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  • 251. Faiss, R
    et al.
    Cheng, AJ
    Karolinska Institute.
    Willis, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Zinner, Christoph
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ivarsson, N
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Chaillou, T
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Westerblad, H
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Elevated Temperature Accelerates Recovery of Mouse and Human Skeletal Muscle Following Fatigue2015In: Abstract Book for the 20th Annual ECSS Congress, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    This study was designed to determine whether elevated muscle temperature allows muscles to recover their force or power more rapidly following fatigue

    Methods

    Intact single fibers from mouse flexor digitorum brevis muscle were fatigued at 31˚C (70-Hz 350-ms tetani once every 10s until initial force decreased to 30%).  During a subsequent 2-hr recovery period, the fibers were perfused in Tyrode solution at either 31°C (physiological temperature) or 36°C and isometric force and cytoplasmic free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) were measured during 30-Hz tetani evoked periodically.  In addition, seven human subjects performed fatiguing arm exercise consisting of 3 x 5min maximal effort arm cycling at 100 rpm followed by 4 x 15 min at an intensity of 50% of VO2peak. Then followed 2hr of recovery during which both arms were either heated or not heated at 5˚C above physiological temperatures using arm cuffs continuously perfused with temperature-regulated water; the order of heating vs. not heating was randomized between two visits. Intramuscular temperature was recorded with probes inserted 1.5 cm into the lateral head of the triceps brachii muscle. During the recovery period, subjects consumed 1.0 g/hr/kg body weight carbohydrates to support glycogen repletion. After recovery, the subjects repeated the 3 x 5 min time trials to evaluate the effect of the recovery intervention.

    Results

    Recovery from fatigue in mouse single fibers was dependent on muscle glycogen restoration since fibers perfused with glucose-free Tyrode did not recover contractile force (P<0.05). After 30 min of recovery, the tetanic [Ca2+]i was 107±10% and 92 ± 8% and the corresponding forces were 69±15% vs.49±14% of the initial values for the heated and non-heated muscles, respectively.  In seven human subjects, 2h of muscle heating also appeared to improve muscle recovery, leading to higher mean power output in the post-recovery arm cycling time trial than without muscle heating.

    Discussion

    Elevating muscle temperature by 5°C above physiological temperature accelerates recovery in mouse muscle in-vitro and in human skeletal muscle in-vivo and this appears to depend on faster muscle glycogen resynthesis following fatigue.

  • 252.
    Faiss, R.
    et al.
    Institute of Sport Sciences, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Willis, Sarah
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Born, D. -P
    Department of Sport Science, University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany.
    Sperlich, B.
    Department of Sport Science, University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany.
    Vesin, J. -M
    Applied Signal Processing Group, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland .
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Millet, G. P.
    Institute of Sport Sciences, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland .
    Repeated double-poling sprint training in hypoxia by competitive cross-country skiers2015In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 809-817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Repeated-sprint training in hypoxia (RSH) was recently shown to improve repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in cycling. This phenomenon is likely to reflect fiber type-dependent, compensatory vasodilation, and therefore, our hypothesis was that RSH is even more beneficial for activities involving upper body muscles, such as double poling during cross-country skiing. Methods: In a double-blinded fashion, 17 competitive cross-country skiers performed six sessions of repeated sprints (each consisting of four sets of five 10-s sprints, with 20-s intervals of recovery) either in normoxia (RSN, 300 m; FiO2, 20.9%; n = 8) or normobaric hypoxia (RSH, 3000 m; FiO2, 13.8 %; n = 9). Before (pre) and after (post) training, performance was evaluated with an RSA test (10-s all-out sprints-20-s recovery, until peak power output declined by 30%) and a simulated team sprint (team sprint, 3×3-min all-out with 3-min rest) on a double-poling ergometer. Triceps brachii oxygenation was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. Results: From pretraining to posttraining, peak power output in the RSA was increased (P < 0.01) to the same extent (29% ± 13% vs 26% ± 18%, nonsignificant) in RSH and in RSN whereas the number of sprints performed was enhanced in RSH (10.9 ± 5.2 vs 17.1 ± 6.8, P < 0.01) but not in RSN (11.6 T 5.3 vs 11.7 ± 4.3, nonsignificant). In addition, the amplitude in total hemoglobin variations during sprints throughout RSA rose more in RSH (P < 0.01). Similarly, the average power output during all team sprints improved by 11% T 9% in RSH and 15% T 7% in RSN. Conclusions: Our findings reveal greater improvement in the performance of repeated double-poling sprints, together with larger variations in the perfusion of upper body muscles in RSH compared with those in RSN. © 2014 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

  • 253.
    Faiss, Raphael
    et al.
    Univ Lausanne, Fac Biol & Med, Inst Sport Sci, Lausanne, Switzerland.;Univ Lausanne, Fac Biol & Med, Dept Physiol, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Millet, Gregoire P.
    Univ Lausanne, Fac Biol & Med, Inst Sport Sci, Lausanne, Switzerland.;Univ Lausanne, Fac Biol & Med, Dept Physiol, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Enhanced Performance after Repeated Sprint Training in Hypoxia: False or Reality? Response2015In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 47, no 11, p. 2484-2484Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 254.
    Falk, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Rolltydlighet, rollkonflikt, socialt stöd och det uppmuntrande ledarskapet: -undersköterskor och vårdbiträdens komplexa arbeten2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 255.
    Fasel, Benedikt
    et al.
    Archinisis GmbH, Fribourg, Switzerland.
    Laaksonen, Marko
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Supej, Matej
    University of Ljubljana.
    Trajectory matching by low-cost GNSS allows continuous time comparisons during cross country skiing2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most endurance sports, including cross-country (XC) skiing, the fastest athlete wins the race. Successful performance requires an optimal pacing strategy i.e., effective distribution of work and energy throughout a race (Abbiss & Laursen, 2008). For any given lap of a race, no more than a few split times are usually available, due to the complex logistics of setting up a timing system. However, optimal tracking of pacing (speed) during a race requires determination of more split times at regular and shorter intervals. For example, a high-end Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) can be used to easily obtain a high number of split times based on a comparison of positions (Andersson et al., 2010; Supej & Holmberg, 2011). Accordingly, the aim here was to determine whether comparison of position at onemeter intervals using a standard GNSS gives reliable split times during XC skiing.

