enhanced understanding of the relation between digital technology and values, as described above. Through this theoretical understanding, a link between narratives of technology and values is established empirically. By doing so, this thesis has revealed how values are legitimized, manifested and perceived, depending on what technology ”is”. Finally, a societal need is fulfilled by suggestions for policy making. Democratization of the norms associated with digital technology would improve governance in the sense that policy makers would have to actively choose between incommensurable views. As a result of this, accountability would increase, together with transparency concerning the narratives that inform policy.

  • 266.
    Sundqvist, Anneli
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Search Processes, User Behaviour and Archival Representational Systems2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information technology and political motives, e.g. e-governance, freedom of information legislation, has recent years lead to an increasing emphasis on users and access to records, but little research based knowledge about those issues exist so far. The main focus of the previous research is the use of non-current records in archival repositories. The aim of this thesis is to make a contribution to the research field, in order to gain a better understanding of the information behaviour of users of records in contemporary organizational settings. The research questions addressed are:

    § How are records used in contemporary organizations?- In what context and for what purposes are records used?- What user categories can be identified?

    § How is the search for records mediated?- What intermediaries are used in the search process?- How well do the features of the artefactual intermediaries serve the users' information needs?- What is the role of human intermediaries?

    An additional purpose of the study is to contribute to theory development, and to provide a conceptual model of the information behaviour of users of records that can form the basis for further research.

    The thesis is based on explorative case studies undertaken in two contemporary Swedish public organizations, one municipality and one governmental agency. Data was collected through interviews, analysis of documentary sources and complementary observations. The analysis of the findings was guided by a theoretical framework consisting of activity theory informed by concepts from archival theory and models of information behaviour.

    The results of the cases studies showed that information behaviour of users of records and the search process could be described as a part of an activity system. The search process was a sub-ordinated activity of other activities. The needs for records was generated by a task or accomplishment of anykind with purpose to achieve something. Those needs motivated the purposes of use of records: material, operational, accountability seeking or knowledge enhancing purposes. The subjects, users in collaboration with the registrars and archivists, seeked to obtain records with help of different mediational means, e.g. artifactual intermediaries as the journal and the archives inventory that could be defined as representational systems, in order to reach a certain outcome: fact-finding, re-construction of past actions and events, regaining experience and knowledge, verifying status, or illustrating and exemplifying.

    A variety of user groups, internal as well as external, could be identified in both organizations. Those could act as direct or indirect users, and indirect use by one part meant direct use by another who acted as a mediator between the records and the end users. The external users could be defined as stakeholders of the organizations or other users. Users showed, with occasional exceptions, a preference for informal means of mediation, particularly personal communication.

    Certain features of the formal representational systems, journals and inventories, could be identified, which made them less useful as search tool. Those were generated by contradictions and tensions within the organizations: contradictions within the representational systems; contradictions between the tasks of the users and the representational systems; contradictions between user requests and the access points in the representational systems; contradictions between external users and the activities of the organizations; contradictions between exogenous institutional conditions and the the activities of the organizations; and contradictions of a temporal character. These circumstances necessitated an active intervention of human intermediaries. This could be seen as an example of the division of labour in the organizations. Search and retrieval of records were part of the registrars’ and the archivists’ specific professional knowledge, but were not considered as primary tasks of other employees or, especially not, of the external users.

    The results of the study contributes to to the knowledge about the use of records, and how records are approached. It provides a model of the search process that can form the basis for further research. The practical implications of the findings could be improved search tools and user services, i.e. enhanced access. The thesis can also contribute to theoretical enrichment of the field by combining a more comprehensive social theory with archival theory and concepts from information science.

     

  • 267.
    Sundström, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Technology and Management, Mechanical Engineering and Mathematics.
    Numerical optimization of pacing strategies in locomotive endurance sports2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is devoted to the optimization of pacing strategies in two locomotive endurance sports; cross-country skiing and road cycling. It has been established that constant pace and variable power distributions are optimal if purely mechanical aspects of locomotion are considered in these sports. However, there is a lack of research that theoretically investigates optimal pacing for real world athletes who are constrained in their ability to generate power output through the bioenergetics of the human body.

    The aims of this thesis are to develop numerical pacing strategy optimization models and bioenergetic models for locomotive endurance sports and use these to assess objectives relevant in optimal pacing. These objectives include: Investigate the impact of hills, sharp course bends, ambient wind, and bioenergetic models on optimal pacing and assess the effect of optimal pacing strategies on performance.

    This thesis presents mathematical models for optimization of pacing strategies. These models are divided into mechanical locomotion, bioenergetic, and optimization models that are connected and programmed numerically. The locomotion and bioenergetic models in this thesis consist of differential equations and the optimization model is described by an iterative gradient-based routine. The mechanical model describes the relation between the power output generated by an athlete and his/her locomotion along a course profile, giving the finishing time. The bioenergetic model strives to mimic the human ability to generate power output. Therefore, the bioenergetic model is set to constrain the power output that is used in the mechanical locomotion model. The optimization routine strives to minimize the finishing time in the mechanical locomotion model by varying the distribution of power output along the course, still satisfying the constraints in the bioenergetic model.

    The studies contained within this thesis resulted in several important findings regarding the general application of pacing strategies in cross-country skiing and road cycling. It was shown that the constant pace strategy is not optimal if ambient conditions change over the course distance. However, variable power distributions were shown beneficial if they vary in parallel with course inclination and ambient winds to decrease variations in speed. Despite these power variations, speed variations were not eliminated for most variable ambient conditions. This relates to the athlete’s physiological restrictions and the effect of these are hard to predict without thorough modeling of bioenergetics and muscle fatigue. Furthermore, it vi

    was shown that substantial differences in optimal power distributions were attained for various bioenergetic models.

    It was also shown that optimal braking and power output distributions for cycling on courses that involve sharp bends consisted of three or four phases, depending on the length of the course and the position of the bends. The four phases distinguished for reasonably long courses were a steady-state power phase, a rolling phase, a braking phase, and an all-out acceleration phase. It was also shown that positive pacing strategies are optimal on relatively long courses in road cycling where the supply of carbohydrates are limited. Finally, results indicated that optimal pacing may overlook the effect of some ambient conditions in favor of other more influential, mechanical or physiological, aspects of locomotion.

    In summary, the results showed that athletes benefit from adapting their power output with respect not only to changing course gradients and ambient winds, but also to their own physiological and biomechanical abilities, course length, and obstacles such as course bends. The results of this thesis also showed that the computed optimal pacing strategies were more beneficial for performance than a constant power distribution. In conclusion, this thesis demonstrates the feasibility of using numerical simulation and optimization to optimize pacing strategies in cross-country skiing and road cycling.

  • 268.
    Svanedal, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Fundamental Characterization and Technical Aspects of a Chelating Surfactant2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fundamental characteristics of a chelating surfactant in terms of solution behaviour, chelation of divalent metal ions, and interaction in mixtures with different foaming agents and divalent metal ion, as well as examining its prospects in some practical applications. Chelating surfactants are functional molecules, with both surface active and chelating properties, which are water soluble and therefore suitable for chelation in many aqueous environments. The dual functionality offers the possibility to recover the chelating surfactant as well as the metals.

    The DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-based chelating surfactant 4-C12-DTPA (2-dodecyldiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) was synthesized at Mid Sweden University. In the absence of metal ions, all eight donor atoms in the headgroup of 4-C12-DTPA are titrating and the headgroup charge can be tuned from +3 to -5 by altering the pH. The solution properties, studied by surface tension measurements and NMR diffusometry, were consequently found strongly pH dependent. pH measurements of chelating surfactant solutions as a function of concentration was used to extract information regarding the interaction between surfactants in the aggregation process.

    Small differences in the conditional stability constants (log K) between coordination complexes of DTPA and 4-C12-DTPA, determined by competition measurements utilizing electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), indicated that the hydrocarbon tail only affected the chelating ability of the headgroup to a limited extent. This was further confirmed in hydrogen peroxide bleaching of thermomechanical pulp (TMP) treated with 4-C12-DTPA.

    Interaction parameters for mixed systems of 4-C12-DTPA and different foaming agents were calculated following the approach of Rubingh’s regular solution theory. The mixtures were also examined with addition of divalent metal ions in equimolar ratio to the chelating surfactant. Strong correlation was found between the interaction parameter and the phase transfer efficiency of Ni2+ ions during flotations. Furthermore, a significant difference in log K between different metal complexes with 4-C12-DTPA enabled selective recovery of the metal ion with the highest log K.

    The findings in this study contribute to the understanding of the fundamental characteristics of chelating surfactants, which can be further utilized in practical applications.

  • 269.
    Svedin, Glenn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    "En ohyra på samhällskroppen": Kriminalitet, kontroll och modernisering i Sverige och Sundsvallsdistriktet under 1800- och det tidiga 1900-talet2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents an analysis of crime trends and social control during the dramatic transformation of Sweden's social landscape in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, set against the background of the modernization process in the country as a whole and the city of Sundsvall and environs in particular. What assumptions about crime were evident in public debate? How did crime levels vary from region to region, and what were the changes over time? What strategies did government and local authorities try for combating crime? Did the joint efforts by government, local communities, and the voluntary sector actually solve the problems that social change was believed to have caused?When it comes to theory, the interpretative framework is based on Anthony Giddens's argument about modernity and modernization, making particular use of a few central points about what the changes meant for the structuration of society. Giddens's ideas about changes in social control are refined with Michel Foucault's and David Garland's work on the increasingly disciplinary trend seen in the exercise of the law and public control. The analysis of modernity's ramifications for the transformation of both social structures and crime alike has also benefitted from Robert Putnam's and Travis Hirschi's insights into the importance of social capital and social bonds for a well-functioning, low-crime society.The process by which Sweden was transformed from an overwhelmingly agrarian country to an urban, industrial society left its mark on crime patterns. To the contemporary mind, industrialization, migration, and urbanization were the underlying causes of the high levels of serious crime in the society. The start of the nineteenth century had seen a rise in criminality, with both petty crime and lethal violence becoming more common. At the same time, there was a heated debate about the socio-economic problems that were such a strain on the structure of society. The analysis finds that there were large differences in prosecutions in the country and between cities. The Sundsvall area was among those that saw a dramatic change in crime in the course of becoming a major industrial region. At the same time, the thesis shows that there were plenty of cities in Sweden, however rapidly they grew, that had low crime rates. However, the widespread fear of industrialization, migration, and urbanization was often unfounded. For example, both lethal violence and public order offences reached their lowest recorded levels in the interwar period. By then, new cures were sought for the social and moral ills of society. The state's sphere of influence had expanded. New social reforms, including a modified crime policy, were launched. The state became even more assertive, and the same was true of civil society. Society would attend to the moral education of a number of different groups. Moral virtues were to be instilled in the workshy, alcoholic, or criminal, in order to produce disciplined and cultured citizens. The attention of social activists, the scientific community, civil servants, and local and national politicians shifted from crime per se to the far broader issue of asociality. Modernization gave the voluntary sector a significant role in the social organization of the day, shaping new forums for interpersonal relationships and strengthening social ties. The thesis makes the case that two distinct periods, each with its specific social structures and crime patterns, can be observed; one belonging to the nineteenth century, the other to the first four decades of the twentieth century.Finally, the similarities between the history of crime in Sweden and, for example, the US or the UK are highlighted. As in Britain and North America, the early industrialization period saw weakened social bonds, and a time of greater violence and disorder ensued. After a while however, the situation stabilized, and crime rates began to drop again. When industrial societies ceased to be 'frontier communities' at the forefront of modernization, and instead became more mature communities, crime levels fell as people's commitment to their communities was renewed.

  • 270.
    Svensson, Birgitta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Frictional studies and high strain rate testing of wood under refining conditions2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When producing thermomechanical pulps (TMP), wood chips and fiber material are loaded mechanically in a disc-refiner to separate the fibers and to make them flexible. In the process, much of the energy supplied is transferred to the fiber material through cyclic compression, shear and friction processes. Therefore, compression and friction characteristics are needed in order to gain a better grasp of the forces acting during refining. To this end, in this thesis, the compressive and frictional behaviors of wood were investigated under simulated chip refining conditions (i.e., hot saturated steam, high strain rate compression, and high sliding speed). Two new, custom-designed, experimental setups were developed and used. The equipment used for compression testing was based on the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) technique and the friction tester was a pin-on-disc type of tribotester (wear rig). Both pieces of equipment allow a testing environment of hot saturated steam.

     

    In the wood–steel friction investigation, the influence of the steam temperature (100-170°C) was of primary interest. The wood species chosen for the friction tests were spruce (Picea abies), pine (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus radiata), and birch (Betula verrucosa). When performing measurements in the lower-temperature region (100-130°C), the friction coefficients registered for the softwoods were generally low and surface properties such as lubrica­tion were suggested to have a great influence on the results; however, in the higher-tempera­ture region (~130 -170°C), the friction coefficients of all investigated wood species were probably determined by bulk properties to a much greater extent. When most of the wood extractives had been removed from the specimens, testing results revealed distinct peaks in friction at similar temperatures, as the internal friction of the different wood species are known to have their maxima at ~110–130°C. One suggested explanation of these friction peaks is that reduced lubrication enabled energy to dissipate into the bulk material, causing particularly high friction at the temperature at which internal damping of the material was greatest. During the friction measurements in the higher-temperature region, the specimens of the different wood species also started to lose fibers (i.e., produce wear debris) at different characteristic temperatures, as indicated by peaks in the coefficient of friction. In refining, the generally lower shives content of pine TMP than of spruce TMP could partly be explained by a lower wear initiation temperature in the pine species.

     

    Wood stiffness is known to decrease with temperature, when measured at low strain rates. The results presented in this thesis can confirm a similar behavior for high strain rate compression. The compressive strain registered during impulsive loading (using a modified split Hopkinson equipment) increased with temperature; because strain rate also increased with temperature. Accordingly, the strain rates should determine the strain magnitudes also in a refiner, since the impulsive loads in a refiner are of similar type. Larger strains would thus be achieved when refining at high temperatures. The results achieved in the compression tests were also considered in relation to refining parameters such as plate clearance and refining intensity, parameters that could be discussed in light of the stress–strain relations derived from the high strain rate measurements. Trials recorded using high-speed photography demonstrated that the wood relaxation was very small in the investigated time frame ~6 ms. As well, in TMP refining the wood material has little time to relax, i.e., ~0.04–0.5 ms in a large single disc refiner. The results presented here are therefore more suitable for comparison with the impulsive loads arising in a refiner than are the results of any earlier study. It can therefore be concluded that the modified SHPB testing technique combined with high-speed photography is well suited for studying the dynamic behavior of wood under conditions like those prevalent in a TMP system.

  • 271.
    Svensson, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Essays on entrepreneurship and bureaucracy2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis is to explore the theoretical and empirical relationship between entrepreneurship and bureaucracy, and to examine the cause and effect of entrepreneurship. From this overall aim, four specific questions are investigated.

    The first question deals with the issue of combining agency and structural explanations of entrepreneurship. Traditional one-sided explanations are discussed, and a two-sided explanatory model of the entrepreneurial choice is presented and tested empirically. In relation to this, the issue of causal heterogeneity is discussed and tested. The empirical results indicate that several country-level variables, including bureaucracy, influence the entrepreneurial choice at the individual level, and that the effect of some individual variables on the entrepreneurial choice varies according to structural context. The following two questions deal with the relationship between the entrepreneur and bureaucracy. The first one describes how the entrepreneurial process is regulated by bureaucracy, and how entrepreneurs solve regulatory problems. From this study it is clear that the smaller entrepreneurs comply with 'good' law in order to enjoy the benefits of formality, and avoid 'bad' law to reduce the costs of formality.

    The larger entrepreneurs comply with all regulations and are very frustrated over delays and inefficiency. The smaller entrepreneurs have a more understanding attitude towards bureaucratic inefficiency and have less trouble solving regulative problems. Both groups have strategies for solving regulative problems; most frequently this involves social ties with public officials and bribes. The second of the relationship questions investigates the extent to which entrepreneurs are obstructed by or dissatisfied with the regulatory authorities, and whether this varies over different types of entrepreneurs. Based on Schumpeter’s distinction between entrepreneurs and other, less creative, business owners, the overall results indicate that creative companies have larger problems with regulatory authorities.

    The conclusion is that bureaucracy tends to be a problem with regard to new ideas, but not for new companies. The fourth question raised deals with the economic effects of entrepreneurship and bureaucracy. Can entrepreneurship and bureaucracy explain variation in economic development across countries? The results indicate that entrepreneurship combined with bureaucracy offer high explanatory values and that a large part of the variance in economic development, left unexplained by agency behaviour, is explained by the regulation of that behaviour. In terms of policy implications the results indicate that the removal of bureaucratic barriers to entrepreneurs could have large potential payoffs in terms of economic growth.

  • 272.
    Svensson, Jessika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Gambling and gender: A public health perspective2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prevalence studies around the world show that men are the largest group at risk of becoming problem gamblers and that men gamble more than women. However, gambling research has long been gender blind. The gambling market is rapidly changing, with the Internet making gambling more accessible. Further, despite the well-documented presence of health, social and financial problems among the concerned significant others (CSOs) of someone close with gambling problems in clinical and help-seeking samples, there is little research investigating on this population. This thesis aims to examine the relation between gender and problem gambling among regular gamblers and CSOs, and to determine whether there was a convergence of men’s and women’s gambling behavior between 1997/98 and 2009/10 in Sweden. A further aim is to examine health problems associated with Internet gambling and CSOs.

    The data collections were taken from three different but linked gambling and health representative national population based studies in Sweden, all using the same methods: telephone interviews supplemented by questionnaires. The studies are as follows: 1) prevalence study 1997/98, age 15-74 years, n = 10,000, response rate 72% (n = 7,139) 2) prevalence study 2008/09, age 16-84 years, n = 15,000, response rate 63% (n = 8,165); and 3) incident study 2009/10, the 8,165 participants from the 2008/09 prevalence study were contacted again, response rate 74% (n = 6,021).

    Gambling was generally merged into domains based on the axis chance-strategy and public-domestic. The dichotomy of public and private spheres is relevant in since there is a link between the public sphere and notions of masculinity and a link between the private and femininity. Further, the literature suggests that men are attracted to gambling that involves features of strategy, whereas women generally prefer game of chance. Problem gambling was measured using SOGS-R and PGSI. Health variables included measures such as self-reported health, psychological stress, social support, alcohol consumption, and financial situation as a determinant of health.

    There were very few indications of a convergence between men’s and women’s gambling behavior. Men and women generally gambled in different domains. Men gambled more than women and dominated all domains except the domain of chance-domestic, a domain associated with less risk and Internet gambling. However, men and women who gambled regularly were just as likely to be problem gamblers. No gender differences were found in the score from separate PGSI analyses in the chance-public domain (games of chance in public spaces, such as gambling machines and bingo in halls). This domain was also the only domain associated with problem gambling for women who gambled regularly. Men and women were just as likely to report that they were CSOs and they constituted a large proportion of the Swedish population (18%). CSOs experienced a range of social, economic and health related problems including psychological stress, risky alcohol consumption, exposure to violence, and separations. For women who were CSOs, no relation with own problem gambling was found.

    This thesis suggests that the presence of gambling machines must be addressed to prevent problem gambling and that separate analyses for men and women are required to identify important differences between genders. The findings indicate that gambling domains produce and reinforce gender. Further, to be able to prevent problem gambling we require further knowledge about these gendered processes. However, it is also important to see the overall similarities between men and women to avoid reinforcing stereotypical images of gender which would have an negative impact on the preventive work. Male and female gamblers are both very heterogeneous categories where the specific gambling site, context and life circumstances must be acknowledged.

    Prevention, research and interventions should also target CSOs if a public health approach is applied because they require help and support in their own right. CSOs also play an important to the problem gambler. More qualitative research is required to understand gendered processes in gambling, as well as further research on interventions that go beyond the individual and address gambling and problem gambling at various levels. When addressing the harmful effects of gambling from a public health perspective, it is imperative to recognize the ethical principles of justice, autonomy, doing no harm and beneficence.

  • 273.
    Svensson, Sven
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Delad tillit: Studier av personalinhyrning2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 1980-talet började det på olika sätt att talas om ett nytt arbetsliv karakteriserat av organisationers ökade behov av flexibilitet. Under 1990-talet kulminerade denna diskurs med teorier om gränslösa anställningar. Dessa beskrivningar och teorier har visat sig vara kraftigt överdrivna. En liten grupp på arbetsmarknaden, personal som hyrs in av ett kundföretag från bemannings- eller konsultföretag, förkroppsligar dock denna idé om gränslösa anställningar. Bakom idén om det gränslösa arbetslivet ligger ett ideal om fria och autonoma arbetstagare som slitit sig fria från vad som beskrivs som den traditionella anställningens bojor och organisationstillhörighetens ok. Samtidigt konstateras att personal som inte tillhör den organisation där de arbetar blir svåra att reglera och kontrollera. Managementforskningen har identifierat problemen och har föreslagit att tillit på olika sätt ska användas som en kontrollmekanism.

    I föreliggande avhandling konstateras det att organisationers koordineringsproblematik blir till krav som den inhyrda personalen måste hantera. Det konstateras hur inhyrd personal möter krav på personlig kontroll, förmåga till social anpassning i skiftande organisationer och krav på ett personligt ansvar för sin kompetensutveckling. Tidigare forskning har visat hur dessa krav förenas med en arbetssituation som kan göra det svårt att leva upp till dem. Med utgångspunkt i sociologisk tillitsteori kan det antas att en oförmåga att leva upp till sådana krav ger en låg grad av kontroll. Kontroll är i sin tur relaterat till tillit. Den sammantagna bilden tycks alltså ge vid handen att arbetet som inhyrd förutsätter tillit, samtidigt som anställningsformen i viss mån underminerar förutsättningarna för tillit. I avhandlingens empiriska delstudier analyseras den inhyrda personalens möte med de krav som de möter i sitt arbete. Olika aspekter av arbete, relaterat till tillit, analyseras.

    I den första delstudien analyseras det så kallade psykologiska kontrakt som inhyrd personal har med den kundorganisation där de arbetar. Det konstateras att kontraktet består av två dimensioner med inriktning på kompetensutveckling respektive socialt utbyte med kollegor i kundorganisationerna. Det konstateras även att gemenskapsdimensionen av kontraktet inte revideras i någon större utsträckning med arbetad tid i kundorganisationen men att uppfattade löften om kompetensutveckling i arbetet i någon mån avtar med tid i kundorganisationen.