  • 256.
    Faxéus, Andreas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Samverkan inom Arbetsmarknadstorget: Framgångsnycklar och utmaningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 257.
    Ferdinands, R. E. D.
    et al.
    Exercise, Health and Performance Research Group, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Kersting, Uwe G.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction, Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Marshall, R. N.
    Eastern Institute of Technology, Hawke's Bay, New Zealand .
    A new taxonomic system for the sub-classification of cricket bowling actions2014In: Sports Technology, ISSN 1934-6182, E-ISSN 1934-6190, Vol. 7, no 1-2, p. 26-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mixed bowling action is associated with injuries in the lumbar spine and has been shown to have no performance benefits over other bowling actions. The purpose of this study was to assess the mixed bowling action with reference to a more comprehensive classification system to facilitate the development of more targeted bowling action remediation programs. A total of 70 fast bowlers were tested using a three-dimensional motion analysis system (240 Hz). Kinematic data of the shoulders and pelvis were analysed with respect to a modified set of angle threshold criteria to classify bowling actions. It was found that the mixed action bowlers (49% of the sample) could be sub-divided into seven distinct mixed action types. The most common of these types were the mixed front-on bowlers with respect to shoulder counter-rotation (19%) and the mixed front-on bowlers with respect to both pelvis-shoulder separation angle and shoulder counter-rotation (14%). It is envisaged that a more comprehensive classification of bowling actions may assist researchers in the future to define mixed action types with a tighter domain of variables that are more indicative of lumbar injury risk. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  • 258.
    Ferdinands, R. E. D.
    et al.
    Discipline of Exercise, Health and Performance, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia .
    Kersting, Uwe
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Marshall, R. N.
    Sport, Recreation and Massage, Eastern Institute of Technology, Hawke's Bay, New Zealand .
    A twenty-segment kinematics and kinetics model for analysing golf swing mechanics2013In: Sports Technology, ISSN 1934-6190, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 184-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The golf swing is a complex, multi-planar, three-dimensional (3D) motion sequence performed at very high speeds. These properties make biomechanical analysis of the golf swing difficult. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop a computer model of the golf swing capable of calculating a diverse range of 3D kinematics and kinetics values based on motion analysis data collected in the laboratory. Five golfers performed six swings in the field of view of eight Falcon High Speed Resolution cameras (240 Hz), which captured the movements of 56 markers placed on the golfers and their clubs, resulting in marker trajectories that were processed into linear xyz-coordinates using the Eva Motion Analysis system. To perform the kinematics and kinetics calculations, a 20-segment rigid body model of the human body was designed in the Mechanical Systems Pack, connecting the segments by a selection of linear and spherical constraints, resulting in a system of segments with 58 degrees of freedom, with the constraint equations of motion calculated by the Newton-Lagrangian iteration method. The model allowed for the derivation of segmental sequencing, separation angles, segmental planes of motion, segmental velocity contributions, joint torques and muscle powers. The preliminary data suggest that such an integrated kinematics and kinetics analysis is necessary to understand the mechanical complexity of golf swing. Even with the small sample size analysed in this study, some interesting trends were found, such as certain violations of the classical proximal-to-distal sequencing scheme, differing swing plane and club head trajectories in the backswing and downswing phases, minimal hip angular velocity contribution to the ball at impact, concentric and eccentric muscle powers in the downswing phase, and increased lumbar loading factors from the mid-downswing phase to ball impact. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  • 259.
    Fernandez-Gonzalo, R.
    et al.
    Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), University of León, León, Spain.
    Lundberg, Tommy R.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Alvarez-Alvarez, L.
    Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), University of León, León, Spain.
    De Paz, J. A.
    Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), University of León, León, Spain.
    Muscle damage responses and adaptations to eccentric-overload resistance exercise in men and women2014In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 114, no 5, p. 1075-1084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study assessed markers of muscle damage and training adaptations to eccentric-overload flywheel resistance exercise (RE) in men and women. Methods: Dynamic strength (1 RM), jump performance, maximal power at different percentages of 1 RM, and muscle mass in three different portions of the thigh were assessed in 16 men and 16 women before and after 6 weeks (15 sessions) of flywheel supine squat RE training. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentrations were measured before, 24, 48 and 72 h after the first and the last training session. Results: After training, increases in 1 RM were somewhat greater (interaction P < 0.001) in men (25 %) than in women (20 %). Squat and drop jump height and power performance at 50, 60, 70 and 80 % of 1 RM increased after training in both sexes (P < 0.05). Power improvement at 80 % of 1 RM was greater (interaction P < 0.02) in men than women. Muscle mass increased ~5 % in both groups (P < 0.05). CK increased in men after the first training session (P < 0.001), whereas the response in women was unaltered. In both sexes, LDH concentration was greater after the first training session compared with basal values (P < 0.05). After the last session, CK and LDH remained at baseline in both groups. Conclusions: These results suggest that although improvements in maximal strength and power at high loads may be slightly greater for men, eccentric-overload RE training induces comparable and favorable gains in strength, power, and muscle mass in both men and women. Equally important, it appears muscle damage does not interfere with the adaptations triggered by this training paradigm. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 260.
    Fernandez-Gonzalo, R.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Tommy R.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tesch, Per A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Acute molecular responses in untrained and trained muscle subjected to aerobic and resistance exercise training versus resistance training alone2013In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 209, no 4, p. 283-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimThis study assessed and compared acute muscle molecular responses before and after 5-week training, employing either aerobic (AE) and resistance exercise (RE) or RE only. MethodsTen men performed one-legged RE, while the contralateral limb performed AE followed by RE 6h later (AE+RE). Before (untrained) and after (trained) the intervention, acute bouts of RE were performed with or without preceding AE. Biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis of each leg pre- and 3h post-RE to determine mRNA levels of VEGF, PGC-1, MuRF-1, atrogin-1, myostatin and phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6K, rpS6 and eEF2. ResultsPGC-1 and VEGF expression increased (P<0.05) after acute RE in the untrained, but not the trained state. These markers showed greater response after AE+RE than RE in either condition. Myostatin was lower after AE+RE than RE, both before and after training. AE+RE showed higher MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 expression than RE in the untrained, not the trained state. Exercise increased (P<0.05) p70S6K phosphorylation both before and after training, yet this increase tended to be more prominent for AE+RE than RE before training. Phosphorylation of p70S6K was greater in trained muscle. Changes in these markers did not correlate with exercise-induced alterations in strength or muscle size. ConclusionConcurrent exercise in untrained skeletal muscle prompts global molecular responses consistent with resulting whole muscle adaptations. Yet, training blunts the more robust anabolic response shown after AE+RE compared with RE. This study challenges the concept that single molecular markers could predict training-induced changes in muscle size or strength.

  • 261.
    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Tommy R.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Tesch, Per A.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gene Expression After Acute Resistance Exercise is Modified by Aerobic Exercise and Chronic Training2013In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 528-528Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 262.
    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nissemark, Catarina
    Östersund Rehabctr Remonthagen, Östersund, Sweden.
    Aslund, Birgitta
    Östersund Rehabctr Remonthagen, Östersund, Sweden.
    Tesch, Per A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sojka, Peter
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Östersund Rehabctr Remonthagen, Östersund, Sweden.
    Chronic stroke patients show early and robust improvements in muscle and functional performance in response to eccentric-overload flywheel resistance training: a pilot study2014In: Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, ISSN 1743-0003, E-ISSN 1743-0003, Vol. 11, p. Art. no. 150-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Resistance exercise comprising eccentric (ECC) muscle actions enhances muscle strength and function to aid stroke patients in conducting daily tasks. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a novel ECC-overload flywheel resistance exercise paradigm to induce muscle and functional performance adaptations in chronic stroke patients. Methods: Twelve patients (similar to 8 years after stroke onset) performed 4 sets of 7 coupled concentric (CON) and ECC actions using the affected limb on a flywheel leg press (LP) device twice weekly for 8 weeks. Maximal CON and ECC isokinetic torque at 30, 60 and 90 degrees/s, isometric knee extension and LP force, and CON and ECC peak power in LP were measured before and after training. Balance (Berg Balance Scale, BBS), gait (6-Min Walk test, 6MWT; Timed-Up-and-Go, TUG), functional performance (30-s Chair-Stand Test, 30CST), spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale) and perceived participation (Stroke Impact Scale, SIS) were also determined. Results: CON and ECC peak power increased in both the trained affected (34 and 44%; P < 0.01), and the untrained, non-affected leg (25 and 34%; P < 0.02). Power gains were greater (P = 0.008) for ECC than CON actions. ECC isokinetic torque at 60 and 90 degrees/s increased in the affected leg (P < 0.04). The increase in isometric LP force for the trained, affected leg across tests ranged 10-20% (P < 0.05). BBS (P = 0.004), TUG (P = 0.018), 30CST (P = 0.024) and SIS (P = 0.058) scores improved after training. 6MWT and spasticity remained unchanged. Conclusions: This novel, short-term ECC-overload flywheel RE training regime emerges as a valid, safe and viable method to improve muscle function, balance, gait and functional performance in men and women suffering from chronic stroke.