    I den andra delstudien prövas ett antagande om att ett arbete som avviker från den traditionella tillsvidareanställningen (standardanställning) kan förväntas vara relaterad till tillit till andra människor i allmänhet (s.k. generalized trust). Resultaten ger stöd för antagandet. Arbetstagare med så kallat non-standard anställningar i allmänhet - och inhyrd personal specifikt - har en lägre sannolikhet att hysa tillit till människor i allmänhet. Resultaten kan delvis förklaras av en försvagad självtillit i gruppen non-standard.

    I avhandlingens tredje delstudie jämförs inhyrd personal med standardanställd personal avseende tillit till kollegor. Med utgångspunkt i tidigare forskning prövas ett teoretiskt antagande om att den inhyrda personalen i mindre utsträckning uppfattar normer i kundorganisationen som kollektivt delade och att de i jämförelse med standardanställda kollegor inte uppfattar sig få lika mycket kompetensutveckling i arbetet. Det kan inte konstateras någon skillnad i upplevd tillgång till kompetensutveckling i arbetet mellan de respektive personalkategorierna inhyrd och direktanställd standardpersonal. Tvärt emot formulerade antaganden visar resultaten att den inhyrda personalen i större utsträckning än den direktanställda standardpersonalen uppfattar normer som kollektivt delade i kundorganisationen. För kompetensutveckling kan det inte konstateras någon skillnad. Detta beaktat visar resultaten ändå att den inhyrda personalen har en lägre sannolikhet att hysa stark tillit till sina kollegor.

    I den fjärde delstudien analyseras betydelsen av att uppfatta sig som frivilligt engagerad i arbetet som inhyrd och betydelsen av att uppleva sig få kompetensutveckling i arbetet (employability development) för tillit till den inhyrande organisationen. Resultaten visar att personal som uppfattar sig som ofrivilligt inhyrd har en lägre tillit till kundorganisationen. En interaktion mellan ofrivillighet och kompetensutveckling visar att kompetensutveckling är positivt relaterad till tillit till kundorganisationen för gruppen ofrivilligt inhyrda. Sambandet mellan kompetensutveckling och tillit till kundorganisationen är inte signifikant för de som uppfattar sig som frivilligt inhyrda.

    I den sammanfattande kappan lyfts artiklarnas resultat till en diskussion om personalinhyrning som en form av arbetsdelning, och relationen mellan arbetsdelning och tillit. Diskussionen förs med utgångspunkt i Durkheims begreppspar anomisk och tvingad arbetsdelning. Durkheims teori om arbetsdelning på samhällsnivå tas med Williamsons transaktionskostnadsteori ned till organisationsnivå. Med teorin om det psykologiska kontraktet diskuteras betydelsen av att få det som förväntas i transaktioner och betydelsen av att reglera innehållet i transaktioner mellan kontraktsparter. Den sammantagna slutsatsen är att den inhyrda personalens förutsättningar att utveckla tillit står i relation till sådana resurser som ges i arbete i kundorganisationer. Det argumenteras därför slutligt för att personalinhyrning är en form av arbetsdelning som ger upphov till en uppdelning i kategorier av människor som ges olika förutsättningar att utveckla tillit, något som slutligt uttrycks som ett teoretiskt antagande om att personalinhyrning leder till en uppdelning av människor i kategorier med olika nivåer av tillit beroende på deras position i arbetsdelningen.

  • 274.
    Thiagarajan, Kannan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport in semiconducting zigzag carbon nanotubes2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the advent of nanoscale material based electronic devices, there has been a considerable interest in exploring carbon nanotubes from fundamental science and technological perspectives. In carbon nanotubes, the atoms form a cylindrical structure with a diameter of the order 1nm. The length of the nanotubes can extend up to several hundred micrometers. Carbon nanotubes exhibit a variety of intriguing electronic properties such as semiconducting and metallic behaviour, due to the quantum confinement of the electrons in the circumferential direction. Much of the study dedicated to describe the behaviour of carbon nanotube-based devices assumes for simplicity the nanotube to be a ballistic material. However, in reality the phonon scattering mechanism exists also in nanotubes, of course, and can generally not be neglected, except in very short nanotubes. In this work, we focus attention on exploring the steady-state electron transport properties of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes, including both phonon scattering and defect (vacancy) scattering, using the semi-classical bulk single electron Monte Carlo method.

     

    The electron energy dispersion relations are obtained by applying the zone folding technique to the dispersion relations of graphene, which are calculated using the tight-binding description. The vibrational modes in the carbon nanotubes are studied using a fourth nearest-neighbour force constant model. Both the electron-phonon and the electron-defect interactions are formulated within the tight-binding framework, and their corresponding scattering rates are computed and analyzed. In particular, the dependence of the phonon scattering rate and the defect scattering rate on the diameter of the nanotube, on temperature and on electron energy is studied. It is shown that the differences observed in the scattering rate between different nanotubes mainly stem from the differences in their band structure.

     

    A bulk single electron Monte Carlo simulator was developed to study the electron transport in semiconducting zigzag carbon nanotubes. As a first step, we included only electron-phonon scattering, neglecting all other possible scattering mechanisms. With this scattering mechanism, the steady-state drift velocity and the mobility for the nanotubes (8,0), (10,0), (11,0), (13,0) and (25,0) were calculated as functions of the electric-field strength and lattice temperature, and the results are presented and analysed here. The dependence of the mobility on the lattice temperature can be clearly seen at low electric-field strengths. At such electric-field strengths, the scattering is almost entirely due to acoustic phonons, whereas at high electric-field strengths optical phonon emission processes dominate. It is shown that the saturation of the steady-state drift velocity at high electric-field strengths is due to the emission of high-energy optical phonons. The results indicate the presence of Negative differential resistance for some of the nanotubes considered in this work. The discrepancy found in the literature concerning the physical reason for the appearance of negative differential resistance is clarified, and a new explanation is proposed. It is also observed that the backward scattering is dominant over the forward scattering at high electric-field strengths.

                                                                                     

    We then included also defect scattering, actually electron-vacancy scattering, for the nanotubes (10,0) and (13,0). The steady-state drift velocities for these nanotubes are calculated as functions of the density of vacancies, electric-field strength and the lattice temperature, using three different vacancy concentrations. The results indicate the presence of Negative differential resistance at very low concentration of defects, and how this feature may depend on the concentration of defects. The dependence of the steady-state drift velocity on the concentration of defect and the lattice temperature is discussed. The electron distribution functions for different temperatures and electric field strengths are also calculated and investigated for all the semiconducting nanotubes considered here. In particular, a steep barrier found in the electron distribution function is attributed to the emission of high energy optical phonons.

  • 275.
    Thomtén, Johanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Pain among women: Prospective population studies from a biopsychosocial perspective on pain2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the role of different psychosocial factors in the course of pain over time in a general population sample of women in Sweden. The main aim was to identify and quantify such factors as predictors of pain, pain-related disability and quality of life within a biopsychosocial framework for the understanding of the pain experience over time.  The studies were based on baseline (BL) and follow-up (FU) measures with 12 months apart among 2,300 women living in Sweden, and included physical and psychological health and socio-economic status.

    Study I investigated associations between socio-economic status (SES) at baseline and pain and pain-related disability at follow-up, and additionally a possible mediating role of depressive symptoms in such associations. The results indicated that educational level, financial strain and occupational level were associated with pain over time. Symptoms of depression were related to all pain-and SES factors, and might be understood as a mediating factor within this context. The results of Study II showed a link between symptoms of burnout at baseline and several pain-locations. Additionally, among women with pain, the characteristics of the pain experience and pain-related disability were associated with level of burnout over time. Study III focused on the sub sample of women reporting pain at follow-up, and examined possible predictors of their perceptions of quality of life (QOL). Several psychosocial factors were associated with QOL, and seemed to be more important predictors than the characteristics of pain in terms of intensity and frequency. These factors were burnout, emotional distress, and social support. Study IV was an attempt to sum up the results of the previous studies by analysing predictors of the course of pain, i.e. by comparing women that developed pain from BL to FU with those that remained pain-free and to compare women with sustained pain with those who recovered from pain during the assessment period. These analyses showed symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSD) to be associated with reporting emerging pain, while pain variables, educational level and social support were related to sustained pain.

    The results of the four studies in this thesis indicate that psychosocial factors and their interplay with the characteristics of pain can be identified and described in a female sample, with a broad definition of pain, and that these factors play a central role in the experience of pain and its impact on the everyday life of these women. There may be several possible paths leading to the development of persistent pain among women and the identification of risk factors is complicated by never-ending interactions between biological, psychological and social processes. At an early stage, prior to pain development, several risk factors may cluster together (e.g. SES, depression), and work as indicators of, e.g. dysfunctional coping in relation to pain. In the first contact with health care and among primary care personnel the identification of such indicators is crucial so as to find women at risk for prolonged pain conditions. General indicators might then be more easily distinguishable than certain individual behaviour characteristics widely accepted as risk factors for pain and disability (e.g. fear-avoidance). To spread the knowledge of general factors in the first line of health care is therefore of great importance in preventive work.

    Finally, the results demonstrated that many women report pain with characteristics that to a great extent affect their lives and through interactions with psychological and social health might have grave consequences for perceptions of quality of life.

     

  • 276.
    Thörnberg, Benny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Memory modeling and synthesis for real-time video processing systems2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, a new design methodology and new tools for modeling and synthesis of real-time video processing systems are presented. A real-time video processing system is a system that performs computations on a continuous sequence of images. Image processing is a memory intensive application. This, in turn, leads to the design challenge of bridging the classical gap of speed between memories and computational units. Several techniques exist for building memory hierarchies that exploit data- locality and reuse in order to overcome this memory gap. However, the support from tools to aid the designer in dataflow analysis and memory design is very modest. Additional constructs for modeling electronic systems enable well-known sequential programming languages such as C/C++ to be used for system modeling. Ocapi and SystemC, two object-oriented specification methods are compared in a case study. In this study, SystemC is found to be the most suitable specification method for video processing systems. Most operations invoked in video processing are neighborhood oriented. For a video system designer, this spatio-temporal collection of pixels represents a natural abstraction. In addition, the same pixel neighborhood reflects data dependencies that are crucial to system synthesis. An extended SystemC modeling methodology, called IMEM is presented. IMEM can be used to capture memory transactions and stream interfaces based on the pixel neighborhood as an abstraction. Two important steps towards synthesis of video systems onto Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are presented. These two steps are parts of a decomposition of the complete synthesis task. Firstly, the optimal sizes and placements of all FIFO-buffers in the memory system are optimized. Bit-widths, pipelining and possible sharing of FIFO-buffers among several data flow dependencies are considered at this step. Secondly, the set of FIFO-buffers are allocated onto a set of dual-ported fined grained memories. Both synthesis steps are formally modeled using network flow techniques and linear programming. In addition, a synthesis method that can automatically transform an IMEM model of a single spatial neighborhood into a multimedia processor implementation is presented. The cache and the instruction scheduler performance are both optimized by the tool. IMEM is an application specific methodology that provides the nonhardware skilled video designer with an easy programming model and an FPGA synthesis tool. Memory usage is modeled separately from computation. This is a key feature since memory usage is accepted as being the biggest design bottleneck for video processing.