  • 263. Fernández, FA
    et al.
    Patrician, Alexander
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lodin-Sundström, Angelica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Schagatay, Erika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Predicting static and dynamic apnea performance in elite divers using a 2-minute static apnea test2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 264.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    et al.
    University College London, London, United Kingdom; University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Jokela, Markus
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Stockholm County Council.
    Batty, G. David
    University College London, London, United Kingdom; University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Burr, Hermann
    Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin), Berlin, Germany.
    Dragano, Nico
    University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Elovainio, Marko
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Karolinska Institutet; Jönköping University, Jönköping; Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Koskinen, Aki
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Kouvonen, Anne
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kumari, Meena
    University of Essex, Colchester, United Kingdom.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Frederiksberg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Umeå.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Pahkin, Krista
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Danish National Centre for Social Research, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Salo, Paula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Shipley, Martin J.
    University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland; University of Skövde, Skövde.
    Tabák, Adam
    University College London, London, United Kingdom; Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm County Council, Stockholm.
    Väänänen, Ari
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland; University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland .
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm County Council, Stockholm.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    University College London, London, United Kingdom; Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland; University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Job insecurity and risk of diabetes: A meta-analysis of individual participant data2016In: CMJA. Canadian Medical Association Journal. Onlineutg. Med tittel: ECMAJ. ISSN 1488-2329, ISSN 0820-3946, E-ISSN 1488-2329, Vol. 188, no 17-18, p. E447-E455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Job insecurity has been associated with certain health outcomes. We examined the role of job insecurity as a risk factor for incident diabetes. Methods: We used individual participant data from 8 cohort studies identified in 2 open-access data archives and 11 cohort studies participating in the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations Consortium. We calculated study-specific estimates of the association between job insecurity reported at baseline and incident diabetes over the follow-up period. We pooled the estimates in a meta-analysis to produce a summary risk estimate. Results: The 19 studies involved 140 825 participants from Australia, Europe and the United States, with a mean follow-up of 9.4 years and 3954 incident cases of diabetes. In the preliminary analysis adjusted for age and sex, high job insecurity was associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes compared with low job insecurity (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.30). In the multivariable-adjusted analysis restricted to 15 studies with baseline data for all covariates (age, sex, socioeconomic status, obesity, physical activity, alcohol and smoking), the association was slightly attenuated (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.24). Heterogeneity between the studies was low to moderate (age- and sex-adjusted model: I2 = 24%, p = 0.2; multivari-able-adjusted model: I2 = 27%, p = 0.2). In the multivariable-adjusted analysis restricted to high-quality studies, in which the diabetes diagnosis was ascertained from electronic medical records or clinical examination, the association was similar to that in the main analysis (adjusted OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.35). Interpretation: Our findings suggest that self-reported job insecurity is associated with a modest increased risk of incident diabetes. Health care personnel should be aware of this association among workers reporting job insecurity.

  • 265.
    Flodin, Karin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Implementing International mHealth projects to facilitate public health in low-and middle income countries-using the Framework analysis method2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 266.
    Fluck, Martin
    et al.
    Univ Zurich, Balgrist Univ Hosp, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Li, Ruowei
    Manchester Metropolitan Univ, Inst Biomed Res Human Movement & Hlth, Manchester M15 6BH, Lancs, England.
    Valdivieso, Paola
    Univ Zurich, Balgrist Univ Hosp, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Linnehan, Richard M.
    Johnson Space Ctr, Natl Aeronaut & Space Adm, Houston, TX USA.
    Castells, Josiane
    Univ St Etienne, Fac Med, EA4338, Lab Physiol Exercice, St Etienne, France.
    Tesch, Per
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Thomas
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Clin Physiol Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Early Changes in Costameric and Mitochondrial Protein Expression with Unloading Are Muscle Specific2014In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, article id 519310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We hypothesised that load-sensitive expression of costameric proteins, which hold the sarcomere in place and position the mitochondria, contributes to the early adaptations of antigravity muscle to unloading and would depend on muscle fibre composition and chymotrypsin activity of the proteasome. Biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis (VL) and soleus (SOL) muscles of eight men before and after 3 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) and subjected to fibre typing and measures for costameric (FAK and FRNK), mitochondrial (NDUFA9, SDHA, UQCRC1, UCP3, and ATP5A1), and MHCI protein and RNA content. Mean cross-sectional area (MCSA) of types I and II muscle fibres in VL and type I fibres in SOL demonstrated a trend for a reduction after ULLS (0.05 <= P < 0.10). FAK phosphorylation at tyrosine 397 showed a 20% reduction in VL muscle (P = 0.029). SOL muscle demonstrated a specific reduction in UCP3 content (-23%; P = 0.012). Muscle-specific effects of ULLS were identified for linear relationships between measured proteins, chymotrypsin activity and fibre MCSA. The molecular modifications in costamere turnover and energy homoeostasis identify that aspects of atrophy and fibre transformation are detectable at the protein level in weight-bearing muscles within 3 days of unloading.

  • 267.
    Fors, John
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Association between Obesity and and Occupational Injury & Absenteeism among U.S Workers.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 268.
    Forsberg, Hanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hur flickor och pojkars positiva självrapporterade hälsa är associerad till upplevelser i skolanEn enkätstudie baserad på hälsosamtalet i årskurs 1 på gymnasiet i Norrbotten2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 269.
    Forsgren, Marie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Törnqvist, Sofia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kan Naturunderstödd rehabilitering vara en väg till förändring?: Deltagares upplevelser av naturen som läkande kraft2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 270.
    Forslund, Katrin Emelie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Influencing factors and sources on the opinions of MMR vaccination in Australia-A cross-sectional study2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 271.
    Forssbaeck, Caroline
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Redo för social hållbarhet?- En kvalitativ intervjustudie på kommunnivå med utgångspunkt i Community   Readiness Model2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 272.
    Forssén, Josephine
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Varför väljer man bort friskvårdstimmen?: En studie om varför kommunanställda kvinnor väljer att inte nyttja friskvårdstimmen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 273.
    Foster, Josh
    et al.
    Institute for Sport and Physical Activity Research University of Bedfordshire, Bedford, UK.
    Mauger, Alexis R.
    Endurance Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Kent, Chatham Maritime, United Kingdom.
    Govus, Andrew
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hewson, David
    Institute for Health Research, University of Bedfordshire, Luton, United Kingdom.
    Taylor, Lee
    ASPETAR, Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Athlete Health and Performance Research Centre, Aspire Zone, Doha, Qatar.
    Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Induces Hypothermia During Acute Cold Stress2017In: Clinical drug investigation, ISSN 1173-2563, E-ISSN 1179-1918, Vol. 37, no 11, p. 1055-1065Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Acetaminophen is an over-the-counter drug used to treat pain and fever, but it has also been shown to reduce core temperature (Tc) in the absence of fever. However, this side effect is not well examined in humans, and it is unknown if the hypothermic response to acetaminophen is exacerbated with cold exposure. Objective: To address this question, we mapped the thermoregulatory responses to acetaminophen and placebo administration during exposure to acute cold (10 °C) and thermal neutrality (25 °C). Methods: Nine healthy Caucasian males (aged 20–24 years) participated in the experiment. In a double-blind, randomised, repeated measures design, participants were passively exposed to a thermo-neutral or cold environment for 120 min, with administration of 20 mg/kg lean body mass acetaminophen or a placebo 5 min prior to exposure. Tc, skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate, and thermal sensation were measured every 10 min, and mean arterial pressure was recorded every 30 min. Data were analysed using linear mixed effects models. Differences in thermal sensation were analysed using a cumulative link mixed model. Results: Acetaminophen had no effect on Tc in a thermo-neutral environment, but significantly reduced Tc during cold exposure, compared with a placebo. Tc was lower in the acetaminophen compared with the placebo condition at each 10-min interval from 80 to 120 min into the trial (all p &lt; 0.05). On average, Tc decreased by 0.42 ± 0.13 °C from baseline after 120 min of cold exposure (range 0.16–0.57 °C), whereas there was no change in the placebo group (0.01 ± 0.1 °C). Tsk, heart rate, thermal sensation, and mean arterial pressure were not different between conditions (p &gt; 0.05). Conclusion: This preliminary trial suggests that acetaminophen-induced hypothermia is exacerbated during cold stress. Larger scale trials seem warranted to determine if acetaminophen administration is associated with an increased risk of accidental hypothermia, particularly in vulnerable populations such as frail elderly individuals. 

  • 274.
    Fraga, S
    et al.
    Institute of Public Health, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Lindert, J
    Department of Public Health Science, Protestant University of Applied Sciences, Ludwigsburg, Germany.
    Barros, H
    Institute of Public Health, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Torres-Gonzalez, F
    CIBERSAM, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, E
    Department of Sociology, National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Melchiorre, MG
    I.N.R.C.A., Ancona, Italy.
    Stankunas, M
    Department of Health Management, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Elder abuse and socioeconomic inequalities: A multilevel study in 7 European countries2014In: Preventive Medicine, ISSN 0091-7435, E-ISSN 1096-0260, Vol. 61, p. 42-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To compare the prevalence of elder abuse using a multilevel approach that takes into account the characteristics of participants as well as socioeconomic indicators at city and country level.

    Methods In 2009, the project on abuse of elderly in Europe (ABUEL) was conducted in seven cities (Stuttgart, Germany; Ancona, Italy; Kaunas, Lithuania, Stockholm, Sweden; Porto, Portugal; Granada, Spain; Athens, Greece) comprising 4467 individuals aged 60–84 years. We used a 3-level hierarchical structure of data: 1) characteristics of participants; 2) mean of tertiary education of each city; and 3) country inequality indicator (Gini coefficient). Multilevel logistic regression was used and proportional changes in Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) were inspected to assert explained variance between models.

    Results The prevalence of elder abuse showed large variations across sites. Adding tertiary education to the regression model reduced the country level variance for psychological abuse (ICC = 3.4%), with no significant decrease in the explained variance for the other types of abuse. When the Gini coefficient was considered, the highest drop in ICC was observed for financial abuse (from 9.5% to 4.3%).

    Conclusion There is a societal and community level dimension that adds information to individual variability in explaining country differences in elder abuse, highlighting underlying socioeconomic inequalities leading to such behavior.

  • 275.
    Fraga, S
    et al.
    Universidade do Porto, Portugal.
    Soares, Joaquim J.F.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Melchiorre, MG
    Center for Socioeconomic Research on Aging, Ancona, Italy.
    Barros, H
    Universidade do Porto, Portugal.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, E
    National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Lindert, J
    University of Emden, Emden, Germany.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Stankunas, M
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences; University of Griffith, Australia.
    Torres-Gonzales, F
    University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lifetime Abuse and Quality of Life among Older People2017In: Health & Social Work, ISSN 0360-7283, E-ISSN 1545-6854, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 215-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of lifetime abuse on quality of life (QoL) among older adults. By using a multinational study authors aimed to assess the subjective perception of QoL among people who have reported abuse during the course of their lifetime. The respondents (N = 4,467; 2,559 women) were between the ages of 60 and 84 years and living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden). Lifetime abuse was assessed by using a structured questionnaire that allowed to assess lifetime experiences of abuse. QoL was assessed with the World Health Organization Quality of Life–Old module. After adjustment for potential confounders, authors found that to have had any abusive experience decreased the score of sensory abilities. Psychological abuse was associated with lower autonomy and past, present, and future activities. Physical abuse with injuries significantly decreased social participation. Intimacy was also negatively associated with psychological abuse, physical abuse with injury, and sexual abuse. The results of this study provide evidence that older people exposed to abuse during their lifetime have a significant reduction in QoL, with several QoL domains being negatively affected.

  • 276.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    et al.
    Department of Natural Science and Biomedicine, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Box 1026, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Tampere, Finland.
    Heikkila, Katriina
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Tampere, Finland.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Burr, Hermann
    Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), Berlin, Germany .
    Dragano, Nico
    Institute for Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany .
    Geuskens, Goedele A.
    Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Hoofddorp, Netherlands .
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Versailles-Saint Quentin University, Versailles, France .
    Hamer, Mark
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Hooftman, Wendela E.
    Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Hoofddorp, Netherlands .
    Houtman, Irene L.
    Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Hoofddorp, Netherlands .
    Joensuu, Matti
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Jokela, Markus
    Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland .
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Koskinen, Aki
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kumari, Meena
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Institute for Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany .
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Nordin, Maria
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku, Finland .
    Pentti, Jaana
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku, Finland .
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Danish National Centre for Social Research, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Department of Public Health, Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Salo, Paula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku, Finland .
    Shipley, Martin J.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Folkhälsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland .
    Theorell, Toeres
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Toppinen-Tanner, Salla
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku, Finland .
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Vaananen, Ari
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Zins, Marie
    Department of Natural Science and Biomedicine, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Box 1026, Jönköping, Sweden .
    Britton, Annie
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Brunner, Eric J.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Batty, G. David
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Kivimaki, Mika
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom .
    Job Strain and the Risk of Stroke An Individual-Participant Data Meta-Analysis2015In: Stroke, ISSN 0039-2499, E-ISSN 1524-4628, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 557-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Purpose-Psychosocial stress at work has been proposed to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, its role as a risk factor for stroke is uncertain. Methods-We conducted an individual-participant-data meta-analysis of 196 380 males and females from 14 European cohort studies to investigate the association between job strain, a measure of work-related stress, and incident stroke. Results-In 1.8 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 9.2 years), 2023 first-time stroke events were recorded. The age-and sex-adjusted hazard ratio for job strain relative to no job strain was 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.05; 1.47) for ischemic stroke, 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.75; 1.36) for hemorrhagic stroke, and 1.09 (95% confidence interval, 0.94; 1.26) for overall stroke. The association with ischemic stroke was robust to further adjustment for socioeconomic status. Conclusion-Job strain may be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, but further research is needed to determine whether interventions targeting job strain would reduce stroke risk beyond existing preventive strategies.

  • 277.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    et al.
    Jonkoping Univ, Sch Hlth Sci, S-55111 Jonkoping, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stadin, Magdalena
    Jonkoping Univ, Sch Hlth Sci, S-55111 Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Nordin, Maria
    Umea Univ, Dept Psychol, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Malm, Dan
    Jonkoping Univ, Sch Hlth Sci, S-55111 Jonkoping, Sweden.;Cty Hosp Ryhov, Dept Internal Med, S-55185 Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Uppsala Univ, Occupat & Environm Med, S-75185 Uppsala, Sweden..
    The Association between Job Strain and Atrial Fibrillation: Results from the Swedish WOLF Study2015In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, article id 371905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common heart rhythmdisorder. Several life-style factors have been identified as risk factors for AF, but less is known about the impact of work-related stress. This study aims to evaluate the association between work-related stress, defined as job strain, and risk of AF. Methods. Data from the Swedish WOLF study was used, comprising 10,121 working men and women. Job strain was measured by the demand-control model. Information on incident AF was derived from national registers. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between job strain and AF risk. Results. In total, 253 incident AF cases were identified during a total follow-up time of 132,387 person-years. Job strain was associated with AF risk in a time-dependent manner, with stronger association after 10.7 years of follow-up (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.10-3.36 after 10.7 years, versus HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.67-1.83 before 10.7 years). The results pointed towards a dose-response relationship when taking accumulated exposure to job strain over time into account. Conclusion. This study provides support to the hypothesis that work-related stress defined as job strain is linked to an increased risk of AF.