  • 277.
    Udo, Camilla
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Existential issues in surgical care: Nurses’ experiences and attitudes in caring for patients with cancer2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to explore surgical nurses’ experiences of being confronted with patients’ existential issues when caring for patients with cancer, and to examine whether an educational intervention may support nurses in addressing existential needs when caring for patients with cancer. Previously recorded discussions from supervision sessions with eight healthcare professionals were analysed (I), written descriptions of critical incidents were collected from 10 nurses, and interviews with open questions were conducted (II). An educational intervention on existential issues was pilot tested and is presented in Studies III and IV. The intervention was the basis of a pilot study with the purpose of testing whether the whole design of the educational intervention, including measurements instruments, is appropriate. In Study III and IV interviews with 11 nurses were conducted and 42 nurses were included in the quantitative measurements of four questionnaires, which were distributed and collected. Data was analysed using qualitative secondary analysis (I), hermeneutical analysis (II), and mixed methods using qualitative content analysis and statistical analyses (III-IV). Results in all studies show that existential issues are part of caring at surgical wards. However, although the nurses were aware of them, they found it difficult to acknowledge these issues owing to for example insecurity (I-III), a strict medical focus (II) and/or lacking strategies (I-III) for communicating on these issues. Modest results from the pilot study are reported and suggest beneficial influences of a support in communication on existential issues (III). The results indicate that the educational intervention may enhance nurses’ understanding for the patient’s situation (IV), help them deal with own insecurity and powerlessness in communication (III), and increase the value of caring for severely ill and dying patients (III) in addition to reducing work-related stress (IV). An outcome of all the studies in this thesis was that surgical nurses consider it crucial to have time and opportunity to reflect on caring situations together with colleagues. In addition, descriptions in Studies III and IV show the value of relating reflection to a theory or philosophy in order for attitudes to be brought to awareness and for new strategies to be developed.

  • 278.
    Unander, Tomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    System integration of electronic functionality in packaging application2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensor applications are becoming increasingly important as products are now being requested to be more and more intelligent and safe. As the costs involved in sensor technology decrease its usage will spread to new market segments including new areas with products that have never previously used such functionalities, including, wood fibre based products for packaging, hygiene or graphical use. Currently there is a significant interest in developing technology that will allow packages to become interactive and be integrated with digital services accessible on the Internet. In this thesis, the system integration of a hybrid RFID based sensor platform is presented. This proposed platform provides a trade-off between the communication performance and its compatibility with international standards and also includes flexibility in on‐package customization, including the type and number of sensors. In addition it combines the use of traditional silicon based electronics with printed electronics directly onto wood fibre based materials so as to enable the possibility of creating smart packages. Together with the system integration of the sensor platform, five printed moisture sensor concepts that are designed to work with the sensor platform are presented and characterized. Firstly, there is a moisture sensor that shows a good correlation to the moisture content of wood fibre based substrates. The second one involves a sensor that detects high relative humidity levels in the air and the third is an action activated energy cell that provides power when activated by moisture. The fourth one deals with two types of moisture sensors that utilize silver nano-particles in order to measure the relative humidity in the air. The final one is a printable touch sensitive sensor that is sensitive to the moisture contained in the hand. A concept of remote moisture sensing that utilizes ordinary low cost RFID tags has also been presented and characterized.

    The main focus is thus on system integration to, by combining silicon based electronics with printed electronics, find the most low cost solution with regards to flexibility, sensor functions and still meet the communication standards.

  • 279.
    Vamstad, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Governing Welfare: The third sector and the challenges to the Swedish Welfare State2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall issue addressed in this thesis is the challanges to the Swedish welfare state. This topic has been the subject of several different interpretations in the academic as well as political debate in Sweden over the last decade. The first of two questions raised in this thesis is therefore what the main challenges to the Swedish welfare state are. It is concluded that the main challenges are the challanges to the representative democracy that originate in measures to meet the economic challenges to the Swedish welfare state by making it more efficient and rational. The main challenges to the Swedish welfare state are, therefore, a mix of interrelated economic and democratic challenges. A specific factor is tested for its possible impact on these challenges and that factor is third sector provision of welfare services. The second of the two research questions is therefore in what way and to what extent the third sector can influence how the identified challenges affect the welfare state. Childcare is selected as an example of a welfare service where there are a considerable proportion of third sector providers, primarily parent and worker cooperatives. The diversity, level of participation and service quality of different types of childcare is analysed with regard to how they affect the here presented challenges to the welfare state. It is concluded from this analysis that there are democratic benefits in the third sector provision of childcare that can act complementary to the challenged representative democracy. It is also concluded, however, that not all Swedish childcare can be provided by the third sector and that its democratic benefits therefore also should be produced by other types of childcare by imitating the third sectors active participation, small scale and independence. This study shows that Sweden is rapidly moving towards a greater diversity in its delivery of welfare service and that there are no policies or institutions for facilitating a more diverse service provision. An additional conclusion is for this reason that the outcome of the economic and democratic challenges varies with the direction of this diversification, which tells us that such policies and institutions are desirable. The Swedish welfare state will be getting a more diverse provision of welfare services regardless if there is any readiness for it or not and the results from this thesis show that the third sector is the non-public type of welfare provider that best facilitate the values and morals of the welfare state.

  • 280.
    van Vliet, Marja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Integrative Medicine in the Dutch healthcare system: prerequisites and tools for implementation2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrative Medicine (IM) is a care approach that focuses on the overall well-being and healing process of patients rather than solely on their disease. IM educates and empowers people to be active players in their own care, emphasizes the therapeutic relationship, and makes use of all appropriate evidence-based approaches. The health-oriented foundations of IM are in line with the recently posed concept that describes health as ”the ability to adapt and to self-manage”. Due to the shared underpinnings of both IM and the new concept of health, incorporation of this new concept of health may serve as a facilitator for the development and implementation of IM. From a practical viewpoint, working from an integrative care approach requires specific competences from healthcare providers, such as socio-communicative and self-reflective skills, and reflexivity towards a holistic perspective on health. Previous studies have shown that a Mind-Body Medicine (MBM) course can potentially foster these competences among future healthcare providers. This thesis intended to gain increased insight into the prerequisites and tools for implementation of IM. Therefore, in the first part it aimed to explore the attitudes and practice of IM among Dutch nurses and the support for the new dynamic concept of health as ”the ability to adapt and to self-manage” among main stakeholders within the Dutch healthcare community. Furthermore, in the second part it aimed to evaluate the possibilities of an MBM course among medical and nursing students as a tool to foster an integrative care approach.

    Methods Both quantitative and qualitative research designs were used. Attitudes and practice of IM were assessed in a semi-structured survey study among 355 Dutch nurses (study I). Support for the new concept of health was explored in a mixed method study, where in the first step data from interviews and focus-groups among 140 stakeholders were investigated by use of manifest content analysis, and in the second step a cross-sectional survey was performed among 1938 stakeholders to verify the findings of the first step (study II). The MBM course was evaluated by a controlled, quasi-experimental intervention study (74 participants / 61 controls among medical students and 47 participants / 64 controls among nursing students) in which validated questionnaires were used (study III). Furthermore, in-depth interviews with 11 medical and 15 nursing students were employed and analysed by a Phenomenological Hermeneutical method to obtain an in-depth understanding of the meaning of the MBM course for the participants (study IV).

    Findings Study I showed an overall positive attitude towards IM among nurses. Patient-centeredness and a focus on individuals’ own resources and responsibility to promote health met the most support among both nurses and other stakeholders. These elements were considered to be the main positive aspects of the new dynamic concept of health among stakeholders as well (study II). Use of evidence-based and safe complementary therapies and a healing environment received some support from the nurses, but lack of knowledge and lack of evidence seems to hinder further incorporation in the current healthcare practice (study I). Additionally, study II revealed that health was perceived to comprise six dimensions: bodily functions, mental functions & perception, spiritual / existential dimension, quality of life, social and societal participation and daily functioning. In line with patients, nurses had a more broad conception of health in comparison to other healthcare professionals. Study III showed long-term beneficial effects of the MBM course on two dimensions of empathy (personal distress and empathic concern) among medical students, and on perceived stress and empathy (personal distress) among nursing students. Study IV brought forth that the MBM course can be understood as a pathway to inner awareness and a support to connecting with others as well as the outside world. The following themes were identified: “ability to be more present”, “an increased perception and awareness of self”, and “connecting on a deeper level with others”.

    Conclusion It can be concluded from the results in the first explorative part of this thesis that the observed positive attitudes and perceptions among healthcare professionals toward IM and the newly proposed health concept can serve as important facilitators for further implementation of IM within the Dutch healthcare system. Furthermore, the increased ability to deal with stress, improved empathic abilities and more openness toward different perspectives on health and new treatment options among medical and nursing students following a MBM course, as reported in the second part of this thesis, suggest that this course might be a suitable tool to foster an integrative care approach among future healthcare professionals.

  • 281.
    Vestin, Jenny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Biogeochemical Interactions between Soil, Soil Solution and Stream Water2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 282.
    Vilches, Ana Paola
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Effects of Bio-Ash Amendments on the Metabolism of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi: A Method Development and Metabolomic Study2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest ecosystems have played a fundamental role in the development of our society. Since the beginning of the civilization, forest have provided us with wood as a product for construction, tools, furniture and domestic heating. The well-being of the forest is therefore fundamental to our existence. Today, our growing societies have increased energy needs; the resulting depletion of fossil reserves and the effects of their use has again shown how the forest is among the most important alternatives for sustainability of our ecosystem. In order to responsibly make this resource a key part of our energy and material supply, we need to understand how forestry practices influence the different processes taking place in the forest ecosystems.

    The use of raw material from forest as energy source produces huge amounts of ash. The ash contains the base cations that have once been translocated from soil to the upper parts of the trees. Ash recycling has therefore been suggested as a measure to counteract soil acidification due to extensive harvest. Since spreading of ash can have great effects on the forest, it is important to understand which these effects are and how big they might be.

    This thesis focuses on the effects that such an ash recycling may have on the metabolism of ectomycorrhizal fungi; that is, fungi that are able to colonize root of trees, and contribute to the acquisition of nutrients and water from soil. The work presented here utilized an in vitro metabolomic approach on eight species of ectomycorrhizal fungi normally found in boreal forests. A targeted metabolomic study addressed the effects of ash amendments on growth, external pH and the exudation of low molecular mass organic acids, amino acids and hydroxamate siderophores. This was complemented by an untargeted metabolomic study to address the effects of ash amendment on the general metabolism of the fungal species.

    Analyses were performed with well-established chemical methods, and some that had to be developed specifically for this thesis work. A method for the analysis of amino acids without derivatization and yet compatible with mass spectrometry had to be developed and validated. The result was a robust method that works well with external calibration, shows good long-term stability, relatively low detections limits and high sample throughput. A screening protocol for the determination of siderophores from mass spectrometry data was also established.

    The metabolomic studies showed that bio-ash amendment increased the exudation of low molecular mass organic compounds from all the studied species. This means that the species tended to exude more of the same compounds compared to the controls without ash. In some cases, the bio-ash also triggered the exudation of new compounds. There was some exceptions, though; bio-ash amendment had negative effects on the exudation of certain metabolites, but these negative effects were of lower magnitude compared to the positive effects.

    Both metabolomics studies showed a differentiation between the ascomycetes and the basidiomycetes species. The targeted metabolomic study, indicated a trade-off in the utilization of carbon for accumulation of biomass or for the exudation of low molecular mass organic compounds, in which the ascomycetes accumulated more carbon as biomass compared to the basidiomycetes. According to the untargeted metabolomic study, the ascomycetes species presented the greatest number of metabolites that were influenced significantly by ash treatment, either as increase or decrease.