  • 278.
    Fransson, Margareta
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ljunggren, Jeanette
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Nålsticksterapi eller helhetssyn: -två sätt att se på akupunktur2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 279.
    Frisk, Ulrika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Effects of high-altitude trekking on body composition2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sojourns at high altitude are often accompanied by weight loss and changes in body composition. The aim was to study body composition before and after 40 days high-altitude exposure. The subjects were four women and six men, non-smoking, healthy and active students and a scientist from Mid Sweden University in Östersund with a mean (SD) age of 26 (10) years. All subjects volunteered for a six-week trek to the Mount Everest Base Camp via Rolwaling in Nepal. Before the sojourn subject’s height was 177 (10) cm and weight was 71.9 (10) kg. Body composition was measured with Lunar iDXA at the Swedish Winter Sports Research Centre in Östersund before and after the trek. Total body mass (SD) decreased from 71.8 (10.0) kg before to 69.7 (9.4) kg after the trek (P=0.00). Total fat mass decreased from 14.7 (5.9) kg to 13.8 (4.6) kg (P=0.01). Fat percent decreased from 21.6 (7.9) % to 21.0 (7.2) % (P=0.03). Total lean mass decreased from 54.0 (10.0) kg to 52.9 (9.7) kg (P=0.01). Bone mineral content was unchanged, 3.04 (0.5) kg before and 3.03 (0.5) after (P=0.13). Thus both total body mass and total lean mass had decreased after a six week trekking in Nepal.

  • 280.
    Frykenstrand, Charlotte
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lindqvist, Therese
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Betydelsen av sjuksköterskeledd mottagning vid uppföljning av blodfetter efter akut kranskärlssjukdom.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 281.
    Frykenstrand, Charlotte
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lindqvist, Therese
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Betydselsen av sjuksköterskeledd mottagning vid uppföljning av blodfetter efter akut kranskärlssjukdom.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 282.
    Fröberg, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ahnesjö, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar.
    Awareness of current recommendations and guidelines regarding strength training for youth2014In: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, ISSN 0334-0139, E-ISSN 2191-0278, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 517-523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Aim: Physical conditioning of youth has always been a controversial topic as it raises ethical, physiological, and medical issues. Current recommendations and guidelines suggest that strength training is a relatively safe and worthwhile method in conditioning youth. This, however, requires well-informed coaches who follow age-appropriate strength training recommendations and guidelines, compiles well-designed strength training programs, and provides qualified supervision and instructions. The purpose of this study was to investigate coaches' awareness of current recommendations and guidelines regarding strength training for youth. Method: A total of 39 football (US: soccer) coaches (34 males and 5 females) training boys in age groups 8-12 years were included in this study. Data were collected using an attitude statement questionnaire, and the assertions were based upon current recommendations and guidelines. Results: The results revealed significant differences among coaches in terms of knowledge of important aspects of strength training for youth. Conclusions: The results suggested that coaches in the present study were not aware of the latest recommendations and guidelines regarding strength training for youth.

  • 283.
    Fullagar, Hugh H. K.
    et al.
    Univ Oregon, Dept Athlet Football, Eugene, OR, USA.
    Govus, Andrew
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Hanisch, James
    Philadelphia Eagles, Philadelphia, PA USA.
    Murray, Andrew
    Univ Oregon, Dept Athlet Football, Eugene, OR, USA.
    The Time Course of Perceptual Recovery Markers After Match Play in Division I-A College American Football2017In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 1264-1266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the recovery time course of customized wellness markers (sleep, soreness, energy, and overall wellness) in response to match play in American Division I-A college football players. Methods: A retrospective research design was used. Wellness data were collected and analyzed for 2 American college football seasons. Perceptions of soreness, sleep, energy, and overall wellness were obtained for the day before each game (GD-1) and the days after each game (GD+2, GD+3, and GD+4). Standardized effect-size (ES) analyses +/- 90% confidence intervals were used to interpret the magnitude of the mean differences between all time points for the start, middle, and finish of the season, using the following qualitative descriptors: 0-0.19 trivial, 0.2-0.59 small, 0.6-1.19 moderate, 1.2-1.99 large, <2.0 very large. Results: Overall wellness showed small ES reductions on GD+2 (d = 0.22 +/- 0.09, likely [94.8%]), GD+3 (d = 0.37 +/- 0.15, very likely), and GD+4 (d = 0.29 +/- 0.12, very likely) compared with GD-1. There were small ES reductions for soreness between GD-1 and GD+2, GD+3, and GD+4 (d = 0.21 +/- 0.09, likely, d = 0.29 +/- 0.12, very likely, and 0.30 +/- 0.12, very likely, respectively). Small ES reductions were also evident between GD-1 and GD+3 (d = 0.21 +/- 0.09, likely) for sleep. Feelings of energy showed small ESs on GD+3 (d = 0.27 +/- 0.11, very likely) and GD+4 (d = 0.22 +/- 0.09, likely) compared with GD-1. Conclusion: All wellness markers were likely to very likely worse on GD+3 and GD+4 than on GD-1. These findings show that perceptual wellness takes longer than 4 d to return to pregame levels and thus should be considered when prescribing training and/or recovery.

  • 284.
    Fäldt, Julia
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    HIV stigma and discrimination in the workplace. A literature review focussing on women living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 285.
    Garpenfeldt, Katarina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Long-term exposure to war/terror and quality of lifeExperiences within the Arabic-Israeli minority in Tel Aviv2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 286.
    Garvican-Lewis, Laura A.
    et al.
    Australian Catholic Univ, Mary Mackillop Inst Hlth Res, Melbourne, Vic, Australia; Australian Inst Sport, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Vuong, Victor L.
    Australian Inst Sport, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Govus, Andrew D.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Peeling, Peter
    Western Australian Inst Sport, Perth, WA, Australia; Univ Western Australia, Sch Human Sci Exercise & Sports Sci, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Jung, Grace
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, David Geffen Sch Med, Dept Med, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Nemeth, Elizabeta
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, David Geffen Sch Med, Dept Med, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Hughes, David
    Australian Inst Sport, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Lovell, Greg
    Australian Inst Sport, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Eichner, Daniel
    Sports Med Res & Testing Lab, Salt Lake City, UT USA.
    Gore, Christopher J.
    Australian Inst Sport, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Intravenous Iron Does Not Augment the Hemoglobin Mass Response to Simulated Hypoxia2018In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 50, no 8, p. 1669-1678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Iron is integral for erythropoietic adaptation to hypoxia, yet the importance of supplementary iron compared with existing stores is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare the magnitude of the hemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) in response to altitude in athletes with intravenous (IV), oral, or placebo iron supplementation. Methods Thirty-four, nonanemic, endurance-trained athletes completed 3 wk of simulated altitude (3000 m, 14 hd(-1)), receiving two to three bolus iron injections (ferric carboxymaltose), daily oral iron supplementation (ferrous sulfate), or a placebo, commencing 2 wk before and throughout altitude exposure. Hb(mass) and markers of iron regulation were assessed at baseline (day -14), immediately before (day 0), weekly during (days 8 and 15), and immediately, 1, 3, and 6 wk after (days 22, 28, 42, and 63) the completion of altitude exposure. Results Hb(mass) significantly increased after altitude exposure in athletes with IV (mean % [90% confidence interval (CI)], 3.7% [2.8-4.7]) and oral (3.2% [2.2-4.2]) supplementation and remained elevated at 7 d postaltitude in oral (2.9% [1.5-4.3]) and 21 d after in IV (3.0% [1.5-4.6]) supplementation. Hb(mass) was not significantly higher than baseline at any time point in placebo. Conclusions Iron supplementation appears necessary for optimal erythropoietic adaptation to altitude exposure. IV iron supplementation during 3 wk of simulated live high-train low altitude training offered no additional benefit in terms of the magnitude of the erythropoietic response for nonanemic endurance athletes compared with oral supplementation.