    Adding extracted ash to the culturing medium at the beginning of the experiment increased the pH, but this was counteracted by species metabolism as exudation of organic acids correlated with a drop in external pH. Ash treatment triggered the total exudation of low molecular mass organic acids in five of the eight studied species and especially in Cortinarius glaucopus. Ash treatment also triggered the exudation of amino acids from Tomentellopsis submollis and ferricrocin from Hymenoscyphus ericae.

    Of note was that no metabolite significantly influenced by ash was found to be common to all species, indicating that the ash amendments mainly affected the secondary metabolism under the culturing conditions used. Additionally, the ascomycetes Hymenoscyphus ericae exuded the greatest number of metabolites affected by ash that were exuded only by a single species. Conversely, Piloderma olivaceum exuded the largest number of unique metabolites not influenced by ash.

  • 283.
    Voie, Christian Hummelsund
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    Nature Writing of the Anthropocene2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The point of departure for this study is the hypothesis that the American genre of nature writing has reached an important crossroads in the way it describes the human-nature relationship. My study argues that the awareness of the large-scale environmental changes that are signaled in terms such as the Anthropocene has changed the way nature writers approach their genre. Where traditional nature writing would tend to posit a separation between pristine and humanized environments, the nature writing of the Anthropocene emerges from the awareness that environmental impacts have reached a scope where no such distinction can be made. The traditional narrative of retreat to pristine nature or the wilderness from civilization has thus been replaced in Anthropocenic nature writing with the narrative of confrontation with a natural environment impacted by humans. This is a dystopian tendency in the genre, in which descriptions of nature are increasingly characterized by the writer’s concerns over what is happening to the landscape in question, and what the future might hold in a world where industrial humanity is affecting all ecological processes. Such literature increasingly foregrounds the best available environmental science, and the texts mark a shift from the traditional focus on spiritual connections with the environment, towards more material and functional understandings of the role of humanity in the complex organic and inorganic dynamics that maintain the world’s ecosystems. This dissertation analyzes the emergence of Anthropocenic awareness in selected texts of contemporary American nature writing with reference to its five main features: scientific interest in the function of ecosystems, interest in the agency of matter rendered through what is referred to as material nature writing, the dignification of the overlooked, the environmental landscape of fear, and a turn in the genre towards matters of environmental justice. Even though what I refer to as Anthropocenic nature writing may seem dystopian, this dissertation foregrounds the various ways in which the narrative of confrontation with the human also invites activism and engagement in the hope of stimulating change and environmental justice.

  • 284.
    von Krogh, Torbjörn
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Understanding Media Accountability: Media Accountability in Relation to Media Criticism and Media Governance in Sweden 1940-20102012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concepts of media accountability, media criticism and media governance are analysed and discussed in a Swedish setting; how they relate to each other and interact. This is achieved by using various methods – a survey to editors, analy- ses of parliamentary debates, interviews, direct observation and document stu- dies – in studying different stakeholders, media representatives and governance conditions in Sweden during the last 70 years.

    The findings point in a direction of dynamic complexities with a central role for media criticism. The type, level and intensity of media criticism may affect the functioning of the media governance structure and is a vital part of the media accountability process. The media governance structure – which in addi- tion to media criticism is influenced by international conditions, technological developments and political factors – may in turn affect the media accountability process. In this process, media representatives aim to defend obtained positions of societal influence, achieve and maintain positive PR and enhance editorial quality at the same time.

    Media criticism may start a substantial media accountability process if the discontent is widespread and not countered by market approval or political iner- tia. The process is facilitated if the critique is connected to more than one frame of accountability and if stakeholders see opportunities for dual objectives. Very strong and widespread media criticism may be difficult for media organizations to neglect.

    The accountability process in Sweden has become less dependent on corpora- tive negotiations between organized interests and political assemblies. Instead, two other tendencies seem to have emerged: on the one hand a possibility for media organizations to favour such accountability processes that they are able to control, and on the other hand the rise of a rich variety of sometimes short-lived accountability instruments that may develop for specific occasions and are difficult to control.

  • 285.
    Wall, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Riskförståelse: Teoretiska och empiriska perspektiv2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis introduces the concept of ‘sense-making of risk’ (riskförståelse) for the purpose of the theoretical and empirical study of the individual’s sense-making of risk. Particular weight is attached to an examination of the term’s various components, its compass, and the relationship between sense-making of risk and behaviour. The premise is that risk is created and defined by the common conceptions that exist within the framework of a specific social context; the effect is to focus attention on the significance of social and cultural contexts. To provide a full picture of sense-making of risk, and risk behaviour, and to study these phenomena using a variety of methodological perspectives, the data was gathered from both polls and focus-group interviews. It is in the first article, based on a focus-group interview study, that the concept of sense-making of risk is introduced: the empirical results demonstrate that it can be used to chart how young people with similar risk perceptions differ in their understanding of a variety of risks. A theoretical model is proposed that establishes that there are two dimensions to the individual’s sense-making of risk. The second article considers young people’s risk behaviour in traffic milieus. The principal conclusion drawn in this study is that the individual’s sense-making of risk is insufficient to explain behaviour in relation to risk: the spatial context must also be taken into account. The third article focuses on the relationship between place attachment and sense-making of risk, and demonstrates that various aspects of place attachment have implications for the individual’s sense-making of risk. The fourth and final article offers a cluster analysis. The article’s most important result is its refinement of the theoretical concepts.  Structure of meaning is singled out as the basis for the individual’s sense-making of risk. In its empirical application the concept was shown to be useful in studying the behavioural differences between various social groups, since grouping by structure of meaning furnishes an explanation for variations in risk and risk-reducing behaviour. The introductory and concluding chapters assemble the studies’ findings and offer a full account of the concept of sense-making of risk. The thesis’ most important conceptual contribution is to the question of how the individual arrives at a personal sense-making of risk. However, it will fall to future studies to establish the concept’s general applicability by considering its theoretical ramifications and empirical implementation. In this way, sense-making of risk can take its place in a specifically sociological conceptual apparatus that focuses on how the individual relates to risk.

  • 286.
    Wallin, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    The Scents of Nature: Identification and Synthesis of Bioactive Compounds Used in Insect Communication2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pest insects cause great financial losses in the forest and food industry every year. To fight these pests industries have used insecticides, which are sometimes harmful to nature and humans. One potential way of avoiding insecticides is the use of integrated pest management based on insect communication, which would offer species-specific methods for protecting forest and food resources. Insects use chemicals known as semiochemicals for both intra- and interspecies communication. By learning how insects use these semio-chemicals to talk to each other we can eavesdrop and mimic their communication for our benefit. One research area dealing with these questions is chemical ecology, which is an interdisciplinary area as knowledge in chemistry and biology is required. Collaborations between groups within and outside of Sweden are essential in order to make progress in this field of research.

    This thesis presents the identification and synthesis of semiochemicals from several insect species, most of which are considered to be pests. Synthesised compounds have been sent to collaboration partners around Sweden and Europe for biological evaluations.

    Studies of the African butterfly, Bicyclus anynana, have unravelled particular biological phenomena that may aid in the understanding of the Bicyclus genus, though recognizing individual species variation is crucial. In 2008 the putative male sex pheromone of B. anynana was determined to consist of three compounds: hexadecanal, (Z)-9-tetradecenol and 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-ol, and the specific stereoisomer for 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-ol has been determined in this thesis. The ratio of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-ol and the corresponding ketone were investigated for seventeen Bicyclus species (including B. anynana) that live in overlapping regions in Africa. The stereochemistry was determined for most of the species and may provide a way to chemically distinguish them.

    The orchid bees, Euglossa spp, are important pollinators of many orchids in Central America. Insight about pollination and conservation of endangered orchid species may be possible by gathering more information about the Euglossa genus. Males of the Euglossa genus have pouch-like structures on their hind legs where they store compounds collected from their surroundings. 6,10,14-Trimethyl-pentadecan-2-one is a common component of leg extracts from Euglossa imperialis, E. crassipunctata and E. allosticta, the specific stereochemistry of which has been determined in this thesis. Another, different compound was found in high amounts in E. viridissima and its structure has been elucidated; several synthetic pathways are under investigation to obtain the target compound.

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius and C. hemipterus) are an ectoparasite that feed on human blood, and the number of reported infestations of these parasites has increased considerably during the last decade. Two 5th instar nymph-specific compounds, 4-oxo-hexenal and 4-oxo-octenal, were identified and synthesised.

    Utilizing domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in the identification of bed bug infestations has become popular during recent years. Their training is usually conducted using live bed bugs, however this thesis describes an alternative method of teaching dogs to find infestations. This alternative method is based on synthetic compounds and dogs trained in this manner have achieved a high positive indication rate.

    Two species of the tiny, Acacia leaf-eating insect pests in Australia known as thrips, Kladothrips nicolsoni and K. rugosus, have been investigated by means of larval extracts and have been shown to contain large amount of (Z)-3-dodecenoic acid which was synthesised and tested in bioassays.

    Fruit flies are common pests on fruit in almost every private household. Even though fruit flies has been investigated extensively, their chemical communication has not been completely elucidated. (Z)-4-undecenal was identified as a compound emitted by females, it was synthesised in high stereoisomeric purity and evaluated in biological assays.

  • 287.
    Walter, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    The use of Fenton chemistry for reducing the refining energy during TMP production: the effect of free ferrous and free or chelated ferric ions2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of using acid hydrogen peroxide under Fenton conditions to lowerthe electrical energy consumed during the production of Black spruce (Piceamariana) thermomechanical pulp (TMP) was investigated in pilot scale. Thechemical system, which consisted of ferrous sulphate, hydrogen peroxide andoptionally an enhancer (such as a chelating agent), was evaluated as an inter-stagetreatment. The produced TMPs were thoroughly characterised in order to explainthe effect of the chemical system on fibre development and to be able to propose amechanism for the impact on refining energy reduction. The possibility to improvethe optical properties by washing, chelating and sodium dithionite or hydrogenperoxide bleaching the treated pulps was evaluated. The system of lignocellulosicmaterial, a Norway spruce (Picea abies) TMP, and Fenton chemistry was alsoevaluated in a model study to understand more about how conditions such as e.g.initial pH, dissolved organic material and reaction time affect the reactions.Ferrous and ferric ions (free and chelated) and different anions were evaluated.Moreover, it was examined whether hydroxyl radicals could be detected andmonitored.The results obtained in pilot scale showed that it is possible to significantly reducethe specific energy consumption by approximately 20% and 35% at a freenessvalue of 100 ml CSF or a tensile index of 45 Nm/g by using 1% and 2% hydrogenperoxide respectively. The energy reduction was obtained without any substantialchange to the fractional composition of the pulp, although tear strength wasslightly reduced, as were brightness and pulp yield. No major differences betweenthe reference pulp and the chemically treated pulps were found with respect tofibre length, width or cross-sectional dimensions. However, the acid hydrogenperoxide-treated pulps tended to have more collapsed fibres, higher flexibility, alarger specific surface area and a lower coarseness value. The yield lossiiiaccompanying the treatment was mainly a consequence of degradedhemicelluloses. It was also found that the total charge of the chemically treatedpulps was higher compared to the reference pulps; something that may haveinfluenced the softening behaviour of the fibre wall.A washing or chelating procedure could significantly reduce the metal ion contentof the chemically treated TMPs. The amount of iron could be further reduced to alevel similar to that of untreated pulps by performing a reducing agent-assistedchelating stage with dithionite. The discoloration could not, however, becompletely eliminated. The brightness decrease of the treated pulps was thereforenot only caused by the greater iron content in the pulp, but was also dependent onthe type of iron compound and/or other coloured compounds connected with theacid hydrogen peroxide treatment. Oxidative bleaching using hydrogen peroxidewas more effective than reductive bleaching using sodium dithionite in regainingthe brightness that was lost during the energy reductive treatment.From the model study and by using a chemiluminescence method, it could beconcluded that hydroxyl radicals were present in the system of Fenton chemicalsand lignocellulosic material (TMP). Initial pH, retention time, pulp consistency,type of catalyst (free or chelated) and dissolved organic material had an impact onthe reactions between TMP and acid hydrogen peroxide. Different anions(sulphate, nitrate and chloride) of ferric ion salt gave a similar catalytic effect.There appeared to be more reactions with the TMP when there was less dissolvedorganic material in the liquid phase from the start. A catalyst of ferrous sulphatehad a greater impact on the pulp (increased total fibre charge and carbonyl groups,more dissolved organic material in filtrate) than ferric ions chelated withethylenediaminetetraacetic acid at an initial pH of about 3-7. If using ferric-EDG(ethanol diglycinic acid) as catalyst, the measured effect on the pulp was similar orless compared to using ferrous sulphate. Ferric-EDG, however, gave higherhydrogen peroxide consumption and more detectable hydroxyl radicals than usingferrous sulphate (initial pH 5-8). It is likely that the iron catalyst must bind to theTMP, or be in close proximity to it, for the hydroxyl radicals to be able to react withthe material.A mechanism was proposed: the hydroxyl radicals generated in the Fentonreaction will probably attack and oxidise the available outer fibre surfaces,weakening these layers, and simultaneously dissolve some of the organic material.This can facilitate fibre development, give a better bonding pulp and reduce theelectrical energy required during refining.

  • 288.
    Wang, Airong
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities.
    Learning English in a Multi-User Virtual Environment: Exploring Factors Affecting Participation2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Online language learning and teaching is a field that has received a significant amount of research attention. What factors could affect student participation in simpler online learning environments has been investigated by researchers, but there has been limited study of factors affecting participation in complex Multi-User Virtual Environments.

    By using the typical Multi-User Virtual Environment Second Life, three English courses offered by Swedish universities were examined in this thesis. The courses were video-recorded, and selected parts of the recordings were transcribed. The transcribed recordings were complemented by author(s)’ observation, participants’ reflection, an online questionnaire and an online interview. Participation from the courses was measured both quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative methods were used to measure, for example, floor space, number of utterances, turn length, number of turns; the qualitative analysis centered on, for instance, utterance functions, discourse analysis, and Conversational Analysis.

    The results were published in five papers that focused on different central factors affecting participation in Second Life. In this thesis, the findings from those articles are synthesized. Furthermore, on the basis of the findings, a general model of factors affecting participation is presented and discussed to highlight that different factors interrelate and that some factors are particularly important in terms of affecting participation in Multi-User Virtual Environments. These are students’ technical skills, task design, course design, technical support, and Second Life technology. The complex technology also places critical demands on teachers’ technical skills, teaching strategies, and roles that teachers should play. Finally, this thesis argues that it is important to choose a suitable technology for an English course.

  • 289.
    Wang, Qinghua
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Traffic Analysis, Modeling and Their Applications in Energy-Constrained Wireless Sensor Networks: On Network Optimization and Anomaly Detection2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) has emerged as a promising technology thanks to the recent advances in electronics, networking, and information processing. A wide range of WSN applications have been proposed such as habitat monitoring, environmental observations and forecasting systems, health monitoring, etc. In these applications, many low power and inexpensive sensor nodes are deployed in a vast space to cooperate as a network.

    Although WSN is a promising technology, there is still a great deal of additional research required before it finally becomes a mature technology. This dissertation concentrates on three factors which are holding back the development of WSNs. Firstly, there is a lack of traffic analysis & modeling for WSNs. Secondly, network optimization for WSNs needs more investigation. Thirdly, the development of anomaly detection techniques for WSNs remains a seldomly touched area.

    In the field of traffic analysis & modeling for WSNs, this dissertation presents several ways of modeling different aspects relating to WSN traffic, including the modeling of sequence relations among arriving packets, the modeling of a data traffic arrival process for an event-driven WSN, and the modeling of a traffic load distribution for a symmetric dense WSN. These research results enrich the current understanding regarding the traffic dynamics within WSNs, and provide a basis for further work on network optimization and anomaly detection for WSNs.

    In the field of network optimization for WSNs, this dissertation presents network optimization models from which network performance bounds can be derived. This dissertation also investigates network performances constrained by the energy resources available in an indentified bottleneck zone. For a symmetric dense WSN, an optimal energy allocation scheme is proposed to minimize the energy waste due to the uneven energy drain among sensor nodes. By modeling the interrelationships among communication traffic, energy consumption and WSN performances, these presented results have efficiently integrated the knowledge on WSN traffic dynamics into the field of network optimization for WSNs.

    Finally, in the field of anomaly detection for WSNs, this dissertation uses two examples to demonstrate the feasibility and the ease of detecting sensor network anomalies through the analysis of network traffic. The presented results will serve as an inspiration for the research community to develop more secure and more fault-tolerant WSNs.

  • 290.
    Warne, Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Där eleverna är: Ett arenaperspektiv på skolan som en stödjande miljö för hälsa2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Health is not created in a vacuum but in the relationship between individuals and their surroundings. School is therefore an important arena for children and youth since they spend the majority of their waking hours there. Earlier research has been particularly focused on risk factors related to mental illness in children and youth, rather than what promotes and strengthens their possibilities for positive health. Through a salutogenic approach, one can obtain knowledge about factors that contribute to a supportive environment for health. In order to gain understanding of the needs and values of new generations, students need to be made a part of their studies and the development of their own everyday environment.

    The aim of the dissertation was to study school as a supportive environment for health by involving students and finding methods of studying the positive aspects of health. The aim of the articles included challenges and possibilities for using a method to increase participation, deepen the understanding about aspects that promote health and learning, with a special focus on participation and support and how positive health can be measured.

    Students in a high school were chosen to be the participants in two qualitative studies. The method of photovoice was studied through sound recordings of the students’ dialogue during their work with photovoice and their points of view as well as the teachers’ during the focus group interviews. Data was analyzed by using content analysis (Paper I). Grounded theory was used to study the students’ view of what is important to health and learning (Paper II). A survey was used to create a positive health scale and to study factors associated with health among students in grades 6-9. The survey was taken by 1527 students (52,3% girls, 47,7% boys) in grades 6-9 in schools in the municipality of Östersund. The response rate was 80%. A principal component analysis was used to adjust and validate a positive health scale for the age group 12-16 (Paper III). In order to study the association between factors that might be associated with positive health, a multiple logistic regression was chosen (Paper IV).

    The results showed that photovoice worked as a method in high school to increase participation in matters related to health and learning. However the method needed to be adjusted to the student group. Photovoice was perceived as stimulating but also challenging by both teachers and students. Critical aspects were tied to the teacher role and the democratic organization (Paper I). The students’ view of what promoted health and learning were related to treatment, personal and pedagogical support and the potential for recovery. The results also showed that students regarded school as something that creates distinction between those who perceived themselves as under or over achievers (Paper II). The positive health scale (PHS) proved to be valid for students 12-16 years old and the scale should be useful for work with systematic health promotion where the starting point is a salutogenic perspective (Paper III). Factors associated with positive health among girls and boys age 12-16 were: a perceived participation in the classroom, support from teachers and friends and support from both parents. Socioeconomic status, measured as having as much money as pupils, was shown to be independently associated with positive health (Paper IV).

    The conclusion was that important factors for a supportive environment for health were; students’ perception of and possibility to participate in the classroom and in the school’s work environment, personal support from teachers and support in their education, support from friends and conditions that permit recovery during and after school. At the same time the results showed that there are distinctions between different groups of students in relation to health and support.

    In order to develop a supportive environment for health in schools, photovoice can be used to engage students and discover unique aspects of the individual school. With the help of the positive health scale (PHS), promoting factors can be examined, which increases the possibilities for systematic health promoting work with a salutogenic perspective.

  • 291.
    Weimer, Kerstin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Behavior Change Towards a Sustainable Lifestyle – Effects of Interventions and Psychological Factors on Pro-Environmental Behaviors2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate changes due to human-caused global warming are serious challenges for the planet. Changes in individual human behavior towards more pro-environmental actions are thus highly necessary. Human behavior is complex, however, and promoting behavior change requires a solid understanding of how people behave in different situations and contexts.

    Previous research has pointed out several reasons why people do not behave in accordance with our knowledge about the threat of climate change. Besides structural barriers, other reasons may be related to psychological barriers, such as beliefs, values, and social norms, which limit us in adopting more pro-environmental choices and behaviors. The overall aims of this thesis were to investigate the effects of interventions on energy conservation and ecological food consumption in promoting pro-environmental behavior, to explore the experiences of an energy-saving intervention from the perspective of the participants, and to investigate how values, attitudes, and other psychological factors predict pro-environmental behavior and pro-environmental intentions.

    This thesis is built on four studies. The first study was a survey, where an investigation was made of the predictive power of value orientation, awareness of consequences, environmental concern, moral judgment competence, locus of control, and sense of coherence, on eight pro-environmental behaviors and behavioral intentions. The results showed that only the value type universalism predicts pro-environmental behaviors and behavioral intentions, with attitudes, awareness of consequences for the biosphere, and environmental concern for the biosphere as intermediate or transmitting variables. The results indicate that found determinants of one single behavior may not be applied to other behaviors as dependent variables. Thus, a separate analysis for every type of both actual and intentional lifestyle might have been more successful in confirming these independent variables as determinants of pro-environmental behaviors and behavioral intentions.

    The second study was a randomized quasi-experimental field study. This field intervention investigated the effect of feedback on residential electricity use in households. For a period of eight weeks, differentiated energy use for daily domestic behaviors was monitored by 15 residents via an internet-based system. Feedback based on Relational Frame Theory was used to enhance motivation for energy conservation, and follow-up studies analyzed the maintenance of change for another three months. Psychological factors, including values, attitudes, moral judgment competence, locus of control, and sense of coherence, were simultaneously assessed by web surveys. No significant effects of the feedback on reduction of energy use were found. The small sample size, and the fact that warm water energy use was not monitored, were discussed as explanatory factors.

    In the third study, semi-structured interviews were conducted among eight households having participated in the intervention in the second study. The interview transcripts were subject to qualitative content analysis with the purpose of exploring the experiences of the participants. Those experiences were, on the one hand, described as a struggle to overcome internal and external barriers as well as feelings of contradiction and ambivalence, representing the limitations imposed by participating. On the other hand, there were also descriptions of feelings of ability and motivation, and interaction between satisfaction and improvements, representing the opportunities available to a participant in this kind of intervention. These results support the importance of specific strategies in developing the design of future interventions for promoting residential energy conservation.