  • 287.
    Garvican-Lewis, Laura A.
    et al.
    Australian Catholic Univ, Melbourne, Australia; Australian Inst Sport, Canberra, Australia.
    Vuong, Victor L.
    Australian Inst Sport, Canberra, Australia.
    Govus, Andrew D.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Schumacher, Yorck Olaf
    Aspetar Orthopaed & Sports Med Hosp, Doha, Qatar.
    Hughes, David
    Australian Inst Sport, Canberra, Australia.
    Lovell, Greg
    Australian Inst Sport, Canberra, Australia.
    Eichner, Daniel
    Sports Med Res & Testing Lab, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
    Gore, Christopher J.
    Australian Inst Sport, Canberra, Australia.
    Influence of combined iron supplementation and simulated hypoxia on the haematological module of the athlete biological passport2018In: Drug Testing and Analysis, ISSN 1942-7603, E-ISSN 1942-7611, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 731-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integrity of the athlete biological passport (ABP) is underpinned by understanding normal fluctuations of its biomarkers to environmental or medical conditions, for example, altitude training or iron deficiency. The combined impact of altitude and iron supplementation on the ABP was evaluated in endurance-trained athletes (n = 34) undertaking 3 weeks of simulated live-high: train-low (14 h.d(-1), 3000 m). Athletes received either oral, intravenous (IV) or placebo iron supplementation, commencing 2 weeks prior and continuing throughout hypoxic exposure. Venous blood was sampled twice prior, weekly during, and up to 6 weeks after altitude. Individual ABP thresholds for haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocyte percentage (%retic), and OFF score were calculated using the adaptive model and assessed at 99% and 99.9% specificity. Eleven athletes returned values outside of the calculated reference ranges at 99%, with 8 at 99.9%. The percentage of athletes exceeding the thresholds in each group was similar, but IV returned the most individual occurrences. A similar frequency of abnormalities occurred across the 3 biomarkers, with abnormal [Hb] and OFF score values arising mainly during-, and %retic values mainly post-altitude. Removing samples collected during altitude from the model resulted in 10 athletes returning abnormal values at 99% specificity, 2 of whom had not triggered the model previously. In summary, the abnormalities observed in response to iron supplementation and hypoxia were not systematic and mostly in line with expected physiological adaptations. They do not represent a uniform weakness in the ABP. Nevertheless, altitude training and iron supplementation should be carefully considered by experts evaluating abnormal ABP profiles.

  • 288.
    Gaviglio, Christopher M
    et al.
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, St Lucia, Qld 4072, Australia.
    Osborne, Mark
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, St Lucia, Qld 4072, Australia; Swimming Australia Ltd, Belconnen, ACT, Australia.
    Kelly, Vincent G
    Univ Queensland, Sch Human Movement & Nutr Sci, St Lucia, Qld 4072, Australia.
    Kilduff, Liam P.
    Swansea Univ, Coll Engn, A STEM, Swansea, W Glam, Wales.
    Cook, Christian J
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Bangor Univ, Sch Sport Hlth & Exercise Sci, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales .
    Salivary testosterone and cortisol responses to four different rugby training exercise protocols2015In: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 497-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assessed the acute response of salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations to four exercise protocols in 27 elite male rugby players. Each athlete completed four protocols in random order on separate in-season weeks. Two protocols were resistance training based consisting of four exercises (high pull, bench press, squat and chin-ups/prone row): Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 15 repetitions at 55% of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) with 1-minute rest (5 x 15-55%). Protocol 2 consisted of three sets of five repetitions at 85% 1 RM with 2-minute rest (3 x 5-85%). Protocol 3 was a strongman (STRNG) session consisting of three stations within a circuit of exercises that included exercises such as battling ropes, prowler push, farmer's walk and tyre flips. Protocol 4 was based on boxing and wrestling inspired exercises (combative - COMB). Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations were measured before (PRE) and immediately after exercise (POST). Testosterone did not significantly change as a result of any intervention, whereas cortisol declined and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio increased significantly in both the 5 x 15-55% and 3 x 5-85% protocol. When results were retrospectively grouped and analysed according to the protocol that demonstrated the greatest absolute testosterone response, significant (P < 0.01) increases for the 5 x 15-55%, STRNG and COMB protocols were observed. The individualised hormone response to exercise observed in this study highlights the importance of recognising a protocol-dependent approach to training athletes. Furthermore this study also highlights a potential usefulness of employing STRNG and COMB training protocols as an alternative stimulus to resistance training.

  • 289.
    Gejl, K. D.
    et al.
    Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark .
    Hvid, L. G.
    Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark .
    Frandsen, U.
    Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark .
    Jensen, Kurt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark .
    Sahlin, K.
    Åstrand Laboratory, Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ørtenblad, Niels
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark .
    Muscle glycogen content modifies SR Ca2+ release rate in elite endurance athletes2014In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 496-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of muscle glycogen content on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and peak power output (Wpeak) in elite endurance athletes. Methods: Fourteen highly trained male triathletes (V̇O2max = 66.5 ± 1.3 mL O2·kg·min), performed 4 h of glycogen-depleting cycling exercise (HRmean = 73% ± 1% of maximum). During the first 4 h of recovery, athletes received either water (H2O) or carbohydrate (CHO), separating alterations in muscle glycogen content from acute changes affecting SR function and performance. Thereafter, all subjects received CHO-enriched food for the remaining 20-h recovery period. Results: Immediately after exercise, muscle glycogen content and SR Ca release rate was reduced to 32% ± 4% (225 ± 28 mmol·kg dw) and 86% ± 2% of initial levels, respectively (P < 0.01). Glycogen markedly recovered after 4 h of recovery with CHO (61% ± 2% of preexercise) and SR Ca release rate returned to preexercise level. However, in the absence of CHO during the first 4 h of recovery, glycogen and SR Ca release rate remained depressed, with the normalization of both parameters at the end of the 24 h of recovery after receiving a CHO-enriched diet. Linear regression demonstrated a significant correlation between SR Ca release rate and muscle glycogen content (P < 0.01, r = 0.30). The 4 h of cycling exercise reduced Wpeak by 5.5%-8.9% at different cadences (P < 0.05), and Wpeak was normalized after 4 h of recovery with CHO, whereas Wpeak remained depressed (P < 0.05) after water provision. Wpeak was fully recovered after 24 h in both the H2O and the CHO group. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present results suggest that low muscle glycogen depresses muscle SR Ca release rate, which may contribute to fatigue and delayed recovery of Wpeak 4 h postexercise. © 2014 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

  • 290.
    Gejl, K. D.
    et al.
    Univ Southern Denmark, SDU Muscle Res Cluster, Dept Sports Sci & Clin Biomech, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.
    Hvid, L. G.
    Univ Southern Denmark, SDU Muscle Res Cluster, Dept Sports Sci & Clin Biomech, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.
    Willis, Sarah J.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Swedish Olympic Comm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jensen, R.
    Univ Southern Denmark, SDU Muscle Res Cluster, Dept Sports Sci & Clin Biomech, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.
    Frandsen, U.
    Univ Southern Denmark, SDU Muscle Res Cluster, Dept Sports Sci & Clin Biomech, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.
    Hansen, J.
    Rigshosp, Ctr Inflammat & Metab, Dept Infect Dis, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Plomgaard, P.
    Rigshosp, Ctr Inflammat & Metab, Dept Infect Dis, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ortenblad, N.
    Univ Southern Denmark, SDU Muscle Res Cluster, Dept Sports Sci & Clin Biomech, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.
    Repeated high-intensity exercise modulates Ca2+ sensitivity of human skeletal muscle fibers2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 488-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of short-term high-intensity exercise on single fiber contractile function in humans are unknown. Therefore, the purposes of this study were: (a) to access the acute effects of repeated high-intensity exercise on human single muscle fiber contractile function; and (b) to examine whether contractile function was affected by alterations in the redox balance. Eleven elite cross-country skiers performed four maximal bouts of 1300m treadmill skiing with 45min recovery. Contractile function of chemically skinned single fibers from triceps brachii was examined before the first and following the fourth sprint with respect to Ca2+ sensitivity and maximal Ca2+-activated force. To investigate the oxidative effects of exercise on single fiber contractile function, a subset of fibers was incubated with dithiothreitol (DTT) before analysis. Ca2+ sensitivity was enhanced by exercise in both MHC I (17%, P<0.05) and MHC II (15%, P<0.05) fibers. This potentiation was not present after incubation of fibers with DTT. Specific force of both MHC I and MHC II fibers was unaffected by exercise. In conclusion, repeated high-intensity exercise increased Ca2+ sensitivity in both MHC I and MHC II fibers. This effect was not observed in a reducing environment indicative of an exercise-induced oxidation of the human contractile apparatus.

  • 291.
    Gejl, Kasper D.
    et al.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Vissing, Kristian
    Aarhus Univ, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Hansen, Mette
    Aarhus Univ, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Thams, Line
    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Rokkedal-Lausch, Torben
    Aalborg Univ, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Plomgaard, Peter
    Rigshosp, Copenhagen, Denmark; Univ Copenhagen, Rigshosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lundby, Anne-Kristine Meinild
    Univ Copenhagen, Rigshosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nybo, Lars
    Univ Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Jensen, Kurt
    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Swedish Olymp Comm, Stockholm.
    Ørtenblad, Niels
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark .
    Changes in metabolism but not myocellular signaling by training with CHO-restriction in endurance athletes2018In: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 6, no 17, article id e13847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbohydrate (CHO) restricted training has been shown to increase the acute training response, whereas less is known about the acute effects after repeated CHO restricted training. On two occasions, the acute responses to CHO restriction were examined in endurance athletes. Study 1 examined cellular signaling and metabolic responses after seven training-days including CHO manipulation (n = 16). The protocol consisted of 1 h high-intensity cycling, followed by 7 h recovery, and 2 h of moderate-intensity exercise (120SS). Athletes were randomly assigned to low (LCHO: 80 g) or high (HCHO: 415 g) CHO during recovery and the 120SS. Study 2 examined unaccustomed exposure to the same training protocol (n = 12). In Study 1, muscle biopsies were obtained at rest and 1 h after 120SS, and blood samples drawn during the 120SS. In Study 2, substrate oxidation and plasma glucagon were determined. In Study 1, plasma insulin and proinsulin C-peptide were higher during the 120SS in HCHO compared to LCHO (insulin: 0 min: +37%; 60 min: +135%; 120 min: +357%, P = 0.05; proinsulin C-peptide: 0 min: +32%; 60 min: +52%; 120 min: +79%, P = 0.02), whereas plasma cholesterol was higher in LCHO (+15-17%, P = 0.03). Myocellular signaling did not differ between groups. p-AMPK and p-ACC were increased after 120SS (+35%, P = 0.03; +59%, P = 0.0004, respectively), with no alterations in p-p38, p-53, or p-CREB. In Study 2, glucagon and fat oxidation were higher in LCHO compared to HCHO during the 120SS (+26-40%, P = 0.03; +44-76%, P = 0.01 respectively). In conclusion, the clear respiratory and hematological effects of CHO restricted training were not translated into superior myocellular signaling after accustomization to CHO restriction.

  • 292.
    Gejl, Kasper D.
    et al.
    Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, SDU Muscle Research Cluster, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Ørtenblad, Niels
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Univ Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Andersson, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Plomgaard, Peter
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Swedish Olymp Comm, Stockholm.
    Nielsen, Joachim
    Department of Pathology, SDU Muscle Research Cluster, Odense University Hospital, Odense.
    Local depletion of glycogen with supra-maximal exercise in human skeletal muscle fibres2017In: Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0022-3751, E-ISSN 1469-7793, Vol. 595, no 9, p. 2809-2821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skeletal muscle glycogen is heterogeneous distributed in three separated compartments (intramyofibrillar, intermyofibrillar and subsarcolemmal). Although only constituting 4-15% of the total glycogen volume, the availability of intramyofibrillar glycogen has been shown to be of particular importance to muscle function. The present study was designed to investigate the depletion of these three sub-cellular glycogen compartments during repeated supra-maximal exercise in elite athletes. Ten elite cross-country skiers (age: 25 +/- 4 yrs., VO2 max : 65 +/- 4 ml kg-1 min-1 , mean +/- SD) performed four approximately 4-minute supra-maximal sprint time trials (STT 1-4) with 45 min recovery. The sub-cellular glycogen volumes in m. triceps brachii were quantified from electron microscopy images before and after both STT 1 and STT 4. During STT 1, the depletion of intramyofibrillar glycogen was higher in type I fibres (-52% [-89:-15%]) than type 2 fibres (-15% [-52:22%]) (P = 0.02), while the depletion of intermyofibrillar glycogen (main effect: -19% [-33:0], P = 0.006) and subsarcolemmal glycogen (main effect: -35% [-66:0%], P = 0.03) was similar between fibre types. In contrast, only intermyofibrillar glycogen volume was significantly reduced during STT 4, in both fibre types (main effect: -31% [-50:-11%], P = 0.002). Furthermore, for each of the sub-cellular compartments, the depletion of glycogen during STT 1 was associated with the volumes of glycogen before STT 1. In conclusion, the depletion of spatially distinct glycogen compartments differs during supra-maximal exercise. Furthermore, the depletion changes with repeated exercise and is fibre type-dependent. 

  • 293.
    Gejl, Kasper Degn
    et al.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Sports Sci & Clin Biomech, Odense M, Denmark.
    Thams, Line Bork
    Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Sports Sci & Clin Biomech, Odense M, Denmark.
    Hansen, Mette
    Aarhus Univ, Sect Sport Sci, Dept Publ Hlth, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Rokkedal-Lausch, Torben
    Aalborg Univ, Dept Hlth Sci & Technol, SMI, Fac Med, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Plomgaard, Peter
    Rigshosp, Dept Clin Biochem, Copenhagen, Denmark; Univ Copenhagen, Dept Infect Dis, Ctr Phys Act Res, Rigshosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nybo, Lars
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Nutr Exercise & Sports, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Larsen, Filip J.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Physiol & Pharmacol, Stockholm; Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Stockholm.
    Cardinale, Daniele A.
    Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Stockholm; Swedish Sports Confederat, Elite Performance Ctr, Stockholm.
    Jensen, Kurt
    Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Sports Sci & Clin Biomech, Odense M, Denmark.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Swedish Olymp Comm, Stockholm.
    Vissing, Kristian
    Aarhus Univ, Sect Sport Sci, Dept Publ Hlth, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Ørtenblad, Niels
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Sports Sci & Clin Biomech, Odense M, Denmark.
    No Superior Adaptations to Carbohydrate Periodization in Elite Endurance Athletes2017In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 49, no 12, p. 2486-2497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The present study investigated the effects of periodic carbohydrate (CHO) restriction on endurance performance and metabolic markers in elite endurance athletes. Methods Twenty-six male elite endurance athletes (maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 65.0 mL O(2)kg(-1)min(-1)) completed 4 wk of regular endurance training while being matched and randomized into two groups training with (low) or without (high) CHO manipulation 3 dwk(-1). The CHO manipulation days consisted of a 1-h high-intensity bike session in the morning, recovery for 7 h while consuming isocaloric diets containing either high CHO (414 2.4 g) or low CHO (79.5 1.0 g), and a 2-h moderate bike session in the afternoon with or without CHO. VO2max, maximal fat oxidation, and power output during a 30-min time trial (TT) were determined before and after the training period. The TT was undertaken after 90 min of intermittent exercise with CHO provision before the training period and both CHO and placebo after the training period. Muscle biopsies were analyzed for glycogen, citrate synthase (CS) and -hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HAD) activity, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT1b), and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (pACC). Results The training effects were similar in both groups for all parameters. On average, VO2max and power output during the 30-min TT increased by 5% +/- 1% (P < 0.05) and TT performance was similar after CHO and placebo during the preload phase. Training promoted overall increases in glycogen content (18% +/- 5%), CS activity (11% +/- 5%), and pACC (38% +/- 19%; P < 0.05) with no differences between groups. HAD activity and CPT1b protein content remained unchanged. Conclusions Superimposing periodic CHO restriction to 4 wk of regular endurance training had no superior effects on performance and muscle adaptations in elite endurance athletes.