    Finally, in the fourth study, an experimental field study was conducted to investigate the effects of behavioral interventions, commonly known as nudges, in promoting the consumption of organic fruits and vegetables. The consumption of both organically and conventionally produced fruits and vegetables was measured during four days (one day every other week) in a grocery store, where consumers were exposed to informational messages in combination with either emotional images or social norm messages. Measurements of daily consumption without exposure to nudges were carried out during four other days (one day every other week, alternated with the nudging days). The results showed that the proportion of sold organic products in the total sale of the selected fruits and vegetables was slightly higher during nudging days when price differences between conventional and organic products were low. This limited effect of nudging disappeared when the price of organic products was considerably higher than the price of conventionally produced products. The results indicate that there is a need to take measures to compensate for the prevailing differences in price between organic and conventional products. Such measures are, for example, the application of a combination of all available nudging tools to strengthen the effects of nudging, as well as collecting psychological data from the participants to be aware of their attitudes towards choices of organic products.

    Taken together, the overall findings of the studies in this thesis confirm the complexity of behavior and of behavior change. Many questions remain unanswered and suggestions on how to develop the research on these issues are discussed.

  • 292.
    Widenstjerna, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Vem väljer vem och varför?: Om betydelsen av homosocialitet och personliga kontakter i partiers nomineringsprocesser2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to study Swedish intra-party nomination processes for political appointments at the municipal, regional and national levels. This was accomplished by studying whether, and if so how, nomination processes are affected by identification and the existence of personal contacts and networks, based in part on homosociality and network capital. Homosociality proceeds from the assumption that people who are perceived as being similar are preferred at the expense of those perceived as different. Network capital is based on the premise that personal contacts and networks are a form of capital that can be accumulated and spent to achieve set goals, such as being nominated for a political appointment. The empirical material comprises 32 semi-structured in-depth interviews with members of nomination committees (selectors) in the Västernorrland region of Sweden that participated in nomination processes in connection with local, regional and national elections in 2010 and 2014. The respondents were selected through snowball sampling and were asked during the interviews how they believe their personal views on candidates and personal networks affect the selection processes of nomination committees. The analysis shows that nomination committees preferred candidates whom they perceived to be similar to them, in ways including socioeconomic factors, age, gender, or geographical origins. The analysis also shows that access to personal contacts often determined whether or not a candidate was nominated. This was partly because personal contacts worked as references for new politicians that were used to ameliorate the risk of nominating individuals who might be perceived as unsuitable and partly because people in the networks of selectors or those of their friends and family were often regarded as more credible. Another observation was the central role of the local level in the parties’ recruitment and nomination activities. The analysis also showed that long-term political experience at the local level was usually required of the people who stood as candidates for regional or national political appointments. Lacking local experience, the opportunity to be nominated for these appointments was virtually nil. As well, the analysis showed that homosociality can promote the formation of network capital, as people who perceive that they are similar each other are attracted to each other and form networks that become part of overall network capital.

  • 293.
    Wiklund, Hanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of applied science and design.
    Lattice Boltzmann simulations of two-phased flow in fibre network systems2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-phase flow in microfluidic systems is of great interest for many scientificand engineering problems. Especially in the pulp and paper area, the problems spanfrom fibre-fibre interactions in the consolidation process of papermaking to edgewickingin paper board during the aseptic treatment of liquid packaging.The objective of this thesis is to gain a fundamental understanding of the microfluidicmechanisms that play a significant role in various problems of two-phaseflow in fibre networks. To achieve this objective a new method for the treatment ofwetting boundary conditions in the lattice Boltzmann model has been developed.The model was validated and compared with the previous treatments of wettingboundary conditions, by using two test cases: droplet spreading and capillary intrusion.The new wetting boundary condition was shown to give more accurate resultsfor a wider range of contact angles than previous methods, and capillary intrusioncould be simulated with higher accuracy even at a relatively low resolution.As an application of the developed method, two examples of two-phase flowproblems in fibre networks are taken: the shear resistance of liquid bridges, as relatedto the wet web strength, and liquid penetration into porous structures, as related toedge-wicking in paper board. The shear resistance force was shown to depend verylittle on surface tension and contact angle. Instead, the shear resistance is a dynamicforce and a major contributing factor is the distortion of the flow field caused bythe presence of interfaces. This distortion of the flow field is size-dependent: thesmaller the bridge, the larger the proportion of the distorted flow field and thus alarger shear resistance force per unit width. In other words, multiple small bridgeshave an enhancement effect on shear resistance. The results from the simulations ofliquid penetration into porous structures showed that the discontinuities in the solidsurfacecurvature, as are present in the formof corners on the capillary surfaces, havestrong influences on liquid penetration through their pinning effects and also theirinteractions with local geometry. The microtopography can therefore, accelerate,decelerate and, in some cases, even stop the liquid penetration into random porousmedia.

  • 294.
    Wong, Winnie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A Hybrid Pixel Detector ASIC with Energy Binning for Real-Time, Spectroscopic Dose Measurements2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid pixel detectors have been demonstrated to provide excellent quality detection of ionising photon radiation, particularly in X-ray imaging. Recently, there has been interest in developing a hybrid pixel detector specifically for photon dosimetry. This thesis is on the design, implementation, and preliminary characterisation of the Dosepix readout chip.

    Dosepix has 256 square pixels of 220 mm side-length, constituting 12.4 mm2 of photo-sensitive area per detector. The combination of multiple pixels provides many parallel processors with limited input flux, resulting in a radiation dose monitor which can continuously record data and provide a real-time report on personal dose equivalent. Energy measurements are obtained by measuring the time over threshold of each photon and a state machine in the pixel sorts the detected photon event into appropriate energy bins. Each pixel contains 16 digital thresholds with 16 registers to store the associated energy bins. Preliminary measurements of Dosepix chips bump bonded to silicon sensors show very promising results. The pixel has a frontend noise of 120 e-. In low power mode, each chip consumes 15 mW, permitting its use in a portable, battery-powered system. Direct time over threshold output from the hybrid pixel detector assembly reveal distinctive photo-peaks correctly identifying the nature of incident photons, and verification measurements indicate that the pixel binning state machines accurately categorise charge spectra. Personal dose equivalent reconstruction using this data has a flat response for a large range of photon energies and personal dose equivalent rates.

  • 295.
    Xue, Shang
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Alternating Coding and its Decoder Architectures for Unary-Prefixed Codes2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The entropy coding of high peak, heavy-tailed probability distributions such as the Laplacian, Cauchy, and generalized Gaussian have been a topic of interest because they are able to provide good models for data in many coding systems, especially in image and video coding systems. This thesis studies the entropy coding of such high peak, heavy-tailed probability distributions. By summarizing the encoding of such distributions under the concept “Unary Prefixed Codes” (UPC), the thesis depicts the encoding via a different approach. By extending the concept of UPC, the thesis proposes a universally applicable coding algorithm “Unary Prefixed Huffman” (UPH) that could be applied to both finite and infinite sources. The code set resulting from the UPH algorithm has a coding efficiency which is upper-bounded by entropy + 2 given that the entropy is finite, and is able to provide sub-optimal encoding of the sources studied in the thesis. The thesis also proposes several different variations of UPCs that are simple in structure yet efficient for use for several variations of the high peak, heavy-tailed distributions that are commonly found in image and video coding systems. By applying the concept of the UPC, the thesis further proposes a coding method named the “Alternating Coding” (ALT) method. The ALT coding provides a coding pattern that is different from the conventional method which enables the extraction of special properties of the UPCs. Using the extraction of the special property of the UPCs, decoding could be greatly simplified and parallel decoding could be a possibility. Moreover, for the highly structured UPCs that are widely used in image and video coding systems, the ALT coding enables an error resiliency mechanism to be applied, which helps to improve the error tolerance of these UPC packets to a significant extent. Simulations and actual application results of the ALT coding are discussed in the thesis. By applying the ALT coding, the hardware architecture of the decoder changes accordingly. The ALT decoder is different to the conventional variable length decoders that have been applied in the decoding of UPCs, as it is able to utilize the special properties of the UPCs and thus simplify the decoder architecture. As shown in the thesis, the ALT decoders are smaller in size, faster in speed and consume much less power compared to the conventional decoders. This is particularly true for those highly structured UPCs that are commonly used in image and video coding systems. Actual realizations of several ALT decoders are discussed in the thesis, and comparisons are made to the conventional decoders. The improvements are shown to be very evident.

  • 296.
    Yahaya, Ismail
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Childhood Sexual Abuse Against Girls in Sub-Saharan Africa: Individual and Contextual Risk Factors2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a substantial public health and human rights problem, as well as a growing concern in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It has both short and long term effects on girls: physical and psychological, including negative sexual outcomes. Up to one-third of adolescent girls report their first sexual experience as being forced. Despite growing evidence supporting a link between contextual factors and violence, no studies have investigated the connection between CSA and contextual factors. It is therefore important to identify the extent of CSA and understand factors associated with it in SSA in order to develop interventions aimed to address the scale of the problem.

    Aim: The overall aim of this thesis is to assess the individual and contextual factors associated with CSA. In addition, the thesis aims to quantify the magnitude of CSA and describe the factors associated with CSA among women from SSA (Study I). This thesis also examines the independent contribution of individual and community socio-economic status on CSA (Study II). Moreover, it scrutinises the effect of social disorganisation on CSA (Study III) and explores the relationship between CSA and sexual risk behaviours as well as potential mediators (Study IV).

    Methods: This thesis used the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) datasets conducted between 2006 and 2008 from six SSA countries. The thesis used multiple logistic regression models to describe and explore factors associated with CSA among 69,977 women (Study I).  It used multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis to explore the effect of contextual level variables (neighbourhood socio-economic status) on CSA among 6,351 girls (Study II). Neighbourhood socio-economic status was operationalized with a principal component analysis using the proportion of respondents who were unemployed, illiterates, living below poverty level and rural residents. Study III applied multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis on 6,351 girls and considered five measures of social disorganisation at the community level: neighbourhood poverty, female-headed households, residential mobility, place of residence, population density, and ethnic diversity. In study IV, 12,800 women from the Nigerian DHS were used. Structural equation modelling was applied using a two-step approach. The first step used a confirmatory factor analysis to develop an acceptable measurement model while the second step involved modifying the measurement model to represent the postulated causal model framework.

    Results: In study I, the reported prevalence of CSA ranged from 0.3% in Liberia to 4.3% in Zambia when the prevalence was based on all respondents aged between 15 and 49 years and who were present during the survey. None of the socio-economic factors were associated with CSA. In study II, where the data was restricted to permanent residents aged between 15 and 18 years, the prevalence ranged between 1.04% in Liberia to 5.8% in Zambia. At the individual level, there was no significant association between CSA and wealth status while at the community level, there was no significant association between CSA and socio-economic position. However, 22% of the variation in CSA was attributed to the community level factors. In study III, there was significant variation in the odds of reporting CSA across the communities, with community level factors accounting for 18% of the variation. In addition, respondents from communities with a high family disruption rate were 57% more likely to have reported sexual abuse in childhood. Study IV showed that there was a significant association between CSA and sexual risk behaviours and the association was mediated by alcohol and cigarette use.

    Conclusions: The study provides evidence that adolescents in the same community were subjected to common contextual influences. It also highlighted the significance of mediators in the relationship between CSA and sexual risk behaviours. It is therefore important that effective preventive strategies are developed and implemented that will cut across all socio-economic spheres in a context that both permits and encourages disclosure as well as identifying predisposing circumstances for recurrence.

  • 297.
    Zasadowski, Dariusz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering. Mittuniversitetet.
    Selective Separation Of Wood Components In Internal Process Waters Originating From Mechanical Pulping2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved and Colloidal substances (DSC) and metals are released from woodduring thermomechanical pulp (TMP) production. These components have atendency to accumulate in process waters, as the water circulation systems inintegrated paper mills are closed. Disturbances such as pitch depositions in thepaper machine (pitch problems), specks in the paper, decreased wet and drystrength, interference with cationic process chemicals, and impaired sheetbrightness and friction properties appear when DSC are present. Transition metalions such as manganese results in higher consumption of bleaching chemicals(hydrogen peroxide) and lowers the optical quality of the final product, andaddition of complexing agents, such as EDTA or DTPA, to prevent this is needed.The never ending trends to decrease water consumption and increase processefficiency in pulp and paper production emphasizes that it is very important bothto know the effects of wood substances on pulping and papermaking and to beable to remove them in an efficient way. From a biorefinery point of view, DSCcomponents can be promising renewable raw materials for biofuels, bio‐basedchemicals and materials.In this thesis, a new approach using induced air flotation (IAF) without a cationicpolyelectrolyte addition for the removal of pitch and metal ions from mechanicalpulp mill process waters is presented. The induced air flotation of different processwaters is facilitated by the addition of a chelating surfactant and different foamingagents. The influence of the pH value, temperature and foaming agentconcentration on the flotation efficiency has been investigated. The investigations

    presented show that the disturbing components can be removed from TMP presswater to a high extent. A 90% decrease in turbidity and a 91% removal of lipophilicextractives (i.e. resin and fatty acids, triglycerides, sterols and steryl esters) fromunbleached and bleached TMP process water can be obtained by addition of acationic surfactant as foaming agent during flotation. Lower amount of foamingagent is needed to purify efficiently bleached TMP process water, than unbleached.Additionally, fibres located in TMP press water are not removed with the foamfraction but purified. A retained concentration of hydrophilic extractives (i.e.hemicelluloses and lignans) in the process water indicates that the flotation isselective. Moreover, by introduction of a new recoverable surface activecomplexing agent, a chelating surfactant, manganese ions in the form of chelatescan be successfully removed from the pulp fibres and separated from the processwater in the same flotation process. Furthermore, from the purified unbleachedTMP process water a 90% recovery of dissolved hemicelluloses by anti‐solventprecipitation was obtained.The findings presented above indicate new possibilities for the internal watercleaning stage to decrease DSC emissions to recipient and for recovery of valuableraw materials from purified process water if flotation technology is applied in anintegrated mechanical pulp mill.

  • 298.
    Zetterström Dahlqvist, Heléne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Determinants of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: The Role of Sexual Harassment and Implications for Preventive Interventions2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Depression is considered the worldwide leading cause of illness and disability in young people and an urgent public health issue. Within the field of public health it is of interest to deepen the understanding of determinants of depressive symptoms (DS) that are possible to address on a political or an organizational level. Also, it is of great importance to find methods to prevent depression in adolescents. To address these issues, the present thesis had two Aims: I) To study determinants of DS in adolescents, and II) to, by means of a non-randomized pragmatic trial evaluation, investigate the effectiveness a cognitive-behavioral intervention (DISA) in a real-world setting in relation to determinants of DS in adolescent girls. This was addressed by asking a) Which determinants on individual, psychosocial and structural levels are associated with DS in adolescents? (Paper I); b) What are the directional pathways between sexual harassment (SH) and DS? (Paper II); c) Which features characterize students who were assigned to a cognitive-behavioral intervention regarding levels of DS, psychosocial aspects and socioeconomic status of the respondents as well as of schools? (Paper III); d) Does DISA have an effect on DS in girls aged 14-16? (Paper IV); and e) Are there differences between the DISA participants and non-participants in the effects of psychosocial and structural determinants on DS? (Paper IV). Method: Data was collected in January 2010, 2011, and 2012, by means of a self-administered, electronic questionnaire in school. Students aged 14-16 in all nine public and one independent high school in a municipality in northern Sweden participated in the study (~1,000-1,200 students depending on the wave). All studies had DS as the single outcome variable. Individual level determinants were self-esteem and self-efficacy. Psychosocial determinants were parental/peer/teacher support; school demands; sexual harassment; and bullying. Structural determinants were family material affluence; parental foreign background, parental employment status; disrupted family, and personal relative affluence. Logistic regression was employed for research question a) (Paper I). Structural equation (SEM) cross-lag models were modeled for research question b) (Paper II). The Mann-Whitney U statistic was employed for research question c) (Paper III). SEM was used for research questions d-e) (Paper IV). Results: Determinants on individual, psychosocial and structural levels were independently associated with depressive symptoms in both genders. Self-efficacy, low teacher support, bullying victimization, and low personal relative affluence was associated with elevated levels of DS in both genders (Paper I). In girls, low parental support, high school demands, and sexual harassment victimization (SH) were also associated with elevated levels of DS. Among boys, parental migrant background was also associated with DS. Among girls, both the targeting of girls with elevated DS, and the consequence of SH explained the relationship between DS and SH victimization over time. In boys, only the predating of DS explained the association between DS and SH (Paper II). Only girls were assigned to DISA during 2011 and DISA participants reported higher levels of DS and lower levels of self-esteem than the non-participants at pre-intervention, which indicates that DISA was used as a targeted intervention for girls with elevated symptoms. Also, DISA participants reported higher levels of SH victimization, less peer support, and lower personal relative affluence (Paper III). In contrast to the non-participants, DISA participants did not increase their mean scoring on DS at an eight months follow-up. However, SEM analyses showed that the effect of DISA participation on DS at follow-up was negligible (Paper IV). Conclusions: This study showed that SH victimization was an important determinant for DS in girls followed by personal relative affluence. Among boys, personal relative affluence and parental migrant background were the most important factors. SH victimization had mental health consequences in girls only. DISA was implemented as a targeted intervention rather than as selective or universal one, and did not have an effect on DS in this group of girls. Implications for further research and health promotion practice in the school setting are discussed.

  • 299.
    Ziaei, Reza
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Prevalence and Correlates of Health Risk Behaviors among High School Adolescents in Iran: With focus on Water-pipe Smoking, Suicide Ideation, Physical Activity and Nutrition2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adolescence is a transitional stage from childhood into adulthood and many habits, with long-term implications for health, from this period of life can continue into adulthood. Identifying risk factors related to health risk behaviors is therefore an important part of health promotion. The main aim of this thesis was to analyze the prevalence and correlates of health risk behaviors among 15-17 year old high school adolescents in Iran. The risk behaviors explored in Papers I–IV include waterpipe smoking, suicide ideation, physical inactivity and sedentary behavior, and nutritional habits.

    Methods: Two-stage cluster sampling was used to select representative high schools and classes in the Iranian city of Tabriz. At the first stage, high schools were selected with a probability proportional to the enrollment size. At the second stage, classes were randomly selected, and all students in these selected classes were eligible to participate in the study. Overall, thirty high schools, including sixteen girls’ and fourteen boys’ high schools, ninety classes (grades 9 to 11) and 1,517 students, including 727 boys (47.9%) and 790 (52.1 %) girls participated in the study. The participants’ (students’) response rate was 84.27 %. A reliable, valid and anonymous self-administered Persian Version of the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) questionnaire was used for data collection. Statistical methods used were Chi- square test, Fisher exact and multivariate logistic regression analyses.

    Results:

    Water pipe smoking: Overall, 21.6 % of students were classified as ever WP smokers and 9.7% as current smokers. Ten percent of students had started WP smoking when younger than 12. Ninety-one percent of current WP smokers smoked one session per day, 49% smoked at a café (Ghahvekhaneh). Ninety- five percent of students reported that their age did not prevent them from being served a WP. Ninety-one students out of 147 reported that they did not notice any health warning on the WP tobacco packages. Seven percent of students out of 1,517 participants reported that they would accept a WP if offered by their friends. Being in the third grade of high school, having experienced cigarette smoking, even one or two puffs, and accepting a WP offered by close friends showed significant odds ratios for ‘ever WP smokers’. Accepting a WP offered by close friends and gender (female) showed significant odds ratios for current WP smokers.

    Suicide ideation: Four percent of students had seriously considered attempting suicide in the past 12 months. Thirteen point two percent of students reported that they wanted to use alcohol or other drugs when they were worried. The results also revealed that 8.8% of students had been sexually abused. Also, 20.6% declared that they had been bullied in the past 30 days.

    Being worried, being a current cigarette smoker, consuming alcohol or other drugs and being sexually abused were significantly associated with suicide ideation.

    Physical activity/inactivity and sedentary behavior: The prevalence of physical inactivity (<5 days/Weeks) was 72.2% and sedentary behavior (sitting ≥3 h or more) 71.4%. Being female, having a higher BMI (being overweight or obese), walking/cycling to or from school on 1-4 days, sedentary behavior, low vegetable intake, being the victim of bullying, lack of parental support, peer support, and parental connectivity (protective factors) were directly associated with physical inactivity. Walking/cycling to or from school on 5-7 days was negatively associated with physical inactivity.

    Walking/cycling to or from school on 1-4 days, being physically inactive, inadequate fruit intake, and being bullied were positively associated with sedentary behavior.

    Fruit and vegetable intake: The prevalence of fruit intake was 76.1% (≥ 2 times/daily) and vegetable intake 23% (≥ 3 times /d). Low fruit consumption was associated with being an 11th grade student, sedentary behavior (sitting ≥3h/d), low intake of vegetables (intake < 3 daily), low or lack of parental support, low or lack of peer support, and the lack of enough food (hunger) at home. Low vegetable consumption was associated with higher BMI (overweight or obese), low consumption of fruit (< 2 daily), lack of peer support, and physical inactivity.

    Conclusion: Identified correlated factors (risk factors) should be taken into consideration by public health authorities in the development and implementation of interventions aimed at promoting health among students in the related areas.

  • 300.
    Zimic, Sheila
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Internetgenerationen bit för bit: Representationer av IT och ungdom i ett informationssamhälle2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to gain a deeper understanding in relation to the construction of a ‘Net Generation’. With regards to the idea of an information society, technologies and young people are given certain positions, which are not in any sense natural but are socially constructed. This thesis explores these socially given meanings and shows what types of meanings are prioritized and legitimized. The exploration is conducted by examining, both externally and internally, given meanings of a generation identity. The external (nominal identification) in this study is understood as the construction of an abstract user and is studied by means of academic texts concerning the ‘Net Generation’. The internal (virtual identification) involves young people’s construction of their generation identity and is studied by means of collage. The collages are used to understand how the young participants position themselves in contemporary society and how they, as concrete users, articulate their relationship with information technologies.

     

    The findings show that the ‘type of behavior’ which is articulated in the signifying practice of the construction of the abstract user, ‘Net Generation’, reduces users and technology to a marketing / economical discourse. In addition the idea of the abstract user implies that all users have the same possibilities to achieve ‘success’ in the information society, by being active ‘prosumers’. The concrete users articulate that they feel stressed and pressured in relation to all the choices that they are expected to make. In this sense, the participants do not articulate the (economical) interests as assumed for the ‘Net Generation’, but, rather articulate interests to play, to have a hobby and be social when using information technologies.

     

    What this thesis thus proposes, is to critically explore the ‘taken for granted’ notions of a technological order in society as pertaining to young people. Only if we understand how socially given meaning is constructed can we break loose from the temporarily prioritized values to which the position of technology and users are fixed.

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