  • 294.
    Gerber, Markus
    et al.
    Univ Basel, Dept Sport Exercise & Hlth, Birsstr 320B, CH-4052 Basel, Switzerland.
    Borjesson, Mats
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Physiol, Gothenburg; Ostra Hosp, Gothenburg; Univ Gothenburg, Dept Food & Nutr & Sport Sci, Gothenburg.
    Ljung, Thomas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Food & Nutr & Sport Sci, Gothenburg; Univ Gothenburg, Dept Psychol, Gothenburg.
    Jonsdottir, Ingibjoerg H.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Food & Nutr & Sport Sci, Gothenburg; Inst Stress Med, Gothenburg.
    Fitness Moderates the Relationship between Stress and Cardiovascular Risk Factors2016In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 48, no 11, p. 2075-2081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose This cross-sectional observational study examined the degree to which cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and self-perceived stress are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and the overall risk score for cardiovascular diseases. The second aim was to determine whether participants' CRF levels moderate the relationships between stress and cardiometabolic risk. Methods A gender-matched stratified sample (N = 197, 51% men, M-age = 39.2 yr) was used to ensure that participants with varying stress levels were equally represented. CRF was assessed with the angstrom strand bicycle test, and perceived stress was assessed with a single-item question. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), glycated hemoglobin, and total cardiometabolic risk score (sum of the z-standardized residuals of the previously mentioned indicators) were assessed as outcomes. Results Higher LDL-C, TG, and total metabolic risk were found in participants with high stress scores (P < 0.05). In addition, lower SBP, DBP, BMI, LDL-C, TG, and total metabolic risk were observed in participants with high CRF (P < 0.05). Two-way ANCOVA provided significant interaction effects for five of the nine outcome variables (P < 0.05, 3.6%-4.8% of explained variance). Participants with high stress who also had high CRF levels had lower SBP, DBP, LDL-C, TG, and total cardiometabolic risk than participants with high stress but low or moderate CRF levels. No significant main or interaction effects occurred for BMI, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glycated hemoglobin. Conclusion Better CRF is associated with more favorable levels of several cardiometabolic risk factors, specifically in participants experiencing high stress. Higher CRF may provide some protection against the health hazards of high chronic stress by attenuating the stress-related increase in cardiovascular risk factors.

  • 295.
    Gilgien, Matthias
    et al.
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway; Norwegian Ski Federat, Alpine Skiing, Oslo, Norway.
    Reid, Robert
    Norwegian Ski Federat, Alpine Skiing, Oslo, Norway.
    Raschner, Christian
    Univ Innsbruck, Olymp Training Ctr, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Supej, Matej
    Univ Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    The Training of Olympic Alpine Ski Racers2018In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, article id 1772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alpine combined was the only alpine ski racing event at the first Winter Olympic Games in 1936, but since then, slalom, giant slalom, super-G, downhill, and team events have also become Olympic events. Substantial improvements in slope preparation, design of courses, equipment, and the skills of Olympic alpine skiers have all helped this sport attain its present significance. Improved snow preparation has resulted in harder surfaces and improved equipment allows a more direct interaction between the skier and snow. At the same time, courses have become more challenging, with technical disciplines requiring more pronounced patterns of loading - unloading, with greater ground reaction forces. Athletes have adapted their training to meet these new demands, but little is presently known about these adaptations. Here, we describe how Olympic athletes from four of the major alpine ski racing nations prepared for the Olympic Games in South Korea in 2018. This overview describes their typical exercise programs with respect to physical conditioning, ski training and periodization, based on interviews with the coaching staff. Alpine ski racing requires mastery of a broad spectrum of physical, technical, mental, and social skills. We describe how athletes and teams deal with the multifactorial nature of the training required. Special emphasis is placed on sport-specific aspects, such as the combination of stimuli that interfere with training, training with chronic injury, training at altitude and in cold regions, the efficiency and effectiveness of ski training and testing, logistic challenges and their effects on fatigue, including the stress of frequent traveling. Our overall goal was to present as complete a picture of the training undertaken by Olympic alpine skiers as possible and on the basis of these findings propose how training for alpine ski racing might be improved.

  • 296.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Predictors for online unwanted sexual solicitation: a cross-sectional study of Swedish boys and girls in years 6-9.2013In: Mobilizing gender research challenges and strategies. / [ed] Katarina Giritli Nygren och Siv Fahlgren, Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2013, p. 99-110Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 297.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Våld, jämställdhet och Millenniumserien.2013In: Åtta genusvetenskapliga läsningar av den svenska välfärdsstaten genom Stieg Larssons Millennium-trilogi. / [ed] Siv Fahlgren, Anders Johansson och Eva Söderberg, Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2013, p. 27-36Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 298.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Brännström, Lotta
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Green, Monica
    UN Women, nationell kommitté Sverige.
    Nilsson, Sara
    Jämställdhetsmyndigheten.
    Ali, Alán
    Män för jämställdhet.
    Wolfe, Gabriella
    Fler Unga.
    Hallengren, Lena
    Socialdepartementet.
    Efter metoo – unga tjejers perspektiv på våld och sexuella trakasserier och vad vi kan göra åt det2018Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 299.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Mitchell, Claudia
    McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Nyhlén, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Studying the intersections of rurality, gender and violence against girls and young women:: An urgent matter in both the Global North and the Global South2015In: Being young in a neoliberal time: Transnational perspectives on challenges and possibilities for resistance and social change / [ed] Katja Gillander Gådin and Claudia Mitchell, Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University , 2015, p. 109-120Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION

    Violence against girls and women is a global problem, not only for the victim herself, but also for society in general (Garcia-Moreno, 2002). In the case of women with children, violence is also a problem for these children. A multi-country study on violence against women in 15 sites and 10 different countries, mainly low-income, shows that there are wide variations in prevalence between and among settings (World Health Organization, 2005). The differences were not only between countries but also between rural and urban areas within a country, with overall levels of violence against women consistently higher in rural than in urban settings. This means that we need to take space and place into account in studies of violence against girls and women. To date, the links between place and sexual violence against girls and women is an understudied area. Indeed, as Sandberg (2013) notes, the study of intimate partner violence and other forms of sexual violence in rural settings, in particular, may in fact be a blind spot in intersectional research.She calls fora consideration of how place may intersect with such constructs as class, ethnicity, race, gender, and sexuality. To this list we would add age, with the idea that addressing violence against girls and young women is a particularly critical concern in relation to ensuring safety and security for a new generation. The urban condition and life in the city as studied in relation to migration, housing, social supports, and violence itself (including sexual violence) is typically taken up in research that ranges from a focus on townships and informal settlements in the Global South through to thestudy of urban sites in the Global North. However, while the trend for people to live in urban spaces is increasing, this does not mean that there are no social issues that need to be addressed in rural settings; in the context of declining resources and state provisioning, rural life presents its own challenges. There is also a discursive construction of the rural areas that is characterized by higher rates of sick leave, higher unemployment, and the migration of young people away from the area. Added to this is the perception that rurality does not contribute to the economic development of the country (Nyhlén, 2013, Eriksson, 2008). This way of describing the rural can be regarded as an act of othering in that it positions rurality as the other in relation to the urban/center. In this way center and periphery are somehow interdependently constructed. Urbanization itself is built on the premise that resources are taken from the periphery and used in the center (Andersson, Ek & Molina 2008).We stress the importance of asking questions about what it means to study rurality and about how we can create research that goes beyond images of a declining rurality, not forgetting in this process, to ask questions about how rurality is gendered. The purpose, then, of this chapter is to address the necessity of understanding violence against young girls and women by theorizing the relationships between and among place, gender, and violence, particularly in relation to rurality. We do this by first contextualizing our arguments, focusing on three country contexts—Canada, South Africa, and Sweden. We then address three particularly important areas: (1) place-based gender and ethnic regimes, (2) rural vulnerabilities, and (3) local policy enactment.

  • 300.
    Gillander Gådin, Katja
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Mitchell, ClaudiaMcGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    Being young in a neoliberal time: Transnational perspectives on challenges and possibilities for resistance and social change2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
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